1999 by liwenting


									                                                            Official Newsletter of the Palm Beach Packet Group, Inc

Volume 11, Number 1                                                                                        January 1999

                                        ANDY CLARK W4IYT,
                                   ON THURSDAY, DECEMBER 31.

Andy Clark, W4IYT, long time amateur radio editor and public service leader in South Florida died Dec 31, 1998, after a long battle
with cancer.

Andy, first licensed in 1939, founded and edited Florida Skip, a monthly newspaper dedicated to ham radio activities in Florida,
from his home in Miami Springs, since 1957. His address, 41 Lenape Dr, was famous for years as the place net managers and club
presidents sent word of their activities. Andy, with the help of a few friends, lovingly and patiently wrote the whole paper, set type,
printed and mailed 12 issues a year, which reached a peak of approximately 5000 subscribers before selling the publication to Gerry
Wentz, KC4EHT, Melbourne, following a stroke in 1992.

Andy was a leader in emergency communications. He was SEC of then East Florida section of the ARRL, and EC of Dade County
for 25 years before retiring from that job after Hurricane Andrew devastated South Florida. He created emergency stations for the
Red Cross, the National Hurricane Center, and the City of Miami Springs. He was trustee of W4EHW at the NHC and K4OSQ at
Miami Springs. With George Thurston, W4MLE, he authored several books on emergency preparedness and traffic handling.

Andy was a Navy veteran and fought in the Battle of the Coral Sea in WWII. He was employed by Aeronautical Radio (Air-Inc) as a
communicator, from 1950 to his retirement in 1978. In his final years he ran a small business providing cable access programming
for Miami Springs Cablevision. The city gave Andy his day. Dec 14, 1998, was Andy Clark day in Miami Springs, for his nearly 50
years of service to his community and his hobby.

Andy Clark, W4IYT is survived by his wife Betty, W4GGQ, a son Andy Lee, KA4MHL, five daughters, and 3 grandchildren.

(Authors note: When I lived in Miami after graduating from college in the late sixties Andy was my amateur radio mentor pushing
me toward public service. I also helped him edit and distribute Florida Skip.)

Sandy Donahue, W4RU
Section Manager, Georgia
W4RU<BR>Section Manager


                                    The officers and members of the Palm Beach Packet Group
                                          extend their condolences to Andy Clark's family.
                                  He has left his indelible mark on amateur radio in South Florida
                                              for which we all will be forever indebted.

                                                                                                                             Page 1
WHITE NOISE                                                                                        January 1999

            IT'S A SMALL WORLD                                    White Noise is published by the Palm Beach Packet
                                                                  Group, Inc.
               AMATEUR RADIO                                      The PBPG can be reached by mail at
                    Bill Manley KB4XE
                                                                  Palm Beach Packet Group
During the afternoon, Christmas Eve, I was working with the              PO Box 16471
computer while half listening to the chatter on 12M from my              West Palm Beach, Fl. 33416-6471
IC756. I was aware of a pile up on a Caracas Venezuela
station. A discussion developed when he connected with a          The officers of the PBPG with their packet address and
Toronto station. As the conversation evolved, both hams           phone numbers are:
disclosed that they were physicians.
                                                                          Doug Welcker, President
The Caracas station mentioned that his specialty was                      WB4KGY@WB4MOZ
Oncology which he studied at Roswell Park in Buffalo NY,                  wb4kgy@bellsouth.net
                                                                          (561) 686-3747
which was not far from the Toronto station.
                                                                          Mike Michaels, Vice-President
My interest and attention now stirred. I am from Buffalo and
one of my closest friends, as a teenager many years ago, was a            73754.3116@compuserve.com
person who went on to study medicine at Syracuse University               (561) 967-0478
and from there also studied Oncology at Roswell Park.
                                                                          Burck Grosse , Secretary
When I Toronto station signed, I called the Caracas station.              KC4UEV@WB4MOZ
We established quickly that he also knew my buddy.                        burke@mxn.com
                                                                          (561) 622-4655
We chatted, musing about the coincidence, and when the
band threatened to fade out extended Seasons Greeting to one              Marvin Kaskawits, Treasurer
another while looking forward to extending our QSO in the                 KD2CK@WB4MOZ
near future.                                                              kd2ck@ibm.net
                                                                          (561) 683-2930
It is indeed a small world, with amateur radio.
                                                                          John Green, Director
                                                                          (561) 793-6093

                 On the Packet BBS                                        Bill Manley, Editor
                    Bill Manley KB4XE                                     KB4XE@WB4TEM
Bill N4XEO has posted notable tables authored by Don                      (954) 752-3908
KB4FEA as packet bulletins. They have been updated for the
new year. Check them out on your favorite bulletin board.
You will find interest in                                        We've included in this issue of White Noise the update to

               Florida Nets On VHF and UHF                                          Florida Packet Switches
                     Florida Digipeaters
                Florida BBS Stations by QTH
                      Florida Hamfests
                       Florida HF Nets
                   Florida Nodes Over 100'

                                                                                                                     Page 2
WHITE NOISE                                                                                            January 1999

                                                                   Treasure's report was given by Marvin (KD2CK), he has been
                                                                   on vacation for awhile, so report reflects conditions as of
                                                                   October 31, 1998. Checking acct. $449.83, Savings acct.
                                                                   $500.55. Interest YTD $99.36. A more up to date
                                                                   accounting will be published in White Noise.
                 A NEW MILLENNIUM                                  Technical committee report: Doug (WB4KGY) and John
                      2001AD                                       (WB4MOZ) converted Okee site to FPAC and stopped by
                     Bill Manley KB4XE                             Stuart to updated software on Nov. 28, 1998. WPB switch
                                                                   has had no problems. This coming Sunday the UPS
Huh?                                                               purchased at Okee Hamfest will be installed at PBPG site, all
                                                                   are welcome to visit. Good bargains were to be had at Okee
Everybody knows that the next millennium starts January 1,         Hamfest this year.
2000. Right?
                                                                   OLD BUSINESS
Actually that is wrong.                                            The Club is looking for takers of the donated computers.
                                                                   There are 17 operational computers and monitors to be
The beginning of the 21st Century begins January 1, 2000 but       donated. One was installed at the Okee switch site. White
the beginning of the 2nd Millennium starts January 1, 2001.        Noise was mailed Dec. 7th. The POLO shirts status is still
The reason is that our calendar began with the year 1AD. The       unresolved, due to miscommunication between the shirt
2nd Millennium is 2000 years later of course.                      vendor and local distributor, more on this at a later date.
So in spite of all of the misinformation from the media, and
all of the hype associating the Y2K issue with the change in       Several packet books are available for lending from
millennium, the correct fact is that the second millennium         KE4GUM. BBS happenings > Like Short Wave? Try
will begin January 1, 2001. The Y2K issue is more properly         "L> swl" for frequency and time listings. Handouts of: New
associated with the change in the century. It is correct to plan   switch lists; Intro to Packet.
to celebrate the beginning of the 21st Century as January 1,
2000.                                                              NEW BUSINESS
                                                                   Time for elections for 1999. A motion was made by John
Just think, we get two raucous parties: The beginning of the       (WB4MOZ) that nominations to be closed, seconded by Jamie
21st Century on January 1, 2000 and the beginning of the           (KD4LXB).
Second Millennium on January 1, 2001. Sounds like a win-
win situation.                                                     Ballots were distributed, and the results are as follows:

(See how informed you can get by surfing the web. Frankly                        PBPG OFFICERS FOR 1999
I'd have not given a second thought to this distinction if I had
not run across the explanation by Arthur C. Clarke through         President         DOUG (WB4KGY)
the Reuters News Service - ed).                                    Vice President    MIKE (K2GPI)
                                                                   Treasure          MARVIN (KD2CK)
                                                                   Secretary         BURCK (KC4UEV)

                                                                   Hamfest: Ft Myers - Jan 9th./10th. 1999. The membership
                                                                   is encouraged to lend their talents to The Club. BARDS
                                                                   meeting Dec. 19th. At Motorola. Memberships are being
                                                                   accepted by KE4GUM.

  PALM BEACH PACKET GROUP MINUTES                                  There is a new "free internet connection out there, try
                   DECEMBER 10, 1998                               NETZERO.NET     Information was provided by Howey
Meeting was brought to order by President DOUG                     ADJOURN/BREAK/WORKSHOP
(WB4KGY) @ 19:20hrs. Introductions of members and                  Bob (WD9ATM) was scheduled to present W4BKX and The
guests were made.                                                  Internet Gateway, however he was called out of town,

                                                                                                                          Page 3
WHITE NOISE                                                                                  January 1999

President Doug (WB4KGY) made an excellent presentation.
You guys should have been there !!!!!!!!                               ARTICLES FOR WHITE NOISE

Respectfully submitted:                                           The Palm Beach Packet Group accepts
Wm. H. Rabun (KE4GUM)                                             articles from other clubs and individuals
                                                                  wishing to have them published in the White
                         ****NOTE****                             Noise. This is offered as a gratis service for
These will be my last minutes submitted by me as your             those not otherwise having publication
Secretary. This has been 2 years I will not soon forget. Had it
not been for the support of the members and more specifically
                                                                  services at their disposal. Article content
Doug (WB4KGY), Things would have been in total turmoil.           should be amateur radio related, including all
I do thank you all for your help and assistance, and I have       operating modes, applications including
benefited from the experience. Your new Secretary Burck,          computer, experiences, announcements and
will bring real class to the PBPG. I wish him well !!!!!!         reports of meetings. Advertising is not
BILLYBOB (KE4GUM)                                                 We reserve editorial privileges regarding
                                                                  content, spelling, punctuation and structure as
                                                                  well as the decision to publish or not. Articles
                                                                  can not be returned.

   Broward Amateur Radio Digital Society                          Email your copy to:
                    December 19, 1998                                          bmanley@gate.net
                                                                  Or By Packet to:
Carl, W9ZGU, has been working with the Agrelo DF Jr.               KB4XE @WB4TEM.#BCR.FL.US.NOAM
Doppler direction finder. He had seen a demo at the Dayton
hamfest and was looking forward to working with one. He
has gotten the chance and been asked to trace and interfering
signal. He described the problems and solutions he has had
so far using the DF Jr.

The January 16 program will be by Bill Rafus, WD4FRB, on
the happenings at the AMSAT symposium. February and
March programs will be on filters by Jim Dailing, WA4CSQ.

Bob, N4CU

                                                                                                             Page 4
                                                         Official Newsletter of the Palm Beach Packet Group, Inc

Volume 11, Number 2                                                                                February 1999

Packet Radio Software Review: PK Term ’99                        transmit panel. On-line help is just a click away. Just click on
         Timewave Corporation                                    the question mark and select the question or topic for more
                   By Stuart Kaskawits                           info. The help is informative and nice touch when confusion
Amateurs with a taste for Packet Radio who have a Windows
based computer always have an eye out for new Windows            More info will come in my next article after I register the PK
based Packet Radio software. For you internet surfers, surf      Term ’99 software. I’ll have an opportunity to review the
your way over to http:/www.timewave.com            to find       fully functional software and give White Noise the scoop.
Timewave’s version of packet software to support their new
acquisition, AEA TNCs. Just download the demonstration
version to experience the Windows 95/98/NT based Packet
Radio software. The demonstration version limits use to           FCC issues 5-MHz Experimental License to
VHF/HF packet at a maximum baud rate of 1200/300bps.                               ARRL
Still, VHF packet is my primary mode.       I own an AEA
PK 232 MBX and use AEA’s Packratt for Windows 2.0.               ARLB007
Though Packratt for Windows 2.0 is a Windows 3.1 based           The FCC has issued an Experimental Radio Service license to
program, it will      function under Windows 95/98.              the ARRL to permit two-way tests in the vicinity of 5 MHz,
Timewave’s       PK Term ’99 is a native 32 bit Windows          the most likely site of the next amateur HF band. The license,
application and should have more to offer than the 16 bit        bearing the call signWA2XSY, was issued January 8. A
predecessor.                                                     group of 15 current amateurs in various parts of the US and
                                                                 the Caribbean will conduct experimental, two-way RTTY and
Getting started after the download and installation routine,     SSB transmissions within the band 5.100 to 5.450MHz. To
demo mode is chosen unless you have a registration number        avoid interfering with existing services, the participants will
from Timewave. The TNC must have its Tbaud set to 9600           confine their operations to the least-populated 50-kHz
bps to communicate with PK Term ’99. This is a limitation to     segment.
PK Term’s demo mode. Once the Tbaud is set in the TNC,
PK Term ’99 starts up by initializing with the VHF or HF         ''The idea is to show that an amateur allocation there will
Packet parameters. Three windows appear afterwards. The          improve our emergency communication capabilities by filling
main window shows the menu bar with the transmit/receive         the gap between the 3.5 and 7.0 MHz bands,'' said ARRL
panel. The transmit panel has a toggle between converse and      Executive Vice President David Sumner, K1ZZ. Sumner
command input. The second window is strictly a command           pointed out that several of the participants are phone net
window to the TNC. The third window is a connectionless          members in the Caribbean and Gulf area who frequently
(unproto) receive window. All three windows are                  handle hurricane-related traffic and now must alternate
independent. The connectionless window can be left in the        between 75meters and 40 meters. Other participants are
corner of the desktop to monitor traffic.                        members of a nationwide digital data-forwarding network.

Prior to operation, mycall must be entered from the settings     The Experimental license is good for two years. Two studies
panel. In addition, PK Term ’99 allows callsign lookup via       by the National Telecommunications and Information
popular callbook software. Once the connection is made with      Administration (NTIA)include an allocation at 5 MHz among
the node/switch, the receive panel displays three different      the future spectrum needs for the Amateur Service. The
colors depending on the received traffic. The color changes      subject is not likely to show up on the agenda of a World
from commands, converse receive and echo traffic. Upon           Radio Communication Conference for several years, however.
connection, morse code announces the callsign of the
connected station. Now connection to the BBS or other            Participants in the WA2XSY experiment may run up to 200
destination can be made using a macro or just typing in the      W effective radiated power. Similar multiband trap dipoles

                                                                                                                       Page 1
WHITE NOISE                                                                                        February 1999
                                                                 White Noise is published by the Palm Beach Packet
capable of operation on 80 and 40 meters as well as at 5 MHz     Group, Inc.
will be employed at each station location. Operation by
participants will consist of short transmissions to determine    The PBPG can be reached by mail at
propagation characteristics.
                                                                 Palm Beach Packet Group
Participating stations are located in New Hampshire,                    PO Box 16471
Tennessee, Ohio, Florida, Mississippi, Wisconsin, Indiana,              West Palm Beach, Fl. 33416-6471
California, Utah, New York, Texas, the US Virgin Islands,
                                                                 The officers of the PBPG with their packet address and
and Maryland.
                                                                 phone numbers are:

                                                                         Doug Welcker, President
               Pre and De Emphasis                                       wb4kgy@bellsouth.net
                     by Verne W9ZGS                                      (561) 686-3747

The use of pre and de-emphasis in FM broadcasting                        Mike Michaels, Vice-President
(Entertainment and Communications) gives a decided                       K2GPI@WB4MOZ
improvement in received signal to noise ratio. The higher                73754.3116@compuserve.com
audio frequencies are boosted in level at the transmitter and            (561) 967-0478
are reduced in level at the receiver. Any higher frequency
noise that was picked up along the way also gets reduced at              Burck Grosse , Secretary
the receiver.                                                            KC4UEV@WB4MOZ
Entertainment broadcasting usually has the high frequency                (561) 622-4655
boost begin around 1500 Hz to 2000 Hz and continue upward
at an approximate 6db per octave rate. This translates to a 75           Marvin Kaskawits, Treasurer
microsecond pre-emphasis.        Communications equipment                KD2CK@WB4MOZ
seems to have pre-emphasis start at a lower frequency and is             kd2ck@ibm.net
different with various manufacturers. Simple RC circuits can             (561) 683-2930
be used although other methods are popular. Resistance and
capacity work because the AC resistance of the capacitor                 John Green, Director
(impedance) becomes lower as the frequency goes higher. At
the "crossover" frequency the AC resistance of the cap equals
                                                                         (561) 793-6093
the resistor value. In pre-emphasis the 2elements are in
parallel. In de-emphasis they are effectively in series, an AC           Bill Manley, Editor
voltage divider.                                                         KB4XE@WB4TEM
If you do any transceiver modifying for packet use, you'll               (954) 752-3908
eventually be faced with having to accommodate "emphasis."
You may wonder, "What does that mean, 6db per octave?"
First you need to know what an octave is. Every time a
frequency doubles, it has increased by an octave. Assume you      quite, 6dB higher in level than the 1200 Hz tone. The actual
are measuring a 1200 Hz tone from an oscillator across a600       db increase is closer to 5.45dB but6 is close enough. Figuring
ohm load. It measures .775 volts RMS. The tone is increased       RC time constants is an exercise in great pain. At the end of
to 2400 Hz. The frequency has now increased one octave - it       this piece is a chart showing standard resistance values versus
has doubled in frequency. The level of this 2400 Hz tone is       capacity to obtain a 75 microsecond "emphasis." For pre-
now increased by 6db. The voltage would now measure 1.545         emphasis, the resistor and capacitor are placed in parallel and
volts RMS - about a 1.99 increase. In 1200 baud VHF packet,       then this combination is placed in series with the audio to the
we use tones of 1200 Hz and 2200 Hz. Not quite an octave but      transmitter at an appropriate point. For de-emphasis, the
very close to it. The 2200 Hz tone should be about, but not       resistor is placed in series with the receive audio, at an
                                                                  appropriate point, and then the end of the resistor closest to

                                                                                                                       Page 2
WHITE NOISE                                                                                           February 1999

the last device in the chain (TNC, speaker amplifier, etc.) is      Marvin (KD2CK), he has two talented sons and it is a good
bypassed with the capacitor.                                        thing. The elder son Phil was able to enhance the Palm
                                                                    Beach Packet Groups palm tree logo for the copying process
You must give some thought to the resistance value selected.        onto the shirts. With Marvin's receipt of the logo via E-Mail
Input capacity of the port involved will affect your results.       he was ready to make the customize artwork for each shirt
Watch out for that input capacity. If the input capacity is         (name/call) when his hard drive decided to crash. Since it
already .01Mfd, a series resistance of 10,000 ohms would put        was under warranty customer service issued him a
you at greater than 6dbper octave and give you too much high        replacement. Now you won't believe this - I was at Marvin's
frequency roll-off without the use of an additional capacitor!      when there was a hard bang on the door. Marvin opened the
"Purists" will object to this but my rule of the thumb allows       door and saw the Airborne Freight truck driving away. The
me to use a resistor value roughly equal to the impedance it is     driver threw the package from the ground floor into Marvin's
FACING. If you were going to place a de-emphasis resistor in        second floor door even though it was clearly marked fragile!
series with an audio signal feeding a device with a 600 ohm         Lucky he didn't break the glass door. Marvin called customer
input, you probably wouldn't want to use a 22,000 ohm               service before opening the package and they were furious
resistor - unless you had a large surplus of signal and a low       wanting to know all the details of the delivery. The hard
input capacity. Simple math indicates that you would                drive was reissued and delivered by a courteous driver a few
approach a 40 to 1 reduction in signal voltage. For a 600 ohm       days later. And this is only the beginning of Marvin's effort.
input you'd probably want to use a 470 ohm resistor - this
would cut your audio by something less than half. The same          This is where Marvin's younger son Stuart (NF2N) comes in.
holds true on the pre-emphasis side. I will admit that I have       As Stuart had built and recently updated the computer for
been known to "split the difference" on a resistor value if I am    Marvin, and Marvin not being a hardware person, Stuart
feeding a low impedance from a high impedance and have a            advised him to hold tight. In a few weeks he would be
surplus of signal voltage and a low input capacity. Try it, if      visiting Mom & Dad from his home in Research Triangle
you're not satisfied, try another combination.                      Park, NC. With Stu's visit the replacement hard drive was
                                                                    installed and all files recovered. Believe it or not this was the
RESISTANCE CAPACITY                                                 easy part.
100 ohms .75 Mf
220 ohms .34 Mf                                                     Could you believe that the shirts could be tied in with the
470 ohms .16 Mf                                                     dentist and a periodontal cleaning? Read on. As it turns out
1,000 ohms .075 Mf                                                  Marvin noticed a "T" shirt shop in the same strip mall as his
2,200 ohms .034 Mf                                                  Dentist. And to make matters even more interesting the
4,700 ohms .016 Mf                                                  owner is a ham from South Africa!              What a great
10,000 ohms 7500 Pf                                                 arrangement. The owner was more than willing to help so
22,000 ohms 3400 Pf                                                 Marvin brought in an original club polo shirt to get the same
47,000 ohms 1600 Pf                                                 style, color, and quality. Much to the chagrin of Marvin and
100,000 ohms 750 Pf                                                 the owner, the desired shirt was not able to be procured. The
220,000 ohms 340 Pf                                                 suppliers antics were like a tragic opera. First the color was
470,000 ohms 160 Pf                                                 wrong, then without a pocket, then there was no elastic in the
                                                                    sleeves then no collar. And of course the weeks turned into
Verne                                                               months.
Email Jgalt@megsinet.net                                            Try another supplier - Yes... success. Not wanting another
                                                                    disappointment with the printing on the shirts Marvin spent
                                                                    all afternoon, after a morning dental appointment, making
                                                                    sure the shirts were correctly matched with the names and
                                                                    call signs. Congratulations Marvin and thank you for your
                 PBPG POLO SHIRTS                                   persistence and perseverance. Marvin completed his efforts
                      by Doug Welcker                               by contacting those who requested shirts via packet mail
                                                                    system and arranged for delivery.
It has been a long hard struggle but the new issue of Club
shirts as turned out to of first quality. More obstacles couldn't   Most shirts were distributed at the Miami Hamfest but if you
have been encountered in the effort though. Fortunately for         have not received your please contact myself or Marvin.

                                                                                                                           Page 3
WHITE NOISE                                                                                       February 1999

Thanks again Marvin.                                             A new digital mode of packet operation called PSK31 is the
                                                                 brainchild of Peter Martinez (G3PLX). Peter is called the
                                                                 father of AMTOR, and the new mode operates much like
                                                                 RTTY. The new PSK31 operates in 50 hz bandwidth and is
 PALM BEACH PACKET GROUP MINUTES                                 very “robust”. Most of the material requirements will be
                    JANUARY 14, 1999                             satisfied with a sound blaster PC board and a software
                                                                 package. It operates on an audio frequency in the order of
BROUGHT TO ORDER                                                 1,000 hz with a phase shift plus or minus 25 hz.
The meeting was brought to order at 19:30 hrs. By President
DOUG (WB4KGY). Introductions of members and guests               WORKSHOP
were made.                                                       There was a workshop presented by Doug on packet
                                                                 communications, especially the commands to make things
TECHNICAL COMMITTEE REPORT                                       happen.
Doug (WB4KGY) reported three separate events: on Sunday
December 19, John (WB4MOZ), Burck (KE4UEV), and                  ADJOURNMENT
Billy Bob (KE4GUM) performed site maintenance at                 The meeting was adjourned at 20:25 hrs.
ADELPHIA Tower, adding two gallons of distilled water,
installing a UPS for the computer, and measuring battery
voltages and specific gravities.      The UPS installation
uncovered a FPAC software glitch; due to not having regular
power failures to reset the timers in the HEARD LIST, we            Broward Amateur Radio Digital Society
need a reset of the timers at 99hrs 59', and have asked the                           January 16, 1998
software writers for the changes.
                                                                 Once again we had an excellent program. Bill Rafus,
OLD BUSINESS                                                     KD4FRB, told us about the October AMSAT Symposium. He
A big “thank you” is due Billy Bob (KE4GUM) for his two          brought along a helical with ham modified down-converter
years of service as secretary of the Packet Group. We            for 2.4 GHz. He has now built several of these antennas and
appreciate the considerable effort expended by Billy Bob.        tuned them up at the AMSAT integration facility in Orlando.
                                                                 The modified Drake down-converter is a $50 ham modified
A reminder that we are still looking for appropriate “homes”     box that is a close equivalent to a $500 commercial box.
for the computers that have been donated by outside
companies.      These are available to those who have            The February 20 program will be by Jim Dailing, WA4CSQ.
demonstrated an interest in digital radio but lack the           Jim is an Ace Filter Designer and was Motorola's expert until
equipment. We currently have about 15 operational units          he retired. We still use the documentation he wrote. He will
available. Interested parties should be referred to Doug.        be talking about filters and how to make those poles and zeros
                                                                 say something. This will be the first of a two-part program so
Polo shirt status is again held up due to communication          don't miss the first one.
problems between several suppliers, i.e. collars, pockets,
printing, etc. We anticipate availability during or just after   Bob, N4CU
the next club meeting.

We have books on packet radio available for lending to club
members. Interested hams should see Burck.

We are still working on finalizing a replacement tower site
for Belle Glade. The tower constructor is dealing with
applications being turned down for insufficient reason, with
new applications having been filed. Final details hopefully
will be worked out at the Miami Hamboree. The APRS site
in Clewiston will be on an FM broadcast tower with an
effective height of 300 feet.

                                                                                                                     Page 4
                                                           Official Newsletter of the Palm Beach Packet Group, Inc

Volume 11, Number 3                                                                                       March 1999

           PACKET RADIO IN EUROPE                                  even several times a day. Since, this never happened again
                   by Bill Manley KB4XE                            (3.2b, 3.3a-h). There were few versions with minor bugs, but
                                                                   now, some nodes are running nearly a full year without any
The following from the FPAC list server was provided by            reset.
John Green WB4MOZ. It offers insight into amateur packet
communication networks in Europe as written to the list            Another question was about how the routing is realized. Let
server by Ulrich Hilsinger DH0GHU.                                 me try to explain it in several steps.

Notice that, while we in Florida are now employing the FPAC        Usually, you know to which nodes you want to set up a link.
network software which originated in Europe, the Europeans         So, first of all, note that FlexNet is NOT looking for node-
are using as system called FlexNet. Also note that their links     broadcast, and doesn't take all nodes it can HEAR into its link
are implemented using 23cm equipment, where as ours are on         table. That's the first big advantage with NetRom-Systems
220 and UHF. However it should also be noted that personal         (exception : TheNet Node and XNET , which are using INP3,
internet communications in Europe are less common than in          do it the same way : The link must be set by the sysop). To set
the US and there amateur radio operators have built high           up a link is easy : You just have to say to the node, that , for
speed wireless links to accomplish what we now do via the          example, a link to DB0XYZ is at Port n. Now, the node
internet. Read Ulrich’s communication and discover the             starts testing the link. If the neighbour is a FlexNet neighbour
exciting developments by amateurs in Europe.                       (in other cases, you even can configure the node in a way he
                                                                   knows it is not a FlexNet neighbour, but at least he makes
                             -o-                                   RTT checks), he will set up an internode connection to this
                                                                   neighbour, and he starts making RTT measurements (in steps
Subject: FPAC/FlexNet - Informations                               of 100ms).
Date: Fri, 12 Feb 1999 11:31:32 +0100
From: UHILSING@CIP.RZ.FH-OFFENBURG.DE                              Now let me draw a little network map :
Reply-To: fpac@lantz.com
To: fpac@lantz.com                                                 DB0A----DB0B----DB0C----DB0D

Dear Readers of this list,                                         Each of those nodes only has links to his direct neighbours
                                                                   configured by the Sysop, that's the same thing as with FPAC :
Unfortunately I haven't read my emails for some days, so I         You also define a link to the neighbour, in the case of netrom
was not able to answer to some of your questions in time.          even with some more information (ROSE-Routing address)
                                                                   DB0C knows it has a link to DB0D and a link to DB0B. Both
There were several questions and statements.                       are working. Now, DB0B measures the link time to DB0C,
                                                                   and DB0C "says" to DB0B that it knows a route (it doesn't
One of the themes were BUGS. Surely, there are also bugs in        say WHICH route) to DB0D with the RTT x.DB0B takes this
FlexNet. BUT :If a new release becomes official, it has tested     time, adds it to the link time of the DB0B-DB0C-link (in
a long time before! For example, one of the biggest nodes in       reality, the used formula is a bit more difficult). It reports all
southwest Germany is testing beta versions since many              those times to DB0A, which uses the same procedure to
months now (RMNC/FlexNet software, not PC/... in this              update his destinations table. If the delay time is greater than
case). The author of the FlexNet software himself has set up a     around 3000, it will not continue to transmit this callsign.
little network at his home, where he runs a RMNC node and          Now, DB0D fails due to any reason (no current, sysop's doing
several PC/FlexNet nodes. So he can detect heavy bugs even         some work, etc).In this case, DB0C knows very fast, that
before giving the beta versions to his testers.         When       DB0D failed. I will delete DB0D from his routing table, and
RMNC/FlexNet V3.2a was released some years ago, there              this information is transmitted very fast through the network,
were not enough tests done : Many nodes started resetting          so this node will disappear very fast.

                                                                                                                          Page 1
WHITE NOISE                                                                                              March 1999

                                                                   White Noise is published by the Palm Beach Packet
Now, there's another alternative :                                 Group, Inc.

<old network---DB0C----DB0D                                        The PBPG can be reached by mail at
                |         |
               DB0E-----DB0F                                               Palm Beach Packet Group
                                                                           PO Box 16471
Now, only DB0C-DB0D fails due to a failed transmitter.                     West Palm Beach, Fl. 33416-6471
Short after, DB0C will know, that there's a secure route via
                                                                   Web site
DB0E and DB0F.
Or: DB0C-DB0D becomes very slow due to QRM or due to a
technical problem (perhaps temperature drift of a bad              The officers of the PBPG with their packet address and
transceiver?). As soon as DB0C-DB0E-DB0F will become               phone numbers are:
faster, the traffic will be routed to this new way! So even if
the "usual" route works, the network load will be shared to                Doug Welcker, President
several links. That's a feature which actually doesn't seem to             WB4KGY@WB4MOZ
exist in FPAC.                                                             wb4kgy@bellsouth.net
                                                                           (561) 686-3747
Actually, the number of nodes which is known here is around
600. Sometimes it was even around 650. Nearly ALL nodes                    Mike Michaels, Vice-President
can be connected. At least that's the case here, but the                   K2GPI@WB4MOZ
network is working very well (Only HTS-free Point-to-point                 73754.3116@compuserve.com
links, usually running at 23cm bands or higher with speeds                 (561) 967-0478
from 9600 bit/s half duplex to 76800 bit/s full duplex). The
network load is unimportant. Some links have a data                        Burck Grosse , Secretary
throughput of more than 100kB per minute, there , the load                 KC4UEV@WB4MOZ
by routing is not important. At slower links, it seems that                burck@msn.com
FlexNet doesn't produce as much internode communication                    (561) 622-4655
traffic as at fast links, that's something I don't know exactly,
but it seems to be so - at least, FlexNet even works with slow             Marvin Kaskawits, Treasurer
1200 bit/s links. For example, the FlexNet network now was                 KD2CK@WB4MOZ
extended to major parts of France, there, they still use 1k2               kd2ck@ibm.net
                                                                           (561) 683-2930
links, sometimes even not point-to-point:). There, they also
have around 600 nodes available if they are near to the higher
                                                                           John Green, Director
speed part of the network (if the node is far away, the number
of destinations is decreasing), but the network load by                    wb4moz@maco.net
internode traffic still stays low, they absolutely have no                 (561) 793-6093
problems with the load produced by the routing (there even
was a 1k2 frequency in the north of Paris where a total of 5 or            Bill Manley, Editor
6 links was running, there was still enough capacity left for              KB4XE@WB4TEM
users... hi). So, the network load is surely not a problem,                bmanley@gate.net
even with 2560 nodes it would work (perhaps there would be                 (954) 752-3908
memory problems at RMNC nodes? I don't know, impossible
to test it, we don't have so many nodes here, hi. The next
generation of RMNC hardware (32bit RISC architecture,               - the sysop only needs to know the callsigns of his link
allowing >5Mbit/s) surely has much more memory than the             partners, he doesn't has to care about the rest of the network.
actual version ;-).                                                 For example, if I connect to DB0BLN Berlin (600km away
                                                                    from here), my local node (F6KFG) could route it in two
The big advantages of this routing are :                            ways : the first going to the north (approximately Frankfurt-
- it takes care of the network load                                 Giessen- Hochsauerland (100km east of the Ruhr area)-Harz-
                                                                    Berlin, all those links except the last one are running at

                                                                                                                         Page 2
WHITE NOISE                                                                                               March 1999

19200 bit/s or 76800 bit/s), or some other alternatives to the     a single person, but by clubs ,and most nodes are not installed
north. All those connections would first go to DB0ORT              at the sysop's home, but at a remote side. Especially here, in
which is the northern link partner of F6KFG. The other way         Germany, which has a difficult geographical situation, often
would be to go to the southeast, via Munich, to the north          sites of the Deutsche Telekom AG are used, or other good
again, OK-land, and there northward to Berlin. There are           sites. Especially here in Germany, that's important as we do
even more routes, how to set up all that at a FPAC node?           NO linking below 23cm, so the sites must be good enough for
There are some big nodes where, for some destinations,             GHz connections.
surely 3-4 links would be alternatives.
                                                                   And please don't forget: YOU are used to use X.121
So, in the case of having a BIG network, which has many            addresses, but here, nobody is. Such changes would be very
alternative routes, and where a lot of traffic is going through,   unpopular. Nobody has problems with the actual system.
which makes the load being changed regularly (=rtt changes),
a routing such as used by FlexNet is surely the better one. It     Another part of the discussion was handling the path problem
even cares at least a bit about the network load at a distant      as it appears on the frequency. Please note that ALLWAYS
point of the network, or about the link qualities which have       the FlexNet node callsign appears as the callsign which is
effects to the RTT. FPAC can't, as it don't know which way         transmitting on the frequency. For example, if I don't
has the best round trip time. BUT: If you design your              connect to the local node, but directly to the user DL1XYZ at
network in a way that it has a clear structure, FPAC surely        the node DB0ABC, I just have to send C DL1XYZ via
does a good job too. Unfortunately, the experiences with           F6KFG DB0ABC to my TNC. At DB0ABC, there will be a
FPAC in France are not very good, due to a lot of bad              frame fm DH0GHU to DL1XYZ via F6KFG DB0ABC* ctrl
configured nodes, many destinations are unavailable. As I'm        SABM + appearing. Even better, for the path transparence :If
visiting the network often, I often had those problems : Often,    F6KFG has the SSID range 0-1, and I access it via the port
I got error messages such as "no route known" or "link not         which has the SSID 1 assigned, I can still use F6KFG on my
working", but if I was connecting manually by hopping from         side, but at DB0ABC, there will appear :fm DH0GHU to
node to node, the link was working well! And often, it was         DL1XYZ via F6KFG-1 DB0ABC* ctrl SABM + So the
the only existing link. And I think that's the major problem:      distant station only has to take this path to connect to me
EVERY node in a FPAC or ROSE network has to have a                 later. I think FPAC does it the same way, it only replaces the
correctly set up routing table, which even considers how a         distant callsign by the distant address (port-specific, too, if I
connection has to be routed for a very distant part of the         am not wrong). So it is impossible for FlexNet to use a wrong
network. I even could imagine that this would work in              callsign - the node callsigns always appears correctly. By the
Germany, all links are coordinated by one person (around           way: If I connect manually to F6KFG, there to DB0ABC, and
1400 up to now if I'm not wrong), so it perhaps would work,        then toDL1XYZ, still the same path will be contained in the
if ALL links would be running. But the fun would stop at the       frame .
border of those countries where everybody can set up his own
node without common coordination. Also, every new link             I hope those explanations will help a little bit to understand it
can make changes necessary, for example, a year ago or so, a       better.
new high speed link node (two links at 6cm with 76800 bit/s)
was opened in central DL which is interconnecting two              The FlexNet "interna" is not very easy to understand for those
central nodes: Since, most of the traffic is taking other routes   which never were working with, such as FPAC still is a
than before, as they are faster now! Who wants to configure        "strange thing" for those which were never working with. By
hundreds of nodes every month due to new links?                    the way, in opposition to some others, I still consider FPAC
                                                                   (Linux, at least) to be a good network software. It is surely
There was another point someone was talking about: You             better than the original netrom protocol used at BPQ, TheNet,
used the pro-number-routing argument , that often, node calls      NOS, etc. So I think, it's not a bad choice to use it as network
are changing, so a routing address would be better. You tried      system, as it is not bad to use FlexNet, TheNet Node or
to tell it to the FlexNet guys. I know, sometimes their answers    XNET which are the most popular systems here in Europe.
are not very diplomatic :), but I understand why they say NO:      The only problem with FPAC is that it has to be set up very
It is absolutely uncommon here that a node changes its             well, but if the sysops exchanges network informations
callsign. In DL, and many other countries in Europe, the           quickly, this should not be a problem. FPAC is still a young
nodes don't use personal callsigns, but specially assigned call-   software, and a lot has been done during the last years,
signs (in Germany, mostly DB0... - Callsigns, in Austria,          especially now with the new Linux version. So, some should
OE.X.., etc) or club callsigns. Most nodes are not operated by     really stop to say : "Don't use that software, it is bad. "None of

                                                                                                                          Page 3
WHITE NOISE                                                                                               March 1999

those network systems are bad. Those which are still flaming,         PALM BEACH PACKET GROUP MINUTES
should stop it as soon as possible.
                                                                                          February 11,1999
I hope I haven't forgot to answer a question, and I hope, all
answers were correct. They were not very detailed, but I think       BROUGHT TO ORDER
that would make this message being a bit too long, and I'm           The meeting was brought to order at 19:30 hrs by President
not a member of the FlexNet group, so I don't want to write          Doug (WB4KGY). Introductions of guests and new members
things I'm not 100% sure about. Look at N5PVL's homepage,            were made and members did self- introductions.
he has some links to more informations.
                                                                     TREASURERS REPORT
If you have some more questions, feel free to ask me in a            Treasurer Marvin (KD2CK) reported that as of November
personal mail(answer could come some days later), I think            30th, the treasury stood at $4511.65, with $496.83 in the
this discussion shouldn't continue at this list.                     Checking Account

73,                                                                  TECHNICAL COMMITTEE REPORT
Ulrich dh0ghu @db0cz.#bw.deu.eu                                      Doug (WB4KGY) reported no troubles to our knowledge at
(well, at least packet radio addressing is not using names of        the West Palm Beach Switch. Doug and John (WB4MOZ)
Australian animals, Barry..hi)                                       reported happy and successful hunting at the Miami
dh0ghu@qsl.net                                                       Hamboree, landing a 330 VA UPS which will serve
http://www.qsl.net/dh0ghu                                            admirably at a FPAC installation.

p.s. I need packet routes to                                         OLD BUSINESS
-> N5PVL's FlexNet node and his FPAC neighbours                      White Noise was mailed February 10.
-> to the other FPAC networks installed in the US and
Australia.                                                           The Polo Shirts have arrived and been distributed. Again,
This for updating a network node database used by a software         thanks to Marv (KD2CK) for the persistence in getting this
called "HamMap" which up to now shows about 12000 nodes              job taken care of.
all over the world at maps.
                                                                     Two more books have been added to our group’s lending
p.p.s. if you want to visit the FlexNet network, you have            library, both from the 1980 PLENARY Assembly of the ITT
several internet gateways to connect to, f.ex. HB9F (go to           and dealing with Data Communications Networks. This
HB9F-14 then to HB9IAP-13), DB0FHO(connect to                        includes X.1 through X.225. Thank you Tom (K4GFG) for
DB0NDR for FlexNet), ON0KUL (go to ON0LVN for                        the donation.
FlexNet), and others. Please note that some of those gateways
are not connected very well to the network, or at points were        Doug (WB4KGY) also discussed the APRS Tower Site for
the network is not working as well as it should...                   Belle Glade. It will require 250 feet of hard line out of club
                                                                     inventory. A TED’s shed is there for our use with two feet of
                                                                     rack space. The US Sugar tower in Lake Harbor is delayed
                                                                     due to a serious traffic accident involving the US Sugar VP
            WE ARE ON THE INTERNET                                   handling the arrangements.
                      Bill Manley KB4XE
                                                                     FPAC Southern expansion, long desired is now in the
The Palm Beach Packet Group has established a presence on            resurrection process. Doug & John met with Frank
the internet. Look for our web page at                               (W3AKI) and 10 others on this subject while at the Miami
                                                                     Hamfest. This is looking positive. On Hamfest Sunday, John
                    http://www.qsl.net/pbpg                          (WB4MOZ) and Doug (WB4KGY) met with Carl (W9ZGU)
                                                                     and John (KN4HX) who agreed to update the Hollywood
You will find interesting pages about the PBPG, or switch            Node to FPAC, necessary for the Dade Switch to have
sites, past issues of the White Noise, and links to other sites of   backbone connectivity north on the backbone.
interest. At the time of writing, the site is new and under
construction (aren’t they all!).

                                                                                                                         Page 4
WHITE NOISE                                                                                    March 1999

 There was a workshop presented by Mike Michaels (K2GPI),              ARTICLES FOR WHITE NOISE
assisted by Bob (WD9ATM) covering early developments
in the field of Television.                                       The Palm Beach Packet Group accepts
                                                                  articles from other clubs and individuals
ADJOURNMENT                                                       wishing to have them published in the White
The meeting was adjourned at 20:25 hrs.                           Noise. This is offered as a gratis service for
                                                                  those not otherwise having publication
                                                                  services at their disposal. Article content
   Broward Amateur Radio Digital Society                          should be amateur radio related, including all
                     February 20, 1999                            operating modes, applications including
                                                                  computer, experiences, announcements and
                                                                  reports of meetings. Advertising is not
As expected, Jim, WA4CSQ, brought his sense of humor and
seemingly total recall of history to his filter program. He had   accepted.
only 7 slides but covered a lot of information. The goal was to
describe where all this pole and zero stuff comes from and        We reserve editorial privileges regarding
what do you do with it when you have it. Just where do the        content, spelling, punctuation and structure as
filter component values come from? He did this and described      well as the decision to publish or not. Articles
some interesting problems that pop up when you try to
implement filters into production in the 50s.
                                                                  can not be returned.

After coffee, Carl, W9ZGU, told us about the 3-hour APRS          Email your copy to:
demo at the Orlando Hamfest. Carl saw the new Kenwood                          bmanley@gate.net
TH-D7A, which is a radio with a built in TNC and the VC-          Or By Packet to:
H1, which is a slow scan camera and viewing screen that can
                                                                   KB4XE @WB4TEM.#BCR.FL.US.NOAM
attach to the D7. The D7 can be attached to a GPS so you can
have a portable tracker. There is a lot of Internet traffic on
these two new products.

Norm, W2JUP, told us about the PSK31 program. This is a
new digital mode that is apparently very resistant to
interference. It is aimed at RTTY like keyboarding. It uses a
Sound Blaster board for it's in out to the radio and is a free
download. By Sunday morning, three of the attendees at the
Saturday meeting downloaded and tried it out.

The March 20th program will be the second part of Jim's
filter program. This will be the question and answer part of
his program. I know I have a few questions.

Bob, N4CU

                                                                                                             Page 5
             WHITE                                                               NOISE
                                                    Palm Beach Packet Group, Inc.
                                                             PO Box 16471
                                                   West Palm Beach, Fl. 33416-6471
                                                         email: pbpg@qsl.net
President Doug Welcker WB4KGY                                                                       Vice President Mike Michaels K2GPI
Secretary Burck Grosse KC4UEV                                                                         Treasurer Marvin Kasawits KD2CK
Director John Green WB4MOZ                                                                                     Editor Bill Manley KB4XE

 Volume 11, Number 4                                                                                                    April 1999

                                                 The New White Noise
                                                          Bill Manley KB4XE

Introducing our new format….

The White Noise is now available on our internet web page as well as snail-mailed hard copy.

Previously the White Noise was printed in a two-column format. This provided easy reading for readers of the hard copy. However
it is very uncomfortable for a reader viewing on a computer display. The limited length of a display presentation requires scrolling
up and down. Thus we are now offering this single-column format which is readable both in hard copy and on the computer screen.
                                                                                                OUR MASTHEAD
Using the internet makes it feasible to present the White Noise in color. Our
header is colored and photography, when it is available, will be presented on        We’ve adopted a new masthead as part of
the web in color. During the past year we have experimented with including           the White Noise remodeling. We want to
photographs in the printed White Noise but we have been disappointed with                    draw your attention to the
the limitations of black and white reproduction as well as poor resolution in               typeface selected for the title.
the printed version. Black and white images will be continued in the hard             It seemed appropriate for a newsletter
copy version but we are betting that readers will prefer the internet version           devoted to digital communications.
with its high resolution color.

The internet copy is being presented in PDF format. It requires a free reader which is available from Adobe Acrobat. Just click on
the link on our web page to download your copy. Both Netscape Navigator and Microsoft Explorer browsers will automatically
decode a PDF file if the Adobe Acrobat Reader is installed and properly linked. You may have noticed that a web page appears
differently depending upon the browser used to view it. The advantage of PDF is that the copy is the same regardless of the media.

We are interested in your opinion. Whether you are reading this on the web or hard copy, please take the time to send us your
comments and suggestions.

(Note: The Palm Beach Packet Group web site can be found at http://www.qsl.net/pbpg. Printed White Noise is provided to
members via snail-mail.)

                                                                                                                             Page 1
WHITE NOISE                                                                                                    April 1999

                                              PBPG APRS EXPANSION
                                                       Doug Welcker (WB4KGY)

Have you been reading the fine print hidden away in the White Noise some months back? I know a few of you have from the
comments I have received talking to you on the Hamfest circuit this winter. Well here is a explanation on what has been happening
and what is in store for the near future. Now I know not all of you are devotees of APRS but APRS is growing and more and more
people are being attracted to this digital mode. The good news is that manufactures are building new equipment specifically for users
in this mode. Look at the new hand held from Kenwood HT-D7A Data Communicator. Here is a dual band (144/440) hand held
that not only talk analog voice but also AX.25 APRS. It will also send/receive SSTV images with the VC-H1 accessory package and
or those of you always wanting to get on high speed packet it does 9K6 baud. Enough about this and back to the story.

The same problem that nodes/switches had for years, West Florida not talking to East Florida and Central Florida not talking to
South Florida, continues to plague APRS. The PBPG has been looking for a Switch site between West Palm Beach and Ft. Myers for
some years. At the Melbourne Hamfest an old friend of mine mentioned to Marvin (KD2CK) and I that he has available a currently
unused commercial DB Products DB-212 on top of a 320 foot tower feed with 1/2" heliax. WOW! It is not all gravy though. The
site is a 1Kw AM broadcast station buried in an overgrowth of Florida Holly in a swamp with four engine mosquitoes.

                      So here is the deal. We can use the antenna but we have to provide the transmission line from the tower to the
                      transmitter building. No problem - Remember all that transmission line the club was donated a few years
                      ago? We still have several long pieces (hint - need some: give me a call) of 7/8" transmission line with
                      connectors. This antenna was installed some years ago for doing remote broadcast at various events around
                      the south side of Lake Okeechobee. During these events APRS will need to go off the air while the antenna
                      feeds the remote receiver for remote pickup. Not a problem (does anyone know of a spare wide space duplexer
                      available? The remote receiver is on about 168 MHz). For now we will just use a good quality RF relay
                      actuated by the broadcast stations controller over the phone lines.

At this point it was decided that a sight survey would be in order to try and keep the surprises to a minimum. On the 22nd of
February Marvin and myself were accompanied by the station co-owner to the transmitter location. He opened the equipment room
door, asked us to just lock up when we leave and gave us free reign to the site and headed back to the studio. Marvin brought his
digital camera which certainly works better than                                     my memory so many pictures were taken for
future reference. Keep an eye out on the Web                                         site for some of these pictures. Continuing the
site survey we fought our way to the base of the                                     tower literally through the jungle. Once you’re in
far enough the canopy of brush leaves the                                            ground free of green growth but you still have to
fight the branches. As this is was once a swamp                                      turned pasture then abandon, some of it is under
water during the wet season. This means getting                                      the transmission line installed before the wet
season arrives. Needing to know the                                                  transmission line length we used Marvin’s
hundred foot tape in as straight as line a possible                                  to measure the distance back to the transmitter
shack. Found the required length to be 260 feet and the club just happens to own a 265 foot piece of hardline.

So now what. How do we get the transmission line into the building? The same way the owners got
theirs installed. Since the building is supported off the ground several inches with concrete block
just drill a hole in the floor and push it through then seal the hole with Foam-O-Fill to keep out the
bugs and animals. One more thing we do need is provide lightning protection as we are the top
antenna. Lucky for us, several years ago PolyPhyaser donated to the club several protectors for
transmission lightning protection one of which will be installed there. Anything else? Not much,
just fabricate an equipment mounting shelf, modify and install a radio and a TNC, locate a power
supply and a backup battery, build a power line transient filter and find the time to get out
there...Not Much. Look for your new sight soon.

                                                                                                                             Page 2
WHITE NOISE                                                                                                   April 1999

                                  APRS EMERGENCY CALL BRINGS HELP
                                                              Marvin KD2CK

When Scott Ratchford, KC5JGV, witnessed a bad accident during a snowstorm on Pennsylvania's I-76 recently, he immediately
grabbed his cell phone and called 911. When that--and several other possible combinations--failed, he tried an emergency call on 2-
meters. Again, no luck. Two people were trapped inside an overturned vehicle, and Ratchford was getting desperate. "Here I am in
the middle of who knows where, a huge snowstorm, a serious accident, folks needing help, no one answering on .52!" he said in a
March 8 posting about the incident on the APRS Special Interest Group. "So, I switch the MIC-E to 7, and hit the button." This sent
an emergency mike-encoder signal out over the Automatic Position Reporting System.

Ratchford's emergency beacon was spotted by several stations who immediately contacted the Pennsylvania State Police. But the cops
"don't do latitude and longitude," said Dan Velez, W4DJV, in Virginia, one of the stations monitoring the call. Clay Owen, AA3JY,
in Pennsylvania, had better luck. He also called the state police and was able to give them references to exits and route numbers,
thanks to APRS+ and the Delorme Street Atlas. "I also gave them the name of the individual to be contacted, thanks to QRZ built
into this program," he reported.

APRS developer Bob Bruninga, WB4APR, was among those noting the emergency call in the Pennsylvania-Maryland-New Jersey
area. Bruninga notes that APRS-DOS will display the nearest mile marker on interstates but "apparently I missed I-76 in the

Unknown to Ratchford, the message was received and understood. "Little did I know that the APRS message was received, as a
trooper had arrived within minutes of my transmission," he said. Only when the trooper asked for him by name as he was about to
leave did Ratchford learn that APRS had delivered the message and that someone had called the police. "I left the scene feeling very
happy about our hobby and especially our interest in APRS," he said.

                                                  FLORIDA QSO PARTY
                                          Abstracted From The Florida APRS Listserver
                                                    by Ron Wetien WD4AHZ

A reminder for all Florida amateurs ...

The Florida QSO Party is just around the corner, April 24 & 25. With input from last years participants, we've made a few changes
to the rules.

Several significant changes for 1999:

1) The operating periods are now 1600Z-0159Z Saturday and 1200Z-2159Z Sunday. This should allow for more high-band
contacts, including many more DX contacts.

2) No more 80 Meters, only 10 thru 40.

3) QRP entrants will multiply their total score by 3 this year.

4) Several Florida County abbreviation changes.

5) The new Canadian territory of Nunuvut, VY0, will count as NWT.

                                                                                                                           Page 3
WHITE NOISE                                                                                                      April 1999

To make the log checking easier and quicker, we encourage logs and summary sheets (callsign.LOG and callsign.SUM files) to be
submitted in computer readable format (via e-mail or diskette). Commercial logging software, such as NA, WriteLog, and TR are
known to support FQP. A new updated version of CT (9.40?) which will support FQP, is undergoing beta-testing. Updated files for
NA and WriteLog are available on the FQP Web Site. Files for TR will be updated shortly.

For those without logging software, you may log on paper, and submit an ASCII file. Logs must indicate band, mode, date, time in
UTC, calls and received exchange, multipliers and QSO points. Multipliers should be marked clearly in the log the first time they
are worked. An example of the required information:

                00001    04/26/98     2138      20CW     WD4AHZ           599   SAR        K1TO      599   MAN     *   4
                00002    04/26/98     2139      20CW     WD4AHZ           599   SAR        W4AU      599   VA      *   4
                00003    04/26/98     2139      20CW     WD4AHZ           599   SAR        W9MSE     599   WI      *   4
                00004    04/26/98     2140      20CW     WD4AHZ           599   SAR        W2WC      599   NY      *   4
                00005    04/26/98     2141      20CW     WD4AHZ           599   SAR        N7JXS     599   AZ      *   4

Complete details on the Florida QSO Party can be found on the FQP Web Site, http://home1.gte.net/wd4ahz/fcg/ssqp.htm . Rules
can be found in the April issues of QST, CQ, Worldradio, and on several of the Contest Calendar Web Sites.

Thanks to everyone for their support. Have fun, and good luck to all in the 1999 Florida QSO Party!

73, Ron WD4AHZ

(P.S. We'd like to see a great turnout by Florida hams! Please spread the word about the Florida QSO Party at your local club
meetings and on your local nets. Contesters and non-contesters can have fun in the FQP. With your help, we can make it one of the
biggest state QSO parties in the country!)

                                      DOES THIS SOUND TOO FAMILIAR?
                                                    Gleaned from a mailing received from
                                                            Joe Loewy W4ERL

"Our staff has completed the 18 months of work on time and on budget. We have gone through every line of code in every program
in every system. We have analyzed all databases, all data files, including backups and historic archives, and modified all data to
reflect the change.

We are proud to report that we have completed the "Y-to-K" date change mission, and have now implemented all changes to all
programs and all data to reflect your new standards:

Januark, Februark, March, April, Mak, June, Julk, August, September, October, November, December

As well as:

Sundak, Mondak, Tuesdak, Wednesdak, Thursdak, Fridak, Saturdak

I trust that this is satisfactory, because to be honest, none of this Y to K problem has made any sense to me. But I understand it is a
global problem, and our team is glad to help in any way possible And what does the year 2000 have to do with it? Speaking of
which, what do you think we ought to do next year when the two digit year rolls over from 99 to 00? We'll await your direction."

                                                                                                                               Page 4
WHITE NOISE                                                                                                  April 1999

                                PALM BEACH PACKET GROUP MINUTES
                                                          March 1999
                                                           Burck KC4UEV

The meeting was brought to order at 19:30 hrs by President Doug (WB4KGY).
Introductions of guests and new members were made and members did self- introductions.

Treasurer Marvin (KD2CK) reported that as of November 30th, the treasury stood at $4511.65,
with $496.83 in the Checking Account

Doug (WB4KGY) reported no troubles to our knowledge at the West Palm Beach Switch. Doug and John (WB4MOZ) reported
happy and successful hunting at the Miami Hamboree, landing a 330 VA UPS which will serve admirably a FPAC installation.

White Noise was mailed February 10th.

The Polo Shirts have arrived and been distributed. Again , thanks to Marv (KD2CK) for the persistence in getting this job taken care

Two more books have been added to our group’s lending library, both from the 1980 PLENARY Assembly of the ITT and dealing
with Data Communications Networks. This includes X.1 through X.225. Thank you Tom (K4GFG) for the donation.

Doug (WB4KGY) also discussed the APRS Tower Site for Belle Glade. It will require 250 feet of hard line out of club inventory. A
TED’s shed is there for our use with two feet of rack space. The US Sugar tower in Lake Harbor is delayed due to a serious traffic
accident involving the US Sugar VP handling the arrangements.

FPAC Southern expansion, long desired is now in the resurrection process. Doug & John met with Frank (W3AKI) and 10 others
on this subject while at the Miami Hamfest. This is looking positive. On Hamfest Sunday, John (WB4MOZ) and Doug (WB4KGY)
met with Carl (W9ZGU) and John (KN4HX) who agreed to update the Hollywood Node to FPAC, necessary for the Dade Switch to
have backbone connectivity north on the backbone.

There was a workshop presented by Mike Michaels (K2GPI), assisted by Bob (WD9ATM) covering early developments in the field
of Television.

The meeting was adjourned at 20:25 hrs.

                      Broward Amateur Radio Digital Society March 20, 1999
                                                             Bob N4CU

We had a very relaxed March 20 meeting. Most of the regular attendees were at the Stuart hamfest so we elected to hold Jim's Filter
Q and A until next month. We sat in the comfortable chairs, chatted, had coffee and adjourned. You can check the February minutes
at our web site: http://www.geocities.com/ResearchTriangle/Lab/7781. The April 17th program will be the second part of Jim's filter
program. This will be the question and answer part of his program. I know I have a few questions.

                                                                                                                           Page 5
             WHITE                                                                 NOISE
                                                      Palm Beach Packet Group, Inc.
                                                               PO Box 16471
                                                     West Palm Beach, Fl. 33416-6471
                                                           email: pbpg@qsl.net
President Doug Welcker WB4KGY                                                                         Vice President Mike Michaels K2GPI
Secretary Burck Grosse KC4UEV                                                                           Treasurer Marvin Kasawits KD2CK
Director John Green WB4MOZ                                                                                       Editor Bill Manley KB4XE

 Volume 11, Number 5                                                                                                       May 1999

                                                    Larry Lazar W4BKX
                                                          Bill Manley KB4XE

Always on the lookout for interesting ham related stories, President Doug WB4KGY suggested that I interview Larry Lazar. Doug
guaranteed that I would find the interview interesting. Larry is an engaging guy with an outstanding ham shack, he said.

Doug had understated what was to follow. After a long period of failing to merge personal schedules, I finally met Larry at his QTH
in Plantation, Fl.

His house was easy to spot as I drove up. The 20 meter beam, assortment of VHF and UHF Yagis and verticals clearly marked the
home of a dedicated ham. And, they suggested the extensive station which I was about to find inside.

                                His daily routine starts at 11:00AM (don’t call him before then!) and continues to 3:00AM. I arrived
                                at noon and we chatted until 3:00PM. He still was looking forward to breakfast. Breakfast is the
                                “… first meal of the day ..” regardless of what time it is eaten he explains.

                                Larry is a retired engineer and a licensed PE which he earned before college credits were required. He
                                is a meticulous person, as it evident when you meet him. His engineering background taught him to
                                carefully examine and specify a problem before presuming to solve it. “The problem must me
                                specified exactly”. “Don’t ask Larry what time it is , he’ll tell you how to build a watch”, he quips.
He is an enthusiastic story teller and a careful listener. “Don’t whisper in Larry’s presence, he can hear grass grow”.

We exchanged war stories. That’s that privilege of the over 60 generation to which we both belong (although he is my senior by a
few years).

The den in the front of his home is dedicated to Larry’s ham station. After exchanging pleasantries
he showed me a neatly kept folder containing the operator licenses he had held. The first, on 8x10
paper was for an blue amateur license issued by the Department of Commerce in April 1931. At that
time an amateur license had to be renewed yearly. To do so, one sent his license to the government;
they returned it stamped and expired and provided a new document. Larry had them all, including his
first issued by the Federal Communications Commission later.

                                                                                                                               Page 1
WHITE NOISE                                                                                                      May 1999

                             Larry’s interests focus primarily on packet communications in which he engages with gusto. On wall
                             shelves distant from the doorway to the den, I counted 9 transceivers. On the front wall to the left there
                             are 4 computer systems connected in a network with Novell software. He refers to the computers as his
                             systems 1 to 4.

                             System 1 is a 386DX25 85M HD 8M RAM running DOS. The software is Eskay SP V9.6 which runs 4
                             packet ports, each of which can provide 5 connects simultaneously. As currently configured, radio
                             interfaces are 2 DRSI cards plus a HF modem. The radios consists of an IC730 monitoring 14.1056
                             operating 300 baud packet, an IC28H monitoring 145.01at 1200 baud packet, another IC28H
                             monitoring 1200 baud packet on 145.67, and an IC38A monitoring 223.42 at 1200 baud packet.

System 2 is a 486DX100 1.2G HD 32M RAM working as the network server. The operating system is Linux Slackware v3.2. It is
also linked to the System 1 operating with a TNC DRSI DBK2 at 1200 baud with an IC28H on 145.67.

System 3 is a Pentium 100 6.46G HD 32M RAM operating Linux/Dos/Win95 in separate partitions. Larry using this machine as his
experimental work station. He is also building an Intel Celereon 366 MHz machine which is not yet on line.

System 4 is a 486 500M HD 32M RAM belonging to the Broward Amateur Radio Club. It is running Linux Slackware and serves as
a 9600 Baud link on 145.61 from the N4HHP-4 PBBS to Larry’s gateway

Also in the radio stack are a Paragon II used for HF voice, IC2100 used for 2M voice, and a Radio Shack 404R operating at the time
on 442.35 to Homestead..

He demonstrated the gateway bringing up Telenet on System 3, connecting to the internet, to another ham gateway, and watched
packet QSOs in progress in Germany, Russia, and beyond. There are hundreds of such gateways active at any given time he

For a brief tutorial, connect to W4BKX on 14.1056 LSB 300B, or W4BKX on 145.01 1200B. You’ll receive a greeting, a short help
menu, and suggested prompts

                           //h      help
                           //i      info
                           //q      quit

You must type the “//”. Having taken you this far, the rest is left to the experimentation of the student.

When asked where his station is going from here, he plans to integrate the new Celereon System, and add two additional ports to
System 1. Beyond that is not defined but Larry is “… always fiddling around with something”.

                                                                                                                              Page 2
WHITE NOISE                                                                                                       May 1999

(The following article is presented with the permission of The Institute the newspaper of
the IEEE, April 1999. - ed)

                         Signing off ... latest technology replaces Morse Code
                                                            ANNETTE CODISPOTI
                                                       Assistant Editor, THE INSTITUTE

After over 150 years of faithful service, Morse code has quietly retired from its role as a consistent and dependable rescuer of ships in
distress. After all these years and many advances in communications technology, Morse code is just now being replaced by
something better.

The transition began in 1979 with an international effort to improve maritime distress and safety communications. The International
Maritime Organization, a United Nations agency, called for the development of the Global Maritime Distress and Safety System

The new system, according to the U.S. Coast Guard, is based on a combination of satellite and terrestrial radio services and has
changed international distress communications from being primarily ship-to-ship based to ship-to-shore based. All ships subject to
the new regulations had to fit all GMDSS equipment by I Feb. 1999.

"The introduction of satellites was indeed the turning point," said Joseph Hersey, chief, Spectrum Management Division of the US.
Coast Guard, and an IEEE member.

"Morse telegraphy remained functional for so long for a number of reasons. It is reli-
able, it is simple, it works and it can operate at a lower signal-to-noise ration than prac-
tically any other radio system," said Hersey.

But as good as it was, there is always room for improvement. "Some elements of the
GMDSS, such as satellite communications, emergency position indicating radio beacons and marine safety broadcasts, have proven
themselves over the last 10 years," said Hersey. In 1997 this system saved more than 540 lives in the U.S. alone. "In many of these
cases, the EPIRB alert, generated when the buoy automatically deployed from a fast-sinking vessel, was the only alert received.
Morse code would have been insufficient in most of these cases," said Hersey. "Had the GMDSS and elements such as satellite
EPIRBs been around earlier, ships like the Edmund Fitzgerald, which sank suddenly with all hands (Nov. 1975), without warning in
Lake Superior, might possibly have been saved."

Not everyone is happy with the new system, especially the radio officers, said Hersey. Under the old regulations every ship had at
least one radio officer to manage the telecommunications. With GMDSS this person is no longer necessary. While the Coast Guard
does not have accurate figures on false alarm rates for GMIJSS systems at this time, they are generally high and they do not know
exactly why. One reason may be the lack of training for those using the equipment said Hersey.

Ken Botterbrodt (K2WB) is the president of the South Jersey Radio Association in Haddonfield, NJ., the oldest continuously
operating amateur radio club in the United States. While he agrees Morse code may be obsolete for the IMO's purposes, it's still a big
part of a hobby that he and other amateur radio operators enjoy. "It becomes like music. You recognize the sound," he said.

Learning Morse code is like learning a second language, according to Botterbrodt, and he feels people are becoming less interested.
"This is an important mode and I hate to see it die," he said. There are currently five classes of FCC licenses for radio
operators and one does not require learning Morse code.

Amateurs like Botterbrodt enjoy the contact with other operators and the knowledge they gain from their hobby. One of the
advantages to using Morse code, and perhaps the reason it lasted this long, he said, Is that it can work with a very weak signal. It's
also easier to communicate in Morse code with someone in another country when accents get in the way.


                                                                                                                               Page 3
WHITE NOISE                                                                                                       May 1999

It was January 1838 when Samuel Morse, a painter turned inventor and a widower with two children, successfully demonstrated his
telegraph machine at Speedwell Iron Works in Morristown, NJ., USA. Several days later, at the very first public demonstration of
the telegraph in Morristown, the machine foreshadowed the connection between transportation and communication systems with a
message "Railroad cars just arrived, 345 passengers-"

Morse and his associates were pioneers in the practical use of electricity. just as significant as the technical aspects of his machine
was the code itself. Today at Historic Speedwell in Morristown (www.speedwell.org) visitors can learn about the events leading to
the development of the first electro-magnetic telegraph and the story behind its inventor and his partner, Alfred Vail, as it is written
in a book, "At Speedwell in the Nineteenth Century" by Cam Cavanaugh, Barbara Hoskins and Frances D. Pigeon.

                                          Over the years the Morse and Vail families disputed who was the true inventor Of the
                                          telegraph and Morse code. It all started with an agreement between Morse and Vail in
                                          1837. Vail convinced his family, proprietors of the Speedwell Iron Works, to financially
                                          support Morse and help him build his machine. Vail recognized the potential in Morse's
                                          work where others, even Morse's own brothers, did not. Morse would received the patent,
                                          and all related patents while Vail would receive one-fourth of the U.S. rights.

                                          In the book, supporters of Vail turn to letters written by Vail, Morse, their colleagues and
                                          family members as evidence of Vail's contributions. The book even suggests that it was Vail
                                          who replaced Morse's numbered dictionary code with an alphabet code employing dots and
                                          dashes. "Alfred had made the telegraph practical," it states. After the first public
                                          demonstration of the telegraph, Vail stayed behind in Morristown making revisions to the
                                          machine. Morse went to Europe seeking patents and financial backers. He was not
                                          successful in Europe, but in 1840 he received the U.S. patent.

                                          In 1844 construction of the first telegraph line from Washington D.C. to Baltimore was
                                          completed. At this time many improvements had been made, Almost all the machine was
replaced or revised by the time the telegraph was in public use, and Morse continued to receive most of the credit. Despite the
uncertainties, Vail and Morse remained friendly in the years that followed. When others filed lawsuits against Morse over telegraph
patents, Vail always stood by him. Their families, on the other hand, were not as friendly. The book states that in 1911 "someone -- a
grandson, it is believed -- engraved on Alfred's monument at St. Peter's Church, Morristown, these words 'Inventor of the
telegraphic dot and dash alphabet."'

                                          PSK31 - A NEW DIGITAL MODE
                                                           Bill Manley KB4XE

If CW is a passing mode, the RTTY digital mode is undergoing regeneration. Peter Martinez G3PLX has restructured it from top to
bottom. He has invented PSK31 which replaces the old Baudot digital code with his own Varicode. He has replaced the Frequency
Shift Key (FSK) modulation with Phase Shift Key (PSK). The rest he accomplished with DSP techniques which are embodied in his
PSK31 software. You can download it from his web site at http://aintel.bi.ehu.es/psk31.html.

The Varicode is robust providing access to the complete ASCII set. You can send and receive all of the 256 characters which are
available from your keyboard. The Baudot code was restricted to capital letters, numbers, and some punctuation. Binary Phase Shift
Keying (BPSK) is bandwidth frugal. At 31.25 hertz, it is narrower than CW! I’ve received perfect copies from signals which not
only did not move my S-meter, but were also inaudible. The system is susceptible to QRM, but to cope with this problem he also
offers Quadrature Phase Shift Key (QPSK) using four tones rather than two and providing error correction features. I’ve not tried
QPSK yet.

The equipment required is your transceiver, a computer with a sound card, and two shielded cables connecting them. I installed the
system in my station, tuned 14.068 USB - and the results are uncanny. The interest is spreading quickly as evidenced by the many

                                                                                                                               Page 4
WHITE NOISE                                                                                                    May 1999

PSK stations now occupying the digital segments of the HF bands. I listened for a while, mesmerized by a screen painted with
perfect copy from a signal I could barely hear. My first PSK QSO was initiated by mouse clicking the CQ button. My screen painted

                                              CQ CQ CQ DE KB4XE KB4XE KB4XE
                                              CQ CQ CQ DE KB4XE KB4XE KB4XE
                                              CQ CQ CQ DE KB4XE KB4XE KB4XE
                                              pse k

Followed by a machine generated CW ID.

Shelby W8WN responded. We exchanged keyboard pleasantries. He noted that this was also his first PSK QSO. Also, almost
incidentally, he passed on his web page URL. Later I checked that out. It turns out he holds records for High Speed CW Meteor
Scatter - 1720 wpm! (Who says CW is dead?)

Guy ON5HY from Belgium responded to my second CQ. We exchanged signal reports, wx reports, grid locations, and other
pleasantries. This was an excellent wrap-up for my PSK31 initiation.

To learn more about PSK31 read Steve Ford WB8IMY, PSK31- Has RTTY’S Replacement Arrived?, QST May 1999, pg 41. Visit
the PSK31 web page and download the software. Install it and build two cables. You’ll be on the air is less time than it took to read
this issue of the White Noise.

                                 SWATCH BEATS AWKWARD RETREAT:
                                       SPUTNIK WON'T FLY
                                          Excerpted from a BBC Broadcast News Release
                                                      Doug Welcker WB4KGY

Swatch Watch says the "Beatnik" satellite will not be sent into space today from the Russian Mir space station as planned. The
watchmaker says "a virtual Beatnik" will carry the messages in cyberspace instead and invited "Beat" fans to "stay tuned and join the
first cybermission!"

At the same time, both the Associated Press and Reuters are reporting that a satellite was launched by hand from Mir during a space
walk by ESA astronaut Jean-Pierre Haignere, FX0STB, and Russian cosmonaut Viktor Afanasyev. If the reports are accurate, it's not
clear whether the satellite launched was the planned "Beatnik" spacecraft or a spare mini-Sputnik that's been aboard Mir since 1997.
Reuters said the satellite was one "built by French amateur radio enthusiasts." The report quotes Russian space center spokeswoman
Vera Medvedkova as saying, "It is finished. They launched the satellite."

AP said the satellite put into space was one "made by Russian and French schoolchildren" that contained "a recording of their
voices." The spare mini-Sputnik aboard Mir--a duplicate of the one launched in 1997 to mark the 40th anniversary of the original
Sputnik--is believe to contain only a 2-meter beacon transmitter.

As of April 16, there have been no monitoring reports.

Swatch announced early April 16 on its Web site, http://www.swatch.com/beatnik/frameset.html, that the controversial messages
the satellite was to have transmitted on the 2-meter amateur band would instead be read by a Russian cosmonaut aboard Mir during
an April 22 videoconference, to be broadcast via the Internet.

The controversial messages, gathered via the Swatch Web site, related to the Swatch company's campaign to establish the "Swatch
Beat" as a new "global concept of time." Swatch had solicited more than 5000 messages—including voice and text files--for possible
transmission on the new satellite. Messages selected for use were supposed to include a reference to the "beat" theme.

                                                                                                                            Page 5
WHITE NOISE                                                                                                       May 1999

But Amateur Radio operators around the world, citing international regulations, protested the plans because of their commercial

Swatch pinned the blame for cancellation of its Beatnik satellite on the recent failure of the Luch 1/Gelios satellite the Mir crew uses
for communication with Earth. "Swatch has decided to assist the Spaceflight Control Centre and donate the batteries supporting the
Beatnik satellite to the Mir cosmonauts, thus canceling the possibility of any radio transmission from space," Swatch said in a brief
statement on its Web site.

Full-page Swatch ads in today's New York Times and Los Angeles Times to announce the change in plans expand on the battery
swap explanation. According to the Times ads, cosmonauts will use the batteries to run an onboard printer "which is the lifeline to
earth through which the Cosmonauts receive their daily instructions and key operations points."

The Luch-1/Gelios, the only geostationary satellite available for Mir communications, suffered a technical failure April 12. Just how
the nonrechargeable batteries now in the mini-Sputnik aboard Mir would remedy the Luch-1/Gelios satellite failure was unclear
from the Swatch posting.

The ARRL weighed into the Beatnik satellite controversy April 7 by suggesting to Swatch Group CEO Nicolas E. Hayek that the
Swiss firm cancel the launch and use a commercial satellite for its project instead. Sumner noted that international regulations define
the amateur service as one engaged in by "duly authorized persons interested in radio technique solely with a personal aim and
without pecuniary interest."

Although Swatch asserted the messages were not advertising, Sumner pointed out to Hayek that the commercial nature of the
arrangements to transmit the messages on amateur frequencies was contrary to international law. "I think this was a new thought to
him, frankly, because this is not the way they had been viewing it," Sumner said.

It's not yet known what will become of the mini-Sputnik itself. The satellite had arrived on Mir aboard a Progress rocket April 4 and
was set for launch April 16 during a space walk.

                                                     You at ARRL.NET
                                 Excerpted from DIGITAL DIMENSION, QST May 1999 page 77 - ed

   How would you like an e-mail address consisting of your call sign plus "@arrl.net"? If you are an ARRL member, it is now
possible to have such an address because the League now provides an e-mail forwarding service as a membership benefit.

   This service is a forwarding (or "alias") service only. No messages will be stored on the ARRL servers. E-mail sent to you at
arrl.net will be forwarded to a real e-mail address that you provide.

   To sign up for this service, go to the ARRL Members Only Web page (http://www.arrl.org/members-only/). If you are
accessing ARRL Members Only for the first time, you will need your ARRL membership number to log on (the number appears on
your QST mailing label).

   Not only will this new e-mail address identify you as a ham, but it likely will be easier to remember than your real e-mail address
(for example, compare wa1lou @arrl.net to stanzepa@ct2.nai.net). Just think how simple it would be to send e-mail to another
ham, if all hams used this service? If you know the other ham's call sign, you'd know his/her e-mail address as well.

                                                                                                                               Page 6
WHITE NOISE                                                                                                     May 1999

                                      Minutes of the April PBPG meeting

The meeting was brought to order at 19:30 hrs. by President Doug (WB4KGY). Introductions of guests and new members were
made and members did self-introductions.

 The 02/01/99 to 02/28/99 Treasurer’s report as presented in the April 1999 White Noise contains accurate numbers for the
activities but also contains a small accounting error. The transfer to checking of $300.00 should have been a negative, or minus,
entry. This changes the February 28th Ending Balance to $4,243.77, which results in Total Assets of $4,730.54. All other
numbers and accounts remain as reported.

  1. Doug (WB4KGY) reported excellent traffic conditions on 10 meters at 28.1885 lsb, 1200b AZSE (N700), Phoenix. Phoenix
includes an excellent gateway. Somewhat similarly 28.1800 lsb, 1200b provides a gateway to South America and the Caribbean.
 2. West Palm Beach switch again no problems this past month.
 3. John (WB4MOZ) and Doug upgrade software and performance testing.
 4. John right now needs help with a manual or schematic for FT equipment.
 5. Melissa virus? Any inputs on detection and correction.
 6. Mel (K3ML) down in Key West has been told that due to an engineering inaccuracy, he will have to lop 60 ft. off his tower top.
More later.

  1. We are still looking for takers of the donated computers for conversion into packet operational computers. Fourteen such
computers and monitors are available at the time of this report.
 2. White Noise was mailed on April 2nd .
 3. White Noise was printed from a disk/ PDF format with picture quality much improved. Full-size pictures in color are available
at the Web Site.
 4. Acrobat 4 is available at our Web Site to view pictures.
 5. PBPG has six Packet Books for lending (Burck KC4UEV).
 6. Replacement tower site for Belle Glade status includes one action, one no action. The action was a visitation to the Clewiston
APRS site two weeks ago. There is no new information on the Lake Harbor site.
 7. FPAC System expansion is continuing at a satisfactory pace.
 8. FCC Scanner Receiver Rules have been strengthened by the ARRL. Copies are available through Doug.

 1. We are investigating different ways of mailing White Noise , including continued use of USPS, and/or e mail .
2. PBPG Web Site is http://www.qsl.net/pbpg.
3. Doug advertised the Gainesville Hamfest April 24/25 and the local Pizza Hut free flea April 24th.
4. If you would be willing to get involved in assisting the club through writing, technical assistance or other ways we can always use
your help. Give one the officers a call.
5. BARDS meeting scheduled for April 17th at Motorola.
6. Memberships are being accepted for this April meeting by Marvin.

Marvin (KD2CK) presented an interesting program using Delorme Street Atlas version 6.0 USA Earthmate GPS {street price $140}
and an IBM Think Pad laptop to show how to track oneself on a computer map. This equipment can also be developed into full
APRS for tracking by other monitors.

                                                                                                                            Page 7
WHITE NOISE                                                                                                 May 1999

Next Meeting will be Thursday, May 13.
Notes taken by Mike Michaels (K2GPI) - written by Burck Grosse (KC4UEV).

                                    Minutes of the April BARDS meeting
                                                          April 17, 1999

Jim finished his filter program with additional information, Questions and Answers, and a Quiz. Al proved there is more than one
way to answer a question correctly; you can guess the answer! Thanks to Jim's hints, Bob figured it out.

There was a general discussion of the Swatch promotion, AMSAT-France, and the Russian Space Flight Control Center. Swatch
had planned promote "Beat" time on an amateur satellite using amateur frequencies. The "Non-Compliant" proposal has since bit
the dust.

The May 15th program will an explanation of the Navy Postgraduate School's spread spectrum HAM satellite by Bob, N4CU

73, Bob, N4CU

                                                                                                                        Page 8
             WHITE                                                                NOISE
                                                     Palm Beach Packet Group, Inc.
                                                              PO Box 16471
                                                    West Palm Beach, Fl. 33416-6471
                                                          email: pbpg@qsl.net
President Doug Welcker WB4KGY                                                                         Vice President Mike Michaels K2GPI
Secretary Burck Grosse KC4UEV                                                                           Treasurer Marvin Kasawits KD2CK
Director John Green WB4MOZ                                                                                       Editor Bill Manley KB4XE

             Volume 11, Number 6                                                                             June 1999

                     RadioHead--Mobile Data Services for the Radio Amateur
                            (or How to Browse the Web in Your Car)
                                                       By John Hansen, W2FS
                                                            May 3, 1999

I have heard some say that, with the exception of the APRS location services and DX cluster activity, packet radio is rapidly dying.
And its promise of bringing in a generation of new, young, computer-savvy hams is dying along with it. This need not be so. The
problem is less a failure of Amateur Radio technology than a failure of Amateur Radio imagination. And that's what makes it an
ideal subject for RadioHead.

Packet radio has seen some very dramatic changes over the past five years. In the early 1980s--when the Internet was principally the
domain of university and government labs and e-mail was great if the person you wanted to communicate with was also on
CompuServe--packet radio seemed almost magical. By using digipeaters you could communicate in real time with people hundreds
of miles away. By using Amateur Radio bulletin boards, you could have your e-mail relayed around the world in just a few days. Or
you could post bulletins that would eventually be seen by a significant portion of the world's radio amateur population. Furthermore,
this was all happening at the blistering speed of 1200 bits/second, which, believe it or not, seemed fast at the time.

Fifteen years later much of the magic is gone. Internet-based e-mail is substantially faster than packet radio-based e-mail. An e-mail
message can reasonably be expected to reach its destination anywhere in the world in minutes, not days. Newsgroups and listservers
have largely displaced packet radio bulletins as the most effective means of communicating with groups of people. Our standards for
acceptable communication speeds have also risen dramatically. When I first started in packet radio, I owned a 300-baud telephone
modem. In comparison, 1200-baud packet seemed fast. Now inexpensive 56-kb modems are available for telephone use, and the
most common packet radio modem is . . . well, . . . um . . . yes, 1200 baud.

So, what advantages does amateur packet radio communication have over communication via modem over the Internet? Heaven
knows it's not the speed. However, there are two clear advantages to packet. First, because the medium is radio, it is much better
suited to mobile communication than are most Internet links. As the APRS crowd has discovered, one great place for packet radio is
in your car.

Yes, I know, cellular telephone access to the Internet is now available in most places, so you could theoretically have the Internet in
your car. But most of us won't be able to afford that for quite some time to come. Yes, I also know that it is extremely unsafe to type
on your keyboard while you are driving, although I do know one APRS junkie who does just that. As any good CW operator will tell
you, however, data transmission does not necessarily involve a keyboard. Nor does data reception necessarily involve a computer
monitor. When driving we already obtain information from flashing lights, glancing at small displays (like the one on your 2-meter
transceiver) and sounds. To this we could easily add synthesized speech and other innovative methods of receiving--and sending--

                                                                                                                               Page 1
WHITE NOISE                                                                                                        June 1999

The second advantage that radio has is that it is essentially a point-to-multipoint communication medium. One station transmits and
many other stations can receive the same data at the same time. This is the secret to data transmission efficiency using currently
available amateur packet equipment. In contrast, almost all data transmission over the Internet involves communication between
only two points at a time. This is horribly inefficient. It is only the relatively high speed of the Internet data links that makes it even

Imagine what the world would be like if instead of broadcasting the news, radio and television stations had to reread it individually
for each listener, one at a time. Yes, it sounds absurd, but, for the most part, this is the way the Internet works. Even when you are
participating in a chat room, the data is retransmitted individually to each and every participant in the chat. This is also the way that
amateur packet radio used to work. Packet radio was advertised as an error-free communication medium because each transmission
was individually acknowledged by each and every receiving station. By doing this, we ensured error-free communications, but we
also threw away the main advantage that radio-based communication has over wireline communication--the ability to communicate
information to many different places at the same time.

Over the past decade certain packet applications (first amateur satellites, later other terrestrial services, like APRS) moved away
from this "connected" mode of data communication and began transmitting data via unconnected (UI) packets. Data transmission
efficiency increased tremendously. It can be demonstrated that a given amount of data can actually be communicated to large number
of stations in a shorter period of time at 1200 baud than at 56,000 baud, if the slower transmission speed is coupled with a point-to-
multipoint transmission method rather than retransmitting the data to each receiving station individually. For a more complete
explanation of this concept, see my Web page at http://www.tapr.org/~wa0ptv. You can also find there some early client/server
software I wrote to exploit these possibilities.

What I'm proposing is a general purpose packet radio server that will provide data to mobile hams. It would do so by transmitting UI
packets so that all mobile units in a given area could receive the data transmissions at the same time. It would not be broadcasting as
the FCC uses that term, because every data transmission would be the result of a request sent by some Amateur Radio station. While
I see the principal advantage of this technology as an information source for mobile hams, hams at home could use it as well.

Where would the data come from? The clear answer is the Internet. With the Internet, we've got a (relatively) high-speed data pipe
available most places in the world. The packet radio server would have a full-time connection to the Internet and be able to tap into
databases all over the world. Any data that could be put on a Web page could be extracted and relayed to inexpensive mobile packet
stations. Here are some preliminary examples, which have already been implemented:

Imagine you have a small terminal hooked to a packet TNC and you type in the following command: qrz://w2fs. The server
recognizes the preamble "qrz" as a key that means you want to do a call sign lookup. It contacts www.qrz.com and requests a lookup
on W2FS. It receives the entire resulting Web page over the Internet, but only forwards the following over the air via packet:


Next, suppose you type in dx:// The server recognizes the preamble "dx" as a request for the latest DX information from the OH2AQ
on-line DX Cluster. It sends a request to http://oh2aq.kolumbus.com/dxs/oldlook.html?, which returns a list of the latest DX spots.
The information is then relayed to you (and, incidentally, everyone else who is monitoring).

Now suppose you want to retrieve an entire Web page. To get the ARRL's home page, for example, just enter http://www.arrl.org.
The http preamble tells the server you want the information from this page, but not all the html formatting tags. The server checks
its list of "allowed" and "banned" pages and, if www.arrl.org is allowed, it fetches the entire page, strips off the html tags and
transmits it to you.

If you preferred, you could have instead obtained the page with all the html tags, simply by transmitting html://www.arrl.org.

                                                                                                                                 Page 2
WHITE NOISE                                                                                                     June 1999

As you can see, the intent of the server is to be a general-purpose interface between the amateur digital world and the Internet. Built
into it are sysop control functions to keep illegal content from going over amateur frequencies. Also built in is the ability for the
sysop to create "services" in the form of keywords like "qrz" and "dx" that are tied to obtaining and editing text from specific Web

I've spent the last few weeks writing both the server software and a customized terminal program
(see Figure 1) that can provide all of the functions discussed above. It's almost done and should
be ready for beta testing within the next few weeks (anybody want to volunteer to help test it?).
But this is really the beginning, not the end. The important work is in finding new applications
that will be useful to mobile hams. Many, if not most, of these applications will not involve
terminals or computers as we usually think of them. For example:

            * A $6 PIC microprocessor, combined with a $10 speech synthesis chip could be configured to listen for DX spots,
         filter out the ones you don't want and announce the ones you do want in synthesized speech.   Along with your
         HT, you could carry the unit around on your belt like a pager.

           * Road emergencies, if posted on a Web page, could be transmitted using this server. You could have a cheap
         ($10) 20-character by 4-line LCD display on your dashboard that would alert you to upcoming hazards.

           * One of the things I find most intriguing is the prospect of having a small display on your dashboard that would
         show the call signs of other mobile stations and which repeaters they were currently monitoring. In short, any
         information that can be put on a Web page an theoretically be accessed using this system.

So now it's your turn to exercise your imagination. What I've put together is really not an end product. Instead it is an "enabling
technology", a building block that could be used to provide a completely new kind of mobile data service for radio amateurs. Folks
anywhere in the world can establish Web pages that include content of interest to hams. It's up to the ham community to develop
these Web pages; to imagine new mobile data applications that could help bring life back into packet radio.

One final note: The Dayton Hamvention is coming up this month (May 14-16). The Tucson Amateur Packet group (TAPR) has
been kind enough to allow me a portion of their program time (Friday, May 14, 11 AM) to talk about PIC microprocessor
development for hams. If you are in the area, please do drop by and say hello.

Editor's note: John Hansen, W2FS, of Fredonia, New York, is an ARRL member and a frequent contributor to QST (three articles in
1998 alone) and former editor of The AMSAT Journal. He has been writing regularly for his club newsletter for many years. His
column, RadioHead, will appear every month in The ARRL Web Extra. Please address correspondence directly to the author
at john@hansen.net.

This article was first published in the Members’ Only section of the ARRL web site http://www.arrl.org . We requested Mr.
Hansen’s permission to publish the article in our White Noise and consequently on our web page. He deferred to the ARRL for their
copyright interest. We then contacted Rick Lindquist N1RL , ARRL Senior News Editor. Mr. Lindquist responded that, although
reprint privileges of their Members’ Only section is generally reserved, in this instance the League defers to John Hansen as the
copyright owner. Mr. Hansen then immediately permitted this reproduction by the Palm Beach Packet Group.

The exchange of messages resolving the copyright issue and permission to reprint was done in a two day period via email. The
Palm Beach Packet Group is grateful to both Mr. Hansen and the ARRL for expeditiously clarifying the permission to publish this

                                                                                                                               Page 3
WHITE NOISE                                                                                                        June 1999

                                                       DAYTON CHIRPS
                                                       By Terry J. Taylor, W5JFM

“This is Terry Taylor, your Dayton ‘White Noise’ reporter, coming to you live via transcribed broadcast. I’m presently located in the
huge Dayton Flea market at the Hara Convention Center inside a very large trash can. My RF sensors detect tremendous amounts of
electromagnetic waves at all Amateur Radio frequencies. Taking no chances, I’m donning my RF exposure suit, a portable RF
Faraday cage. The air is overly saturated with Hams communicating their locations to other friends, and their latest finds of old and
new treasures. So, while I’m donning my RF suit, I’ll get you up to date.

“I arrived Thursday morning at the north end of Dayton in the suburb of Englewood. There, I’ve had a room for the last several
years at the Cross Country Inn. As you might surmise, rooms are at a premium. This motel allows its yearly trekkers to the
mightiest shrine for Ham radio to place a reservation for their same room the next year. This alleviates the worry of trying to get
into the 800 reservations line at the precise moment to save a room before they are all gone. It’s a nice touch. Although rooms are
sold out a year in advance, I’ve experienced in previous years that there are always cancellations after the 6 PM guaranteed time.
Plus, rooms are available a little farther away from the area. Having a rental car is a requirement to be able to get around. Gone are
the days where a bus schedule was published that made rounds to the major hotels, malls, and airport. Now, buses only pickup from
two area malls. Thursday afternoon I enjoyed the ‘other side’ of the Air Force Museum. There is a large hangar located across the
closed runways of the now closed Wright Field that now houses former presidential aircraft and numerous aircraft that were used by
the AF for research and development. Most interesting to me was the specially equipped Boeing 707 with tail number 26000. It is
probably the most famous one so far as they have marked the location of where the casket of President Kennedy laid to rest, and also
where V-P Johnson took the oath of office. The communications of that even very old aircraft was fascinating to look at. I would
love to see the communications and other secret equipment on the new B-747 that has the callsign of ‘AF One’ (but only when the
President is aboard). One particular note of interest for this aircraft and the other presidential aircraft on display is that you need to
be fairly thin to get in them. I don’t mean to say anything to those of you a little (OK, a lot!) overweight, but there is a ‘width
measurer’ that you must pass through before you can go up the steps of the aircraft. What they have done inside the aircraft is
literally cover almost everything you can see with plexiglas from the floor to the ceiling. It is located on both sides of the aisle so
that you must squeeze through the aircraft with about 17 inches from shoulder to shoulder. Believe me, there isn’t much room.
Well, I guess if you exceed the 17 inches you could view the aircraft sideways. Maybe pick a side you want to see and walk through
it sideways facing that direction, then re-enter the aircraft facing the other side and view the other half. (Now this assumes that you
aren’t more than 17 inches thick. I realize I might be stepping on toes here, but, hey, if you’re going, I imagine you’d like to know if
you can get through or not). Anyway, the aircraft are well worth the trouble to see. No wanting to slight the main hangars of the AF
Museum, there is a huge number of aircraft and other displays to see and wonder about. That could take a whole day in itself and
any visit to Dayton is well worth the trip to this museum, even it is the only reason for going to Dayton.

“My room is not ready. There is only one car left on the entire side of the motel where my reserved room is located, and that
individual isn’t going to check out until Noon. Natch! So, I’ve decided it is time to take a little run. The sky is overcast with light
rain as it relieves itself before the big weekend event. The rain is light – ‘spitting as the British say!’ The grass is beautifully green,
and it has always amazed me how green it does get in the Springtime up in this area. The honeysuckle is in full bloom and smells
great. I run my normal eight miles getting both wet from the outside, and from the inside.
“Friday is the beginning of the big dance. In years past, the flea market opened early in the morning at 8AM, as it still does, but the
inside exhibitor area didn’t open until 12 Noon. This year it opened at 10AM. That gives the vendors more time to sell their items.
Also, last year forums were scheduled before the Noon time hour, and this year followed more of the same. There are so many
forums that there just wasn’t enough time. So, starting off the early forums on Friday morning was the PACTOR forum with Phil
Sussman, N8PS. Dr. Thomas Rink, DL2FAK, spoke on the new PSK-31 narrowband digital mode and how it’s being incorporated
into the PACTOR-2 controller.

“Much of the emphasis at this Dayton has been on increasing the Amateur Radio awareness to kids. Carole Perry, WB2MGP, holds
a forum every year that teaches instructors how to motivate and teach young kids. Rosalie White, WA1STO, (Manager of Field and
Education Services of the ARRL) brought out many interesting techniques. One in particular was the visual demonstration between
series and parallel resistance using straws. Blow through one straw showing series resistance, then blow through several straws to
show the comparison to parallel resistance.

                                                                                                                                 Page 4
WHITE NOISE                                                                                                          June 1999

                                                “I am now moving around the Flea Market taking in the various and sundry items that
                                                people think they will sell. Boy, have I got news for them for some of that junk. I’m
                                                getting all sorts of stares as people look at me in my portable Faraday shield. I’ve
                                                added one inch wide copper straps to my ankles that trail on the ground behind me
                                                trying to discharge as much of the RF as possible. This works pretty well. One
                                                problem is fluid intake, like drinking a Coke. I have to shoot it though the mesh shield
                                                over my face, so it all doesn’t hit the target, that being my mouth. But since it is Diet
                                                Coke, I don’t get that sticky sugar feeling over my face. Oh, well!

                                                 “The Flea Market sprawl continues in all directions from the Hara Arena. Year after
Looking out over the Dayton HamVention           year it spreads out a little farther and is about to reach one of the roads to the northeast
Flea Market                                      of the arena. Also, out in that direction is a huge white tent. Ordinarily, Radio Shack
           picture by Terry Taylor W5JFM         has a huge display of all the junk, er, products that they haven’t been able to sell in
their stores, but this year they weren’t there. They still had a very nice, large booth inside the convention center. The space allotted
for the flea market is huge. It takes a lot of time just to cruise through the area once looking at everything from the backs of station
wagons to tents that allow you to walk through. It is amazing.

“I am now inside the Hara Arena as the doors are just now opened up to the public. People are beelining straight to the DARA
(Dayton Amateur Radio Association) booth to put in that stub for a possible prize. Ticket numbers this year reached upwards to
50,000. Now you know why there is so much RF in the air. Prizes were plentiful and expensive. They do a nice job here. I’ll
continue my report on Sunday for the activities during the weekend.

“This is W5JFM reporting once again from the Dayton HamVention. Friday turned out to be an almost perfect day. No rain,
overcast skies, and the temperature was in the mid 60’s. Not too hot, and not too cold. The skies cleared that evening making for
slightly warmer days on both Saturday and Sunday with almost clear, beautiful skies.

Friday evening was the annual AMSAT dinner buffet located at the Amber Rose near downtown Dayton. The food here is really,
really good. (I mean really!) The restaurant has become a yearly favorite with a unanimous vote for a return the following year.
AMSAT President Keith Baker, KB1SF, made a few opening remarks including the possibility that a contract could be soon
forthcoming for the launch of Phase 3D, the Mother of all Heathkits according to Keith. Of course this was met with thunderous
applause, and rightfully so as it has been quite a long time that the satellite has been slated for launch. Keith had a book of gorgeous
8.5x11 color photos of the electronics on all sides. He pointed out to me what this was and that was, but since I’m not working with
the satellite they all looked very much alike to me. Once circuit board almost looked like any other. It really is a marvel of
achievement that all who participated can be rightfully proud. Lou McFadin, W5DID, arrived a few minutes later with Astronaut
Owen Garriott, W5LFL, who had just flown into the Dayton Airport. I was fortunate to be able to visit with Owen at my table.
Guess I was just lucky. (By the way, I didn’t have my Faraday shield on so no one thought I was off my rocker, at least I don’t think
I give that impression normally.) I ran into Owen many more times during the HamVention. I remember seeing and holding the
Motorola handheld radio that he had taken with him on the Shuttle mission. During one of his forums the next day, I remember him
saying that at the time of his mission, NASA was leery of any external power for the radio he carried, so he had to carry a couple of
batteries. No use of shuttle power. In contrast, the International Space Station that is being planned for the use of Amateur
Equipment by the SAREX Working Group requires that equipment brought on board be operated by power off one of the Space
Station electrical busses. No batteries. This is a turnaround in philosophy. I asked Owen how many batteries he took with him, and
he said only two as far as he could remember. One was a large battery, and another was a smaller battery. He never did run the
battery down during the mission. Interesting.

“Saturday morning was the two plus hour AMSAT forum. Lots of folks made presentations. Barry Baines, WD4ASW (Anti
Submarine Warfare), made a presentation on getting started on the birds. It wasn’t as factual as it was where you need to go here for
this, or go there and get that book, plus a handout of what you need and where to get it. Of course this topic can’t be fully covered in
the 20 minutes allotted to him. Barry and I had a pretty good discussion at the banquet the preceding night concerning his job with
CSX Railroads. I’ve learned more about locomotives and had a great time doing it. Last night was no different as I learned that the
new locomotives are being purchased (at a huge sum) with AC motors now instead of DC motors. Betcha didn’t know that those big
engines you see out there are really big electric motors being powered by diesel engines. Electricity runs the trains, but diesel

                                                                                                                                    Page 5
WHITE NOISE                                                                                                    June 1999

engines power the motors. Also, slack between cars of the train is what allows the engine(s) to break the inertia of the entire train
and get it moving. Neat stuff here and all at a Ham Radio convention. Boy, let a person know you are a pilot and the ‘war stories’
crank up in that direction with no end in sight. There are lots of ham radio operators with pilot licenses’.

“I got tickled at Lou McFadin’s presentation on how they got P3D to thermal and vacuum testing. They rented a huge Budget truck
so that they wouldn’t be bothered with cops and weigh stations. To support P3D in the truck, they bought about 20 huge inner tubes
which were hard to find. With about half inflation in each tube, that provided the right amount of cushioning, so it was riding on
air, so to speak.

 “Roy Neal, K6DUE, is chairman of the SAREX Working
Group consisting of NASA, ARRL, and AMSAT. These
people work together for the school SAREX contacts and
make it all worthwhile for the children who get to talk to
the astronauts. Speaking of which, I think I heard someone
mention that about 90% of the astronauts are now licensed
amateurs. Roy is a retired NBC television commentator
with a truly ‘golden throat’. He MC’d the Rose Bowl
parade last year, and the year before for the Armed Forces
network and to other countries. He is a super gentleman.
The SAREX Working Group is now actively involved in
ARISS, Amateur Radio International Space Station. There
will be over 500 transmitters on the ISS, and Amateur
Radio will play a part. Initially, the licensed astronauts
will be using a handheld Ericsson radio powered off the
ISS by a power converter located in the service module.
                                                                SAREX Working Group (Left to Right): Roy Neal, K6DUE, Chairman,
There will be four feed-throughs to the outside for antennas    Owen Garriott, K5LFL, Guest Astronaut, Matt Bordelon, KC5BTL of
that will be shared with video transmissions. Since the         NASA, Rosalie White, WA1STO of ARRL, Frank Bauer, KA3HDO of
video will be active during space walks, that prevents          AMSAT, and Lou McFadin, W5DID of AMSAT.
Amateur transmissions from taking place, but since that                                              Picture by Terry Taylor W5JFM
was to be the case anyway, meaning no Amateur activity
during space walk, it turned out to work just as well.

“Wow, walking through the vendor booths in one of the buildings, I am looking over there at one of the inside venders with a huge
display of Beenie Babies. OhhhhhK. I couldn’t help but scan the various ones there for sale and the prices. I saw one that was now
worth, according to them, $300. Forgive me if I just couldn’t bring myself to spring for the poor little fellow in need of a home. The
next day I noticed that it was gone.

“Later Saturday afternoon, I listened to the Youth in Amateur Radio forum. Several of the kids that I had met last Fall at the
convention in Boulder, CO, had decided to come to Dayton and actually made presentations to the audience concerning their
experience and activity. It was very interesting and enlightening. I might have mentioned before in another article about Project
Starshine that consisted of 900 mirrors being polished by students for a satellite that has been launched. Check out the website
http://spacekids.hq.nasa.gov/starshine .

“Saturday night was the big banquet located at the Nutter Center on the campus of Wright State University. The food is surprisingly
good and I had the fortune of sitting with Roy Neal, Owen Garriott, Frank Bauer, KA3HDO of AMSAT, Rosalie White, WA1STO,
and Robin Haighten, VE3FRH and VP of AMSAT. Quite a group! Owen had a lot of Air Force T-38 time so we swapped several
stories. The entertainment was Joe Walsh, WB6ACU (Never heard of him!) who is a rock star and sang with the Eagles. I had
enough of him after about an hour and went out into the hallway to wait until it was over. I was about 50 feet in direct line with the
bass speakers and my whole body was vibrating. I even stuffed chewing gum wrappers in my ears and held them there with my
fingers. Enough was enough. Everyone seemed to be enjoying the music including university students and anyone else who wanted
to buy a cheaper concert-only ticket. Joe was later seen the next day at the ARRL booth sporting several pieces of new equipment
including a new handheld. You can hear an interview with Joe on the ARRL website. Joe performed for about an hour and a half

                                                                                                                              Page 6
WHITE NOISE                                                                                                    June 1999

this year. Ronny Milsap performed last year for about 25 minutes, and that was it. I never did find out why his concert was so short.
Maybe next year for the 2000 celebration they’ll get the New York Philharmonic Symphonic Orchestra – a group more to my liking.

“Today is Sunday and the RF seems to be lessening, so methinks I’ll remove my RF suite for the time being. Those last minute deals
are being made, and the junk is slowly making its way out the gates under the arms of a new temporary happy owner. It all gets
recycled in a year or two, anyway. All in all this was a very successful Dayton. The weather was great, and the crowds were thick.
This is good for Amateur radio as it should be. A hobby worth caring about is one worth participating in. The enthusiasm was very
high with interest in many, many different areas. The forums seem to be more attended this year with more people getting interested
in what they have to offer. I know that I spent more time in the forums than I have in the past, and I’ve really enjoyed them. I get to
meet friends from all over and see them year after year. Next year should be really something when DARA hosts the ARRL
National Convention. I’m sure plans are already under way to make it the best Amateur Radio Convention in the world. Now is the
time to plan that vacation time for next year’s Dayton making those hotel reservations. Don’t forget to include a day at the Air Force
Museum if you like that sort of thing. If not, go anyway as you’ll get a charge out of seeing all that is in there. It’s free. (That
ought to get a few more of you there!)

“I’d like to close out this report as your Dayton ‘White Noise’ reporter saying that it has been a pleasure bringing you this special
edition. You probably won’t find better deals on new and used equipment, and you’ll get to see new equipment released for the first
time here. You’ll receive the latest information via the numerous forums carrying the many different facets of Amateur Radio. I
hope that you’ll treat yourself to the Dayton Experience at least once. See you there next year – just look for the shiny, walking
copper Faraday Shield with W5JFM on the back!”

                                             TAMING THE BUTTERNUT
                                             (with Grandpa’s New Toy)
                                                          Bill Manley KB4XE

         Last Fall I acquired a Butternut HF9V nine band vertical antenna. With the expected improvement in HF propagation I
         needed an antenna to compliment the capability of my WARC ready transceiver. The antenna selection was the outcome of
         trading off the features of competitors regarding performance, reputation, and stealthiness. The latter requirement is
         dictated by neighborhood restrictions. At the time I didn’t realize that the care and maintenance of a nine band antenna
         would become a hobby in itself. In afterthought I should have known that causing a vertical stick to resonate in nine bands
         selectively scattered from 3.5MHz to 54MHz is not a trivial engineering accomplishment.

         The out-of-the-box instructions clearly described the assembly of 26 feet of aluminum tubing, 6 coils, 3 ceramic capacitors,
         and sundry bolts, nuts, washers, wire and a tuned coaxial stub. The assembly and positioning dimensions of all were
         clearly defined -- for an antenna tuned to the mid point of each band segment. But, I favored operations in the phone
         sections of each segment. Butternut provided guidelines for this too. I followed them and soon learned the difference
         between a guideline and a specification.

         After many phone calls to the manufacturer and a week of tweaking, I had adjusted 8 of the 9 bands to perform reasonably
         as specified. The 17 meter band remained aloof, resonating with a 3:1 SWR. My built in transceiver tuner adjusted things
         to make that band useful as well.

         Now, six months later, I’m noticing the tuner having more and more difficulty in bringing things into tune until finally 40
         meters failed completely. Coincidentally with the occasion of my birthday and father’s day, I received a MFJ259B HF/VHF
         SWR Analyzer.

Timing was right.

This is just the big gun needed to troubleshoot the Butternut

                                                                                                                             Page 7
WHITE NOISE                                                                                                     June 1999

The SWR Analyzer quickly pinpointed the problems to be occurring near the 40 meter section of the
antenna. 80 meters functioned well, 20 meters was erratic as was 40 meters. Resonance’s at higher
frequencies were considerably out of band. In addition to SWR readings, the MFJ259B can measure
reactance’s, capacitance in particular. This test mode revealed erratic behavior of the 65pf ceramic
capacitor. Closer examination disclosed it to be loose in its mount. The screw was loose. That was an easy
fix but, having tweaked the 80, 40, and 30 meter coils before arriving at this discovery, I had badly detuned
the entire antenna.

Again the MFJ259B came to the rescue by providing the diagnostic measurement clues to restore the coil settings. I learned that the
performance of the 80, 40, 30, 20, 17 and 12 meter bands were heavily intercoupled. It is an iterative process of adjusting for a band
and finding another out of tune. Then adjusting that and finding a third out of tune and eventually returning to the first for yet a
finer adjustment. Within two hours, I have arrived at the same tuning condition which had previously taken a week. The 17 meter
band remains resonating improperly.

Now, the MFJ has become another new hobby. I’m looking forward to revisiting the Butternut and taming that #%$&* 17 meter

                                              PBPG APRS EXPANSION
                                                       Doug Welcker (WB4KGY)

To follow up on April’s PBPG APRS EXPANSION John (WB4MOZ) and yours truly along with Jim Johnson and his son Brian met
at the tower site in early May. I mentioned the jungle of Florida Holly, well we attacked the culprit with a chain saw and for
tanks of gas. Four hours later we had a 260 foot by 8 foot wide path from the equipment building to the tower. I kept the saw
running while the trio hauled the limbs and logs to other area of the property. This was no walk in the park as it did a good job
of exhausting the four of us. Jim was happy as this remove an extra load on the guy wires from the heavy branches leaning on
them. To reduce the rate of re-growth, Jim had a professional herbicide applicator treat the area.

We spent the next couple of hours getting the coax installed. You should have seen my little pickup with an eight foot wide
roll of hard line laying on top of the bed cover. John & Bryan unrolled the line and pulled it down the trail to the tower. The
1/2" line coming down the tower had several extra loops coiled at the base which were cut off and the connector removed and
reinstalled. For a change Murphy was with us as the line up the tower had a "N" male and the line we installed was "N" female.
This was also the point where the ground strap was attached between the tower and the line. The connection was sealed with a
double layer of rubber tape and final wrap of vinyl tape. The mechanics of the radio equipment installation are about complete at this
writing. John (WB4MOZ) found a rack mount equipment shelf which will mount the radio, TNC, change-over relays, barrier strip,
and fuse block. We hope to have this on the air shortly.

Next I want to thank Burck Grosse (KC4UEV) for the donation of a UPS. This unit will be installed at the Stuart Switch to
maintain computer power. The radio equipment is already supplied with emergency power from a battery backup. With the
hurricane season starting the first of June this is just one more update to harden your packet system and keep it operational during
emergency conditions. In closing I want to welcome Bill (N4XEO) and Andy (KF4ATC) to the world of technical frustration. They
have volunteered to help in maintaining the packet radio systems. Bill has actually been working for many years but may not have
been the recognition due and Andy wants to expand his horizons by diving head first into a responsibly complicated system. Let
thank them both.

                                                                                                                             Page 8
WHITE NOISE                                                                                                      June 1999

                                    MINUTES OF PBPG BOARD MEETING
                                                              May 8, 1999

The meeting began at 1:30 p.m. at the home of Marvin Kaskawits. Present were Doug Welcker (president), Mike Michaels (vice
president), Marvin Kaskawits (treasurer), Burck Grosse (secretary), John Green (director), Bill Manley (director), Ladd Sajor
W2KGU (guest - secretary, Treasure Coast Packet Group).

1. Letter From the Treasure Coast Packet Group Regarding Stuart FPAC Switch. This item occupied extensive discussion. Ladd
Sajor was invited to participate in this portion of our board meeting by President. Ladd represented The Treasure Coast Packet
Group board and membership which owns and operates the Stuart FPAC Packet Switch (K1VAO). Participation in the TCPG has
been very small except for an extremely small group. A survey of all reachable dues-paid TCPG was made. Over 90% of those
polled were in favor of petitioning (attached letter) the Palm Beach Packet Group to consider taking over the Adelphia Switch Site
along with the equipment and the treasury. The action of offering this existing packet equipment is based upon the very considerable
assistance and help provided by PBPG to the TCPG over the years. The location of the tower and equipment is north of Stuart near
US1 on Adelphia's Jensen Beach tower. Ladd encouraged our board to act affirmatively and hopefully promptly.

In general, it was the strong sentiment of the PBPG board members that we should avail ourselves of this offer for a number of
reasons, including but not limited to, the significance of the switch site to ongoing packet work in this part of Florida. There was a
considerable amount of discussion regarding the letter, discussions took place regarding any claims that might not have yet been
brought to our attention. We do not want to do anything that would incite ill will among the players or the intended players in this
action. At this point in the discussion President Doug had to depart to attend his wife's retirement party. While there were
discussions indicating an interest by the Ft. Pierce Radio Club in operating the Stuart Switch, it was felt the a packet radio orientated
radio club was better prepared to fulfill the roll of continuing packet radio in the Stuart area. Bill Manley also played an active role
in this discussion and tried to help ascertain who had ownership of what, and therefore who could accept such a transfer from whom.
As a result of this discussion, the TCPC agreed to provide and inventory of site equipment. An additional point of some significance
was the considerable technical support Bill Sinbine (N4XEO) has provided to the Stuart packet switch over the years. It was
strongly recommended an invitation be extended to Bill to join the PBPG technical committee. As an existing member in long
standing with the PBPG an a member of the PBPG technical committee, Bill will provide continued assistance to the Stuart Switch
and bring considerable expertise to the technical committee.

There were a number of efforts put forth to generate a viable motion, and it was finally concluded that Doug (president) should in
the next few days contact Bill (N4XEO) on the above approach. Assuming acceptable responses, it was the concensis of the board
that we proceed with adopting this proposal. Pending receipt of an equipment inventory list the PBPG will send the TCPG a letter of

2. Hamfest Involvement?.
Yes, the PBPG wishes to be involved in the West Palm Beach Hamfest coming up in October of this year. It was the consensus of
the group that we will participate. It was suggested that President Doug appoint a committee chairman to look after the considerable
number of activities related to this event. For instance, it was strongly recommended that Billy Bob handle our raffle ticket sales.
The group felt that a grand prize of the Earthmate software and components be a grand prize, and that another grand prize could
be a used computer/monitor and radio/tnc for a packet station.

3. White Noise Articles.
Bill Manley discussed the handling of articles for White Noise regarding the need for articles. Articles submitted need to be in text
mode (ascii) to make it easier for him to do the necessary work to include the articles in our publication White Noise. He has
received support from Waller (owner of qsl.net) in setting up the PBPG web site and suggests that we sent him something in the
range of $25.00 to $50.00 in appreciation for his efforts. The group agreed, and Bill Manley will ascertain which amount is

4. Summer Vacation schedules.
 Vacation schedules, especially as they regard continuity in any required work on packet equipment to keep communications flowing,
need to be considered and upfront decisions made. John (WB4MOZ) will be away in August and September, and Doug will be away

                                                                                                                               Page 9
WHITE NOISE                                                                                                        June 1999

a good portion of late June to September. Marvin will be away for June. These discussions clarify our need to have additional
technically-trained and available club members. Both Marv and Burck indicated an interest in getting brought up to speed for the
common "itis's", and several others indicated that they would be willing pitch in as well. It was agreed that there will be a "open
house" at the PBPG site in the near future in order to provide technical training to those interested. additionally, those folks
interested in visiting the site should attend. Date to be announced, probably early June.

5. Field Day involvement?
Lack of Field Day as an organized event at the WPBARC make other forms of Field Day involvement of greater interest to the
PBPG. A brief discussion revolved around pitching in and helping the Jupiter Tequesta Repeater Group in their historical
reenactments for Field Day. Some material was shown to President Doug on this subject and more will be provided.

6. Duplicating Ability
In as much as we are finding it increasingly difficult to obtain low-cost sources of list duplications, such as Switch list, node lists,
etc., it was decided to post those lists on the website and see how well we can make that avenue of communication succeed. Bill
Manley will be handling the point on this subject.

7. Web Site Report
Bill Manley is going to work on website links that will allow easy communications with TAPR, KB4VOL's bulletin board, etc.

                                  PALM BEACH PACKET GROUP MINUTES
                                                                May 1999

The meeting was brought to order at 19:30 by President Doug (WB4KGY). Introductions of guests and new members were made and
members did self-introductions.

Doug (WB4KGY) made the technical committee report presentation:

We have a new member of the technical committee, Bill (N4XEO) (President,           FADCA), (Chief Engineer, Stuart switch).

West Palm Beach switch, again no problems this month.

Clewiston tower update:
Doug and John (MOZ) met tower owner Jim Johnson and son at site May 4th. They spent three and a half hours chain-sawing 250
feet through the jungle for tower access. They installed 7/8 inch hard line from tower to the transmitter building.

Replacement location of Belle Glade tower:
Property has been purchased, near Lake Harbor FCC FM license has been applied for. Palm Beach County permit has been
submitted (anticipate 5 month wait).

Lake Placid site needs upgrading, specifically a new tower sight that raise the antenna elevation. With better elevation signal
strengths will allow conversion to 9600 baud.

Key West tower (Mel - K3ML) will have to be shortened by 60 feet. Engineering computations at original tower erection were in
error, necessitating the change. Tower will be modified to a "candle opera" arrangement at the top to include large torque arms to
resist twist. This will help control storm winds effect on the tower.

FPAC System expansion:

                                                                                                                                Page 10
WHITE NOISE                                                                                                    June 1999

Upgrade links Stu<>Okee to 9K6 Replace Stu<>Vero link 9K6 radio in Vero

We are still looking for interested parties to give computers. Only requirement is they are licensed and interested in some form
of digital communications. The PBPG has available some ten operational computers, including monitors and printers.

Postal box change - was a Boca address; we have requested a change to West Palm Beach. This is a lengthy process and will cost
some money. If there are questions, see John (MOZ) or Marvin (CK).

"White Noise" will be mailed at the post office 5/15. You can find that copy of "White Noise" along with past issues on our web site.
The "White Noise" at the web site is in a PDF format. Picture quality seems much improved. Pictures are full size and in color at
the web site. Web site address is http://www.qsl.net/pbpg.

PBPG has 6 books on packet for lending. See Burck (UEV).

Results of board meeting held May 8th at Marvin's home:
The primary area of discussion at this board meeting was inclusion of the Treasure Coast Packet Group into the Palm Beach Packet
Group. The offer by TCPG, addressed exclusively to PBPG, includes all packet related site equipment and the club treasury. Bill
(N4XEO) lives reasonably near the TCPG site and has done a good bit of the work that has needed to be done at that site. We
offered Bill (N4XEO), and he accepted, a position on the PBPG technical committee. There will be a copy of the minutes of this
board meeting in the June "White Noise".

If you would like to become more involved in the operation of our club, we could certainly use your help. Call any of the officers to

Memberships or dues catch-up are accepted each club meeting by President Doug.

For those interested in GPS, visit the following address:
http://gps.laafb.af.mil/y/2000index.html This address provides a listing of GPS receivers that are Y2K compliant tested by the US
Air Force.

Burck Grosse

                                                                                                                           Page 11
            WHITE                                                               NOISE
                                                   Palm Beach Packet Group, Inc.
                                                            PO Box 16471
                                                  West Palm Beach, Fl. 33416-6471
                                                        email: pbpg@qsl.net
President Doug Welcker WB4KGY                                                                     Vice President Mike Michaels K2GPI
Secretary Burck Grosse KC4UEV                                                                       Treasurer Marvin Kasawits KD2CK
Director John Green WB4MOZ                                                                                   Editor Bill Manley KB4XE

             Volume 11, Number 7                                                                          July 1999

                                                  WE’RE GROWING
                                                       Bill Manley KB4XE

Last month we reported the merger of the Treasure Coast Packet Group into the PBPG including the
acquisition of the N4XEO site and equipment in Fort Pierce, Fl. This month K4PKT-1, an APRS
repeater site, was installed in Clewiston, Fl. The Clewiston site, with the antenna at 330 feet,
completes the APRS link between SE and SW Florida as well as bringing some Central Florida into the
same linkup.

                                            President Doug Welcker WB4KGY and members Andy
                                            Czermann KF4ATC and Bill Manley KB4XE along with
                                            Jim Johnson W4JBZ and Brian Johnson visited the site
                                            containing an AM Broadcast Station operated by the
                                            Johnsons. Doug and Andy had brought along the APRS
                                            station which had been assembled and tested over the past
                                            few weeks.

                                            The first order of business was to
                                            modify the grounding of the
                                            commercial equipment racks.
                                            With that task completed, then Doug
                                            mounted the APRS equipment in the
                                            rack while Brian and Andy prepared
                                            the hard line. A coaxial jumper
                                            connected the equipment to the hard
                                            line and power was applied. To our
                                            delight the Kantronics DCD lit
                                            almost immediately indicating an
                                            incoming signal….
                                                                                    Brian and Andy prepare the hard line
  Andy, Doug and Jim ponder the             We were on the air!
  APRS equipment

Later, bringing up our own APRS stations at home, we discovered to our delight that K4PKT-1 was aggressively linking the east and
west coast of South Florida. The Clewiston site provides a much needed fix for a gap in South Florida APRS communications.

                                                                                                                           Page 1
WHITE NOISE                                                                                                      July 1999

                                             CHARLIE NEWELL K2GNZ SK
                                                      October 22, 1922 - June 9, 1999

                        The ham radio community lost a valuable member and friend this week. He was an elmer
                       to countless new Hams, and was always ready to lend a helping hand to anyone who needed
                       it. He first got his amateur radio license before 1981. He was Past President of QCWA,
                       WPBARC, an active member of PBPG, former Treasurer and Secretary of PBRA, and
                       active in the AT&T Telephone Pioneers. He served in the United States Navy in World War
                       II. Other activities included Elks, Red Cross. VFW and a Volunteer Fire Fighter. He was
                       active in the Snow Ski Patrol in upper New York before moving to Palm Beach County from
                       Cooperstown, New York. Charlie was 76 years old. Monday's memorial service at the VA
                       Hospital is a reflection of all the time and effort spent there as a volunteer. Memorials
                       should be given to either the Veteran's Administration or the Heart Fund. Out of all these
                       volunteer activities and organizations, Charlie probably will be most fondly remembered for
                       his work as an elmer in the WPBARC. His good humor and willingness to help at all times
                       are legendary.

                       Easy Operation Overseas Now a Reality for US Hams
The FCC has implemented the European Conference of Postal and Telecommunications Administrations (CEPT) Recommendation
T/R 61-01 that eliminates the need to obtain a special license or permit for US hams wishing to operate during brief visits to most
European countries. In addition, the ARRL has begun issuing International Amateur Radio Permits to simplify operation by US
hams in certain South American countries.

 The FCC put the final pieces of the CEPT arrangement into place June 7 by issuing a Public Notice in English, German, and
French that spells out the basic information about Amateur Radio operation in CEPT countries. To operate in a CEPT country, US
hams only need a copy of the Notice, their original Amateur Radio document, and proof of US citizenship (a US-issued passport or
a birth certificate should suffice).

 US hams holding any license class but Novice are eligible to operate in CEPT countries. A US citizen with a Technician ticket may
be authorized privileges equivalent to a CEPT Class 2 (i.e., VHF-only) license, while a US citizen holding a higher class license
may be authorized CEPT Class 1 (i.e., all amateur and amateur-satellite) privileges.

The authorization is for use of a portable or mobile station only, including stations set up at hotels or a camping site. Authorization
is also granted for US hams to operate the stations of permanent licensees in host countries. The use of Amateur Radio aboard an
aircraft is not allowed, however.

To identify while overseas, US stations will use their assigned call signs preceded by the CEPT call sign prefix for the country or
territory visited. US licensees operating under this agreement overseas cannot request protection against harmful interference.

 Operators must abide by the provisions of the ITU Radio Regulations as well as CEPT Recommendation T/R 61-01 and the
regulations in force in the host country. US operators planning to operate in other countries must become familiar with that
country's regulations and frequency allocations, paying special attention to regional differences.

                                                                                                                              Page 2
WHITE NOISE                                                                                                    July 1999

 Participating CEPT countries as of June 7 include Austria, Belgium, Bosnia-Herzegovina, Bulgaria, Croatia, Cyprus, Czech
Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France (including Corsica, Guadeloupe, Guiana, Martinique, St Bartholomew, St Pierre et
Miquelon, St Martin, and Reunion/Dependencies), Germany, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Liechtenstein, Lithuania,
Luxembourg, Monaco, Netherlands, Norway, Portugal, Romania, Slovak Republic, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Turkey,
and the United Kingdom (including Great Britain, Northern Ireland, the Channel Islands, and the Isle of Man).

The ARRL has begun issuing the International Amateur Radio Permit (IARP) that allows US amateurs to operate from Argentina,
Brazil, Peru, Uruguay, and Venezuela without having to obtain a special license (the US and Canada also are CITEL signatories).
The IARP is valid in any country that is a signatory to the CITEL Amateur Convention.

The Class 1 IARP--available to Tech Plus and higher class licensees--requires knowledge of Morse code and carries all
operating privileges. The Class 2 IARP--equivalent to the US Technician ticket--does not require knowledge of Morse code and
carries all privileges above 30 MHz. An IARP is not a license, but it certifies the existence of a license.

Complete information on CEPT and IARP operation, including an IARP application form and a copy of the FCC Public Notice on
CEPT, is available from the International Operating page on ARRL Web, http://www.arrl.org/field/regulations/io/.

The new procedures affect operation only in participating CEPT (European) and CITEL (Central and South American) countries.
They do not change the procedures for US hams wishing to operate overseas in countries that are not CEPT participants or CITEL
Amateur Convention signatories. Information on operation from these countries also is available on the pages of ARRL Web.

                                                     PBPG MINUTES
                                                           JUNE 10, 1999

President Doug Welcker (WB4KGY) brought the meeting to order at 19:30 hrs. All present introduced themselves, using their
names and call signs.

Since Treasurer Marvin Kasawits (KD2CK) was out of town, there was no treasurer's report. Minutes of the May meeting will be
as printed in the issue of "White Noise" now being distributed.

Technical committee report was presented by Doug (WB4KGY). High points included:

The equipment for the new Clewiston APRS is ready to go to the tower site and is awaiting date coordination with club members and
tower owners.

We give a great big welcome to Andy Czermann (KF4ATC) as a new member on the technical committee. He has already
completed preparation of radio equipment for APRS/ packet, and has completed several additional equipment repairs and
adjustments, greatly relieving Doug.

Again this month we have had no problems with our local switch.

The assimilation of the Treasure Coast Packet Group into the Palm Beach Packet Group is proceeding very well. The inventory of
equipment and statement of then current funds will take place just as soon as personnel involved at TCPG are in a position to do so,
i.e. illness of a key member's spouse.

The "handouts" for SWITCHES and NODES are now available for reference and/or downloading on the club web site. (Media
version of NODES is not yet available. SWITCHES and PBBS lists have been added to the web site. - ed.)

                                                                                                                            Page 3
WHITE NOISE                                                                                                       July 1999

Burck (KC4UEV) made a motion, seconded by John (WB4MOZ), to donate $25.00 with an appropriate covering letter to QSL.NET
c/o Al Waller (K3TKJ) for WEB Site service. The motion passed unanimously. Upon his return our Treasurer will issue a check in
the amount of $25.00 for WEB site service, and the Secretary will write the cover letter and put these two items in the mail to:
QSL.NET, Al Waller (K3TKJ), Rt. 3, Box 314-B, Rd. 497, Laurel, Delaware, 19956. Secretary will coordinate this action with our
Director Bill Manley (KB4XE).

Our President Doug has been asked to talk about the PBPG at radio groups as he travels the country this summer on his vacation.

Don't forget Field Day, June 26/27, 1999. Please identify yourself to the Club Event Chairman when you visit an operational Field
Day Site.

We have a BARDS meeting scheduled for June 19th at Motorola.

Adjournment including an invitation to the next meeting, Thursday, July 8, 1999 to be conducted by Vice President Mike Michaels

A very interesting presentation was prepared and presented by Director John Green (WB4MOZ). His subject was "Internet
Connection Speed and You".

The presentation was concluded at 20:26 hrs.

Burck Grosse (KC4UEV)

                                   Broward Amateur Radio Digital Society
                                                       May 22 and June19, 1999

The May meeting was a presentation by KT4XK of the space program accomplishment of the Ft. Lauderdale Motorola Amateur
Radio Club. Harold, Bruce, WB4YUC, Tom, K4GFG, and Kai, KE4PT and others have been providing support to the Amateur
space program from the early 70's. There were many accomplishments, most never publicized. Accomplishments vary from making
a radio for the first of the tether experiments to the first school-to-MIR space station contact.

The June meeting was by Carl, W9ZGU. He brought a big bag of demonstration equipment. The first was a ME-11 Autoranging
digital multimeter from Tech America. This was a DVM with RS-232 to an application screen on a laptop. You could even make a
time trace of voltage variations. And best of all, it is less than $50. He had a lot of home brew test and general utility equipment. One
was a cut out relay to drop a piece of equipment off you car battery circuit to prevent a dead car battery. Along with this came some
valuable information on new alternators. Did you know that you will burn out a new alternator if you try to charge a dead battery
with it? This is because the newer alternators are not rated for continuous use. He showed us "Carl's super-super meter box", a
constant load discharge timer based on an alarm clock, a rainbow kit computer oscilloscope, and several others.

The July 17th program will be an explanation of the Navy Postgraduate School's spread spectrum ham satellite by Bob, N4CU and
an introduction to Linux by Al, K4BVL

Bob, N4CU

                                                                                                                               Page 4
             WHITE                                                               NOISE
                                                    Palm Beach Packet Group, Inc.
                                                             PO Box 16471
                                                   West Palm Beach, Fl. 33416-6471
                                                         email: pbpg@qsl.net
President Doug Welcker WB4KGY                                                                      Vice President Mike Michaels K2GPI
Secretary Burck Grosse KC4UEV                                                                        Treasurer Marvin Kaskawits KD2CK
Director John Green WB4MOZ                                                                                    Editor Bill Manley KB4XE

           Volume 11, Number 8                                                                          August 1999

                                                OUR ADELPHIA SITE
                                                     Marvin Kaskawits KD2CK
                                                      Howie Silver KB2BBG
                                                       Bill Manley KB4XE

During July, a small contingent of members visited the Adelphia Cable Company tower site to
view the K4PKT-8,9 installation. Along with our curiosity, we brought our digital cameras to
satisfy our overlapping interests in the PBPG and photography as a hobby. With notes by
Marvin, photography by Howie, and editing by Bill, we are sharing the tour with you.

Our antenna are at the 380, 340, and 200 foot locations on the Adelphia tower shown in
silhouette with the hazy sun.

                                                    The K4PKT equipment is housed in racks
                                                    within the building.

                                                    On the left, John Green is explaining the racks to Andy Czermann KF4ATC,
                                                    John, Marvin Kaskawits KD4CK, Burck Gross KC4UEV and Mike Michaels

                                                  On the right is a wide-angle view of all the
                                                  equipment in the rack. In the left side of the
                                                  rack is located the FPAC PC and UPS (not
                                                  shown in the picture, it is below the PC).
                                                  The PC is a 486 that uses the DOS
                                                  operating system and runs the FPAC
software that now runs the WPB packet switching system. In the right rack are the radios, TNCs,
Power supply and AC distribution and Protection.

Starting at the bottom of the rack:

12VDC Power Supply – This is a HP 12 VDC, 50 amp power supply that powers the radios,
TNCs, UPS and charges the batteries when needed.

                                                                                                                            Page 1
WHITE NOISE                                                                                                August 1999

AC distribution and Protection – 120 VAC is brought into this panel from the wall AC outlet. It goes through a hefty protection
system comprised of several stages of protection and is then distributed to the HP power supply, UPS, and the PC monitor. The PC
itself is plugged into the UPS thus allowing the complete switch to operate from the batteries.

Above the APRS radio are the control heads for the 561655 and APRS radios. The left one is for 561655 and the right one is for

Above this (not shown) is the 561655 radio and the 440/445 MHz duplexes. The 561655 radio works with the 561655 TNC listed

                                                            This view shows the right side of the rack clearer. Next up is the
                                                            telephony channel bank frame with all but the fuse panel removed. It
                                                            comprises of four shelves, actually five if you count the top where we
                                                            have located two TNC’s.

                                                            Continuing upward (shelf 4 (bottom) of the channel bank frame) we
                                                            have the radio and TNC for the BBS port, 445Mhz, 9600b, 561113.

                                                            Above this (shelf 3) is radio and TNC for the Local LAN port,
                                                            145.630Mhz, 9600b, 561793.

                                                            Above this (shelf 2) is the radio and TNC for the alternate trunk to Boca,
                                                            223Mhz, 1200b, 561111 and the fuse panel which supplies 12vdc to all
                                                            the TNC’s.

                                                            Above this (shelf 1) is the local LAN TNC (left) 1200b, 145.030Mhz,
                                                            561655 and the APRS TNC (right), 1200b, 144.390Mhz. The A/B
                                                            switch sitting on top of the 561655 TNC is used to switch the serial
                                                            connection from the 561655 TNC to the APRS TNC to allow
                                                            programming The APRS TNC when required.

                                                            Sitting on top of the channel bank shelf are the primary Boca trunk TNC
                                                            (left), 445Mhz, 9600b, 561114 and the Stuart Trunk TNC (right),
                                                            440Mhz, 9600b, 561112.

Mounted directly above each TNC are the corresponding radios. They are mounted on the bottom of the APRS radio shelf.
The APRS radio (top unit in P7130125) works with the APRS TNC listed above.

All the TNC’s (except the APRS one operate in the KISS (checksum) mode and are connected to the PC on serial ports running at
19200 baud.

Finally the Backup Batteries provide out very professional backup system that our network can be
proud of. These are Exide batteries, wet cells at 600 AH each. There are 6 cell in a string for 13
VDC, convenient since our radios and TNC’s run at this voltage. There are two strings of batteries
connected in parallel for a total of 1200 Amp Hour capacity. In our case standby time is measured
in weeks not hours as is typically done. We have not tried to calculate the standby time – our load
is intermittent and not that easy to calculate

                                                                                                                            Page 2
WHITE NOISE                                                                                               August 1999

                                               Our Summer Doldrums
                                                        Bill Manley KB4XE

Key members of the Palm Beach Packet Group are taking extensive vacations this summer. They are among the doers who make
the WHITE NOISE possible on a monthly basis. With their absence, it just cannot be done.

Consequently our WHITE NOISE is also taking a vacation. This will be the last newsletter until we regroup in October or November.

Club meetings however will continue at 19:30 on the second Thursday monthly at the Piccadilly Cafeteria, corner of Summit and
Military Trail in West Palm Beach, Florida. Vice-President Mike Michaels with orchestrate the occasions. Read this issue’s
minutes for Mike’s planned agenda for the August meeting.

See you there and then.

                                                     PBPG MINUTES
                                                           JULY 8, 1999

Vice President Mike Michaels (K2GPI) brought the meeting to order at 19:30 hrs. All present introduced themselves, using their
names and call signs.

Marvin (KD2CK) reported that as of May 31. 1999, statements show savings account $954.13, and checking account $76.80.
Deposits and credits totaled $239.77, savings were at $3,982.76 and the total assets were $4,289.20. A complete report will be
provided in the June "White Noise".

Vice President Mike reported that the club does have an attractive, informative web page (http://www.qsl.net/pbpg/index.html). The
web page will display the latest edition of "White Noise" and a library of past issues. Additional information such as a Network map
so that you can see the route your packet signal might take when you connect. Further, the web site contains a listing of SWITCHES
and NODES that used to be provided by paper listings. This change in operating mode saves money for the club (greatly reduced
reproduction costs), but more importantly provides the latest data.

Director John Green (WB4MOZ) gave the technical report and indicated that the Palm Beach Switch had to be reset once during the
month. This represents several months of no resets, reflecting an excellent record of durability.

Vice President Mike reminded the group that we are still looking for suitable recipients of our donated computers. The approximate
inventory is now 10 operational computers and monitors.

Vice President Mike also reminded the group that we do have a small lending library. Those who want to borrow a book should see
Secretary Burck Grosse (KC4UEV).

A new/old Bulletin Board System N4JOA has re-upped and is back in business.

                                                                                                                           Page 3
WHITE NOISE                                                                                              August 1999

Mike announced next meeting's program, featuring Pete McGovern (KE4PPI),who will present a program on PSK-31. Pete is from
the Jupiter-Tequesta Repeater Group which successfully used PSK-31 digital QSO's during this year 's Field Day. Pete really knows
how to make things sound easy. I'm sure you will find this an interesting presentation.

Marvin reported on his very successful use of a magnetic sign on the rear of the family car. This sign informs following or
overtaking vehicles the call signs of the two hams inside and their favorite calling frequency. Many miles have been dramatically
shrunken by the ability to talk to other hams and get advice as needed for eating spots, motels, etc.

Marvin also talked about QSO's with Bob Pasquale (WD9AJM), a snowbird who summers in the vicinity of Chicago. Marv has
found an excellent packet routing and is able to talk to Bob regularly.

Marv described his interesting and very useful installation of mapping equipment in his vehicle. He and Berniece (KD2CJ) find the
system to be fascinating in helping pass the time on long trips, as well as in avoiding mistakes on the selection of routes.

The meeting was concluded at 20:25.

                                  Broward Amateur Radio Digital Society
                                                           July 17, 1999

The June meeting brought out one of the founders of BARDS, Bill, KB4XE, and a new attendee, Don, AF4NR. The old "We are a
society, not a club" introductory speech had just about been forgotten but we did manage to stumble through it.

The program was a briefing on the status of the Navy Postgraduate School's spread spectrum ham satellite, Pansat, PO-34. From
there we have a detailed discussion of spread spectrum. PO-34 is direct sequence and the current TAPR 902-926 spread spectrum
initiative is a frequency hopper. This, chip rate, convolution, taps, and the near-far problem were all discussed.

Then Bob, N4CU, gave a description of the latest FM satellite, Sunsat, SO-35. The satellite has been working in mode B starting in
June. Mode B is 70 cM up and 2 M down. The power budget is 60 minutes of FM per week and the command station is setting 30
minutes of up time on the weekends for North America. Use the AMSAT website at www.amsat.org for additional information.

The August 20th program will be an introduction to Linux by Al, K4BVL

Bob, N4CU

                                                                                                                          Page 4
            WHITE                                                               NOISE
                                                   Palm Beach Packet Group, Inc.
                                                            PO Box 16471
                                                  West Palm Beach, Fl. 33416-6471
                                                        email: pbpg@qsl.net
President Doug Welcker WB4KGY                                                                     Vice President Mike Michaels K2GPI
Secretary Burck Grosse KC4UEV                                                                       Treasurer Marvin Kaskawits KD2CK
Director John Green WB4MOZ                                                                                   Editor Bill Manley KB4XE

 Volume 11, Number 10                                                                                         December 1999

                                                 K4PKT-1 and APRS
                                                        Bill Manley KB4XE

July 1999 White Noise announce the inauguration of our K4PKT-1 APRS site in Clewiston. The system has operated faithfully
since, linking our Florida East Coast with operations on the West Coast.

Tune your APRS station to 144.39, set up a Florida map, and soon your screen will look like this. Notice K4PKT-1 in the center of
the state.

                                                                                                                           Page 1
WHITE NOISE                                                                                                     December 1999

                                                   What Are Packets?
                                                       Doug Welcker WB4KGY

  "Packet" is a generic term for a bundle of data, usually in binary form, organized in a specific way for transmission. A packet
consists of the data to be transmitted and certain control information. The three principal elements of a packet are the header
(control information such as synchronizing bits, address of the destination or target device, address of the originating device, and
length of the packet); the text or payload (the data to be transmitted); and the trailer (error detection and correction bits). NOTE
AX25 does not include correction bits - Ed.

 Packets are routed over networks to specific remote locations. Assembling the data into individual packets involves a process of
segmentation of subdivision of larger sets of data as specified by the native protocol of the transmitting device. Since each packet
may have a unique identification and destination address, the individual packets in a stream of packets from one source and travel
different paths. Packet sequence numbers allow the destination mode to reassemble the packet data in the proper sequence before
presenting it to the target device.

 The Internet Protocol is a standard on describing software that keeps track of network addresses for different nodes, routes
outgoing packets, and recognizes incoming packets. By instructing the network how to read the packets and where to send them,
IP allows a packet to traverse multiple networks on the way to its final destination.

 Examples of packet-based networks include corporate intranets and the internet, which was the first public packet based data
network and remains by far the most heavily used. Originally designed for data application, technological advances have enabled
packet-based networks to handle streaming data. These advances, combined with the huge bandwidth advantages HFC networks,
have the potential to eliminate the disadvantages of packet-based networks (compared to circuit-switched).

 By Dr. Bill Wall e-mail; bill.wall@sciatl.com

                                    TAMING THE BUTTERNUT - Revisited
                                                         Bill Manley KB4XE

Last June I reported on my experiences in tuning my new Butternut HF9V vertical antenna. At the time I mentioned somewhat
tongue in cheek “… the care and maintenance of the nine band antenna would become a hobby in itself”. The comment was more
prophetic that I expected.

Problems tuning the Butternut HF9V, and the WARC band add-on modifications for the HF6V antennas, have been a popular thread
within the rec.radio.amateur.antenna internet newsgroup. A number of users have found it impossible to tune the 17 meter band
below 3:1 SWR although the manufacturer proclaims 2:1 or better is achievable on all bands. I've shared personal discussions with a
number of the news group respondents and benefited by their many thoughtful suggestions. Also I've done some analytic work,
using Smith Charts as well as trial and error experimentation myself. My conclusion is that the factory provided coaxial transformer
is too short.

The antenna includes a 136 inch 75 ohm coaxial impedance transformer connected to its base. The 50 ohm drive line is connected
to the distal end of the 75 ohm coax. The purpose of the 75 ohm coax is to transform the high 20 meter impedance found at the
antenna base to a reasonable value in the shack. Although the transformer performs the intended job at 20 meters, it detunes 17

Measurements made at the base of the antenna found about 150 ohms at 20meters and about 35 ohms at 17 meters. Plotting these
values and parameters on a Smith Chart showed that the 3:1 20 meter SWR at antenna base would be transformed to 1.3:1 at the
drive point. The 1.4:1 SWR at17 meters would be transformed to 3.1:1 at the drive point. This is too high to be driven by an
average transceiver. Then, again using the Smith Chart, I simulated lengthening the coax transformer. I found that an physical

                                                                                                                             Page 2
WHITE NOISE                                                                                                     December 1999

length of 170 inches, electrical length of 270 inches, improved 17M tuning while slightly compromising 20M. It provided a 1.6:1
SWR for both bands.

I tested this theory with a 170 inch coax transformer on my antenna and managed to acquire better than 2:1 SWR for both bands.
Close enough!.

I’m now satisfied with my HF9V performance on all bands. But I remain puzzled about what magic was performed by Butternut to
justify the claimed 2:1 or better SWR on all bands.

                                                       PBPG Minutes
                                                          November 11, 1999

President Doug Welcker WB4KGY brought the meeting to order at 19:30 hrs.

The treasurer's report will be published in the "White Noise" as soon as vacationing committee members return home.

President Doug reported on the following items: The Boca Raton APRS site was off last Saturday and Sunday. A power-on-reset
Monday morning returned the site to normal operation. Again the K4PKT switch has had no problems for the past month. Our
next technical task is to get the APRS equipment at Stuart on-line. Rich K4GPS , Andy KF4ATC and Doug did a Vector
Analyzer test on all the transmission lines. No antenna was detected on the spare line. Andy and Doug investigated a report that
Stuart’s transmission lines were loose. Turns out that the Stuart repeater line and two commercial lines were loose. Cause of
problem appears to have been due to use of plastic ties deteriorating over time, especially with exposure to sunlight. Wire ties have
much longer life spans. President Doug recommended that all of the lines be redone in wires ties.

Next "White Noise" is at the printer and will be mailed shortly.

Hamfest Report: The booth was setup Friday afternoon with Andy and Marvin's KD2CK help. Jamey KD4LXB brought his
computer and demo'd APRS all weekend from the booth. Burck KC4UEV won PBPG second prize in the prize drawing Tiny-2
MK-2 and one of the club computers. PBPG first prize EARTHMATE & Software was won by Ernie Marquez KF4IHX . Andy
KF4ATC won the grand prize of the Hamfest, a HF Icom transceiver.

PBPG has 6 packet books for lending. Those who want to borrow a book should see Secretary Burck Grosse.

A handout for SWITCHES and NODES are now available on the WEB site. Any comments would be welcomed.

Jamey Timberman has been involved in a very severe automotive collision. In addition to club members contacting Jamey, our
secretary arranged for a card to be signed by everyone present at the November meeting. It was forwarded to Jamey.

Wyatt Bishop K4VJI became a silent key this week. Long time member of the packet radio fraternity and a super good guy.

NEC is exiting Packard Bell sales in the United States.

Information was given on the November 11th Hamfest in Port St. Lucie, the November 20/21st Tampa State Convention, and the
December 4th Hamfest in Okeechobee.

                                                                                                                             Page 3
WHITE NOISE                                                                                                 December 1999

Allen Richter W4PHL from the Palm Beach County EOC is requesting assistance in setting up 220Mhz emergency BBS system.

Allen requested the PBPG give a talk to county communications personnel to educate them on packet radio. Doug will give the
presentation Tuesday.

The next meeting is scheduled for Thursday, December 9, 1999.

The meeting was concluded at 20:10 hrs.

                                  Broward Amateur Radio Digital Society
                                                       November 20, 1999

The November meeting program was programming and applications of the Programmable Integrated Circuit by John Wilson,
KN4HX. John went over the definitions and differences on the PIC versus the single board computer, the BASIC Stamp, and the
microprocessor. He described the hardware including input output and instruction set. He finished with applications. We got a bit
hung up on the analogue to digital converter range and resolution but John straightened us out. Lou, N4ZXZ, missed the meeting but
Carl, W9ZGU,filled in his spot by falling asleep. Randy, K9BCT, made the meeting so we gave the Palm Beach Packet Group
umbrella spiel. That is getting harder to remember as we don't get many newcomers.

For the December 18 meeting Jim, WA4CSQ, is going to tie convolution into the previous spread spectrum programs. He claims he
will make this mysterious subject very simple with no math.

Bob, N4CU

                                                                                                                        Page 4
WHITE NOISE                                                                                  December 1999

              Suppose Edgar Allan Poe Used a Computer                                   --

                 Once upon a midnight dreary, fingers cramped and vision bleary,
                    System manuals piled high and wasted paper on the floor,
                              Longing for the warmth of bedsheets,
                              Still I sat there, doing spreadsheets...
                 Having reached the bottom line, I took a floppy from the drawer.
                  Typing with a steady hand, I then invoked the SAVE command
                                 and waited for the disk to store,
                                    Only this and nothing more.

                Deep into the monitor peering, long I sat there wond'ring, fearing,
              Doubting, while the disk kept churning, turning yet to churn some more.
                 "Save!" I said, "You cursed monster! Save my data from before!"
                 One thing did the phosphors answer, only this and nothing more,
                                    Just, "Abort, Retry, Ignore?"

                     Was this some occult illusion? Some maniacal intrusion?
                    These were choices undesired, ones I'd never faced before.
                Carefully, I weighed the choices as the disk made monstrous noises.
                The cursor flashed, insistent, waiting, baiting me to type some more.
                    Clearly I must press a key, choosing one and nothing more,
                                   From " Abort, Retry, Ignore?"

              With my fingers pale and trembling, Slowly toward the keyboard bending,
                    Longing for a happy ending, hoping all would be restored,
                        Praying for some guarantee Timidly I pressed a key.
                 But on the screen there still persisted, words appearing as before.
               Ghastly grim they blinked and taunted, haunted, as my patience wore,
                                   Saying."Abort, Retry, Ignore?"

               I tried to catch the chips off-guard - I pressed again, but twice as hard.
              I pleaded with the cursed machine: I begged and cried and then I swore.
                       Then I tried in desperation, sev'ral random combinations,
                      Still there came the incantation, just as senseless as before.
                   Cursor blinking, mocking, winking, flashing nonsense as before.
                                    Reading, "Abort, Retry, Ignore?"

                  There I sat, distraught, exhausted; by my own machine accosted
                    Getting up I turned away and paced across the office floor.
                And then I saw dreadful sight: a lightning bolt cut through the night.
                      A gasp of horror overtook me, shook me to my very core.
                 The lightning zapped my previous data, lost and gone forevermore.
                                  Not even, "Abort, Retry, Ignore?"

                    To this day I do not know The place to which lost data goes.
                  What demonic nether world is wrought where data will be stored,
                 Beyond the reach of mortal souls, beyond the ether, in black holes?
                    But sure as there's C, Pascal, Lotus, Ashton-Tate and more,
                  You will one day be left to wander, lost on some Plutonian shore,
                                  Pleading, "Abort, Retry, Ignore?"

                                                                                                    Page 5

To top