Citizenship at key stages by hcj


									Citizenship at key stages
1 and 2 – a guide
This leaflet provides information about citizenship at key stages 1 and 2. It describes how the
QCA/DfES schemes of work for citizenship can support your school’s provision, by building on
what you are already doing.

What is citizenship?
“In our school, citizenship is central to all that we do. All our children contribute to decision-making and
organisation, taking more responsibility as they get older. Citizenship is more than a part of our
curriculum, it is a way of life for the whole school community.”
                                 Dame Mavis Grant, Headteacher, Canning School, Newcastle-upon-Tyne

Citizenship at key stages 1 and 2 aims to give children the knowledge, skills and understanding they
need to lead confident, healthy and independent lives, and to become informed, active and
responsible citizens. Citizenship helps children develop as members of schools, neighbourhoods and
wider communities. It is concerned with issues of right and wrong, rights and responsibilities, fairness,
rules and laws, power and authority, equality and diversity, communities and identities, democracy,
conflict and cooperation. As children grow and develop, citizenship helps them to think and talk about
issues relating to these concepts as they encounter them in their own lives and in the lives of others
(including as depicted in the media).

Citizenship is part of the non-statutory framework for PSHE and citizenship at key stages 1 and 2 that
came into effect in August 2000, alongside the revised national curriculum. The framework provides
schools with a basis on which to plan and develop a curriculum that:
      enables you to build on what you are already doing in a flexible and innovative way;
      is relevant to pupils, connecting with their interests and experiences;
      encourages pupils to investigate and think critically about issues of current interest, using
        problem-solving, reasoning and evaluation skills;
      relates to pupils’ abilities and backgrounds; and
      provides pupils with opportunities to discuss and address real-life issues, and to see that they
        can participate in activities that make a difference in their schools and the wider community.

The non-statutory guidelines for PSHE and citizenship at key stages 1 and 2 are published in the
National Curriculum. Handbook for primary teachers (QCA/99/457), and are also available on the
website ( Citizenship becomes a national curriculum subject at key stages 3 and 4
from August 2002.

How can citizenship help my school?
      involves pupils positively, encouraging them to participate in school and community life;
      links schools with their neighbours and community partners;
      supports inclusion and promotes positive behaviour, equal opportunities, respect and
      provides a focus for celebrating and publicising school activities;
      contributes to the achievement of the Healthy School Award.
What do we need to do to provide citizenship, as part of the framework for
PSHE and citizenship?

        Ensure that staff appointed to lead the development of PSHE and citizenship provision have
         sufficient seniority to coordinate a whole-school approach.
        Involve staff, governors, pupils and parents in decision-making about needs, priorities and
        Plan provision to meet pupils’ needs, and ensure that it relates to other whole-school
        If you have not yet done so, audit current provision in order to build on what you do already.
         Decide which aspects of citizenship to address through separately timetabled discrete
         provision (such as circle time) and which to address through other subjects and/or
         off-timetable events.
        Ensure that pupils can participate in the life and decision-making of the school and wider
         community as an explicit part of citizenship provision.
        Identify other agencies and partners who contribute to pupils’ personal and social
        Link with local and national priorities, for example through contact with Community Safety
         Partnerships, Drug Action Teams and Education Action Zones.
        Meet regularly with the PSHE and/or citizenship coordinator and key staff to ensure that
         progress is being made with the support of the senior management team (SMT).

How does the key stage 1 and 2 scheme of work for citizenship help?
The key stage 1 and 2 scheme of work for citizenship provides guidance to help your school develop
citizenship provision that reflects the needs of pupils and other whole-school priorities. It is intended to
be used in conjunction with other materials you already have for citizenship. It enables you to use the
flexibility offered by the framework for PSHE and citizenship, the national curriculum and the wider
curriculum as a whole.

The scheme is made up of:
     a Teacher’s guide, with practical ideas about whole-school planning, approaches to and
       provision for citizenship, as well as suggested opportunities for teaching citizenship through
       other subjects. Schools need to decide which opportunities to develop as explicit citizenship
       provision, and which will remain as implicit support for citizenship;
     exemplar teaching units, with learning objectives based on the citizenship strand of the
       PSHE and citizenship framework, suggested teaching activities to meet those objectives and
       defined outcomes of pupils’ learning. The units illustrate how the citizenship strand can be
       translated into medium-term plans, and how the other aspects of the framework can be
       addressed. They are designed to be adapted by schools to fit in with their provision and build
       on what they are already doing; and
     a booklet of ideas about active citizenship, aimed at involving pupils in a range of
       participative activities in school and the wider community.
What other information do we need?
Information on...                   Where to find it        Notes
Approaches to teaching and          Key stages 1 and 2      Teaching approaches should be
learning                            Teacher’s guide pages   active. It is not enough for pupils to
                                    20–21 and Appendix 5    learn about citizenship issues; they
                                                            need to engage with and take part
                                                            in them. The involvement of pupils
                                                            in the life and decision-making of
                                                            the school is a fundamental part of
National Literacy Strategy and      Key stages 1 and 2      The Teacher’s guide provides
National Numeracy Strategy          Teacher’s guide pages   information about the contribution of
                                    15–16                   citizenship to the National Literacy
                                                            Strategy and the National
                                                            Numeracy Strategy.
Teaching sensitive and              Key stages 1 and 2      The Teacher’s guide suggests
controversial issues                Teacher’s guide         strategies for handling sensitive and
                                    page 56                 controversial issues, and dealing
                                                            with issues of confidentiality, such
                                                            as personal disclosure. A summary
                                                            of the section of the 1996 Education
                                                            Act that addresses political and
                                                            controversial issues is also
Assessing progress in citizenship   Key stages 1 and 2      There is a general requirement for
                                    Teacher’s guide         schools to keep records on every
                                    pages 22–25             child, including information on their
                                                            academic achievements, other skills
                                                            and abilities and progress in school.
                                                            Schools need to decide how to
                                                            report on progress in PSHE and
                                                            citizenship, and whether to include
                                                            details as a separate subject
                                                            paragraph. The arrangements for
                                                            assessing and reporting at key
                                                            stage 1 and key stage 2 are
                                                            published each year by QCA (see
Recognising achievement             Key stages 1 and 2      Consider how to recognise the
                                    Teacher’s guide         achievements of all children, and
                                    page 25                 whether school-based, local or
                                                            national certificates and awards in
                                                            citizenship might contribute.
Ofsted inspection               Booklet Inspecting              Inspectors will seek evidence of the
                                subjects 3–11, published        implementation of the framework for
                                by Ofsted in 2000               PSHE and citizenship at key stages
                                                                1 and 2. This will be reported on in
                                                                accordance with the Framework for
                                                                inspection and the Handbook for
                                                                inspecting primary and nursery
                                                                schools under sections 2 and 4, and
                                                                as indicated in Inspecting subjects
                                                                3–11. Primary school inspectors are
                                                                not required to produce a separate
                                                                subject report for PSHE and
Funding for citizenship   Funding is available to schools from
                                                                the Standards fund to support the
                                                                implementation of citizenship.
Resources and useful contacts       Organisations involved with
                                                                citizenship that provide information
                                                                or resources to support schools are
                                                                referred to in the teaching units and
                                                                on the external links page of the
                                                                scheme of work website. Useful
                                                                contacts are listed at the back of the
                                                                Teacher’s guide.

                                         The National Curriculum online
                                                                website contains useful online
                                                                resources linked to specific aspects
                                                                of the PSHE and citizenship

                           The DfES citizenship website
                                                                provides information about
                                                                resources and useful websites.
How do we plan a whole-school approach to citizenship?
The following questions are taken from the key stages 1 and 2 Teacher’s guide, and help with
whole-school planning.

1. What are the needs and priorities of the children in this school?
     What are the particular characteristics of our school community (including geographical
       context, diversity, inclusion, equal opportunities)?
     How do these affect all our children’s needs, concerns and interests (including their
       personal and social development)?
     Who has been consulted about children’s needs and priorities? – Children? Parents?
       School staff? Governors? The wider community?
     How can the flexibility of the PSHE and citizenship framework help the school to meet
       children’s needs, for example by varying the depth and focus of different aspects
       according to the school’s particular requirements?

2. What are children already learning about citizenship?
     How do we build on what children have learnt during the foundation stage?
     What aspects of the framework are already addressed through:
        – discrete citizenship and/or PSHE and citizenship programmes, circle time activities,
        – other subjects?
        – off-timetable events and specialist days such as health weeks, environmental
            projects and residential experiences?
        – children’s active participation in the life of the school, for example through class and
            school councils, links with other schools, involvement in community initiatives?
       Note: Individual children will also learn about citizenship through their involvement with
       out-of-school activities such as Cubs or Brownies, organisations such as faith groups,
       community sports and other community-based and voluntary organisations. They may be
       encouraged to reflect on and talk about what they have learnt through these activities.

3. What already works well and meets our priorities?
     What do children and staff think works well? How do they think it could be improved?
       What are the views of parents and governors?
     Does it meet the identified needs and priorities? Are there any gaps?
     Are all children’s needs reflected in the school’s aims and ethos? In policies such as
       behaviour and equal opportunities?

4. How can we build on what we are already doing?
     Can we:
       – make explicit some of the implicit opportunities for citizenship in other subjects?
       – develop discrete modules or individual sessions to complement other aspects of the
           school’s provision?
       – develop more opportunities for children to participate in school and community life?
       – increase children’s involvement in off-timetable events and extra-curricular activities
           by involving them in helping to organise and run the events?
       – extend opportunities in assemblies?

5. What do we need to change or add?
     What timetabling and staffing issues are created?
     How will training needs be identified and met?
     How will children have opportunities to reflect on what they have learnt and put it into
     How will we develop assessment, recording and reporting of PSHE and citizenship?
       What monitoring, review and evaluation systems do we have to help us to coordinate

6. Who can help?
     Those involved in other local and national initiatives such as the local Healthy School
       programme (information from the LEA or National Healthy School Standard website*),
       community strategy or Agenda 21 (information from the LEA), and outside agencies and
       organisations, for example the police, local council, health promotion service, and local
       and national voluntary organisations.

*see Appendix 8 of the key stages 1 and 2 Teacher’s guide

For further printed copies, please contact:
QCA Publications, PO Box 99, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 2SN (tel: 01787 884444;
fax 01787 312950)
Order ref: QCA/02/877

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