DEFINITIONS - PowerPoint

					PHILOSOPHY

  The love, study, and
   pursuit of wisdom,
  knowledge, and truth
       Five Traditional Philosophies
 Idealism — a philosophical theory advocating that reality
  depends on the mind for existence and that truth is
  universal and absolute
 Realism — the philosophical system stressing that the
  laws and order of the world as revealed by science are
  independent from human experiences
 Pragmatism — an American movement in philosophy
  emphasizing reality as the sum total of each individual’s
  experiences through practical experimentation
 Naturalism — a belief that the laws of nature govern life
  and that individual goals are more important than societal
  goals
 Existentialism — a twentieth-century philosophy that
  centers on individual choices and advocates that truth and
  values are uniquely personal
                    Idealism
 Since  reasoning and mental processes are
  important in understanding truth, the physical
  therapist uses idealism in working with clients
  to set realistic goals, persist in their movement
  experiences, and realize that only by dealing
  with temporary discomfort can they recover as
  fully as possible.
 The idealist and the sport psychologist
  understand that reality is more mental than
  physical, so helping elite athletes manage the
  mental side of putting a golf ball or kicking a
  field goal is vitally important.
                     Realism
 The  exercise physiologist uses the scientific
  method in investigating the effects of
  performance-enhancing drugs in order to
  understand the positive and negative effects on
  the body.
 Prior to beginning an exercise program, a
  personal trainer will assess the capabilities of
  the client, and, as would a realist, continue to
  use measurements to determine progress made
  in achieving personal fitness goals.
                 Pragmatism
 Athletic directors are quite pragmatic in
  understanding that they must generate
  increased revenues from ticket sales, media
  packages, corporate sponsorships, and private
  donations in order to adequately support their
  sports teams.
 Like the pragmatist who believes that learning
  occurs as people experience things, especially
  as a member of a group, facilities directors are
  responsible for providing adequate venues that
  are safe so sports participants and spectators
  have enjoyable experiences.
                 Naturalism
 Lakes,  mountains, and other outdoor settings
  provide a wealth of opportunities where
  recreation specialists who believe in
  naturalism use natural settings as learning
  laboratories for individuals to enjoy during
  their leisure hours.
 Physical education teachers agree with the
  philosophy of naturalism and a readiness to
  learn as they instruct students in movement
  activities that are developmentally appropriate.
                Existentialism
 Since  an individual’s free choices will
  determine reality and truth, health educators
  use existentialism to emphasize the
  importance of making good nutritious
  selections of foods eaten, avoiding unhealthy
  behaviors that will lead to disease and illness,
  and maintaining an active lifestyle.
 Acceptance of responsibility, which the
  existentialist advocates, is stressed by athletic
  trainers when they help athletes choose to
  strictly adhere to their rehabilitation
  procedures.
IDEALISM — Truth is
universal and absolute
 The mind is critical to all
  understanding since only
  through reasoning and mental
  processes can truth emerge.
 Never-changing ideals
  comprise the ultimate reality.
 Ideals, virtues, and truths are
  universal and remain the same
  regardless of how individuals
  may interpret them.
IDEALISM
 The  mind and the body are
  optimally to be developed
  simultaneously and as a
  whole, although physical
  activity is secondary to the
  development of the mind and
  thought processes.
 The idealist believes that
  there is one correct way to
  perform sports skills.
REALISM — Scientific laws are
independent of human experiences
           The   laws of nature
            determine what is truth.
           The scientific method
            provides the process for
            acquiring and applying truth
            ( i.e., knowledge originates
            in the physical world but
            emerges through
            experimentation).
REALISM

       The  physical education
        curriculum includes activities
        and experiences that enable
        students to understand the laws
        of the physical world.
       Learning is subject centered
        and includes progressions,
        drills, and objective evaluation.
PRAGMATISM — Reality is a
total of individual experiences
 Ultimate  reality must be experienced and is
  ever-changing rather than absolute.
 Truth and values are functions of the
  consequences of the time and the context.
 Social responsibilities are essential as every
  individual functions with and contributes to
  society.
PRAGMATISM
 Students  develop social efficiency as they
  experience solving the problems of life and
  learn how to become better functioning
  members of society.
 A student-centered curriculum encourages
  students to develop their social and
  interpersonal skills and to set and achieve
  personal goals.
          NATURALISM — Laws of
            nature govern life and
               individual goals
 Truth  and things valued exist within the
  physical realm of nature.
 “Everything according to nature” means
  that students learn and develop in and
  through nature.
 Physical well-being enhances a readiness to
  learn mental, moral, and social skills.
            NATURALISM

 Individualized  learning occurs through
  self-discovery and exploration of one’s
  capabilities and interests.
 Through problem-solving, students
  progress in skill development at their own
  rates.
EXISTENTIALISM — Truth
and values are based on
one’s experiences
 Human    experiences and individual
  determinism (choices) construct reality.
 Each person’s experiences determine truth,
  which is uniquely personal.
 An individual’s value system, which is
  totally controlled by choice, is tempered by
  an understanding of social responsibility.
EXISTENTIALISM
 The desired educational outcome is the self-
  actualizing person, who must accept the
  consequences of actions taken.
 Individualized activities in physical
  education and sport encourage creativity
  and self-awareness and personal
  responsibility for learning.
    IMPORTANCE OF THE
          BODY
 Idealism  — simultaneous development
  with the mind
 Realism — emphasis on the whole
  individual
 Pragmatism — variety of activities for
  the effective functioning in society
 Naturalism — physical activity essential
  for optimal learning
 Existentialism — freedom to choose
  activity and to be creative
       CURRICULAR FOCUS
 Idealism  — teacher centered using
  examples as models; qualitative
 Realism — subject centered;
  quantitative
 Pragmatism — student centered; based
  on individual differences
 Naturalism — individual readiness to
  learn
 Existentialism — individual centered;
  based on self-realization
IMPORTANCE OF THE
    TEACHER
 Idealism  — model and example
 Realism — orderly presentation of
  facts; learning through drills
 Pragmatism — motivator, especially
  through problem solving
 Naturalism — guide and helper
 Existentialism — stimulator and
  counselor
              OBJECTIVES
 Idealism   — development of personality and
  mind
 Realism — training students to meet the
  realities of life
 Pragmatism — helping students to become
  better functioning members of society
 Naturalism — development of the whole
  person
 Existentialism — assisting students to
  become self-actualizing, independent beings
       METHODOLOGY
 Idealism  — lecture; question-answer
  discussions
 Realism — use of real world, drills,
  lectures, and projects
 Pragmatism — problem solving
 Naturalism — informal; problem solving
 Existentialism — questions raised,
  thoughts provoked, and freedom of action
  encouraged by the teacher
EVALUATION
 Idealism  — subjective;
  qualitative
 Realism — quantitative; using
  scientific means
 Pragmatism — subjective and
  self-evaluation
 Naturalism — based on the
  attainment of individual goals
 Existentialism — unimportant
  in the traditional sense
                  WEAKNESSES

 Idealism — resistance to change; development of
  the body is secondary to the mind
 Realism — too narrow a view; everything must
  conform to natural laws or it is wrong
 Pragmatism — lack of fixed aims to give
  students stability and direction
 Naturalism — too simple an education for a
  complex world
 Existentialism — overemphasis on individuality
  precludes preparation for social life
      PHILOSOPHY QUIZ
1. The __________ advocates that students must
   indicate their readiness to attempt to learn a
   cartwheel.
2. The __________ models or provides
   demonstrations of exactly how to serve a
   volleyball.
3. The __________ encourages students to use
   their reasoning powers to decide how to align
   defensive players to stop an opposing team
   that fast breaks.
      PHILOSOPHY QUIZ
4. Since a curriculum based on this philosophy
   focuses on the individual, the __________
   focuses on teaching the acceptance of self-
   responsibility.
5. The __________ emphasizes learning team
   sports through which social skills are
   developed.
6. A physical education and sport researcher is
   sometimes called a/an __________ because
   she or he utilizes the scientific method of
   inquiry.
      PHILOSOPHY QUIZ
7. To the _________ free choices determine
   reality and truth, such as in setting up an
   exercise program that she or he prefers.
8. The __________ advocates that reality is more
   mental than physical, such as perfecting
   shooting technique for free throws through
   mental practice.
9. Since to the __________ experience,
   especially as a member of a group, is critical
   for learning, students are encouraged to
   experiment with their own techniques in
   executing bodily movements.
      PHILOSOPHY QUIZ
10.The __________ uses natural settings
   as a learning laboratory during leisure
   hours.

  How many did you answer correctly?
     OTHER PHILOSOPHIES
 Metaphysics     refers to the nature of things, or
  how actions or events are related to one another.
 Axiology deals with the value of things and
  discovering whether actions, things or
  circumstances are good and virtuous.
 Epistemology is the branch of philosophy that
  examines what people know and how and why
  they hold certain beliefs.
 Aesthetics is the philosophical area that focuses
  on the artistic, sensual, or beautiful aspects of
  anything, including movement.
Sport Ethics
        THE INELIGIBLE PLAYER
Tomorrow your school’s girls’ basketball team will play in the
state championship game. Everyone in the school and in your
small town is excited. A telephone call you just received from
the new athletic director (Stacy Miller) suddenly threatens to
change everything. Miller tells you that Jody, the 24-points per
game star, is too old. In completing some required paperwork
for the state athletic association, she realized what the previous
athletic director had not reported, which is that Jody has been
20 years old all season, thus making her ineligible for high
school sports. You are distraught because you know that Jody
is from a single-parent home and has had past academic and
behavioral problems in school but that she has overcome these
and changed since she joined the basketball team. Miller is
willing to keep this matter quiet, but says that as coach you
will have to decide whether to play the game or not.
UNDERSTANDING ETHICS
  Ethics  is the study of moral values or the
   doing of good toward others or oneself; the
   study of the principles of human duty; the
   study of all moral qualities that distinguish
   an individual relative to others
  Moral pertains to an individual’s motives,
   intentions, and actions as right or wrong,
   virtuous or vicious, or good or bad
  Values are anything having relative worth
 Moral   values are the relative worth
  that is placed on virtuous behaviors.
 Principles are universal rules of
  conduct that identify what kinds of
  actions, intentions, and motives are
  valued.
 Moral reasoning is the systematic
  process of evaluating personal
  values and developing a consistent
  and an impartial set of moral
  principles by which to live.
MORAL REASONING INCLUDES
        Moral  knowing is the
         cognitive phase of learning
         about moral issues and how to
         resolve them.
        Moral valuing is the basis of
         what we believe about
         ourselves, society, and theories
         around us.
        Moral acting is how we act
         based on what we know and
         value.
     KOHLBERG’S STAGES OF
     MORAL DEVELOPMENT
 Stage One focuses on obedient actions performed to
  avoid punishment.
 Stage Two emphasizes following rules for self-interest.
 Stage Three suggests that people react to the expectations
  of parents, peers, and authority figures to gain their
  approval.
 Stage Four assumes that people act in conformity to the
  social system and social order.
 Stage Five expects people to fulfill the social contract and
  show genuine interest in the welfare of others.
 Stage Six states that universal ethical principles and the
  individual conscience serve as the basis for all actions.
FOUR MORAL VALUES
 Justice (treating others with fairness)
    Do not violate the rules of the game

 Honesty (being trustworthy)
    Do not cheat or lie

 Responsibility (fulfilling duty)
    Do not act irresponsibly

 Beneficence (fair play or doing good)
    Do not harm an opponent
RATIONALIZATIONS FOR
UNETHICAL BEHAVIORS

 There  is no rule against it.
 Everyone else does it.
 This action is not unethical because no one
  will ever know about it.
 Circumstances require acting in this way.
                 ETHICAL THEORIES

 Teleological  or consequential (utilitarianism)
  theories focus on the end results or consequences
  of processes or occurrences; the ultimate standard
  of what is morally right is dependent on the
  greatest amount of good for the greatest number of
  people.
 Deontological or non-consequential (Kantian)
  theories state that actions must conform to absolute
  rules of moral behavior; there is an inherent
  rightness apart from all consequences.
          ETHICAL PRINCIPLES
 Moral   duties are prescriptive and
  independent of consequences.
 Fair play means playing within the letter
  and spirit of the rules.
 Seeking to win is acceptable only if the
  letter and spirit of the rules are followed.
 An opponent is not the enemy but a
  worthy athlete deserving to be treated
  exactly as everyone would wish to be
  treated.
ETHICAL PRINCIPLES
       Retribution  is never acceptable
        regardless of the unfairness or
        violence of the initial action.
       Games are not played to
        intimidate; the ideal purpose is
        a mutual quest for excellence
        through challenge.
       Sportsmanship requires
        modesty, humility in victory,
        praise for the winners, and
        self-respect in defeat.
IS THIS CONDUCT ETHICAL?
A defensive back is beaten by the opposing
wide receiver, resulting in a big play for the
offense. On a subsequent play, the defensive
back “takes out” his opponent with vicious
blind side hit to the knees meant to cause
injury, even though he is not involved with
action near the ball. Is this hit ethical? If not,
how should this intimidation be punished? How
should the defensive back be educated about
ethical conduct?
   IS THIS CONDUCT ETHICAL?
In his first at-bat after his grand-slam home run,
Mike is prepared for a brush-back pitch. He is not
ready for the inside fast ball aimed straight at his
head. He attempts to bail out of the batter’s box but
is hit by the pitch on the arm. He jumps up and
charges the mound, bat in hand, as both benches
clear. The ensuing brawl results in the ejection of
several players from the game. Why is the brush
back pitch seemingly an acceptable form of
gamesmanship in baseball? Does a ball thrown at a
batter’s head justify his charging the mound? Why
are teammates expected to join in the fray? Should
these behaviors be changed?
     IS THIS CONDUCT ETHICAL?
The shoving match underneath the basket has
escalated without any fouls being called. Finally,
Mary has had enough. The next time Pat pushes her
to clear the lane, Mary grabs her and refuses to give
ground. Pat retaliates by hitting Mary. Before the
referees can break up the scuffle, punches from
several players have landed. Who is violating the
rules of the game and sportsmanship in this
situation? Is the absence of a whistle calling a foul
on Mary, Pat, or both tantamount to condoning their
intimidation of each other? If you were her coach,
how would you attempt to changes Mary’s or Pat’s
behavior?
           Ethical Choices in Sports
1.   Should every child get an opportunity to play all
     positions in youth sports?
2.   Should a coach have the right to require that an
     athlete (at any age) compete in only one sport?
3.   Should an athlete be required to pass all school
     subjects in order to play on a team?
4.   Should a coach teach athletes how to violate a
     sports rule to gain a competitive advantage?
5.   When, if ever, should a team “run up the score”
     on an opposing team?
6.   Should taunting an opponent be penalized or
     allowed?
                                                                                                                       SUCCESS
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                                                                                                                oug                      gs
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Head Basketball Coach                                                                                    T                                                                becoming.

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                                                                  CONDITION                                              SKILL                                  TEAM SPIRIT
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                                            SELF-CONTROL                                      ALERTNESS                                       INITIATIVE                                    INTENTNESS
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               INDUSTRIOUSNESS                                             FRIENDSHIP                                    LOYALTY                                   COOPERATION                                           ENTHUSIASM
   There is no substitute for work.                    Comes from mutual esteem,                         To yourself and to all those                    With all levels of your co-workers.        Your heart must be in your work.
   Worth while things come from                        respect, and devotion. A sincere                  dependent upon you. Keep your                   Help others and see the other              Stimulate others.
   hard work and careful planning.                     liking for all.                                   self-respect.                                   side.

				
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