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					                MANGO
 Botanical   Name : Mangifera indica
 Family :   Anacardeaceae
 Originated   in India




                                        1
INTRODUCTION
   Not endemic to Sri Lanka
   But, it is seen growing in many parts
    Predominately in:

    Kurunegala             Puttalam
    Anuradhapura           Moneragala
    Hambanthota            Jaffna districts
    Mahaweli Systems H & C

                                              2
    MORPHOLOGY OF PLANT
Erect   well branched tree




   Leaves:
      - Elliptic to oval in shape
      - 15 – 40 cm in length & 2 -10 cm in width
      - Spirally arranged
                                                   3
CONT……
Inflorescence:
    - Widely branched panicle
    - Consists with more than 1000 male &
      hermaphrodite flowers
    - Ratio - 1:100
    - It depends on the

            cultivar
            climate and weather




                                            4
CONT….

   Fruit:
       - Freshly drupe
       - Weight - 100 g – 2 kg

   Seeds are recalcitrant

   Bearing period:

       Seedling plants: 7-8 years
       Grafted plants: 3-4 years
                                    5
NUTRITIONAL ASPECTS
   Nutrient level/100g of mango flesh:
Water                81.0 g      Energy    74 k cal
Protein              0.6 g       Lipids    0.4 g
Carbohydrates        16.9 g      Calcium   14 mg
Phosphorous          16 mg       Iron      1.3 mg
Carotene             2743 µg     Thiamin   80 µg


Riboflavin           90 µg       Niacin    0.9 µg
Vitamin C            16 mg

                                                    6
RECOMMENDED VARIETIES
DZ Karuthakolomban IZ   Karuthakolomban
   Willard              Vellaicolomban
   Vellaicolomban       Willard
   Ambalavi             Bettiamba
   Chembatan            Malwana(Underground)
   Malwana(Undergro
   und)


WZ Vellaicolomban
   Gira amba
   Peterprasand
   Dampara
                                        7
PREPARATION OF BUDDED PLANTS
Rootstocks

   Suitable Rootstock Varieties:
    Kohu amba, Wal amba, Walu amba & Gira
    amba
   Procedure:
   Remove the husk of the seed with out
    damaging to embryo.


                                            8
CONT…….

   Dip seeds in an insecticide solution
    (Dimethoate) before planting for a few
    minutes. Also dip in a fungicidal solution to
    prevent the fungal infections at nursery
    stage.

   Treated Seeds must be planted in a sandy
    seed bed




                                                    9
    CONT….

Seed bed:
   Thick layer of sand - 15-20 cm
   Sand beds are laid in slight shaded place
   But, never under trees such as mango or avocado
    to protect the seedlings from fungal diseases
   Plant seeds in rows - spacing 15-20 cm
   Curved side of the seed must be downward at
    planting
   Between two seeds - Spacing - 2-3 cm          10
CONT……….

After   seeding, keep the sand bed moist at all
 times
Seeds   germination - 10-14 days after planting
About 3 weeks after emergence - Ready to
 transplanting in either,
      polyethylene pots or
      secondary nursery




                                                   11
PRODUCTION OF PLANTING
MATERIALS




                         12
PLANTING IN POLYTHENE POTS
 Pots- 200 gauge polyethylene
  dimension - 20 cm (8’’) diameter   - 30 cm (1’)
 height.
 Potting   mixture :

  Equalparts of topsoil, sand & well composted
  cow dung/leaf litter

      the polyethylene containers with the
  Fill
  above mixture
                                                13
PLANTING IN A SECONDARY NURSERY
   seedlings are not directly transplanted on a
 If
 pot, it must be transferred to a secondary
 nursery.
Nursery beds:
 - Height: about 20 cm
 - Media:a mixture of top soil & well composted
 cow dung
 Put   a drain between 2 beds, to improve drainage
 Double row system of planting must be adopted
 in the secondary nursery                      14
CONT……

 Ina single bed, two double rows are planted
 (four rows of seedlings)

A   spacing between two double rows: 45 cm

 30cm is recommended within the double row
 with triangular system of planting




                                                15
CONT……

 Plants in secondary nursery or polyethylene pots
  become ready for grafting 7-8 months after
  transplanting
 The stem of the stock plant must attain pencil
  thickness at the time of grafting.




                                                16
SCION
   Take scions only from mother trees having
    good fruit quality characteristics
     Trees giving fruit with quality specific to
      the cultivar
     Bears well annually

     Collect only from branches where bearing
      fruits
     Avoid use of water shoots


                                                    17
METHODS OF BUDDING

    Both patch budding and grafting can be
     adopted
    Patch budding - more suitable for the wet
     zone
    Grafting - suitable for the Dry zone




                                                 18
CONT…..




          19
    CLIMATIC REQUIREMENTS
   Well adapted to tropical and subtropical
    environmental conditions
   Elevation:
     Can be cultivated - up to 1300 m above MSL
     Commercial cultivations - limited to below 600 m
      above MSL
   Optimum temperature - 27-300C
   Rain fall:
     Annual rainfall - range from 500-2500 mm
                                                  20
CONT……..

  Most  important thing is the distribution of
   rainfall rather than the amount

  For successful flowering - A dry period of 3-
   4 months is an essential prerequisite

  Rains at flowering may affect yield - pollen
   wash off




                                                  21
CONT……
Soil:
   Can be cultivated in a wide range of soil
    conditions
   Well drained soil
   Soil depth: 2 m is the best.
   Soil pH: 5.5-6.5pH
   Soils with high clay content or with frequent
    water logging are not suitable for successful
    cultivation
                                                    22
FIELD PLANTING
 Clear the land
 Plough and harrow

 Adopt appropriate soil conservation measures at
  the same time

   Spacing

                 Within row    Between row
                 (m)           (m)

     Willard     7             10
     Other       10            10              23
     varieties
CONT……

Planting hole:
   In a land with a loose soil: - 60 cm x 60 cm x 60
    cm

   For heavy soils: - 90 cm x 90 cm x 90 cm

   2 weeks before planting fill the planting hole
    with,
       Well composted organic materials and top soil
       Heap the soil to about 6 inches above the
                                                        24
        ground level over the planting hole
TIME OF PLANTING
   With the onset of Maha rains - Dry zone

   With onset of Maha/Yala rains -
    Intermediate & Wet zones

For a home garden:
any time of the year except during periods
 of heavy rains

   If a prolonged dry condition exists, plants
    must be irrigated when ever necessary
                                                  25
     AT PLANTING

   Allow the plant to grow directly up
   Use a stick closer to the plant and tighten
    it into the stick carefully
   Apply a mulch




                                                  26
CONT……..

    Watering:
      - Essential requirement after planting
      - Construct a basin around plants to
     control runoff of applied water
    Provide shade appropriately to protect
     plants from heavy sunlight




                                               27
CROP MANAGEMENT
   Training of Trees:
       Gives a good appearance
       Management of the tree becomes easy
       High yields with quality fruit is possible
       Pest and disease incidence minimized

   Training of trees must be started right from
    the early stages of growth
   Pay special attention to train trees from the
    time of planting                                 28
CONT……

   Allow a plant to grow as a single stem up to
    about 1/2 M.
   Let the first branch form at 1/2 M height.
   Then at about 15-20 cm spacing allow to grow 3-
    4 branches around the tree.
   Let these branches to grow in opposite
    directions to give a tree a good appearance.
   This is also important to minimize break of
    branches at latter stages of growth.           29
CONT……….

   Natural shading of branches also minimized
    when branches are equally well distributed
    around the tree




                                                 30
PRUNING

   Shoots that do not receive sufficient sunlight
    must be removed:

     These  shoots do not produce enough food
      reserves for the tree
     Thus, fruit set in such branches are not
      satisfactory
   Diseased, dead and intermingling branches
    must be removed

                                                     31
    WEED CONTROL:
   Should keep the area around the base of the
    tree weed free

   Thus keep only the area under canopy cover
    weed free by use of a mamoty.

   Until the end of 1st year after planting,
    It is important to have an area extending up to
    about 60 cm away from the tree without weeds

   During this period use dry grass as a dead    32

    mulch
IRRIGATION:
   Specially in areas when prolonged dry periods
    exist, it is important to irrigate the plants
    during first three years after planting.
   Frequency and amount of irrigation depend on:
     rainfall and soil properties

   The most critical periods of moisture
    requirements

     From flowering - fruit maturity
     From leaf bud burst - leaf maturity
                                                    33
CONT……..

   From leaf maturity up to flower bud burst
    irrigation must be withheld

   Irrigation during this period adversely affect
    flowering




                                                     34
FERTILIZATION
   WZ – un- bearing trees
                        Annual fertilizer per plant (g)
                        Urea     Rock      MOP
                                 Phosphate
At planting             115      230        105

A year later            115      230        105

Then increase the       60       115        55
quantity per year
until the bearing
stage by
                                                          35
CONT……..
   WZ – Bearing trees

                     Annual fertilizer per plant (g)
                     Urea Rock            MOP
                          Phosphate
    At Fruiting      215  325             380
    Then annual      110   165            190
    increment by

    Up to maximum 870      1295           1515
    quantity per
    plant per year
                                                       36
CONT…..
   DZ & IZ – Un- Bearing trees

                      Annual fertilizer per plant (g)
                      Urea        Rock        MOP
                                  Phosphate

At planting           160         195         90
A year later          160         195         90
Then increase the     80          100         45
quantity per year
until the bearing
stage by
                                                        37
CONT…….

   DZ & IZ – Bearing trees

                    Annual fertilizer per plant (g)
                    Urea      Rock         MOP
                              Phosphate

At Fruiting         235       160          515
Then annual         120       80           260
increment by

Up to maximum 945             630          2055
quantity per
plant per year                                        38
OTHER CULTURAL PRACTICES
Wind breaks
   Before establishment of a large cultivation, plant trees
    like gliricedia or ipil-ipil along the border of the land.
   This is particularly important in areas where heavy
    winds prevail

Termite damage
   During dry periods, termites may damage underground
    parts of the tree
   To overcome this problem apply a band of engine oil on
    the base of the stem up to about 45 cm height          39
FIRE PROTECTION
   In Dry zone heavy winds blow ; July -
    August
   Most cultivated lands are damaged by fire
   To protect the mango cultivation by spreading
    fire,
    -   have a 5-10 M wide fire belt around the
        orchard
    -   plowed and harrowed to remove dry grass.
    -   during the dry months keep an area of about
        3 m around the base of trees weed free.
                                                    40
REMOVAL OF STOCK SHOOTS AND FLOWER
BUDS

   After planting in grafted trees, never allow
    to grow buds from any other area except
    from the grafted bud or shoot

       If allowed, the growth of the grafted shoot
        will become weak and may die back latter
   All flower buds emerge at early stages of
    growth must be removed


                                                      41
THINNING OUT OF FRUITS
   A tree can sustain a certain number of fruit
    depending on its size.
   If more fruit are set than this, those fruit may
    drop naturally.
   In certain instances, however, even after
    natural fruit drop, a large number of fruit may
    remain on the tree and due to this only a few
    fruit will set in the following year.
   For a commercial cultivation, this is not a
    good thing to happen.
                                                       42
CONT…….

   For varieties like Karuthakolomban and
    Vellaicolomban, leave only 1 fruit/panicle
   While cultivar Willard can have 4-5
    fruit/panicle
   Advantages;

       minimize yield variation over the years
       Also it is helpful to obtain a higher
        proportion of well grown high quality fruit
        every year
                                                      43
HARVESTING & POST-HARVEST
TECHNOLOGY
   Grafted plants commence bearing 3-4 years
    after planting.
   Harvested only after it mature sufficiently,
    but before ripening.
   In most cultivars, color of peel change from
    dark green to light greenish yellow in color.
   However, to ascertain the level of maturity a
    number of fruit should be picked randomly,
    cut and inspected.
                                                    44
CONT……..
   When fruit shows a yellow color around the
    seed, they are mature and ready for harvest.
   If the flesh color is white, it is not yet ready for
    harvest.
   Hand pick fruit if possible.

   Else, use a wooden pole with a hook or knife
    attached with a cloth bag or net below.

   This prevent bruising and fruit injury. Never let
    fruit fall on the ground.
                                                           45
CONT……
To minimize sap exudation, harvest fruit between 9 AM
- 3 PM. Avoid humid rainy weather conditions at
harvesting.




                                                    46
CONT……….

   Yield

    Age of tree   Fruit Number per tree
         5-8       450
         9-10      800
        11-25     1250




                                          47
HANDLING HARVESTED FRUIT
   Never leave harvested fruit under direct sun.
   Take those to the pack house safely.
   Thereafter, sort fruit to remove damaged, cut
    and bruised, immature and over-ripe fruit.
   Wash sorted fruit in a water bath with Benomyl
    or Thiobendazol.
 This is important to remove sap on the fruit and
  to give it a good appearance.
 Due to the action of fungicide, development of
                                                 48
  diseases like Antracnose is reduced.
CONT…….

   However, for effective control of post harvest
    diseases, 1-3 min. dip in 520C water is more
    suitable. This can be done with or without
    fungicide. If a fungicide is not mixed with hot
    water, spray a solution of 1% fungicide on
    washed fruit.




                                                      49
PACKING
   Before packing fruit may be sorted again. At
    this time if there are any unmarketable fruit,
    those are discarded.

   For export purposes, selected fruit is packed
    according to size. For European markets, high
    demand exist for fruit weighing 200-250g.
    However, sort and pack fruit according to the
    requirements of the buyer.

   Pack fruit in cardboard boxes as a single layer of
    fruit to about 4-5 Kg in weight per box. Each
    fruit should be wrapped to polyethylene or      50


    paper and pack in the box.
STORAGE
   At ambient air temperature, mangoes
    harvested at correct stage of maturity can
    be stored for about 8-12 days. Under cold
    conditions at 120C , storage life can be
    further extended up to 25 days without
    loosing fruit quality.




                                                 51
ALTERNATE BEARING
Alternate nearing refers to have heavy fruiting
 in one year. ‘On’ year followed by less or non
 fruiting in the following year ‘Off’ year.
Reasons

 Varietal differences
 Unsuitable weather conditions
 Rainfall
 High humidity
 Low C: N ratio
 Mineral deficiencies
 Low percentage of perfect flowers
                                                  52
 Hormonal balance
CONT….

Solutions
    Removal of flowers or thinning out of fruits (by
    hormones or manually)
   Girdling of trees
   Use good agronomic practices
   Avoid cultivars having alternate bearing




                                                    53

				
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