Document Sample
					          FST 504:

                Section 2

      Dr Mrs J.M. Babajide
   Department of Food Science and Technology,
       University of Agriculture, Abeokuta
Course requirements:
• CAT: 30% (Test 20% & assignment 10%)
• Exam: 70%
• 70% Class attendance compulsory

•Definition of sugar (sucrose) - form of carbohydrate
suitable as a sweetener
•Major source of sugar e.g cane and beet
•World production of sugar - The world’s highest
producer of sugar produce about 90 million tones/year,
60% sugar cane and 40% from sugar beet.
•Sugar as an important confectionery ingredient - basic
ingredient for classical sugar confectionery
           Production of raw sugar
sugar cane
 Squeezing under hydrolytic pressure
raw sucrose sugar
                                     Sugar cane
       Sugar beet
        sucrose liquor
                                Sugar Beet
At this stage the liquor contain 13 – 14% sucrose.
Purification/Refinery of raw sugar
   Raw sugar
   Mixing (with syrup obtained from the latter stages)
concentrating    (under vacuum)
 Centrifuging     (at high speed of 1,200 rpm or more)
  Sugar crystals
  Washing (with hot water thus causing re-dissolution of sugar)
 Adding Lime milk /carbonation
 Filtering (under pressure)
Decolourising (with active carbon)

Concentration to super-saturation level (using evaporator)

   Refined sugar (80% solid)            Drying           Dried Sugar crystals
 Typical analyses of cane or beet sugar

                                White     Sugar Brown Sugar

                                (%)            (%)

Purity (Sucrose)                      99.8           92.0

Moisture                                0.1          3.5

Reducing     Sugar   (as   in         0.05           4.0

invert sugar)

Ash                                   0.02           0.5

Impurities                            0.005          0.01
Physical properties of sucrose
                                                     Temperature     Solubility
                                                     oC    oF        %
1.   Solubility                                      20    68        67.1
                                                     50    122       72.4
                                                     100   212       84.1
2.   Specific heat (SH) (67% solution)                 20     68     0.63
                                                       106    218    0.72
3.   Equilibrium relative humidity                                   60%
4.   Boiling point                                     67% solution boils at
                                                       105oC (225oF)
5.   Optical rotation                                  +66.5o
6.   Specific gravity (SG)                             Temp          SG
      for 67.1% solution                               20            1.33
               “                                       60            1.29
       for 74% solution                                20            1.37
              “                                        60            1.33
7.   Bulk density 47 -55lb/ft3 (varying according to package)
Traditional Degree of sugar boilings

Name (Consistency)           Observation           Approx. temp

Thread (gloss)               Thin strands              103oC
Large Thread (large gloss)   Stronger strand                  104oC
Small pearl                  form small droplets       105oC
Large pearl                  form large droplets            106oC
Blow (scuffle)               bubbles set on syrup           110oC
Feather                              form feathery hard strands
Small ball                   syrup form soft ball        116oC
Large ball                   syrup form hard ball        120oC
Large Crack                  form thin sheet                   129oC
Medium Crack                 form slightly brittle sheet 132oC
Hard crack                   rapidly formed sheet        143oC
Extra hard crack             sheet shows signs of browning     168oC
Caramel                      brown brittle sheet         180oC
1. Solubility of Sugar
• Saturation concentration of sugar:- (at room
  temperature a part of H2O will dissolve 2 parts of
  sugar (67%)

• Factors that determine concentration of sugar:-
  temperature, rate of agitation, degree of under
  saturation and inversely to the crystal size).

• Rate of dissolution of sugar:- For example , in
  preparing a saturated solution at room temperature,
  the last few % of sugar will dissolve very slowly except
  in the use of heat
• Super-saturated sugar solution:- (a
  solution containing more sugar than the
  saturation level), when heated and allowed
  to cool to room temperature – a 74%
  solution may be obtained.

• Instability of super-saturated sugar:- any
  vibration or ingress of solid particles
  (which act as nuclei) may result in rapid
  crystallization of excess sugar.
• Addition of mixtures of sugars (fructose, sobitol
  etc) can lead to higher dissolved solids e.g. the
  inclusion of invert sugar in the optimal ratio
  increases the solubility at 20oC from 67.7% for
  sucrose alone to 75.1% for the mixture.

• The degree brix is the unit of measurement of
  concentration of sugar solution and the common
  instrument used is hydrometer having Baume
  scale (% of sucrose by wt.) e.g if 50g sugar is
  dissolved in 50g of H2O, it will be written as 50%
2. Bulkiness property of sugar

• It acts as a bulking agent (filler), a diluents and
  carrier of trace ingredients like colourants,
  flavours thereby improving their dispersion.

• Sugar crystals improve the particulate flow
  characteristics of mixture, an important feature in
  a highly mechanized food industry.

• Its particle size aids wetting and dispersion when
  H2O is added.
• When mixed with fats, it enables the
  incorporation of air into the mixture which makes
  it important in generating the lightens of cake.

• It provides mouth feel in soft drinks at relatively
  low concentration while at high concentration, it
  gives the characteristics          e.g. in boiled
  3. Relative Humidity of sugar

• Sucrose sugar can tolerate to a wide range of
  humidity. However, it does have its limitations in its
  tendency to cake or solidify in it’s storage container.

• Thus, sugar remains free flowing under normal
  European climatic conditions. When the relative
  humidity drops below 70%, the syrup form crystals.
  When the R.H is over 70%, it gives rise to
  conditions which encourage mould growth during
4. Sugar Confectionery Texture
A          B               C              D          E
Brittle,   chewy,          chalky,        Crumbly,   greasy, dry
crisp,     fluffy, hard,   coarse,        dough,     moist, oily
Crunchy,   light, short,   crystalline,   fibrous,   sticky ,
flaky      Soft,           lumpy,         mushy,     tacky
           spongy,         powdery,       pasty,     tready,
           Springy,        rough,         spongy,    waxy,
           stiff,          sandy, ,       Stringy    wetty,
           Tender,         smooth
Texture variation can be achieved for confections by
  one or more of the following procedures:
• vary the moisture content
• vary the content type and strength of gelling agent
• vary the sucrose-glucose syrup ratio
• vary the sucrose-invert sugar solid ratio
• vary the pH
• alter the process temperature conditions
• vary the milk protein content
• seed the batch with fondant or icing sugar
• change the required level of total sugars
• alter processing conditions to vary the particle size
• alter the incorporated air content
1. Granulated mineral water sugar
2. Granulated sugar
3. Industrial granulated
4. Cube sugar
5. Nibs
6. Caster
7. Icing sugar
8. Liquid sugar
9. Brown sugar
10. Mollases
11. Microcrystalline sugar
                   GLUCOSE SYRUP
• Glucose syrup - key ingredient in the confectionery
• It is a refined concentrate aqueous solution of D(+)-1-
   glucose, maltose and other polymers of D-glucose
   obtained by controlled partial hydrolysis of edible starch.
• According to Codex Alimetarius, Glucose syrup can be
   defined as a purified concentration of aqueous solution of
   nutritive saccharides obtained from starch.
• Can be obtained from starchy foods such as corn,
   cassava, potato etc.
The industrial production of glucose syrup consists of 2
   basic processes:
1. Starch hydrolysis
2. Refining of the hydrolysate
• In acid hydrolysis, dextrose equivalent (degree
  of hydrolysis) of 30-35DE could be obtained
  which is still of higher quality required by the
  food and confectionery industry.

• DE is the degree of hydrolysis of starch that
  takes place and it is the total reducing power i.e.
  in the acid hydrolysis of glucose syrup, we have
  the composition of dextrose, maltose, malto-
  triose, malto-tetrose, malto-pentose, malto-
  hexose and higher sugars in various
  percentages making a total of 100% for each
  DE, as shown below:
Destrose Equivalent of sugars

Type          Low     Low            Regular       Intermediate High High Maltose
              DE 26   DE 38       DE 42   DE 55         DE 64     42
%        %           %        %           %        %
de-dextrose      8.0   15.0       19.3    30.8           37.0    5.9
-maltose        7.5    12.5       14.3    18.1           31.5   44.7
Trisaccharides    7.5   11.0       11.8 13.2             11.0   12.7
Tetra-saccharides 7.0    9.0       10.0    9.5            5.0      3.3
Penta-ssacharides        6.5      8.0        8.4       7.2      4.0       1.3
Hexo-saccharide 5.0      7.0         6.6   5.1            3.0      1.5
Hepta-saccharides 4.5      5.0        5.6 4.2             2.0       1.0
High sugars      54.0   32.5        24.0 11.9             6.5     27.4
Function of Glucose syrup in confectionery
                                                       Type of Syrup
Property/functional use                      Low DE                    High DE
Body agent                                      *                            *
Browning reaction                                                            *
Cohesiveness                                       *
Colour stabilization                                                           *
Crystallisate control                              *                           *
Emulsion stabilizer                                *
Fermentability                                                                 *
Flavour enhancement                                                    *
Flavour transfer medium                                                                *
Foam stabilizer                                    *                                   *
Freezing point depression                                                              *
Humenctancy                                        *                               *
Hygroscopicity                                                                         *
Increased vapour pressure                          *
Nutritive value                                    *                                   *
Osmotic pressure                                   *                                   *
Preservation                                                                           *
Prevention of coarse ice crystals              *
Prevention of sucrose crystallisate            *
Sheen power                                        *                       *
Solubility effect                                  *                                   *
Sweetness                                                                              *
Thickening agent                                   *
Viscosity                                          *

* type of syrup which have the function
               BOILED SWEETS

• High boiled sweets are sugar products which
  are glossy in appearance. They can be
  considered as sugar liquids with very high
• The finished product of boiled sweet is a
  super cooled liquid at ambient temperature
  with a solid content of 97 – 98%.
• Although there is super saturation at the
  solid state with respect to sucrose, but
  because of the addition of glucose syrup,
  the formulation cannot crystallize.

• Other ingredients that can be added to
  boiled sweets are flavours, milk, fruits,
  chocolate, colours etc.
Production of High Boiled Sweets (HBS)
There are 3 main production methods for HBS. They are
• Open pans
• Vacuum cookers
• Continuous cookers

Each of this require different ratio of sugar to glucose syrup
  to give the best result.
                                   Sucrose: glucose
• Open pan                 70:30 to 66.5:33.5
• Vacuum cookers                   65:35 to 50:50
• Continuous cookers               60:40 to 45:55
• Approximate temperature of 156OC is
  used during open pans.
• Vacuum cooking can be as low as 110 –
Precautions during HBS production :
• During      cooling,    prevent     seeding
  (introduction of nuclei), this is because a
  grain of sugar drop into the mass will
  induce crystallisation
• Ensure good doctoring
• Stop stirring after attaining desired
Product types of boiled sweets
• High boiled sweets manufacturing technology ranges from
  lollipops, candies, cones, medicated confectioneries,
  lettered rock, soft centred sweets, butter boilings,
  laminated (crackened or honey combed sweets to grained
  Edinburgh rock; marshmallow, Nougat, butterscotch, candy
• Description of some Boiled sweets
Laminated or Honey comb sweet:
• This is a multilayered sweets with a crunchy texture made
  from many layers of cooked sugar having its centre filled
  with honey, nut paste, peanuts or other suitable fillings and
  finally wrapped in a thin envelope of high boiled sweets or

Candy cane                      lollipop


Gums, Jellies and Pastilles:
•     Gums, Jellies and Pastilles constitute a large
    class of confectionery which can be manufactured
    with many variations.

• They are comparatively low boiled and contain
  about 20% moisture.

• Obtained by the use of various types of water
  binding gelling agents such as gum Arabic, starch,
  gelatin, agar and pectin.
Tablets and Lozenges:

• Tablets are made by compressing powdered or
  granulated ingredients in a confined space (die)
  until the particles bond together.
• They have very smooth surface and very little
  amount of moisture.

• Ingredients: Base material (sucrose), binders
  (gum) lubricants, starch (which swells upon
  contact with water and breaks up the tablet).
• Lozenges are made from icing sugar, mixed with a
  binder, sheeted, but into shape and allowed to dry.

• When menthols/mints, vitamin C or other sore throat
  medicines are added, they are called medicated

• In effervescent tablets, citric acid and sodium
  bicarbonate are included. Colours and flavours can
  also be added.

• Lozenges tend to have hard rough finishing while
  compressed tablets have smooth shiny surfaces.
Chewing and Bubble gum:
• Chewing gums are sticky candy to be chewed but not
  swallowed. It is composed of mixed natural (chicle-
  milky juice of the tropical sapodilla tree Archras zapota
  of Central America) and synthetic gums, resins
  together with various sugars and flavouring materials
  (such as mints).

• The difference between chewing gum and bubble gum
  is the ability of Bubble gum to make bubbles and
  stretch when blown. Bubble gum contains higher
  levels of polymers or rubbers.

• In sugar free or sugar less chewing gum, sorbitol,
  mannitol, xylitol are used.

What is Soft Drink Beverage?
• Soft drinks are non-alcoholic carbonated or
  non-carbonated          beverages   usually
  containing a sweetening agent, edible acids
  and natural or artificial flavours.

Examples of Soft Drink
• Soft drinks include, cola beverages, fruit
  flavoured drinks, ginger ale, and root beer,
  also include soda water, seltzer water and
  tonic water.
History of Soft drink
• The first attempt to manufacture carbonated soft
  drinks were the result of a desire to duplicate the
  naturally effervescent, mineral-rich waters that
  flowed from the springs at the well-known
  European spas.

• John Pemberton invented caramel coloured syrup
  in 1886, when diluted and carbonated, this syrup
  is called coca-cola because it originally contained
  cocaine from coco leaf and rich in caffeine from
  the kolanut. This premiere flavoured soft drink
  was first patented in 1893.
• In 1984, in response to the public demand for more
  healthful and less fattening foods as follows -

1. Soft drink manufactures began formulating with
  natural juices.

2. Vitamin enriched soft drinks

3. Sugar, caffeine, sodium -free soft drinks also
  became popular in the late twentieth century.
• Water     treatment  using sand filter
 /activated carbon / superchlorination and
• Carbonation of treated water to give the
 characteristic effervescence      (fizz   and
 sparkle) soft drinks.
• During carbonation, Chilling is carried out
• Finished soft drinks        can be produced by
  diluting a mixture of non-carbonated water and
  flavoured sugar syrup with highly carbonated
  water then bottled

• or syrup is measured directly with bottles then
  filled with carbonated water injected under high

• The bottles are   capped            by another machine
  on   the   assembly    line,        inspected,       then
  packed       in   cartons      or    cases   ready    for
Soft Drink Packaging

• Carbonated soft drinks are packaged for sale in
  variety of containers such as glass bottles, tin or
  aluminum cans and plastic bottles.

• Non-carbonated soft drinks can be packaged not
  only in bottles and cans but also in treated card
  board carton (tetrapak) since they are not under
   Some special beverage categories are:
1. Non-carbonated soft drinks which are produced
   with some ingredients except CO2 and techniques
   of carbonated soft drink but not protected from
   spoilage. They are usually pasteurized in bulk or
   continuous flash pasteurized either prior to filling
   or in the bottle.

2. Powdered soft drinks are made by blending
   flavouring materials such as dry acids, gums,
   sweeteners and artificial colour.
3. Nutraceutical beverages are drinks formulated
   with special functional ingredients that promote
   some aspect of health or reduce the risk of
   certain diseases.
Nutritive Sweeteners used in beverages
  Sweetener     Sweetness             Taste                         Uses
               (Sucrose = 1)    Characteristics
 Acesulfame-K 130-200        Rapid             onset,   Table sugar, dry beverage
 (sunette)                   persistent side-tastes     mixes, chewing gum
                             at high concentrations
 Aspartame    180            Clean,      similar   to   Table sugar, dry beverage ,
 (Nutrasweet)                sucrose, no bitter         chewing gum, beverage
                             after taste                confections, fruit spreads,
                                                        toppings and fillings
 Saccharin      200-700         Slow onset persistent Soft drinks, juice, fruit drink,
                                after taste, bitter at other beverage, table use
                                high concentrations    sweeteners,        processed
                                                       fruits, chewing gum and
                                                       confections,          gelatins
                                                       desserts, salad dressing,
                                                       baked goods.
 Sucralose      600             Can withstand high Soft drinks, baked goods,
 (Splenda)                      temperature without chewing gum, table use
                                losing flavour         sweetener or table sugar.
      Student will produce:
• Sugar syrup with various
• High boiled sweets of various

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