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					                                                                                                               Best Products of Europe




Coffee machines: recommendations for policy design
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August 7 2008, Jürg Nipkow and Eric Bush, Topten International Group TIG, Paris, www.topten.info




Contents
Summary ................................................................................................................................................ 2
Overview on political instruments and initiatives ...................................................................................... 3
Market situation in Europe ...................................................................................................................... 4
Energy consumption and saving potentials.............................................................................................. 5
Electricity Consumption of Coffee Machines: Measuring Method and Calculation Formula ...................... 6
Energy label for coffee machines ............................................................................................................ 6
Impact and experiences with the Euro-Topten Measuring Method for Coffee Machines ........................... 7
References and Links ............................................................................................................................. 8




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Summary
According to GfK more than 18 million coffee machines are sold in Europe every year, thereof 10 million
traditional filter coffee machines and 8 million espresso- and filter-pad machines. For comfort and quality
reasons there is a strong trend towards espresso and filter-pad machines. However, these comfort
products account for large (unnecessary) energy losses for permanent preheating and standby modes.
Thus this paper concentrates on these espresso- and filter-pad machines.
A coffee machine usually accounts for more electricity consumption than an energy-label-class A oven or
a class A++ refrigerator. Regarding the great differences between products and the high saving
potentials, an energy-label for coffee machines would be a very effective measure to raise efficiency of
coffee machines. In the framework of the IEE-project Euro-Topten a measuring method and calculation
formula for the electrical consumption of coffee machines was developed (Topten, 2008). This measure-
ment methodology and a standard usage pattern are suggested and might be incorporated into the IEC
60661 standard and a labelling directive, respectively.
With relatively simple measures as auto-power-off, better insulation of boilers and low standby the energy
efficiency of coffee machines can be strongly enhanced. The magnitude of the energy saving potential of
an efficient versus a typical espresso machine is about 100 kWh per year according to measurements
and tests of Topten. If in the next years 100 million coffee machines in Europe could be replaced by
energy efficiency models 10’000 million kWh or 1’500 million Euro electricity costs could be saved yearly.
However, it is of prime importance, to choose appropriate measurement methods. The experiences of
Topten over several years indicated, that key features as auto power off with short preset delay and
insulated boilers have to be included carefully. On the other hand, effects as energy consumption for
producing a coffee or vapor, which look important at a first glance showed to be of little relevance but
would cause measurement methods to become unreasonably complex und ineffectual in praxis. In fact,
the "keeping warm" energy consumption exceeds the consumption for coffee and vapour production by
far.
The technologies for high efficiency exist and are introduced on the market. Already today, diverse high
efficiency models of several important brands of coffee machines are available on the European market.
They are presented on www.topten.info. An energy label for coffee machines would be appropriate and
would give incentives to trade and industry to develop and offer more energy-efficient coffee machines.
The market of coffee machines in European countries is still extremely disperse, however in all countries
there are strong trends to higher sales figures and towards high end products (real espresso- and filter-
pad machines instead of traditional filter systems). It is a great challenge to introduce energy efficiency
measures before first equipment acquisition in many countries takes place.




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Overview on political instruments and initiatives
Coffee machines could be dealt with in four existing political instruments regulating energy efficiency.


                        Eco-design of Energy-Using Products

                        It is recommended to launch preparatory studies regarding the eco-design of
                        energy-using products and to propose implementing measures for coffee
                        machines.
                        As a short time measure auto-power-off (which avoids keeping hot of water) and
                        standby thresholds should be introduced (tier 1).
                        In midterm minimum efficiency requirements should be upgraded according to
                        scales of a future energy label (tier 2).


                        Energy label for coffee machines

                        Design standards for coffee machines on the basis of Euro-Topten to incorporate
                        into the standard IEC 60661.
                        Design energy label for coffee machines.
                        http://ec.europa.eu/energy/demand/legislation/domestic_en.htm



                        The EU EcoLabel informs consumers that appliances meet certain ecological
                        requirements during its entire life cycle. Coffee machines could be included as
                        well. (Legal base: regulation No. 1980/2000 (EC) on a revised Community Eco-
                        label award scheme) http://ec.europa.eu/environment/ecolabel/index_en.htm




                        Promotion programs
                           In midterm minimum efficiency requirements should be upgraded according to
                           scales of the future energy machines according to Euro-Topten with measures
                        Promote high efficiency coffeelabel
                        such as rebate programs, information campaigns, or bonus-malus systems.




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Market situation in Europe
The following table and figures show the total sales figures of 18 European countries (AT, BE, CH, DE,
FR, GB, ES, IT, NL, PT, SE, DK, FI, GR, PL, HU, CR and SR) according to GfK.
Traditional filter coffee machines have still the highest market share (55%). There is a considerable trend
towards Espresso full-automatic and an extremely strong trend towards espresso portioned machines.
Low-comfort and low quality machines (hand-operated espresso piston, pad-filters, Combis) are losing
market share. The (most energy relevant) espresso- and pad machines have a market share of 43% and
an important growth of 6.9%.


Sales coffee machines [in 1000]            2006        2007 Increase
Filter                                   10‘076      10‘072     0.0%
Pad-Filter                                3‘546       3‘410    -3.8%
Espresso portioned                        1‘647       2‘356   43.1%
Espresso full-automatic                     824         870     5.5%
Espresso piston hand-operated             1‘358       1‘246    -8.2%
Combi Espresso-Filter                       312         284    -8.9%
All Coffee machines                      17‘763      18‘238     2.7%
All Espresso- and Pad-machines            7‘375       7‘882     6.9%




However, according to private communications
from producers it is known that the national
markets are extremely different. There are
countries as Italy, Switzerland or Portugal with a
huge market share of espresso machines over
70%. On the other hand there are countries with
still very low market share of espresso
machines as Belgium, Germany or the
Netherlands, lower than 20%. In Belgium or the
Netherlands pad-filters are quite popular with a
market share of about 40%.
                                                      Sales in value
Furthermore it is interesting to have a look at
the markets also in value. Assuming roughly
that typical prices are 30 Euros for filter
machines, 80 Euros for pad-filters and 200
Euros for espresso machines there evolves an
opposite picture. Espresso machines are
strongly dominating the market in value (see
figure).

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Market of high efficiency coffee machines

According to Topten (August 2008) a large range of high efficiency products already exists, see
www.topten.info, the bar graph and the pictures (and electricity consumption per year) of some models.




   De Longhi          Delizio           Jura            Krups &             Rotel            Satrap
                                                       Rowenta
   84 kWh/a         40 kWh/a          43 kWh/a         84 kWh/a           100 kWh/a        88 kWh/a


Energy consumption and saving potentials
Based on diverse measurements and tests of Topten, typical energy consumption of espresso machines
(portioned and automatic) may be assumed to be 170 kWh per year. With relatively simple measures as
auto-power-off, better insulation of boilers and low standby the energy efficiency of coffee machines can
be strongly enhanced. High efficiency models have typical values of 70 kWh per year. Thus the magni-
tude of the energy saving potential of efficient versus typical espresso machines is about 100 kWh per
year. As a first approach the same values are also assumed for espresso piston hand-operated, pad-filter
and traditional filter machines.

The table shows some very rough but cautious estimates to show orders of magnitude

Coffee machines                    E-consumption         E-consumption      Efficiency
in Europe                       for typical models   for Topten models       Potential
                      Units                 kWh/a                kWh/a          kWh/a
Sales per year       20 Mio              3'400 Mio            1'400 Mio     2'000 Mio
Stock               100 Mio             17'000 Mio            7'000 Mio    10'000 Mio

To summarize the order of magnitudes: The stock of coffee machines in Europe may be 100 million units
consuming 17’000 million kWh per year causing electricity costs of about 2’500 million Euro. Roughly 20
million coffee machines are sold per year. If in the next years all coffee machines in Europe could be re-
placed by energy efficiency models 10’000 million kWh or 1’500 million Euro electricity costs could be
saved.

It is recommended to check and verify these figures and order of magnitudes in the framework of the
preparatory EuP-studies.

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Electricity Consumption of Coffee Machines: Measuring Method and Calculation
Formula
The Topten measuring method identifies the annual electricity consumption of coffee machines
(www.topten.info, 2008). It is based on a ‘standard use’, for which a typical number of ‘coffee periods’ and
the electricity consumption for coffee production is assumed. The following components relevant for the
overall electricity consumption are covered by the standard use:
1.   Power input ‘Ready’/’On’
2.   Power input Standby
3.   Auto-Off according to actual factory settings
4.   Standard energy consumption for the coffee production (no measurement)
The production of coffee and vapour could theoretically be included in the measurement as well.
However, there are fundamental reasons not to do so:
1. The energy consumption of the production mainly depends on the user’s demands and the according
   use patterns. The degree of efficiency of the production does have a certain influence, too, but it also
   correlates well with the ‘On’ consumption, which is being considered in the Topten measuring
   method. Assuming a typical coffee consumption of 2000 cups per year (according to Topten standard
   use) the theoretical energy consumption for the production accounts for less than 50% of the annual
   energy consumption of the most efficient coffee machines, and even for less than ¼ in the case of
   typical machines.
2. The measurement of the energy consumption for production of coffee and vapour is extremely
   complex because very precise measurements of temperatures, quantities and time frames are
   necessary. It has to be considered, that coffee machines do re-heat after production of coffee or
   vapour which can need up to one minute. Furthermore the measured energy depends on the
   temperature of the boiler which depends on the random time lag since the last heating pulse. The
   procedure would need a multitude of precisely defined steps and tolerances.
3. The complexity of measurements of production energy would not only for the producers be a costly
   burden. Most notably it would be a problem for controlling. Considering costs, risks with tolerance
   difficulties the controlling one another between manufacturers probably would not really work and
   also official spot checks would be extremely expensive. In contrast measurements according to the
   methods of Euro-Topten are proved and tested.
4. New models of high-end coffee machines offer more and more special functions for preparation of
   milk; the trends are hardly ever predictable. It seems impossible to handle these extensions with
   schematic methods of measurement even including correction factors. On the other hand
   measurement of ready and standby consumption with factory settings is clear and easy.
This is why many producers and test laboratories appreciate the measurement methods of Euro-Topten
which excludes measurement of production processes.


Energy label for coffee machines
The energy consumption of today’s most efficient coffee machines might not be optimised essentially any
more. Thus, the threshold for A+ should be reachable for these top models. Really inefficient models
should be in the G class. One might consider already initiated measures as intended thresholds on
standby and to choose the F/G threshold not too weak. Furthermore it is recommended to use the same
thresholds for espresso portioned and full-automatic machines as there are no essential differences from
an energy point of view (same quantity of parts which have to be kept warm).
Already in 2006 the methodology for an Energy label for coffee machines was presented. In the
meantime methods were optimised. An essential advancement is, that it is now possible to consider
effective time lag of auto-off according to actual factory settings instead of using a fixed value of one
hour.


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To start the discussion the thresholds might be defined in the following way:




                                                                                            A+          50
                                                                                            A           75
                                                                                            B           90
                                                                                            C          105
                                                                                            D          125
                                                                                            E          150
                                                                                            F          175




Annual electricity consumption of coffee machines (Topten, 8/2008) and suggestion for labelling scheme


Impact and experiences with the Euro-Topten Measuring Method for Coffee
Machines
A first version of the Euro-Topten Measuring Method for Coffee Machines was developed in a research
project in 2003 and presented at EEDAL conferences in Torino and an updated version at EEDAL 2006.
Since many years high efficiency coffee machines have been presented on Topten Switzerland and on
“Best products of Europe” on www.topten.info. Presently, there are more than 10 high efficiency models
on the European market.
One of the large retailers in Switzerland Coop bases its label “Oecoplan” for high efficiency coffee
machines on Euro-Topten selection criteria and measuring methods.
Promotion programs are important to increase the market share of high efficiency coffee machines.
Possibilities are rebate programs, information campaigns, or bonus-malus systems addressing
producers. In autumn 2007, the City of Zurich in Switzerland has started to promote energy efficient
coffee machines and to focus on the best models available. Consumers of the local power supplier ewz
(Zurich) get a bonus of EUR 60 when buying a Topten coffee machine. More electrical utilities as iwb
(Basel) and ewt (Tamins) have started similar rebate programs.
At the Domotechnica/Koelnmesse on February 2008 the German Energy Agency dena awarded the most
efficient coffee machines based on the Euro-Topten Measuring Method for Coffee Machines. The award
winners were Jura with the model “ENA 5 Blossom White” and WIK Elektro-Hausgeräte with the model
CremAroma CAM 50D (“Satrap” in Switzerland).
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At the Klagenfurt-Fair on September 13 2008, the European Commission will award the most efficient
coffee machine of the award “Euro-Topten Product Exhibition and Competition”.




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References and Links
Projects, Directives and Regulations of the EU:
European Parliament and the Council. Directive 2005/32/EC of the European Parliament and of the
Council of 6 July 2005 establishing a framework for the setting of ecodesign requirements for energy-
using products and amending Council Directive 92/42/EEC and Directives 96/57/EC and 2000/55/EC of
the European Parliament and of the Council. Official Journal L 191, 22/07/2005 P. 0029 – 0058
http://eur-lex.europa.eu/LexUriServ/LexUriServ.do?uri=OJ:L:2005:191:0029:0058:EN:PDF
Directorate-General for Energy and Transport, Brussels:
http://ec.europa.eu/dgs/energy_transport/index_en.html
     • Energy Efficiency: http://ec.europa.eu/energy/demand/legislation/eco_design_en.htm

Euro-Topten and Topten International Group TIG www.topten.info
    Topten-Selection of high efficiency coffee machines:
    •    Super automatics: http://www.topten.info/index.php?page=super_automatics
    •    Capsule espresso machines:
         http://www.topten.info/index.php?page=capsule_espresso_machiines
    Selection criteria: http://www.topten.info/index.php?page=coffee_machine_ak&fromid=216
    Measuring Method and Calculation Formula for the Electrical Consumption of Coffee Machines.
    2008: http://www.topten.info/uploads/images/upload/MeasuringMethod%20Coffee-2008-04-06.pdf


References
Swiss agency for efficient energy use S.A.F.E., Nipkow, J., Bush. Standby consumption of household
appliances. Jürg Nipkow and Eric Bush on behalf of the SFOE Swiss Federal Office of Energy 2003.
Swiss agency for efficient energy use S.A.F.E., Nipkow, J., Bush, E.: Stand-by consumption of household
appliances, Presentation at EEDAL 2003 Conference, Torino.
Swiss agency for efficient energy use S.A.F.E., Jürg Nipkow and Eric Bush, Energy label for coffee
machines. EEDAL-Conference, June 2006.
IEC. Methods for measuring the performance of electric household coffee makers, international standard
IEC 60661, Ed. 2.2, 2006-02


Links:
Dena and Domotechnica: Award on the most efficient coffee machine:
http://www.stromeffizienz.de/fileadmin/InitiativeEnergieEffizienz/strom-
effizienz/downloads/Pressemitteilungen_2008/2008-02_Ausgezeichnete_Kaffeevollautomaten.pdf
Ewz: Rebate and promotion program for high efficiency coffee machines of Zurich (in German):
http://www.stadt-
zuerich.ch/internet/ewz/home/services/stromsparfonds/stromsparfondsaktionen/kaffeemaschinen.html
Directorate-General for Energy and Transport, Brussels:
http://ec.europa.eu/dgs/energy_transport/index_en.html
    •    Energy Efficiency: http://ec.europa.eu/energy/demand/legislation/eco_design_en.htm
Energy Efficiency Indicators in Europe: http://www.odyssee-indicators.org/
European Committee of Manufacturers of Domestic Equipment (CECED): http://www.CECED.org
GfK Group, Nuremberg, Germany, www.gfk.com

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