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CULTIVATING A HOME-GROWN GREEN REVOLUTION IN NIGERIA-A DISCUSSION

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					 CULTIVATING A HOME-GROWN
GREEN REVOLUTION IN NIGERIA-A
      DISCUSSION PAPER
   B. Tanimu* and I. U. Abubakar**
               INTRODUCTION

• The term ‘The Green Revolution’ was used by the
  press to describe the spectacular increase in
  cereals production in India, Pakistan and
  Philippines in the 1970s.
• The crops significantly affected were wheat, rice
  and maize.
• This had made it possible for India to double her
  grain yields within a span of 6 years. In 1971,
  India had food surplus of 2 million tons (Sen,
  1975) thus attaining self-sufficiency in food.
                 INTRO. CONTD
• In 1965, before the green revolution, India was importing
  10 million tons of cereal grains, with import demand
  growing by 2 million tons per annum (Borlaug, 2005).
• During the green revolution, efforts were intensified on
  irrigated agriculture and as a result crop yields increased
  30-100 percent higher than non-irrigated crops in West
  Pakistan. (Nulty, 1972).
• Brazil is a major exporter of coffee, sugar, soyabean, beef
  and orange juice. Grain output doubled in just one decade,
  as the agricultural frontier expanded and farm industry
  accounts for about 90% of the country’s trade surplus of
  more than 40 billion dollars a year.
Green Revolution

         • 1960’s: improved wheat
           varieties gave dramatic
           increase in yield in Mexico
         • Varieties more responsive
           to irrigation and fertilizers
Late Norman Borlaug The Father of
        Green Revolution

            • Joined Rockefeller
              Foundation team in Mexico
              1944
            • Increased yield, rust
              resistance in wheat
            • Biggest contributor to Green
              Revolution
            • Won Nobel Peace Prize in
              1970
        Example: India

               • Self-sufficient in grain
                 due to Green Revolution




India
                      Rice
• Rice breeding at International Rice Research
  Institute: IRRI
Philippines Example
        • Self- sufficient in rice with
          surplus for export
           NIGERIA’S SCENERIO
• In the past, Nigeria had agricultural programmes
  aimed at revolutionizing agriculture (Ayoola,
  2007). The programmes are:-
• National Accelerated Food Production Project
  (NAFPP) in the 1970s
• Operation Feed the Nation (OFN) Launched in
  1976.
• Green Revolution in 1980.
• The Presidential initiatives on rice, vegetable oil,
  cassava, maize, cotton, tree crops, livestock and
  fisheries.
          NIGERIA’S SCENERIO
• These programmes have recorded modest
  achievements which could not be sustained
  due to problems of continuity by successive
  government.
• Nigeria is a net importer of wheat, rice,
  vegetable oils, sugar, animal fat and fish.
• This paper will highlight the possibility of
  cultivating home grown green revolution in
  Nigeria.
  CONDITIONS FOR ATTAINMENT OF
   GREEN REVOLUTION IN NIGERIA
• Doubling Crop Production
 doubling of production of important food crops such as
  maize, cassava, rice, sorghum, yam, cowpea, and cash crops
  such as cotton, cocoa, groundnut, oil palm, soyabean,
  sugarcane and sesame.
 The doubling of production can be achieved through
  increase yields per hectare, increase in area of production
  and through intensification of land use.
 Yields should be increased through concerted research
  efforts to release crop varieties that are not only high-
  yielding but resistant to biotic and abiotic stresses, and
  improvement in management practices to increase yields.
           CONDITIONS CONTD
 Characteristics such as pests and disease
  resistance, drought and heat tolerance, striga
  tolerance, earliness, should be incorporated in
  our crop varieties to enable the crop to be grown
  in marginal areas such as arid and drought prone
  lands thus expanding the frontiers of crop
  production.
 Another important aspect of increase in
  production is the intensification of land use. The
  agricultural land should be put to use twice or
  three times in a year.
              CONDITIONS CONTD
• Reduction in Post-harvest Crop Losses
 Agricultural production in Nigeria is characterized by high post
  harvest waste
 These losses occur during harvest due to lack of mechanization and
  untimely harvest or during storage (caused by insect, pests,
  rodents, diseases and physical and physiological deterioration due
  to improper drying) and during processing (lack of processing tools
  and equipment).
 Post harvest crop losses could be as much as 50%. Jeon and Halos-
  Kim (1998) reported that in cassava post-production losses can be
  as high as 45%, with about 14% occurring during harvesting and
  22% during processing. Qualitative and quantitative post-
  production losses in cereals and grain legumes have been estimated
  at 30-50%.
            CONDITIONS CONTD
• Reduction in Post-harvest Crop Losses
 Losses by small scale farmers are reported to reach 7-10%
  in the first three months of storage and may climb as high
  as 50% if the grain is stored beyond 4-6 months.
 To achieve home grown green revolution, these losses must
  be minimized
 The government must increase its capacity to store excess
  grain through building more storage silos.
 Research efforts should be intensified to provide farmers
  with rodent proof small ware house for their use. The
  triple bagging storage of grains should be promoted
  aggressively to ensure reduction in post-harvest losses
          CONDITIONS CONTD
• Reduction in Post-harvest Crop Losses
 The use of solar dryers to dry excess harvest
  particularly crops harvested during the rainy
  season should be encouraged
 Concerted efforts should be made to introduce
  and popularize modern rice and maize mills
  which minimize these losses
 The private sector should take advantage of the
  excess production by establishing processing
  plants and factories for fruits and vegetables.
  Increase in Livestock Production
 The crop and livestock sectors are interdependent
 The livestock product improves the quality of crop
  products for human consumption
 The local breeds of livestock that are poor in meat,
  milk, eggs and other products should be upgraded
  through modern scientific techniques such as artificial
  insemination and biotechnology
 More grazing reserves should be gazetted and
  developed to prevent farmers/pastoralist conflict
 The target for the revolution in livestock production is
  to achieve self-sufficiency in meat, milk and eggs
  production
   Increase in Fisheries Production
 Few countries in the world are endowed with the potentiality of
  developing a highly productive fisheries industry like Nigeria
 The artisanal fishermen should be encouraged to exploit our rivers,
  lakes and reservoirs.
 Noxious weeds such as water hyacinth and water lilies that invade
  our inland waters should be controlled to allow for fishing in such
  water bodies.
 Nigerians should be empowered to acquire commercial fishing
  trawlers for proper exploitation of the country’s shores.
 Private fish culturist should be assisted will liberal credits and
  adequate supply of fingerlings and technical instructions through
  the extension service, along with demonstrations where feasible.
 Fishing festivals should be encouraged all over the country to
  sensitized and reward promising fishermen and women.
  CATALYSTS FOR GREEN REVOLUTION

• Research and Extension
 Nigeria is amply blessed with human resources for research in all
  areas of Agriculture
 Research institutes should be made to work to release high yield
  crop varieties, improved livestock and fish breeds, and develop
  production package that will ensure double or even tripling of
  agricultural production
 The research institutes should be adequately funded to train and
  retrain manpower, acquire high-tech equipment and facilities, and
  replace obsolete ones, carry out research and extension in
  conventional breeding and biotechnology, agronomy, crop
  protection, animal science, veterinary science, soil science, forestry,
  aquaculture and other related fields of agriculture
      Research and Extension Contd

• The breeding programmes must be vast, robust,
  diversified and aggressive to produce high yielding
  commercial varieties.
• The varieties have to be continuously developed to
  meet new environmental and climate challenges
• The nation’s faculties of agriculture and universities of
  agriculture should be adequately funded to train
  manpower and to complement the research institutes
  in agricultural research
• No research output should be left on shelf. Research
  results should be promptly extended to farmers
               Government Policy

• Nigeria’s government has robust policies for
  agricultural development of the country
Ayoola (2007) identified the main agricultural policies in
  past 50 years as follows.
• Commodity development policies
• Import substitution policies.
• Self-reliance and self sufficiency policies.
• Integrated rural development policies
• Backward integration policies
• Export promotion policies
• Food security policies
        Government Policy Contd
• For a meaningful home cultivated green revolution, the following
  measures have to be deliberately undertaken
 Adequate and sustained funding to research in Agriculture
 Recognition of Agriculture as important profession through
  appropriate legislature
 Improve rural infrastructures such as roads, schools, clinics,
  electricity and communication
 Adequate Extension Services
 Adequate supply of agricultural inputs
 Land Reforms
 Provision of Credit
 National Guaranteed Price for commodities should be implemented
                    Markets
• The required increase in production will require a
  robust market to absorb the farm produce
• The cassava and wheat glut that arose from the
  national cassava initiative and accelerated wheat
  production programme, respectively, is still fresh
  in our minds
• Adequate provision should be made to open up
  local market and create appropriate incentives to
  exploit export opportunities
               Mechanization

• Mechanization will be necessary for the
  desired expansion of cultivable area
• Machines will be needed for land preparation
  and tillage, planting, weeding, fertilizer and
  other inputs application, harvesting, threshing
  and milling
• Mechanization ensures timely agricultural
  operations and reduces drudgery in farming,
  and increase the efficiency of human energy
                  Conclusion
• Nigeria has what is takes to revolutionize
  agriculture
• Nigerian farmers are hardworking, resourceful
  and respond positively to positive changes
• Late Norman Borlaug, the father of Green
  Revolution in Asia stated that fomenting a
  sustainable green revolution will require effective
  agricultural research and extension, to be sure,
  but most of all it will require political will – the
  will to change the status quo
THANK YOU
THANK YOU
THANK YOU

				
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posted:8/21/2011
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