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					                           Federal Register / Vol. 65, No. 81 / Wednesday, April 26, 2000 / Notices                                                    24471

(NTIS) ATTN: Order Desk 5285 Port                     ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION                                Industrial Classification System
Royal Road, Springfield, VA 22161.                    AGENCY                                                  (NAICS) codes have been provided to
Telephone: 1–800–553–6847. When                                                                               assist you and others in determining
                                                      [PF–938; FRL–6554–2]
requesting a document from NTIS,                                                                              whether or not this action might apply
please provide its name and NTIS                      Notice of Filing a Pesticide Petition to                to certain entities. If you have questions
Publication Number (PB). The NTIS                     Establish a Tolerance for Certain                       regarding the applicability of this action
Publication for this version of the                   Pesticide Chemicals in or on Food                       to a particular entity, consult the person
Pesticide Data Submitters List is PB                                                                          listed under FOR FURTHER INFORMATION
                                                      AGENCY: Environmental Protection                        CONTACT.
2000–102113.
                                                      Agency (EPA).
  2. Electronically: The Pesticide Data                                                                       B. How Can I Get Additional
                                                      ACTION: Notice.                                         Information, Including Copies of this
Submitters List is available of EPA’s
World Wide Web (WWW) site on the                                                                              Document and Other Related
                                                      SUMMARY: This notice announces the
Internet. The Internet address of EPA’s                                                                       Documents?
                                                      amended filing of a pesticide petition
web site is www.epa.gov. To Access the                proposing the establishment of                             1. Electronically. You may obtain
Data Submitters List from the EPA                     regulations for residues of certain                     electronic copies of this document, and
Home Page, select ‘‘Databases and                     pesticide chemicals in or on various                    certain other related documents that
Software.’’ From the next page, select                food commodities.                                       might be available electronically, from
‘‘Media Specific.’’                                   DATES: Comments, identified by docket
                                                                                                              the EPA Internet Home Page at http://
                                                      control number PF–938, must be                          www.epa.gov/. To access this
  The Pesticide Data Submitters list                                                                          document, on the Home Page select
may be found by searching for the                     received on or before May 26, 2000.
                                                                                                              ‘‘Laws and Regulations’’ and then look
keywords ‘‘datasubmitterslist’’ from the              ADDRESSES: Comments may be
                                                                                                              up the entry for this document under
EPA Home Page, or may be access                       submitted by mail, electronically, or in                the ‘‘Federal Register—Environmental
directly on the EPA web site, by going                person. Please follow the detailed                      Documents.’’ You can also go directly to
directly to the address listed below.                 instructions for each method as                         the Federal Register listings at http://
Note that this address is case sensitive.             provided in Unit I.C. of the                            www.epa.gov/fedrgstr/.
http://www.epa.gov./oppmsd1/                          ‘‘SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION.’’                             2. In person. The Agency has
datasubmitterslist/index.html.                        To ensure proper receipt by EPA, it is                  established an official record for this
                                                      imperative that you identify docket                     action under docket control number PF–
II. What Action is the Agency Taking?                 control number PF–938 in the subject                    938. The official record consists of the
                                                      line on the first page of your response.                documents specifically referenced in
  The Pesticide Data Submitters List is
                                                      FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: By                     this action, any public comments
a compilation of names and addresses of
                                                      mail: Susan Stanton, Registration                       received during an applicable comment
registrants who wish to be notified and               Division (7505C), Office of Pesticide                   period, and other information related to
offered compensation for use of their                 Programs, Environmental Protection                      this action, including any information
data. It was developed to assist pesticide            Agency, Ariel Rios Bldg., 1200                          claimed as confidential business
applicants in fulfilling their obligation             Pennsylvania Ave., NW., Washington,                     information (CBI). This official record
as required by sections 3(c)(1)(f) and                DC 20460; telephone number: (703)                       includes the documents that are
3(c)(2)(D) of the Federal Insecticide,                305–5218; e-mail address:                               physically located in the docket, as well
Fungicide, and Rodenticide Act (FIFRA)                stanton.susan@epa.gov.                                  as the documents that are referenced in
and 40 CFR part 152 subpart E regarding                                                                       those documents. The public version of
                                                      SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION:
ownership of data used to support                                                                             the official record does not include any
registration. This notice announces the               I. General Information                                  information claimed as CBI. The public
availability of an updated version of the             A. Does this Action Apply to Me?                        version of the official record, which
Pesticide Data Submitters List which                                                                          includes printed, paper versions of any
supersedes and replaces all previous                    You may be affected by this action if                 electronic comments submitted during
versions.                                             you are an agricultural producer, food                  an applicable comment period, is
                                                      manufacturer or pesticide manufacturer.                 available for inspection in the Public
List of Subjects                                      Potentially affected categories and                     Information and Records Integrity
                                                      entities may include, but are not limited               Branch (PIRIB), Rm. 119, Crystal Mall
  Environmental protection,                           to:
Administrative practice and procedure,                                                                        #2, 1921 Jefferson Davis Highway,
Pesticides and pests, Reporting and                                                                           Arlington, VA, from 8:30 a.m. to 4 p.m.,
recordkeeping requirements.                                                                                   Monday through Friday, excluding legal
                                                                                                              holidays. The PIRIB telephone number
  Dated: April 5, 2000.                                 Cat-                        Examples of poten-
                                                       egories         NAICS       tially affected entities   is (703) 305–5805.
Richard D. Schmitt,
                                                                                                              C. How and to Whom Do I Submit
Acting Director, Information Resources and            Industry     111             Crop production            Comments?
Services Division, Office of Pesticide                             112             Animal production
Programs.                                                          311             Food manufacturing            You may submit comments through
[FR Doc. 00–10189 Filed 4–25–00; 8:45 am]                          32532           Pesticide manufac-         the mail, in person, or electronically. To
                                                                                     turing                   ensure proper receipt by EPA, it is
BILLING CODE 6560–50–F
                                                                                                              imperative that you identify docket
                                                         This listing is not intended to be                   control number PF–938 in the subject
                                                      exhaustive, but rather provides a guide                 line on the first page of your response.
                                                      for readers regarding entities likely to be                1. By mail. Submit your comments to:
                                                      affected by this action. Other types of                 Public Information and Records
                                                      entities not listed in the table could also             Integrity Branch (PIRIB), Information
                                                      be affected. The North American                         Resources and Services Division


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24472                     Federal Register / Vol. 65, No. 81 / Wednesday, April 26, 2000 / Notices

(7502C), Office of Pesticide Programs                   2. Describe any assumptions that you                 Novartis Crop Protection, Inc.
(OPP), Environmental Protection                      used.
                                                                                                             PP 7F4924
Agency, Ariel Rios Bldg., 1200                          3. Provide copies of any technical
Pennsylvania Ave., NW., Washington,                  information and/or data you used that                   Amended Pesticide Petition
DC 20460.                                            support your views.                                        On June 5, 1998, EPA published a
  2. In person or by courier. Deliver                                                                        notice that it had received a pesticide
                                                        4. If you estimate potential burden or
your comments to: Public Information                                                                         petition (PP 7F4924) from Novartis Crop
                                                     costs, explain how you arrived at the
and Records Integrity Branch (PIRIB),                                                                        Protection, Inc., P.O. Box 18300,
                                                     estimate that you provide.
Information Resources and Services                                                                           Greensboro, NC 27419 proposing
Division (7502C), Office of Pesticide                   5. Provide specific examples to
                                                     illustrate your concerns.                               tolerances for the herbicide clodinafop-
Programs (OPP), Environmental                                                                                propargyl (propanoic acid, 2-[4-[(5-
Protection Agency, Rm. 119, Crystal                     6. Make sure to submit your                          chloro-3-fluoro-2-
Mall #2, 1921 Jefferson Davis Highway,               comments by the deadline in this                        pyridinyl)oxy]phenoxy]-2-propynyl
Arlington, VA. The PIRIB is open from                notice.                                                 ester; CGA–184927) in or on the raw
8:30 a.m. to 4 p.m., Monday through                     7. To ensure proper receipt by EPA,                  agricultural commodities of wheat. EPA
Friday, excluding legal holidays. The                be sure to identify the docket control                  has received an amendment to PP
PIRIB telephone number is (703) 305–                 number assigned to this action in the                   7F4924 from Novartis Crop Protection,
5805.                                                subject line on the first page of your                  Inc., P.O. Box 18300, Greensboro, NC
  3. Electronically. You may submit                  response. You may also provide the                      27419 proposing, pursuant to section
your comments electronically by e-mail               name, date, and Federal Register                        408(d) of the Federal Food, Drug, and
to: ‘‘opp-docket@epa.gov,’’ or you can               citation.                                               Cosmetic Act (FFDCA), 21 U.S.C.
submit a computer disk as described                                                                          346a(d), to amend 40 CFR part 180 to
above. Do not submit any information                 II. What Action is the Agency Taking?
                                                                                                             increase, as requested by EPA, the
electronically that you consider to be                 EPA has received a pesticide petition                 original proposed tolerances; thereby
CBI. Avoid the use of special characters             as follows proposing the establishment                  establishing tolerances for the combined
and any form of encryption. Electronic               and/or amendment of regulations for                     residues of clodinafop-propargyl and its
submissions will be accepted in                      residues of certain pesticide chemical in               acid metabolite, CGA–193469 ((R)-2-[4-
Wordperfect 6.1/8.0 or ASCII file                    or on various food commodities under                    [(5-chloro-3-fluoro-2-
format. All comments in electronic form              section 408 of the Federal Food, Drug,                  pyridinyl)oxy]phenoxy]-propanoic
must be identified by docket control                 and Comestic Act (FFDCA), 21 U.S.C.                     acid), in or on the raw agricultural
number PF–938. Electronic comments                   346a. EPA has determined that this                      commodities wheat, grain at 0.1 ppm;
may also be filed online at many Federal             petition contains data or information                   wheat, forage at 0.1 ppm; wheat, hay at
Depository Libraries.                                regarding the elements set forth in                     0.1 ppm and wheat, straw at 0.5 ppm.
D. How Should I Handle CBI That I                    section 408(d)(2); however, EPA has not                 EPA has determined that the petition
Want to Submit to the Agency?                        fully evaluated the sufficiency of the                  contains data or information regarding
                                                     submitted data at this time or whether                  the elements set forth in section
   Do not submit any information                     the data supports granting of the                       408(d)(2) of the FFDCA; however, EPA
electronically that you consider to be               petition. Additional data may be needed                 has not fully evaluated the sufficiency
CBI. You may claim information that                  before EPA rules on the petition.                       of the submitted data at this time or
you submit to EPA in response to this                                                                        whether the data supports granting of
document as CBI by marking any part or               List of Subjects                                        the petition. Additional data may be
all of that information as CBI.                                                                              needed before EPA rules on the petition.
                                                       Environmental protection,
Information so marked will not be
                                                     Agricultural commodities, Feed                          A. Residue Chemistry
disclosed except in accordance with
                                                     additives, Food additives, Pesticides
procedures set forth in 40 CFR part 2.                                                                         1. Plant metabolism. The metabolism
                                                     and pests, Reporting and recordkeeping
In addition to one complete version of                                                                       of clodinafop-propargyl in wheat is
                                                     requirements.
the comment that includes any                                                                                understood for the purposes of the
information claimed as CBI, a copy of                  Dated: April 14, 2000.                                proposed tolerances. Two studies, one
the comment that does not contain the                James Jones,                                            with the racemic mixture of the R (+)
information claimed as CBI must be                   Director, Registration Division, Office of              and S (¥) forms and the other with the
submitted for inclusion in the public                Pesticide Programs.                                     pure R (+) form (CGA–184927
version of the official record.                      Summary of Petition                                     pyridyloxy labeled), gave similar
Information not marked confidential                                                                          results. Metabolism involves hydrolysis
will be included in the public version                 The petitioner summary of the                         of the parent to the resulting acid
of the official record without prior                 pesticide petition is printed below as                  followed by conjugation,
notice. If you have any questions about              required by section 408(d)(3) of the                    arylhydroxylation at the 6 position of
CBI or the procedures for claiming CBI,              FFDCA. The summary of the petition                      the pyridyl ring followed by sugar
please consult the person identified                 was prepared by the petitioner and                      conjugation, and cleavage of the
under FOR FURTHER INFORMATION                        represents the view of the petitioners.                 pyridinyloxy-phenoxy ether bridge
CONTACT.                                             EPA is publishing the petition summary                  which forms the breakdown products 2-
E. What Should I Consider as I Prepare               verbatim without editing it in any way.                 (4-hydroxyphenoxy) propanoic acid and
My Comments for EPA?                                 The petition summary announces the                      2-hydroxy-3-fluoro-5-chloropyridine.
                                                     availability of a description of the                      2. Analytical method. Novartis has
  You may find the following                         analytical methods available to EPA for                 submitted practical analytical methods
suggestions helpful for preparing your               the detection and measurement of the                    for the determination of clodinafop-
comments:                                            pesticide chemical residues or an                       propargyl and its major plant metabolite
  1. Explain your views as clearly as                explanation of why no such method is                    CGA–193469 in wheat raw agricultural
possible.                                            needed.                                                 commodities (RACs). Clodinafop-


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                          Federal Register / Vol. 65, No. 81 / Wednesday, April 26, 2000 / Notices                                                    24473

propargyl is extracted from crops with               grain or grain processed fractions in any               kg resulted in reduced body weight gain
acetonitrile, cleaned up by solvent                  trial.                                                  of the dams and signs of retarded fetal
partition and solid phase extraction and                A freezer storage stability study                    body weight and incomplete ossification
determined by column switching high                  indicated reasonable stability of both                  of vertebrae and sternebrae. No
performance liquid chromotography                    analytes for a period of 1 year, with                   teratogenic activity of the test article
(HPLC) with ultra violet (UV) detection.             clodinafop-propargyl showing a decline                  was detected. Novartis concluded that
CGA–193469 is extracted from crops                   to 56% in grain and 47% in straw after                  the NOAEL for dams and fetuses was 40
with an acetone-buffer (pH=3) solution,              2 years. CGA–193469 remained stable                     mg/kg/day. The EPA’s Hazard
cleaned up by solvent partition and                  for at least 2 years.                                   Identification Assessment Review
solid phase extraction, and determined               B. Toxicological Profile                                Committee (HIARC) concluded that
by HPLC with UV detection. The limits                                                                        based on an increase in bilateral
of quantitation (LOQ) for the methods                   1. Acute toxicity. The acute oral and                distension and torsion of the ureters and
are 0.02 ppm for clodinafop-propargyl                dermal LD50 values for clodinafop-                      delayed ossification in the fetuses, the
in grain and forage, 0.05 ppm for                    propargyl are 1,829 milligrams/                         developmental LOAEL was 40 mg/kg/
clodinafop-propargyl in straw, and 0.05              kilograms (mg/kg) and greater than                      day and the NOAEL was 5 mg/kg/day.
ppm for CGA–193469 in forage, straw                  2,000 mg/kg for rats of both sexes,                        In a developmental toxicity study in
and grain.                                           respectively. Its acute inhalation LC50 in              rabbits, mortality was observed in dams
                                                     the rat is greater than 2.33 milligram/
   3. Magnitude of residues. Both                                                                            at dose levels of 125 and 175 mg/kg. No
                                                     liter (mg/L), the highest attainable
Canadian and U.S. spring wheat residue                                                                       teratogenic or fetotoxic effects were
                                                     concentration. Clodinafop-propargyl is
trials were conducted. Twelve residue                                                                        noted. Novartis concluded that the
                                                     slightly irritating to the eyes, minimally
trials were conducted from 1989–1992                                                                         maternal NOAEL was 25 mg/kg/day and
                                                     irritating to the skin of rabbits, but was
in the major spring wheat growing areas                                                                      the fetal NOAEL was 175 mg/kg/day.
                                                     found to be sensitizing to the skin of the
of Manitoba, Alberta and Saskatchewan,                                                                       The HIARC considered that the
                                                     guinea pig. This technical will carry the
which share compatible crop zones with                                                                       developmental NOAEL was 125 mg/kg/
                                                     EPA signal word ‘‘Caution.’’
the major spring wheat growing areas of                 2. Genotoxicity. The mutagenic                       day due to significant mortality at 175
the United States (MT, ND, SD, MN).                  potential of clodinafop-propargyl was                   mg/kg/day.
Nine trials were conducted in 1989–91                investigated in six independent studies                    4. Subchronic toxicity. A 90–day
with a tank mix of clodinafop-propargyl              covering different end points in                        feeding study in rats at 1,000 ppm
and a safener as separate EC                         eukaryotes and prokaryotes in vivo and                  resulted in reduced body weight gain,
formulations, and three trials in 1992               in vitro. These tests included: Ames                    increased liver weights, hematological
were conducted with clodinafop-                      reverse mutation with Salmonella                        changes, and increased serum activities
propargyl and the safener as a pre-pack              typhimurium and Chinese hamster V79                     of the alkaline phosphatase. Target
EC formulation. All trials had a single              cells in vitro; chromosomal aberrations                 organs were liver (increased weight),
post-emergence application of                        using human lymphocytes in vitro and                    thymus (atrophy) and spleen (reduced
clodinafop-propargyl at a rate of 80                 the mouse micronucleus test in vivo;                    weight). The changes were reversible
gram active ingredient/hectacre (g a.i./             and DNA repair using rat hepatocytes                    during 4 weeks of recovery. The NOAEL
ha).                                                 and human fibroblasts in vitro.                         was 15 ppm (0.92 mg/kg in males and
   In 1998, an additional six spring                 Clodinafop-propargyl was found to be                    0.94 mg/kg in females). The EPA HIARC
wheat trials were conducted in the                   negative in all these tests and, therefore,             suggested the NOAEL in female rats was
major growing areas of the United                    is considered devoid of any genotoxic                   8.24 mg/kg bw/day.
States. In these trials, clodinafop-                 potential at the levels of specific genes,                 In a 90-day feeding study in mice, 400
propargyl was applied as a single                    chromosomes, or DNA primary                             ppm resulted in reduced activity, one
application of a 240EC formulation at a              structure.                                              death, markedly increased activities of
rate of 70 g a.i./ha. Samples of 30–day                 3. Reproductive and developmental                    aminotransferases, alkaline
forage and hay, and mature straw and                 toxicity. Dietary administration of                     phosphatase, and albumin
grain treated 60 days prior to harvest               clodinafop-propargyl over 2–generations                 concentration, increased liver weights,
were taken for analysis. Grain treated at            at levels as high as 1,000 ppm did not                  hepatocellular hypertrophy, and single
an exaggerated rate in one trial was                 affect mating performance, fertility, or                cell necroses in all mice. Other findings
processed under simulated commercial                 litter sizes. Body weight was reduced in                included intrahepatic bile duct
processing conditions.                               parental animals at 500 and 1,000 ppm.                  proliferation, Kupffer cell hyperplasia,
   At pre-harvest intervals (PHIs) of 30             The physiological developmental and                     and higher incidence of inflammatory
days for forage and hay in the U.S.                  the survival of the pups during the last                cell infiltration. These findings were
trials, and 60–97 days for mature straw              week of the lactation period were                       considered to be secondary to the
and grain in all trials, no detectable               slightly reduced at levels equal to or                  hepatocyte necrosis. The NOAEL of 6
residues of clodinafop-propargyl were                greater than 500 ppm during the first                   ppm was equivalent to a daily dose of
found. Residues of the metabolite CGA–               generation only. Target organs were                     0.9 mg/kg in males and 1.05 mg/kg in
193469 were detected in mature straw                 liver (adults) and kidney (adults and                   females.
from four trials, with a maximum                     pups). The treatment had no effect on                      In a 90–day study in beagle dogs,
Highest Average Field Trail (HAFT)                   reproductive organs. The NOAEL for                      levels of 500 and 1,000 ppm fed over 2
residue of 0.35 ppm. Separate decline                toxicity to the parental rats and                       weeks clearly exceeded a maximum
studies on green forage in both the                  offspring was 50 ppm, corresponding to                  tolerated dose and led to mortality and
United States and Canada showed no                   a mean daily intake of 3.2 mg/kg                        severe toxicity. Effects at 50 and 200
detectable residues of clodinafop-                   clodinafop-propargyl. The NOAEL for                     ppm were limited to dermatitis and
propargyl or the metabolite CGA–                     reproductive toxicity was 1,000 ppm                     clinical chemistry changes, which were
193469 beyond the 7 days after                       (64.2 milligram/kilogram body weight/                   generally mild and transient. The
application interval. No residues of                 day (mg/kg bw/day)).                                    NOAEL of 10 ppm was equivalent to a
clodinafop-propargyl or the metabolite                  In a developmental toxicity study in                 mean daily intake of 0.36 mg/kg in
CGA–193469 were found in mature                      rats, the highest dose level of 160 mg/                 males. The HIARC concluded that in


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24474                     Federal Register / Vol. 65, No. 81 / Wednesday, April 26, 2000 / Notices

females the NOAEL was 50 ppm (1.9                    adenoma, while prostate hyperplasia                     propargyl with urine and feces mainly
mg/kg bw/day).                                       was reduced. However, the total                         in the form of its propionic acid
   5. Chronic toxicity. In a 12-month                incidence of proliferative changes in the               derivative, CGA–193469. Simultaneous
feeding study in dogs, 500 ppm resulted              prostate remained unchanged indicating                  administration of the safener,
in transient dermatitis and reduced                  a progression from prostate hyperplasia                 cloquintocet-mexyl, did not alter the
body weight gain. Two females were                   to adenoma. Females treated at the same                 rate of excretion of clodinafop-propargyl
more severely affected and showed                    high dose had higher incidences of                      or its metabolite pattern.
inappetence, body weight loss, tremors,              ovary tubular adenoma. The slightly                       7. Metabolite toxicology. Clodinafop-
and severe dermatitis, and necessitated              enhanced incidences of these lesions are                propargyl acts as a typical peroxisome
an interruption of the treatment in order            likely a consequence of the severe                      proliferator in the rodent liver, which is
to avoid mortality. Histopathology                   disturbance of the general metabolic                    most likely induced by its propionic
revealed slight hepatocellular                       balance due to excessive liver toxicity.                acid derivative metabolite, CGA–
hypertrophy in one male and one                      In fact, male rats fed 750 ppm exhibited                193469. Like other known well-
female. The NOAEL of 100 ppm was                     a marked increase in peroxisomalβ                       characterized substances with this
equivalent to a mean daily intake of 3.38            oxidation, and an increase in                           property, CGA–193469 caused
mg/kg in males and 3.37 mg/kg in                     cytochrome P450 4A1/ A3 and 4A2 in                      peroxisome proliferation in vitro in
female.                                              their livers. Further, a decrease in                    hepatocytes of the mouse and rat, but
   Lifetime dietary administration of                cytochrome P450 isoenzymes including                    not of the Guinea pig, marmoset, or
clodinafop-propargyl to mice resulted in             CYP 2A, CYP 3A, and male-specific                       human. In addition, clodinafop-
reduced body weights and reduced                     CYP 2C11 was observed. The total                        propargyl was unable to activate the
survival in males treated at 250 ppm.                oxidation rate of testosterone, aromatase               PPAR α-dependent human ACYL CoA
Severe hepatotoxicity was noted at 100               (CYP 19A1) activity plasma estradiol                    oxidase promoter which further
and 250 ppm in both sexes. Based on                  concentration and plasmaβ—                              supports the evidence that humans are
markedly increased liver weights,                    dihydrotestosterone are altered at this                 refractory to peroxisome proliferation
enhanced serum activities of hepatic                 level of treatment. Clodinafop-propargyl                and related changes. The scientific
enzymes and hepatocellular necroses,                 is a potent peroxisome proliferator in                  evidence available amply demonstrates
dietary levels of 100 ppm and 250 ppm                the rat liver and this peroxisomal                      that exposure to substances that
clearly exceeded maximum tolerated                   prolifering activity manifests itself by                produce tumors by a peroxisome
doses in males and females,                          altering Cytochrome P450-dependent                      proliferator mode of action does not
respectively. The increased incidence of             monooxygenses which are involved in                     represent a risk of tumor development
benign liver tumors that occurred in                 steroid hormone homeostasis. The                        in man. Novartis, therefore, has
males treated at 250 ppm was, therefore,             NOAEL of 10 ppm was equivalent to a                     concluded that clodinafop-propargyl is
considered a toxicologically irrelevant              mean daily dose of 0.32 mg/kg in males                  not a carcinogen of relevance to
response as the livers of these animals              and 0.37 mg/kg in females. The EPA                      humans.
were damaged significantly and this                  HIARC concluded that based on                             8. Endocrine disruption. No special
finding was not interpretable. The                   hepatocellular hypertrophy and kidney                   studies investigating potential
toxicity to liver can be associated with             findings, the NOAEL was 1 ppm (0.031                    estrogenic or endocrine effects of
the peroxisomal proliferating activity of            in males and 0.034 in females.                          clodinafop-propargyl have been
clodinafop-propargyl in the mouse.                      Carcinogenicity. The EPA HIARC                       conducted. However, the standard
Despite this mode of action, the                     recommended, based on the increased                     battery of required studies has been
incidence of hepatocellular carcinoma,               incidence of prostate and ovarian                       completed. These studies include an
in these clearly compromised mice,                   tumors in rats and hepatocellular                       evaluation of the potential effects on
remained within the historical control               tumors in mice, that the Cancer                         reproduction and development and an
range, although the incidence was                    Assessment Review Committee review                      evaluation of the pathology of the
slightly increased in comparison to the              clodinafop-propargyl. A Q1* value                       endocrine organs following repeated or
concomitant controls. Tumor incidences               based on the combined incidence of                      long-term exposure. Although prostate
in females were generally low and well               liver tumors in male mice has been                      adenomas and ovarian adenomas were
within the range of the historical                   calculated by the EPA Science Analysis                  observed to be statistically increased in
controls. The NOAEL of 10 ppm was                    Branch. The Q1* value estimate is 1.29                  rats at the highest feeding level with
equivalent to a mean daily dose of 1.10              × E¥1 (mg/kg/day)¥1 in human                            clodinafop-propargyl, this feeding level
mg/kg in males and 1.25 mg/kg in                     equivalents.                                            clearly exceeded the MTD and the livers
females.                                                6. Animal metabolism. In rats,                       in these rats were severely
   Dietary treatment of rats with                    clodinafop-propargyl was rapidly                        compromised. These findings in the
concentrations over 2 years resulted in              absorbed through the gastrointestinal                   endocrine organs were considered to be
initial inappetence in males and                     tract. Absorption through the skin of                   secondary to the severe liver effects.
reduced body weight development in                   rats is considerably slower with 15% of
both sexes treated at 750 ppm. The main              a dermally applied dose being absorbed                  C. Aggregate Exposure
target organ of toxicity was the liver.              within 8 hours. The EPA HIARC                             1. Dietary exposure. Chronic and
Changes in plasma protein and lipid                  estimated the dermal absorption rate for                acute dietary exposure were calculated
levels, strongly enhanced serum                      clodinafop-propargyl to be 2.5% derived                 for the use of clodinafop-propargyl and
activities of liver enzymes, increased               by taking the ratio of the LOAEL from                   the corresponding hydrolysis product,
liver weights, and severe liver necroses             the 28-day oral toxicity study in rats (5               CGA–193469 on wheat. Analyses were
were observed at dietary doses of 300                mg/kg/day) and 28-day dermal toxicity                   conducted using the Dietary Exposure
and 750 ppm in males and at 750 ppm                  study in rats (200 mg/kg/day). Female                   Evaluation Model (DEEMTM) by Novigen
in females. The degenerative lesions                 rats excreted single doses more rapidly                 Sciences and the 1994–96 Continuing
provide strong evidence that these dose              than males. Most likely due to enzyme                   Survey of Food Intake (CSFII). Chronic
levels exceeded a maximum tolerated                  induction, differences were much less                   and acute tier three assessments were
dose (MTD). Top dose group males                     pronounced after repeated treatment.                    conducted to account for the
showed a higher incidence of prostate                Both sexes excreted clodinafop-                         consumption of commodities containing


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                          Federal Register / Vol. 65, No. 81 / Wednesday, April 26, 2000 / Notices                                                    24475

wheat grain and residues were adjusted               0.0147 ppm for parent and acid,                         Modeling Systems (PRZM/EXAMS)
with a projected percent of crop treated             respectively). These values were                        model using the Index Reservoir
value of 4%. Residues of parent                      summed and zeroes were added to the                     scenario and the Percent Cropped Area
clodinafop-propargyl were below the                  residue distribution file corresponding                 provided the estimated surface water
limit of quantitation (LOQ) of 0.02 ppm              to the percent of crop not treated (96%                 concentrations of the combined
in all grain samples. Residues of the                not treated). For all female populations                clodinafop-propargyl and degradate
acid (CGA–193469) were also below the                in the DEEMTM, exposure ranged from                     residues for a wheat application in
LOQ (LOQ = 0.05 ppm) in grain. Since                 3.0% – 4.2% of the aRfD at the 99.9th                   North Dakota. The estimated 90th
no residues were observed in any of the              percentile of exposure. The most                        percentile acute peak concentration for
samples, a statistical limit of detection            sensitive female population was nursing                 the combined residues was 0.792 part
(sLOD) was calculated for parent and                 females (13+ years old) with an                         per billion (ppb). The estimated 36-year
the corresponding acid metabolite and                exposure of 4.2% of the aRfD (99.9th                    mean-yearly chronic concentration for
one-half of the sLOD of each were                    percentile). Acute exposure for the                     the combined residues was 0.0519 ppb.
summed and entered into the chronic                  general population excluding females (>                    Concerning the acute and chronic
and the acute assessments. Although                  13 years old), was compared to an aRfD                  exposures to clodinafop-propargyl and
wheat fractions may be fed to livestock              of 0.025 mg/kg/day based on a NOAEL                     the degradate, an additional 10×-safety
and poultry, calculation of dietary                  of 25 mg/kg/day from a developmental                    factor has been proposed by the EPA
burden with subsequent transfer to                   study in rabbits and a 1,000x                           HIARC for the protection of infants and
animal commodities shows secondary                   uncertainty factor (UF). Acute exposure                 children. This additional safety factor
residues are extremely negligible and do             at the 99.9th percentile for the general                was applied to the acute and chronic
not impact risk. Tolerances of 0.1 ppm               population, children and males (all                     non-cancer RfD values for all sub-
are being proposed for clodinafop-                   populations excluding females) ranged                   populations as a worse case estimate of
propargyl and the acid metabolite,                   from 0.18% (seniors, 55+) to 0.62% of                   exposure. This resulted in an acute RfD
CGA–193469, for wheat grain, forage,                 the aRfD for children (1–6 years old).                  for females 13+ years of 0.005 mg/kg/
and hay and 0.5 ppm for straw.                       These results demonstrate that there is                 day and 0.025 mg/kg/day for all other
Tolerances for meat, milk and eggs are               a high degree of certainty of no harm                   subgroups. This also resulted in a
not required.                                        resulting from acute exposure to dietary                chronic RfD for infants and children of
   i. Food—a. Chronic. Chronic exposure              residues of clodinafop-propargyl.                       0.00003 mg/kg/day. A chronic lifetime
was compared to a chronic reference                     ii. Drinking water. Another potential                cancer risk exposure of 0.129 mg/kg/day
dose (RfD) of 0.00003 mg/kg/day based                route of exposure to residues of                        has also been proposed by the EPA. This
on a no-effect level of 0.03 mg/kg/day               pesticides includes drinking water.                     was applied to the adult population
from a 2-year chronic toxicity/                      Field and laboratory study results have                 exposures only.
carcinogenicity study in rats and a                  demonstrated that clodinafop-propargyl                     For ground water, the acute dietary
1,000X uncertainty factor. Exposure                  and its degradation products have slight                assessment provided drinking water
results are compared against the                     to medium mobility in soil. However,                    levels of comparison (DWLOC) ranging
aforementioned reference dose as well                due to rapid degradation of the product                 from 140 to 873 ppb. The estimated
as the Agency’s Q1* value of 0.129.                  under field conditions and its low                      ground water concentration, 0.006688
Since all residues in grain were below               application rate, the potential for it to               ppb, represented from 0.0008% to
the LOQ, an sLOD was calculated for                  reach surface and ground water is                       0.0048% of the acute RfD for all sub-
parent and CGA–193469. One-half sLOD                 considered to be negligible. Thus,                      populations. The chronic dietary
values for parent clodinafop-propargyl               drinking water exposure to clodinafop-                  exposures provided DWLOC values of
and the corresponding acid were 0.0049               propargyl and its degradation products                  0.16 ppb (infants), 0.31 ppb (children),
ppm and 0.0147 ppm, respectively.                    was not included in the aggregate risk                  and 0.2026 to 0.2363 ppb (lifetime
These values were summed and                         assessment. Also, since clodinafop-                     cancer risk for adults). The estimated
adjusted with a market share value of                propargyl is not intended for uses other                ground water concentration represented
4% for the calculation of exposure. The              than the agricultural use on wheat, there               3.98%, 1.93% and 2.5 to 2.9% of the
exposure results show that the U.S.                  is no potential for nonoccupational                     chronic risk, respectively.
population utilizes 4.3% of the chronic              exposure.                                                  For surface water, the acute dietary
RfD. The most sensitive subpopulation                   The estimated exposures of                           assessment provided DWLOC values
is children (1–6 years old) with an                  clodinafop-propargyl and its main                       ranging from 140 to 873 ppb. The
exposure of 9.9% of the chronic RfD.                 environmental degradate were                            estimated acute surface water
Using the Agency’s Q1* value of 0.129,               combined and the hazards for both                       concentration, 0.792 ppb, represented
a lifetime risk of 1.35 x 10¥7 was                   compounds were based on the RfD                         from 0.09% to 0.57% of the acute RfD
calculated. These results indicate there             values determined for clodinafop-                       for all sub-populations. The chronic
is more than a reasonable certainty that             propargyl alone. The estimated water                    dietary exposures provided DWLOC
exposure to residues of clodinafop-                  concentrations for clodinafop-propargyl                 values of 0.16 ppb (infants), 0.31 ppb
propargyl and its corresponding acid                 and the degradate were estimated,                       (children), and 0.2026 to 0.2363 ppb
metabolite (CGA–193469) will result in               weighted and combined based on                          (lifetime cancer risk for adults). The
no harm.                                             applications rates adjusted for the                     estimated surface water concentration,
   b. Acute. Acute exposure to females               maximum concentration of the                            0.0519 ppb, represented 31%, 15% and
greater than 13 years old was compared               degradate present in the aerobic soil                   19.1–to–22.3% of the chronic risk,
to an acute reference dose (aRfD) of                 metabolism studies.                                     respectively. Therefore, the acute and
0.005 mg/kg/day based on a NOAEL of                     The Screening Concentration in                       chronic drinking water exposures for
5 mg/kg/day from a developmental                     Ground Water (SCI–GROW) model was                       clodinafop-propargyl and its main
study in rats and a 1,000x uncertainty               used to provide the estimated ground                    environmental degradate did not exceed
factor. As in the chronic assessment,                water concentration of the combined                     the exposures allowed by the risk cup.
one-half sLOD was used for parent                    clodinafop-propargyl and degradate                         2. Non-dietary exposure. Exposure to
clodinafop-propargyl and the                         residues, 0.006688 ppb. The Pesticide                   clodinafop-propargyl for the mixer/
corresponding acid (0.0049 ppm and                   Root Zone Model/Exposure Analysis                       loader/ground-boom/aerial applicator


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24476                     Federal Register / Vol. 65, No. 81 / Wednesday, April 26, 2000 / Notices

and flagger was calculated using the                 conservative risk assessment was                        effects on the developing organism
Pesticide Handlers Exposure Database                 performed assuming dermal exposure                      resulting from chemical exposure
(PHED). It was assumed that the product              equal to total deposition to outside                    during prenatal development to one or
would be applied 6 days per year by                  clothing for a flagger as well as                       both parents. Reproduction studies
ground-boom application to a maximum                 inhalation exposure equivalent to a                     provide information relating to effects
of 80 acres per day by the grower, 15                pesticide flagger, as reflected in PHED.                from exposure to a chemical on the
days per year by ground-boom                         A dermal absorption factor of 2.5%, as                  reproductive capability of mating
application to a maximum of 80 acres                 estimated by HIARC, was assumed.                        animals and data on systemic toxicity.
per day by the commercial ground-boom                Offsite drift was assumed to be 15% and                    Retarded fetal body weight and
applicator and 15 days per year to a                 the area assumed to be adjacent to the                  incomplete ossification of vertebrae and
maximum of 350 acres per day by the                  sensitive area was one acre. Large MOEs                 sternebrae were observed at a
aerial applicator, at a maximum use rate             exist for this potential exposure                       maternally toxic dose of 160 mg/kg/day
of 28.3 grams active ingredient per acre.            scenario. Dermal exposure MOEs were                     in rats; however, no developmental
For purposes of this assessment, it was              6.0E+07 for a 15 kg child and 2.8E+08                   toxicity of the test article was detected.
assumed that an applicator would be                  for a 70 kg adult. Inhalation MOEs were                 Novartis believes that the NOAEL for
wearing a long sleeved shirt and long                2.3E+07 for a 15 kg child and 1.1E+8 for                dams and fetuses was 40 mg/kg/day.
pants and the mixer/loader would, in                 a 70 kg adult.                                          The EPA’s HIARC concluded that based
addition, wear gloves. Daily doses were                                                                      on an increase in bilateral distension
                                                     D. Cumulative Effects
calculated for a person weighting 70 kg                                                                      and torsion of the ureters and delayed
assuming 100% dermal penetration.                       A cumulative exposure assessment for                 ossification in the fetuses, the
Short-term and intermediate-term                     effects of clodinafop-propargyl and                     developmental LOAEL was 40 mg/kg/
dermal and inhalation risk assessments               other substances with the same                          day and the NOAEL was 5 mg/kg/day.
were performed. Doses and endpoints                  mechanism of action is not appropriate                  Although mortality was observed in
used for risk assessments were based on              because there is ample evidence to                      rabbit dams at dose levels of 125 and
Agency determined toxicological                      indicate that humans are not sensitive to               175 mg/kg, no teratogenic or fetotoxic
endpoints recommended by the HIARC.                  the effects of clodinafop-propargyl and                 effects were noted. The maternal
The NOAEL of 50 mg/kg/day from the                   other peroxisome proliferators. Thus,                   NOAEL was 25 mg/kg/day and the fetal
28–day rat dermal study was used for                 the calculations outlined below were                    NOAEL was 175 mg/kg/day.
short- and intermediate-term dermal                  done for clodinafop-propargyl alone.
                                                                                                                Clodinafop-propargyl fed over 2-
risk assessments. The NOAEL of 5 mg/                 E. Safety Determination                                 generations to rats at levels as high as
kg/day from the developmental toxicity                                                                       1,000 ppm did not affect mating
study in rats was used for short-term                   1. U.S. population. Acute and chronic
                                                     dietary exposure is minimal for                         performance, fertility, or litter sizes.
inhalation risk assessments. The
                                                     clodinafop-propargyl and the                            Body weight was reduced in parental
NOAEL of 0.9 mg/kg/day based on a
                                                     corresponding acid metabolite. Both                     animals at 500 and 1,000 ppm.
subchronic oral toxicity study in rats
                                                     chronic and acute exposure estimates                    Physiological developmental and the
was used for intermediate-term
                                                     showed that less than 10% of the RfD                    survival of the pups during the last
inhalation risk assessments. Based on
                                                     is utilized in all populations.                         week of the lactation period were
the use pattern of clodinafop-propargyl,
                                                        Exposure through the consumption of                  slightly reduced at levels equal to or
no long-term dermal or inhalation
                                                     drinking water is minimal from both                     greater than 500 ppm during the first
exposure is expected to occur and long-
                                                     surface water and ground water model                    generation only. Target organs were
term risk assessments are not required.
   Large margins of exposure (MOEs)                  estimates and in all cases less than 35%                liver (adults) and kidney (adults and
exist for all occupational exposure                  of the risk cup is utilized. The estimated              pups). The NOAEL for toxicity to the
scenarios. Short-term dermal exposure                water concentrations are very                           parental animals and offspring was 50
MOEs ranged from 4.0E+03 for the                     conservative since conservative model                   ppm, corresponding to a mean daily
commercial open mixer-loader to                      parameters were assumed.                                intake of 3.2 mg/kg bw/day of
1.8E+05 for the commercial or grower                    There are no residential uses of                     clodinafop-propargyl. The NOAEL for
ground-boom enclosed-cab applicator.                 clodinafop-propargyl that would result                  reproductive toxicity was 1,000 ppm
Intermediate-term dermal exposure                    in non-dietary exposure. However, there                 (64.2 mg/kg bw/day).
MOEs ranged from 9.7E+04 for the                     is a remote possibility that spray drift                   FFDCA section 408 provides that EPA
commerical open mixer-loader to                      resulting from aerial application could                 may apply an additional safety factor for
1.1E+07 for the grower ground-boom                   lead to residential exposure. Since                     infants and children in the case of
enclosed-cab applicator. Short-term                  exposure from spray drift would be an                   threshold effects to account for prenatal
inhalation exposure MOEs ranged from                 unlikely event, it is not appropriate to                and postnatal toxicity and the
3.6E+04 for the commercial open mixer-               include non-dietary exposure into the                   completeness of the database. Based on
loader to 1.7E+06 for the commercial or              aggregate assessment. Therefore, it is                  the current toxicological data
grower ground-boom enclosed-cab                      concluded that there is more than a                     requirements, the database relative to
applicator. Intermediate-term inhalation             reasonable certainty that no harm will                  prenatal and postnatal effects for
exposure MOEs ranged from 1.6E+05 for                result from aggregate exposure to                       children is complete. The results from
the commercial open mixer-loader to                  residues of clodinafop-propargyl.                       the 2-generation reproduction study and
1.8E+07 for the grower ground-boom                      2. Infants and children. In assessing                the rabbit developmental toxicity study
enclosed-cab applicator.                             the potential for additional sensitivity of             would indicate there is no additional
   Although there are no residential uses            infants and children to residues of                     sensitivity of infants and children to
of clodinafop-propargyl, there is                    clodinafop-propargyl, data from                         clodinafop-propargyl. The HIARC
potential for residential exposure to                developmental toxicity studies in the rat               selected the developmental NOAEL of 5
spray drift resulting from aerial                    and rabbit and a 2-generation                           mg/kg/day from the rat developmental
application. No standard operating                   reproduction study in the rat have been                 toxicity as opposed to the maternal
procedure exists for performing this risk            considered. The developmental toxicity                  NOAEL of 40 mg/kg bw/day. Therefore,
assessment; however, a very                          studies are designed to evaluate adverse                the HIARC recommended the 10x safety


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                           Federal Register / Vol. 65, No. 81 / Wednesday, April 26, 2000 / Notices                                                    24477

factor should be retained based on this               ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION                                has not attempted to describe all the
increased susceptibility.                             AGENCY                                                  specific entities that may be affected by
  Using conservative exposure                                                                                 this action. If you have any questions
assumptions, dietary exposure to the                  [OPP–66276; FRL–6552–8]
                                                                                                              regarding the information in this notice,
most sensitive subpopulation, children                                                                        consult the person listed under FOR
                                                      Notice of Receipt of Requests To
(1–6 years old) utilizes 9.9% of the                                                                          FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT.
                                                      Voluntary Cancel Certain Pesticide
chronic reference dose. Chronic dietary
                                                      Registrations                                           B. How Can I Get Additional
exposure to infants (non-nursing, 1–6
years old) is 2.0% of the chronic RfD.                AGENCY: Environmental Protection                        Information, Including Copies of this
Acute exposure for all infants and                    Agency (EPA).                                           Document and Other Related
children is less than 1.0% of the acute               ACTION: Notice.                                         Documents?
RfD (0.62% of the RfD for the most
sensitive subpopulation, children 1–6                 SUMMARY: In accordance with section                        1. Electronically. You may obtain
years old). Exposure to drinking water                6(f)(1) of the Federal Insecticide,                     electronic copies of this document, and
for children (1–6 years old) utilizes 31%             Fungicide and Rodenticide Act (FIFRA),                  certain other related documents that
of the chronic RfD (surface water                     as amended, EPA is issuing a notice of                  might be available electronically, from
estimate). Children (1–6 years old)                   receipt of requests by registrants to                   the EPA Internet Home Page at http://
utilize 15% of the chronic RfD (surface               voluntarily cancel certain pesticide                    www.epa.gov/. To access this
water estimate). For acute exposure to                registrations.                                          document, on the Home Page select
drinking water, the worst case estimates              DATES: Unless a request is withdrawn,                   ‘‘Laws and Regulations’’ and then look
(surface water) for infants show that                 the Agency will approve these use                       up the entry for this document under
only 0.57% of the aRfD is utilized and                deletions and the deletions will become                 the ‘‘Federal Register—Environmental
children (1–6 years old) utilize 0.27% of             effective on October 23, 2000.                          Documents.’’ You can also go directly to
the aRfD. These results show that                     FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: By                     the Federal Register listings at (http://
aggregate exposure to residues of                     mail: James A. Hollins, Office of                       www.epa.gov/fedrgstr/).
clodinafop-propargyl in the diet and                  Pesticide Programs (7502C),
drinking water is negligible. Based on                                                                           2. In person. Contact James A. Hollins
                                                      Environmental Protection Agency, Ariel                  at 1921 Jefferson Davis Highway, Crystal
the completeness and reliability of the
                                                      Rios Building, 1200 Pennsylvania Ave.,                  Mall #2, Rm. 224, Arlington, VA.,
toxicity data and the conservative
                                                      NW., Washington, DC 20460. Office                       telephone number (703) 305–5761.
nature of the exposure assumptions, it is
                                                      location for commercial courier
concluded that there is a more than                                                                           Available from 7:30 a.m. to 4:45 p.m.,
                                                      delivery, telephone number and e-mail
reasonable certainty that no harm will                                                                        Monday thru Friday, excluding legal
                                                      address: Rm. 224, Crystal Mall #2, 1921
result to infants and children from                                                                           holidays.
                                                      Jefferson Davis Highway, Arlington, VA
exposure to residues of clodinafop-
                                                      22202, telephone number: (703) 305–                     II. What Action Is the Agency Taking?
propargyl.
                                                      5761; e-mail: hollins.james@epa.gov.
F. International Tolerances                           SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION:                                This notice announces receipt by the
  There are no Codex Alimentarius                                                                             Agency of applications from registrants
                                                      I. General Information                                  to cancel some 163 pesticide products
Commission (CODEX) maximum
residue levels (MRLs) established for                 A. Does this Action Apply to Me?                        registered under section 3 or 24 of
residues of clodinafop-propargyl in or                                                                        FIFRA. These registrations are listed in
                                                        This action is directed to the public
on raw agricultural commodities.                      in general. Although this action may be                 sequence by registration number (or
[FR Doc. 00–10432 Filed 4–25–00; 8:45 am]             of particular interest to persons who                   company number and 24 number) in the
BILLING CODE 6560–50–F                                produce or use pesticides, the Agency                   following Table 1.

                             TABLE 1.—REGISTRATIONS WITH PENDING REQUESTS FOR CANCELLATION
    Registration No.                               Product name                                                      Chemical name

          000070–00179      Kill-Ko Seed Treater                                          O,O-Diethyl                  O-(2-isopropyl-6-methyl-4-pyrimidinyl)
                                                                                            phosphorothioate      cis-N-Trichloromethylthio-4-cyclohexene-
                                                                                            1,2-dicarboximide
          000070–00190      Kill-Ko Fruit Tree Spray                                      Methoxychlor (2,2-bis(p-methoxyphenyl)-1,1,1-trichloroethane)
                                                                                            O,O-Dimethyl         phosphorodithioate         of         diethyl
                                                                                            mercaptosuccinate cis-N-Trichloromethylthio-4-cyclohexene-
                                                                                            1,2-dicarboximide
   000100 OR–98–0021        Supracide 25WP Insecticide-Miticide                           O,O-Dimethyl       phosphorodithioate,      S-ester     with      4-
                                                                                            (mercaptomethyl)-2-
   000100 OR–99–0022        Maxim – MZ Potato Seed Protectant                             Gas cartidge (as a device for burrowing animal control) Zinc ion
                                                                                            and manganese ethylenebisdithiocarbamate, coordination
                                                                                            product      1H-Pyrrole-3-carbonitrile,      4-(2,2-difluoro-1,3-
                                                                                            benzodioxol-4-yl)- (9CI)
   000264 OR–81–0055        Rovral Fungicide                                              3-(3,5-Dichlorophenyl)-N-(1-methylethyl)-2,4-dioxo-1-
                                                                                            imidazolidinecarboxamide
   000264 WA–81–0052        Rovral Fungicide                                              3-(3,5-Dichlorophenyl)-N-(1-methylethyl)-2,4-dioxo-1-
                                                                                            imidazolidinecarboxamide
          000270–00053      Farnam Ready-To-Use Stable & Horse Fly Spray                  Pine oil
                                                                                          2,2-Dichlorovinyl dimethyl phosphate
          000270–00284      Security Brand Cygon* 2-E Systemic Insecticide                O,O-Dimethyl S-((methylcarbamoyl)methyl) phosphorodithioate
          000270–00285      Security Brand Fungi-Gard                                     Tetrachloroisophthalonitrile
          000270–00287      Security Brand Systemic Rose & Flower Booster                 O,O-Diethyl S-(2-(ethylthio)ethyl) phosphorodithioate



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