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					     Academy Journal
     VOLUME 54 NO 2

3    Mahmood bin Muhammad IPS
     Former Ambassador of India to Saudi Arabia Hyderabad
6    Sankar Sen IPS
     Former Director SVP National Police Academy
     Former Director-General National Human Rights Commission
     Senior Fellow Institute of Social Science New Delhi
9    TGL Iyer IPS
     Former Director-General CRPF
     Director Bharatiya Vidya Bhavan Nagpur
     Dr S Krishnamurthy IPS (1967:Kar)
     Director-General of Police Training Karnataka
18   Dr SC Agarwal IPS (1973:WB)
     Inspector General of Police Training West Bengal
     Jija Madhavan H Singh IPS (1975:Kar)
     Chief Vigilance Officer Airports Authority of India New Delhi
30   Tejdeep Kaur Menon IPS (1983:AP)
     IGP Special Protection Force Andhra Pradesh
     Golden Jubilee Research Fellow SVP NPA
35   AP Maheshwari IPS (1984:UP)
     Deputy Inspector General of Police CRPF Bongaigaon Assam
39   M Nageswara Rao IPS (1986:OR)
     Director and DIG State Crime Records Bureau Bhubaneswar
42   C Ramachandra Naidu IPS (1986:AP)
     Deputy Inspector-General Community Relations & Maithri Andhra Pradesh
45   SN Pradhan IPS (1988:Jar)
     Deputy Director SVP National Police Academy Hyderabad
49   Muktesh Chander IPS (1989:AGMUT)
     Senior Superintendent of Police Crime Panaji Goa
53   Varun Kapoor IPS (1991:MP)
     Superintendent of Police Ratlam Madhya Pradesh
Mahmood bin Muhammad

             When asked by a member of               suffering a heart attack and a victim
                                                     under a physical attack and their
       Parliament to take a neutral stand on an
                                                     reaction to the sudden appearance
       issue, Prime Minister Winston Churchill
                                                     before them of a doctor/policeman. In
       is said to have replied “How can I be
                                                     such a situation, the doctor and the cop,
       neutral between the fire and the fire
                                                     both symbols of hope, would appear to
                                                     be no less than God-sent angels! What
              When Ahmedabad was on fire for         Jesus Christ once told the disciples is
       three days following the Godhra               wholly applicable to the Police: “Ye are
       incident, the local law-enforcement           the salt of the earth: but if the salt have
       agency remained neutral in a different        lost its savour, wherewith shall it be
       sense. It was not just a case of passive      salted. It is then good for nothing but to
       neutrality or even ineptitude and             be thrown out and trampled under foot.-
       pusillanimity. Nor was it a case of being     (New Testament, Mathew V 13).
       victim, of deception and calumny. It was
                                                            The gruesome happenings in
       clearly a case of the fence eating into the
                                                     Gujarat illustrate, in a nutshell, the
       field and the arm of the law breaking the
                                                     changing face of civil services in the
                                                     country. The police is the most visible
             In terms of sheer nobility, the         symbol of state authority. For one
       police, I think, is second only to the        seeking relief, they are the first in the
       medical profession. Just imagine a patient    legal system.

                             3                                                July - Dec 2002
      The police agency is the first to              Praful Bidwai, an eminent              Yugandhar hit the nail on the head: “We
hear the anguished cry of a victim in the     columnist, shared with the readers of the     test people for the wrong things and then
form of an FIR. “Why is it that we hold a     Times of India dated July 28, 1994, certain   are unable to get rid of the chaff .”
policeman in awe?” asked Rajaji once          startling facts revealed during his visit
and himself answered: “It is because we       to the Lal Bahadur Shastri National                  A few years ago, Vibhut Narain
know that the entire authority of the state   Academy of Administration, Mussoorie,         Rai, a senior I.P.S. officer of the U.P. cadre,
is behind him.” That authority has to be      where those selected for the all-India and    had come out with certain bitter home
used to relieve and not to cause or ignore    central services undergo a common             truths. In a study conducted under a
human suffering as happened in Gujarat.       foundational course. Here are some of         fellowship at the S.V.P. National Police
                                              the findings:                                 Academy, Hyderabad, he proved by
       There are clear and specific
instructions laid down in Police Manuals                                                    statistics that “deep anti-Muslim
and Regulations to prevent or pre-empt              “On the night of December 6,1992        prejudices exist in our police force, that
and control communal trouble. Existing        the probationers of the 58th batch held a     (in communal riots) loss of well over 75
laws are strong enough to tackle any          party to celebrate the demolition of the      per cent of the life and property was
situation. There are resolutions passed       Babri Mosque. The revelries were              always suffered by the Muslims (in some
by the National Integration Council           attended by a majority of probationers.       places 90 per cent) and yet many more
calling for exemplary punishments to be       Among those who “took the lead were           Muslims were arrested (and their homes
meted out to errant officials. Communal       some of the top scorers of the all-India      searched) than Hindus.”
trouble will stop only when the trouble-      competitive examinations.”
makers are convinced that their arrest will                                                       These conclusions are supported
be swift, prosecution prompt and                     “The academy’s house journal’s         by several judicial enquiry commission
sentence substantial. The police should       latest issue carries a piece by Mr. Barun     reports, viz., Justice Jaganmohan
not hesitate to shoot whoever foments         Kumar Sahu, “North-East: Between Islam        Reddy’s report on Ahmedabad (1969),
communal violence and deal with the           and Christianity.” Around partition, it       Justice NR Madon’s report on Bhiwandi
situation ruthlessly. Even an                 says, Muslims crossed over to the north-      and Jalgaon (1970), Justice Mathew’s
overwhelming show of force or                 east. In secular India, they only enjoyed     report on incidents in Kerala (1971),
demonstrative use of force by firing in       special protections … as such several         Justice Sir Sinha’s report on Jamshedpur
the air often ensures that almost no force    regions of the north-east are Muslim-         (1979), Justice Saksena’s report
is used. Quite often, the police              dominated, about one-third of the             (unpublished) on Moradabad (1980), and
themselves to blame; blame it on the          Bengalis living in the north-east are         the most recent Justice BN Srikrishna
bogey of so-called political interference.    Bangladeshi nationals a large number of       Commission report on incidents in
Hence, the good intentions have no            such Bangladeshi nationals live in            Mumbai, following the Babri Masjid
effect and the instructions remain on         eastern West Bengal, north-eastern            demolition in 1992. These reports have
paper.                                        Bihar, Delhi and Bombay, etc. Their           highlighted the partisan attitude of the
                                              number may be in crores. Crores of            police and also the inaccuracy of the
       I have heard of a Governor of Bihar    foreign encroachers in India! God save        perception that Muslims always start a
in British India who issued an                India.”                                       communal riot. And yet, all such reports
administrative fiat to the effect that SHOs                                                 remained unimplemented and no
in charge of stations where communal                 “Mr. Sahu, from a north-east IAS       offender was punished nor victims
riots were endemic should, if one             cadre, does not cite a single fact but        compensated. No errant official was also
occurred again, assume that they had          comments that the region is “getting          awarded exemplary punishment.
been suspended from service and abstain       drowned in the flood of advancing Islam
from duty. There was no trouble after         and Christianity” and asks: “In a secular           The Gore Committee on Police
that. A desperate disease calls for a         state, will there be some room for the        Training (1971) observed with emphasis:
drastic remedy. It is important that the      native religions”.                            “There is a need for a secular outlook
officials are convinced that if all goes                                                    and a sympathetic attitude in dealing
well, they will be rewarded but, if not,                                                    with the victims of communal violence
                                                     When asked about this, the
heads will roll! Political will and a                                                       and religious bigotry. All the modern
                                              Director admitted that “there is a
motivated force are the only answers to                                                     equipment and training available in the
                                              significant amount of communal opinion
communal riots.                                                                             police force can achieve nothing if their
                                              among the IAS probationers … it is a
      What, then, is the problem and          worrisome phenomenon. We have not             minds are not free from the prejudice of
how do we set about finding a lasting         been able to tackle this yet, although we     caste, religion and parochialism. The
solution?                                     are trying.” But a former Director, B.N.      acquisition of a secular outlook is

Academy Journal                                                     4
essential, since the goals of social          the best among the applicants as we do        obstruct them when communal passions
development can never be achieved if          now. It is not right to assume that           rob them of their innate good sense and
large sections of the people are denied a     intelligence and integrity, brilliance and    judgment. In ordinary matters, he must
feeling of involvement on the ground of       character always go together. Training        swim with the current but in matter of
caste, religion or language. Guidelines       can groom, polish and stimulate but it        principle, he must stand like a rock. The
have been prescribed by the Government        cannot create. It can awaken the giant, if    worst thing that can happen to a
for prompt and determined action on the       any, asleep in us but it cannot create one.   straightforward officer is a transfer.
part of the police and administrative         In any case, it cannot go to the extent of
agencies in dealing with problems             “rectifying the original error.” In many             Years ago, when a Minister told
relating to the minorities. It is necessary   cases, (the age limit being so high) nine-    an SP that he was not popular, the
to inculcate a habit of prompt, vigorous      tenth of the damage is already done to        latter had the guts and gumption to reply.
and firm response on the part of law-         the personality of the individual before      “ I am not elected, Sir. I was appointed.”
enforcement officers whenever the             he enters the police force; only one tenth
secular concept is under threat.”             is left for training. The Gore Committee            February, 28 was a black day in
                                              had recommended development of                Ahmedabad for the police when PC
       BN Mullik (a former IB Director)       aptitude and psychological tests which        Pande, Commissioner, reportedly told
said: “The mind of every police officer -     can help to bring out the best and the        Girish Patel, a lawyer and civil rights
whatever religion he may profess - must       worst in a candidate at the time of entry.    activist, over the phone: “I am helpless.
be clear on the point that he has taken a     But the recommendation, like many other       Even my men are going on the rampage.”
pledge to protect the people and it is his    good ones, is in deep freeze. The mills of
sacred duty to protect the weak against       government, as always, grind slowly. In
                                              the case of the police, they grind far more          If the Gujarat outrage has one
the strong and the minority against the                                                     important lesson for the top
majority.”                                    slowly.
                                                                                            management, it is this: “We test the
                                                                                            people for the wrong things and then
       The police in modern India face               A policeman of today is expected       are unable to get rid of the chaff.” For
challenges without precedent. The rule        to be far more than a mere watchman. By       the police in India, the crying need is for
of law may be argued in parliament and        the very nature of he tasks, he must be a     the “right” men,
the courts but it is upheld and practiced     social scientist in action. He must belong
in the streets by the police service. Never   to the category of those who can break
                                                                                               “Men whose consciences are as
in our history has the policeman’s job        up a dogfight. He must possess qualities
                                                                                               steady as the needle to the pole,
been more difficult. A new brand of police    of a contradictory nature, qualities like
service, insulated from political             intellect end commonsense, firmness end
                                                                                               Men who will stand for the right
pressures and accountable only to the         tactfulness, the persuasiveness of a
                                                                                               though the heavens totter and
courts and the people, with a brand new       lawyer and the impartiality of a judge,
                                                                                               the earth reels,
image of competence, commitment and           the diagnostic skill of a doctor and the
compassion, is what the country needs.        endurance of a patient and to top it all,        Men who can tell the truth and
The Mussoorie experience of 1992,             the skin of a rhinoceros and the smile of        look the world right in the eye,
quoted above, should have set the alarm       a film star! Add to these qualities of good
bells ringing in North Block as it clearly    leadership initiative, courage, decision-        Men who are not ashamed to say
brings out the need for a wise recruitment    making, besides a sense of humour. He            No with emphasis.”
policy. Recruitment is the corner stone       must be impartial, humane and
of the whole public personnel structure.      compassionate, which is what secularism
Recruitment means attracting the “right       is about. He must carry the people with
man” to the service, not merely choosing      him and, at the same time, be prepared to                       ***

                                             Every success is usually
                                   an admission ticket to a new set of decisions

                                                                    5                                                July - Dec 2002
                  IS NOT THE ANSWER
                  Sankar Sen

                               R ape    of a girl student of        horrendous crime. Mere provision of
                          Maulana Azad Medical College in           death penalty in the statute book will
                          broad daylight on November 15, has        not act as a deterrent. Law
                          very justifiably caused deep concern      enforcement officers as well as the
                          among the citizens of Delhi. School       criminologists know that the real
                          and college going girl students as well   deterrent against crimes is the
                          as working women have reasons to          certainty and not the severity of
                          feel shaken and frightened. Incensed      punishment. Experience shows that
                          at the increasing incidence of rape and   passing of stringent anti rape laws has
                          crime against women in the capital,       not reduced the crime. The Criminal
                          Members of the Parliament have also       Law Amendment Act, 1983, was
                          demanded that law should be amended       passed as a response to the growing
                          to provide death sentence for the         public opinion demanding stringent
                          rapists. The Union Home Minister LK       anti-rape laws. It amended section 376
                          Advani also has favoured death            of the Indian Penal Code and
                          penalty for the rapists and promised      enhanced punishment of rape by
                          to enact a law for this purpose.          providing that it shall not be less than
                          However, righteous indignation is no      seven years, and if the punishment
                          substitute for a pragmatic response,      imposed in less than 7 years, the court
                          which is needed effectively to deal       will have to record in its judgment,
                          with the growing incidence of this        adequate and special reasons for this.

Academy Journal                               6
       It also provided for the same          to prolong the case in order to influence    testified that the girl was used to sexual
offense, enhanced punishment of               the witnesses in the hope that the lapse     intercourse, and the court went to
minimum 10 years of imprisonment for          of time will affect their recall.            reduce the sentence of the three
Police Officers or the staff of jail or                                                    policemen to 5 years instead of the
remand homes and other places of                     Prolonging the trial only heightens   statutory minimum of 10 years. Many
custody established by law.                   trauma of the victims. There should be       courts, view rape as a sex crime that
Unfortunately, passing of this stringent      all-out-efforts by the court to reduce the   occurs because of the “uncontrollable
law has not reduced the incidence of          time frame in the disposal of the cases      natural lust” of men and therefore tend
this crime which is increasing in different   in view of the agony of the victim and       towards leniency in sentencing. The
parts of the country. Figures furnished       their family members during trial stage.     fact, however is that rape is very often
in ‘Crime in India’ by the National Crime     Bangladesh has now passed an Act (Act        an act of violence that uses sex as a
Records Bureau of 15031 cases of rape         no 18 of 1995) for prevention of             weapon. Recent research in the field has
in 1998 reveal only the tip of the iceberg.   atrocities against women and children,       established that rape is motivated by
A large number of cases go unreported         which provides that investigation and        aggression and the rapist is not
and unregistered. Due to the shame and        trial of rape cases should be completed      succumbing into uncontrollable lust but
stigma attached to the victim, rape           within 90 days. Further, the reports of      proving his masculinity by degrading
remains one of the most misunderstood         the medical and forensic experts will be     the victim.
and unreported crimes. The situation in       accepted as evidence by the court
this respect is not peculiar to India. The    without asking them to appear in the                The Commissioner of Police,
National Crime Victim Survey in Australia     court for tendering evidence.                Delhi, though berated by the media, is
found that only 32 percent of the victims                                                  right in pointing out that increasing the
of rape reported the assault.                        Agony of the rape victims during      number of policemen will not reduce the
       It is wishful to think that mere       trial is compounded by the fact that         incidence of rape and molestation. The
provision of death penalty will deter the     section 155 (4) of the Indian Evidence       fact has to be borne in mind that many
perpetrators of the crime. On the other       Act, 1872, permits the cross examiner to     of the rapes are committed by known
hand, there is every likelihood that          ask the rape victim questions about her      persons. Menachem Amir’s study of the
because of enhanced punishment the            past character. These questions about        rape cases from the Police records of
court will analyze the evidence more          the character and antecedents of the         Philadelphia shows that rape cases were
closely and refrain from imposing the         victim can be very embarrassing. It is       not sudden occurrences and had been
maximum penalty because of the fear of        necessary to amend the section of this       carefully planned. In the US nation wide
miscarriage of justice. All India             law as recommended by the Law                victim survey it was found that only 22
conviction rate in rape cases is just         Commission, as it is patently unfair and     per cent of the victims were raped by
about 28 percent. Some of the reasons         discriminatory to the rape victim.           the strangers. An analysis of the rape
for poor conviction are shoddy                Embarrassing cross-examinations              cases in Delhi also shows that only 13
investigation, negative medical opinion,      should not also be permitted by the          per cent of the cases in 2001 and 11.8
inordinate delay in the disposal of the       courts. “A socially sensitive judge” in      per cent cases in 2002 the crimes were
cases, thus allowing time to the accused      the memorable words of the Supreme           committed by unknown persons and the
persons to gain over the witnesses, etc.      Court “is a better statutory answer          rest were committed by relatives and
There is very often unfortunate delay in      against gender outrage than the long         persons known to the victims.
the disposal of cases in courts of law.       clauses of complex sections with all the
From a sample study done by a study           protection writ into it”.                           Triennial statistics also show that
group of the Bureau of Police and                                                          crimes of rape and molestation of women
Research and Development it was                     The Court also imposes lenient         have gone down in Delhi. It is not fair to
found that the trial of rape cases            punishment. There is the well-known          debunk the Commissioner of Police for
prolongs for years, though section 309        case where a court exonerated two            quoting the declining crime figures.
Cr P C provides for trial on a day-to-day     young men of the crime, because it felt      Statistics can be misleading, but this is
basis. It is common knowledge that            that the accused suffered enough as          the yardstick by which the police
cases take between 3 to 12 years to be        undertrial. In many cases maximum            performance is evaluated in Parliament
decided because even after decision of        punishment is not imposed on Police          and State Legislature and also by the
the trial courts, appeals can be made to      Officers for custodial rape by adducing      media. The answer is free registration of
the High Court and Supreme Court. It          some extenuating factors. In Suman           cases and victimisation survey as is
has also been stated by the Supreme           Rani’s case the doctor who had               done in many western countries to get a
Court that the defense lawyers often try      conducted the medical examination            correct picture of the crime situation.

                                                                    7                                              July - Dec 2002
      For this, the Police Chief must be     rape cases in Delhi is better than the       members. The Commissioner should
given a free hand and not pilloried,         national average of 28.7 per cent.           convince himself through contact with
because there will be a sharp escalation     However, it is not known if the              the victims that the latter are satisfied
of crime figures if free registration of     punishment imposed is deterrent or           with the functioning of these Centers.
cases is done.                               lenient.
                                                                                                Sixth, instead of merely blaming the
     To effectively combat this                    Third, quality of prosecution and      Police, the members of the public have
horrendous crime, a series of counter        calibre of the prosecuting staff must        to step forward for the defence of the
measures are called for.                     improve. Overburdened public                 harassed women in the capital. The
                                             prosecutors of average ability are often     present indifference of Delhi residents
       First, there should be thorough       outmatched and out-manoeuvred by             to the plight of women is downright
painstaking investigation of the rape        more experienced advocates engaged by        shocking.
cases by professional and experienced        the accused persons.
investigators, who are sympathetic and                                                          Seventh, there should be
supportive of the victims. Often                    Fourth, the victim should be          provisions for the payment of
investigation in done on a casual and        encouraged to lodge complaints               compensation by the State to the victims
lackadaisical manner. The victims should     immediately as failure to lodge              of crime like rape. At present u/s 357 of
be encouraged to provide as much             complaints is an indirect encouragement      the Criminal Procedure Code, the fine
details as possible. DNA testing now can     to the rapists. Fortunately, many women      levelled against the accused can be
provide conclusive evidence in rape          are now coming forward to report.            ordered by the court to be given to the
cases. At present, DNA testing facilities    Women should be advised to keep a clear      victims as compensation. In the Delhi
are inadequate. There is also lack of        head and observe the perpetrator             Domestic Working Women’s Forum case,
interest among the investigating officers    carefully for identification in future and   the Supreme Court gave a direction to
to use this technique to fix the             remember his behaviour and verbal            the government to set up a Criminal
identification of the rapist.                activity during the assault.                 Injuries Direction Board. It further
                                                                                          directed that compensation to the
      Second, there should be quick                Fifth, rape crisis centers should      victims should be awarded by the Board
disposal of the cases in courts of law       be set up as in countries like UK and        not only on conviction of the offender,
and determent punishment of the              USA to advise the victims. Delhi Police      but also whether or not conviction has
offenders. Researches in USA have            has set up some Crisis Investigation         taken place.
shown that lengthy prison sentences          Centers comprising of doctors, lawyers,
have some behaviour-altering deterrent       prosecutors and psychologists to help
value. Conviction rate of 47.4 per cent in   and advise the victims and their family                       ***

                                         The ultimate measure of a man
                                                      is not
                                         where he stands in moments of
                                            comfort and convenience,
                                               but where he stands
                                                   at times of
                                           challenge and controversy

Academy Journal                                                   8
TGL Iyer

             A    ny young batsman starting out               Leaders grow into the job. The IPS
       magnificently is compared to Donald             officer is a leader. The growth-stimulants
       Bradman. Being dubbed the ‘New Don’             are many and some are listed below.
       is the ultimate accolade for the young
       blade. Any businessman prospering in                  First, the temperament should be
       his enterprise is compared to Dhirubhai         a balanced one, neither fixed nor
       Ambani who is the icon whom many                vacillating. Right or wrong, he has to be
       admire and worship. Any freedom-fighter         a decision-maker.
       trying to free his people from the yoke of
       slavery and suppression is compared to                He can consult others, debate
       Mahatma Gandhi. Why do they compare             with himself, refer to past performances
       to icons and models when a person is            or rely on experience and instinct. For
       growing into a new mould? To compare            sound       decision-making,         the
       is quite easy; to glorify is still easier but   temperament has to be as placid and
       to make up and come up to their level is        serene as still waters
       an ordeal. In the process some make it
       and others don’t. The promising hopefuls               Even in still waters, the surface
       tend to vanish like mirages in superheated      may be covered with moss. If the moss
       and super-competitive sands of time.            is separated or removed, he can see the
       Some carry on; some burn out; some              clear water below till the bottom.
       come to a dead end. Very few grow into a        Temperament should be without that
       Leader and Hero!                                moss!

                               9                                               July - Dec 2002
       Second, the officer should have      Sometimes, we find that officers run        the predators and raiders who bend
a positive attitude. Like the run-chase     into panic, run away from crisis or use     and break the law. It is a sacred duty
in cricket, saving match-points in          excessive force or delay action which       which cannot be avoided, shifted or
tennis and badminton; playing in the        results in more casualties. A right         postponed. As Napolean Bonaparte
opponent’s goal area as in football and     decision is one which is timed properly,    wrote to General Lauriston in 1804,
hockey, the officer has to take his         executed firmly and pursued till the        “Death is nothing; but to live defeated
game to the opponent’s court, play his      intended results are achieved .             and inglorious is to die daily.”
best, show his excellence and leave the
results to show. The approach should              Sixth, seizing advantage at the              There is a story in Mahabharata
be ‘once in a life-time attitude’ or        opportune moment turns the tables to        of King Sanjaya who returns back from
‘there is no second chance to score in      reach the goal and objective. For           the battlefield defeated and dejected.
a crisis’ and so on. For this, an icy-      example, in the second World War, the       His mother Vidula standing at the
candy approach is essential.                Battle of Stanlingrad proved that           palace gate admonished him saying:
                                            stopping the German troops to perish        “muhurtam jwalitaam shreyo na tu
       Third, the officer should develop    in the winter was turning a                 dhumaayitam chiram” meaning: “It is
success-consciousness, despite              disadvantage into an opportunity, a         better to flash forth once Ain your
limited ability, limited resources and no   probable defeat into a victory. During      lifetime than smoke away for ages.”
advice from any quarters. As Ernest         dark hours of World War II, Winston         With renewed vigour and enthusiasm,
Hemingway said: “Man can be                 Churchill replied to the question of a      the son returned to the battlefield and
destroyed but never vanquished”.            journalist, “You ask what is our            won a memorable victory. So is it with
The spirit of the leader should not die.    policy? I will say, it is to wage war       the Police Officer. It is not only the
He should have the mentality of rising      with all our might and with all the         professional responsibility but an
from the ashes as Japan and Germany         strength that God can give us. You ask      individual commitment to the people
did after the second World War. Even        what is our aim? It is victory, for         that the Police Officer shall always be
in failure, there is success. Ultimately,   without victory there is no survival.”      at the service in all conditions and
when a decision is judged, the judges       The point is that somewhere beyond          circumstances.
see whether all the wits, skills and        the darkness there would be a brighter
talents have been used although the         and gentler light.                                Ninth,      remember           that
outcome might be adverse.                                                               swadharma is always better than
                                                   Seventh, there is no scoreboard
                                                                                        paradharma. It is better to fail in one’s
      Fourth, the officer should have       in decision making. There is no win-
                                                                                        own profession, occupation and duty
sound judgment which comes through          win situation in dealing with the public
                                                                                        than succeed in another’s domain and
experience, maturity and willingness to     by the police. It is a lose-win situation
                                                                                        duty. A Police Officer has to excel in
face challenges and crisis-situations.      always. It should appear as ‘win’ to
                                                                                        his own profession of maintaining law
A sound judgment may not be perfect;        the Government and the people and
                                                                                        and order, preventing crime, than
but it will be near-perfect. We must        ‘loss’ to the Police. How can such a
                                                                                        doing other duties like guarding
know that there is nothing called           contradiction and paradox be
                                                                                        banks, escorting treasure and
absolute or perfect in this world. A        achieved? It is yielding to some
                                                                                        protecting places of worship and so
sound judgment and its execution will       demands of the people or crowd to
                                                                                        on. Long Fellow wrote, “Each
have acceptance from the majority.          achieve an objective. For example, we
                                                                                        morning, sees some task begin, each
There will always be an odd critic in       see that in long distance running, the
                                                                                        evening sees it close. Something
any milieu; but so long as the officer      winner may not be in the lead. He
                                                                                        attempted, something done, has earned
knows that he is right, he will have no     conserves his energy for the last burst.
                                                                                        a night’s repose.”
regrets and, surprisingly, it will have     He yields place to the person who
general acceptance.                         ultimately runs out of steam. The end-
                                            result is vital and important than any            Tenth, the good officer in the
      Fifth, firmness in execution of       other.                                      Police should know how to do ‘gold
decisions without hesitation or                                                         mining’. He should not only be
vacillation. For example, if a violent            Eighth, the police have always a      equipped himself with considerable
crowd is to be dispersed, the quantum       responsibility to discharge than mere       mental and moral resources, but
of force to be used is always               tackling       the    people.     This      should also be able to tap these
debatable. But if minimum force is used     responsibility has to be performed          valuable ores in others as well, in the
to achieve maximum results, it will         without any complaint or grievance. It      same way as the skilled prospector
always have public acceptance.              is their duty to protect the weak from      taps gold.

Academy Journal                                                  10
      He should be the imaginative        Police Officer is really extraordinary       may deviate from tala (beats) and raga
captain of the most cohesive team.        because he is supposed to have that          (tune). The Police Officer may deviate
Most of the successful officers in any    Extra!                                       and experiment with situations but
domain, especially in the police, have                                                 shall not leave his principles and ideals
been and are supreme connoisseurs of            Lastly, a good Police Officer          which ultimately makes his profession
talent. Elbert Hubbard wrote, “One        cannot deviate from principles and           successful and meaningful to the
machine can do the work of fifty          practices like the classical singer who      community from which he is born and
ordinary men. No machine can do the       always adheres and sticks to the             grown to his present role!
work of an extraordinary man”. The        background shruti (taanpura) while he                          ***

                                         So what if you don’t feel perfect?
                                                         by Bruce D Schneider
            Some of the most difficult questions I have ever been asked are: If we are the one with God, then why
       wouldn’t God have created us with that thought to begin with? What is the purpose of not knowing? Why don’t
       we feel perfect?

             I meditated upon these questions for two decades before I was ready to see the answer. Before we are
       born, we choose to exist and decide how best to help ourselves in the process of discovery. This is because each
       individual soul develops as it wishes, while assisting all other souls in their journey. All of us experience and
       gain more of an understanding of the nature of love. We choose who we will be and to whom we will be born,
       to best serve that purpose.

              We also choose to experience ‘transformational amnesia’, to temporarily forget our spiritual consciousness
       in order to adjust to the physical world and allow ‘real’ physical experiences. If we knew we were invulnerable
       spiritual beings, the effects of these physical experiences would have little or no significance for us. We would
       know they were not real.

              Imagine that you are a passenger on a flight during a severe storm. The plane is shaking and you see
       lightning all around you. The ‘fasten seat belt’ sign is illuminated and you start to get frightened. There’s a
       large blast of thunder nearby, and the lights go out inside the cabin. People scream while the aircraft is
       bouncing up and down like a toy, feeling as if it could break apart at any second. Babies are crying and as you
       look around, you can barely make out some people praying in the dark. Your heart beats faster, you start to
       sweat, your breath shortens, and panic becomes a possibility. You are terrified, and understandably so. No one
       is telling you anything, and you wonder if the pilots are in control.

             Suddenly, the plane calms down and the cabin lights come back on as you hear an announcement: ‘Ladies
       and gentlemen, we are out of the storm now and it should be smooth for the duration of the flight.’ Some
       passengers applaud, and you’re relieved.

             What if you were watching a movie of yourself in this situation and knew the ending? Would you have
       been as scared? What if you knew during this predicament that everything would be OK? Would you have had
       the same emotional experience? Of course not. You needed to live through it without knowing, so you could gain
       a very ‘real’ experience. If you knew what would happen before it happened, it wouldn’t feel real.

              This is the same with you physical existence. Before we are born, we choose to forget who we are so we
       can get the most out of what is available for us to experience. We are in this world to experience all of life’s
       situations as ‘reality’, so we can eventually know ourselves wholly, body, mind, and spirit, as Love. If you
       realize you are here as a spiritual being, this suggests you have had enough physical experiences to being to
       awaken. You start to remember who you are and why you came here. You lose the feeling of isolation and
       ‘remember’ yourself as part of the One Spirit.

             Because we must first forget, most of us get caught up in the ‘reality’ of what we think we see and have
       a difficult time remembering who we really are. Until we being to awaken, we remain blind to the perfect
       process. Since you are reading this, odds are you’re awake and are becoming aware that the Higher Intellignece
       is within and all around you, regardless of what you think you see.

                                                                     from the collections of pullela murali mohan

                                                                11                                            July - Dec 2002
                  Dr S K r i s h n a m u r t h y

                              INTRODUCTION                                issues concerning survival and
                                                                          progression of the nations and its
                                    We are placed in a climactic era,     members inclusive of the flora and
                              which is markedly enigmatic as well as      fauna.
                              complex. Further, the world is on the
                              threshold of a new millennium,              WHAT IS SECURITY?
                              experiencing a great on-going
                              revolution in terms of the dramatically           I n that setting, the dynamic
                              exploding ‘information age’, which is       dimensions of the concept of
                              in tandem with the phenomenal strides       ‘Security’, especially in the context of
                              in various facets of physical sciences      a modern democracy, have to be
                              and applied technologies. All the           comprehended. A traditional view of
                              creative potentials of man are being        ‘Security of a Nation’ is comparable
                              continuously stimulated by the innate       to the dual faces of a coin - with the
                              democratic and humane urges to              perennial pressures on the demands
                              strongly influence the concept of           of external security (particularly the
                              organized living. The world seems to        facet of its territorial integrity) on the
                              be shrinking due to various factors,        one side and the burden of conflict
                              including a slow emergence of               resolution of seemingly never ending
                              consensus on so many matters                internal conflicts of interests of
                              affecting human life, coupled with          innumerable kind on the other .

                               First prize winning essay in the Prime Minister’s Silver Cup Essay Competition - 2002

Academy Journal                                    12
                                               nation, especially during the debates of        forces of order had not experienced most
                                               the Constituent Assembly, which lead            of such problems in a realistic way.
       Historical roots, as a rule, have a     to the evolution of that great document         However, after a series of major
great impact on all social institutions and    know as the Constitution of India.              upheavals in various northern states
that fact should enable us to appreciate       Though there was a clear discernment            and in the northeastern periphery of the
the panorama of the past and weld that         about the demands on the nation’s               country and following some tragic
background with the awareness of the           security, the primary focus was on rapid        events of early 80' s that shook the
present era so that we can build or improve    development of the country. It seemed           country violently, a slow realization came
the systems to meet the confronts of the       that the majority view of the opinion           about in the minds of the political
future.                                        makers and leading lights of that era was       leadership that the issues of internal
                                               that, if the State progressed rapidly, then,    security are not mere or simple ‘Crime
       Chronicles narrating the times gone     the problems of poverty, health,                and Police’ domain. Conversely, it
by of this land are mute witnesses to the      education and crime, as well as other           became increasingly clear that security
well-established fact that till the middle     conflicts that unsettle the life of the land,   demands cover a wider ambit in which
of the 18th century, the Indian sub-           would slowly wane or at least remain            various aspects of societal life have to
continent was indeed an agglomeration          under control. As a result of that              be relentlessly accounted for. A slow
of various emperors, kings and native          seemingly genuine enterprise, the nation        change of the national mindset was the
chiefs.                                        had perforce consigned the core issues          obvious outcome and that transition was
                                               of external as well as internal security        evident in the steady growth and
THE PAST                                       low down in the charter of priorities, as       development of the police systems from
                                               against the total commitment to speedy          those decisive moments as can be seen
      I n fact, it was the post-1857           development. In a hindsight, it is no           in the increasing and enlarging financial
developments, heralded emphatically            wonder that the combined might of the           and other resource allocations for the
by the Proclamation of Queen Victoria,         Indian Armed Forces and the nation were         police forces of the country. That
that set the pace for the future of India,     in for a rude shock consequent to the           welcome change could be perceived
as a nation, till the independence of India    unexpected waves of the Chinese                 more explicitly during the last decade of
in that glorious year of 1947 and beyond.      aggression that swamped the northern            the twentieth century and further than.
                                               borders of the land in the year 1961. That
       The plain hypothesis of security,       bitter experience post haste forced the         THE PRESENT
as comprehended allover the world, till        alteration in the ‘due emphasis’ that was
very recently, believed that ‘well-being’
of any nation was predominantly related
                                               assigned to all features of external
                                               security, from then on, in the visions and
                                                                                                     In retrospect, we can recount the
to the external pressures and upheavals                                                        legacy of the bygone days that have
                                               plans of the Government of the day.
affecting the territorial facets of all such                                                   shaped the current times for the Indian
                                               Keeping the powder continuously dry
political formations. However, closely                                                         Police and also identify some of the
                                               and sustaining the optimal levels of the
following that pre-requisite, the facet of                                                     inherited shortcomings (as for example
                                               military potential to enable the nation to
law enforcement on all internal aspects                                                        the colonial way of thinking affecting
                                               speak of peace from a position of
of the community too was in the picture.                                                       both the police and the people at large,
                                               strength became a professed and
Such a concept was stark in its visage,                                                        or many of its faulty structural designs
                                               pursued policy of the State.
in so far as India was concerned, till the                                                     or its basic philosophy to serve the
dawn of the freedom of India. The alien               Unfortunately, the concerns of           political masters irrespective of all other
masters planned and pursued a design           internal security in contrast, till almost      issues and so on), that have hamstrung
that the interests of the empire were of       the later half of the twentieth century         its systematic and healthy growth since
utmost concern and internal aspects of         were not really able to foresee the             the climactic origins seen in the year
societal conflicts within the nation was       surging and emerging threats to the             1861. Keeping in focus the mind-
a secondary obligation of their total role     interests of the nation in terms of             boggling fact that India with its ever
of governance. However, it needs to be         terrorism, extremism, international crimes,     expanding human population is virtually
appreciated that the concerns of law and       organized crimes and so many other              converting every problem of the society
order as well as crime fighting tasks          divisive and debilitating perils, besides       as a clash of the overpowering numbers,
within the land were not ignored outright.     the traditional problems of crime and           we can recall various Herculean efforts
                                               public order that affected and imperiled        by many worthies who have tried to
      At the dawn of independence,             the peace and tranquility of the realm.         bring some sort of order and logic in the
various facets of ‘Security’ were surely       Another reason for that lackadaisical           evolution of the system. The first two
considered by the leading lights of the        approach was the fact that the nation or        Police Commissions instituted by the

                                                                       13                                               July - Dec 2002
colonial powers had, no doubt, left an        burgeoning numbers as well as                 limited or inadequate or grossly
indelible mark on the progress of the         staggering types of crimes of the current     insufficient resolution or dedication to
police systems in the British ruled           days. Not to forget, the traditional crimes   contain and fight the menace. The net
provinces and princely states of India.       of the folklore type have not yet left us     result has been that these failures have
However, it was the third Police              and all such conventional crimes still bug    been rather unnoticeably relegating the
Commission, headed by Dharm Vira              the urban as well as rural countryside.       basic utility value of the police to the
(1980), which has been an authentic sheet     Another remarkable facet of modern India      stability and peace within the community.
anchor in terms of intellectually enabling    is the dramatic change in the economic        True that the police have to depend on
the policemen at all levels to comprehend     policy of the country which was given a       the people for very many crime
in real terms their own place in the          catalytic spur around the beginning of        preventive and other order related
reconstruction of the biggest democracy       the decades of the nineties and that has      activities and yet due to the poor image
of the world. Perhaps it may be even          dramatically altered the crime and order      that the police have acquired over the
relevant to cite the unqualified              scenario in a very big way.                   decades (and seem to have failed in
appreciation of Professor David Bayley                                                      shrugging it off, though that particular
                                                     The Indian police of today are no      constraint seems to be clear to the
eulogizing the immense contribution that
                                              doubt in a state of flux in terms of          leadership and even the Governments)
the Indian Police as a whole has been
                                              grasping their own identity and               the foundations for building a strong
making towards protection and
                                              comprehending the relative significance       community-police partnership is reduced
sustenance of the democracy in India.
                                              of their potential in the context of a        to a mere theoretical exercise, ventured
       We have completed 50 years as an       young free country, that is India. Though     half -heartedly here and there. The public
independent republic. Though many of          the debate about the police role and goal     perception about the police holds an
the dreams of the pioneers of the freedom     charters have been engaging the experts       unenviable view that the latter are neck
era may have evaporated as mere               since long, it seems that for some time to    deep in security concerns dominantly
fantasies of hope, it must be said that       come, the agreement on the assignment         focused on all physical and related
tremendous changes have come about            of crime prevention and detection             aspects of protection of VIPs and
in our midst, beset with many positive        responsibilities together with the task of    generally worrying and working about
transitions, notwithstanding some very        maintenance of law and order are sure to      the law and order in the urban centers,
unpleasant and negative developments          continue. Similarly, the obligation of        especially the political capitals of various
too! That mixed bag must surely help us       myriad social services and other              states. Naturally, all other aspects of
in conditioning our mind.                     regulatory dimensions are also likely to      crime (prevention and detection
                                              remain with them.                             included) and every other services are
       Two prominent documents that                  But, when we look at the Police        dependent of the time that is left after
can enable us to think on a professional      Act, we are sure to find to our chagrin,      their major worries narrated above.
platform are the Report of the III National   an incompatible fact that the hierarchical
Police Commission and the Report of the       display of the jobs/tasks have got altered           Of course, at times they do seem
Committee on Police Training.                 dramatically in the day-to-day police         to suddenly come alive and show some
Admittedly, both these great credentials      practices. A mismatched as well as            evidently a desultory activity whenever
are in a sense outdated, as they are          anachronous setting where the charter         there is public furor over alarming rise in
clearly over two decades old. Even in         of ‘Order’ management seems to sideline       crimes or sudden chaos due to failure of
that short span of time many new              all other police activities in a very         regulatory activities and thus, the police
changes have been relentlessly emerging       significant manner, at times distorting to    work is more of a ‘reactive’ genre and
and all such steep and vibrant variations     some extent the police image in the minds     the innovative and people oriented pro-
are continuously altering some of the         of the people at large, should surely force   active’ styles are yet to become the
basic assumptions and presumptions            us to reckon the complexities of the          established practices of the police
that had woven the basic approaches of        challenge.                                    systems in the country.
both the vital records. Problems like
terrorism, extremism, international crimes          This dichotomous situation is all             Responding to the palpably
involving contraband, drugs, arms and         the more awkward when we find that            increasing public demand to usher in the
even the human trafficking, trans-            various types of crimes have been             needed reforms in the police systems of
national crimes of various kinds, crimes      steadily showing an upward trend vis-a-       the country, particularly after the report
of the computer era, cyber crimes and         vis the falling standards in terms of         of the III National Police Commission,
so on have suddenly transformed the           detection and conviction. Prevention of       several areas of the police administration
world of the not-so-distant past as a         crime seems to have become cursory            and some aspects of the Penal Justice
kindergarten in relation to the               obsequies of the police stations with         Administration have been in focus for

Academy Journal                                                     14
various reforms or improvements. But,           Unless relevant advances in applied            between ‘people’ and ‘police’ can be
the tragedy is the fact that most of such       sciences and other fields are steadily and     compared to the first response in a
changes have remained a little more than        systematically internalized into the           hospital where the preliminary
cosmetic and a large number of them are         system, there will be no qualitative as        examination helps in quickly assessing
on peripheral aspects of the problem. An        well as quantitative improvements in the       the type of medical attention that would
unsubstantiated but inherent fear               functioning of the police.                     apply to that specific case - ranging from
entertained by the political and other                                                         an outpatient attention or an extended
power groups seem to hold an erroneous                 b) Police manpower has been             medication or even an emergency
view that enabling the police to become         steadily mushrooming over the years            operation to save the person! In other
accountable to law alone and not to a           and unfortunately that facet is clearly        words, the police system must really have
party to an elected office (as is the           getting enmeshed in the law of                 both the generalists and specialists well
prevailing arrangement) would relegate          diminishing returns. As a result, the          bonded in a hierarchical system, which
its political clout to its own self-inflicted   community is slowly getting                    promptly and quickly attends to the
nemesis. Admittedly, the apex court of          disillusioned to find its resources not        public calls.
India has intervened in the matter, along       being productively employed. The
with the National Human Rights                  leadership and the governments will have       d. In pursuance of that effort, the police
Commission on specific aspects such as          to drastically alter their strategies in       must nourish and draw on high quality
enacting a new Police Act, setting up of        ensuring a viable the cost-benefit ratio       expert studies on all aspects of police
State Security Commissions and                  on the investment made by making               work so that the seemingly innumerable
separating the investigative wings of the       certain that worthwhile productivity           police activities are simplified and
police from the law and order wings as          surface from the entire system.                standardized. All routine police activities
well as for considering a tenure                Admittedly, many of the sovereign              must be rendered quick and receptive.
appointment for the head of the state           functions fulfilled by the police cannot       Somehow, the police systems are still
police forces. Somehow, the urgency on          be really measured in terms of                 continuing very many outdated and
these matters seems to recede, rather           productivity or returns. Yet, it is possible   absurd methods much to the
inexplicably and thereby the most sourly        to validate that the cumulative work of        unhappiness and even disgust of the
needed improvements and reforms in the          the police weighs favorably in relation        public on the proverbial delays as well
police systems appear to have become a          to the huge resource investment that the       as ineffectiveness to their cries for help.
mirage in the deserts of national               society is making.                             Examples are a legion. Failure to update
procrastination.                                                                               the complainant of the status of his case
                                                c) The Police will have to treat their work    or conveying to him of so many vital data
THE FUTURE                                      as a true profession on a graded basis.        or information that will help him in many
                                                At the basic level, an average policemen,      ways are very common instances. Even
      N otwithstanding            all    the    i.e., the lawmen who becomes the first         on the regulatory aspects of daily life,
constraints and impediments, some of            contact point between the people and           police communication on use of roads,
the following steps are worthy of               the organization will have to develop and      changes in important aspects of public
consideration:-                                 demonstrate a good/positive response           information are some of the examples,
                                                style coupled with helpful attitude, so        which are crying for a total change in the
I. Infuse ‘True Professionalism’                that he is able to size up quickly the needs   work culture and practices.
                                                of each case or situation and then refer
a) The police must become really                the matter to experts for appropriate as       II. Emphasize and ensure full play of
professional in their work. Building            well as complete handling by a slightly        Human Rights
truthful work styles and developing right       higher level of professional experts.
occupational ethos is a first step.             Registration of offences, investigation               There can be no doubt that
Accomplishing the professional goals in         of cases, conflict resolution, petition        dignified policing is indeed an inevitable
a correct, legitimate and lawful manner         enquiry, myriad routine administrative         facet that nurtures the correct and ideal
and to mirror in real effect the ideals of      checks (for example various verifications      work ethos for a democratic living. The
‘rule of law’ should form the genuine           for passports, employment and so on)           need to improve the quality and
foundation in that quest. The                   as well as an assortment of secondary          effectiveness of police work can be to a
organization       has      to    sustain       level regulatory functions and a litany        great extent accomplished by good and
comprehensive efforts to build                  of other activities are the unceasing          systematic supervision by the leaders by
professional knowledge and skill base           examples to give glimpse of the range of       a methodical overseeing of the law
on the entire range of police activities.       police work. The initial contact point         enforcement work of all hues done by

                                                                       15                                               July - Dec 2002
the police station levels and upwards.           context, the key to develop the needed        police for very obvious reasons
The very establishment of the Indian             egalitarian police ethos can be found only    discussed above. More importantly, the
Police Service was intended to provide a         when the police moves collectively as         work aspect also is suffering seriously
high quality leadership to ensure that the       well as individually in terms of bringing     as that basic level does very little original
police working is steadily and                   about a change in the integrated results      work. Further, even when done, all such
continuously monitored, controlled and           of knowledge, skill and regimentation in      actions are warranting higher level
corrected. But, that type of expectation         their work actions. Though changing the       checks and scrutiny. As a result, the
hinged on the presumption that all such          police attitudes may appear to be very        functional utility of the vast majority is
leaders including the middle and junior          difficult on a spur of the moment or even     greatly reduced and overall productivity
level leaders are professionally                 over a short period of time, it should be     of the system is suffering enormously.
knowledgeable and also is inspired by            possible for the leadership to enforce
the right values in the entire gamut of          minimum standards in relation to the          b. Some years ago, the Home Ministry
police work. This hope apparently has            conduct patterns of the average rank          had started an exercise to examine the
not been fulfilled or to put it more kindly,     and file.                                     feasibility of making the civil police an
not really pursued adequately. As a wide                                                       Officer Oriented Agency by a series of
array of police tasks and actions affect         c. In order to strengthen a long-term         steps and measures (on Police Reforms
the freedom and liberty of people,               approach on this elemental need, it may       at the instance of the then Union Home
scrutiny and control of the police powers        be desirable to evolve a more                 Minister - during the month of April, 1997)
are a must. Though the courts are by law         comprehensive recruitment policy. The         and that idea seemed an innovative
expected to fulfill that part of the exertion,   job dimensions of the police are such         approach. But, all such efforts have to
the role of the leaders to continuously          that the tasks have to be accomplished        be well thought out and very
provide the balancing and correcting             by persons having an ideal blend of head      systematically implemented. It is said that
measures cannot be understated.                  and heart. Somehow the current                deadly problems require hard remedies
                                                 induction doctrines into the police ranks     and police systems which are virtually
a. Human Rights in police work is                seem to reflect that the total range of the   getting crippled by all sorts of crisis
perhaps the most vital charter on the            police jobs oscillates between menial         would surely call for a drastic effort to
police system as a whole. Those noble            type of works and occasional semi-skilled     put the system on the road to success.
ideals really convey that ‘means’ of all         activities. As a result of this dichotomy,
police work are as important as the ‘end’        the productivity of an average constable
that is sought to be achieved by the             is getting reduced systematically and that    IV. Use ‘Training’ as the main tool to
police - individually as well as a team. It      perhaps is the single biggest                 improve       the    most    needed
exemplifies in other words that the police       shortcoming of the system. We have to         professionalism amongst the personnel
must realize that they are meant to serve        clearly focus in getting better and more
the people clearly in accordance with the        qualified persons into the system and         a.     Key to elevate the police
law of the land. Conversely it crystallizes      slowly make them more and more capable        professionalism is surely the ‘Training’,
the golden path that they (the police)           by training and supervision.                  which somehow has become a stepchild
are not reflecting the interests of the                                                        in the entire organizational policy and
political power alone or the people who          III. Innovate to improve human and other      planning. As a large number of activities
are politically or otherwise strong. Said        resources                                     are really skilled type of works, the need
differently, the proposition merely                                                            to make the police ranks more competent
epitomizes that the police are indeed the        a. It is seen that the armed category of      is the only way out. If, on the one hand,
agents of law.                                   personnel account for around 30 to 35%        the combined status and expectations
                                                 of the total police strength of the states    from the courts, media and the people in
b. It is proper to focus here on the issue       and their functional utility is limited to    all walks of life, regarding the police are
of the stereotype of police behaviour.           order management, barring rare                at a very high level, the organizational
Undisputedly, a pervasive facet of poor          exceptions. Further, out of the remaining     commitment and the response of the
quality of police conduct is the bane of         force, the lowest two rungs constitute        powers that - be to elevate the average
the police of today. That gross                  nearly 93% of system. Indeed, they are        policeman to that plane is conspicuous
shortcoming has to be corrected if the           the cutting edge of the organization as       by its dearth. That hiatus is too glaring!
police aspire to win the public goodwill.        they provide the main as well as the          Some of the brilliant examples of many
Developing and building the right ‘police        primary contact points with the lay           advanced and really successful police
attitudes’ would perhaps be the biggest          public. Unfortunately, however, the first     systems in Japan or in some of the
welcome change in the total effort to            impression in all such situations and         countries in Europe and in some specific
improve the police. In that compelling           circumstances are generally lost for the      pockets of the United States of America

Academy Journal                                                        16
disclose that a better qualified police       impartiality and integrity of the police in   relationship built on the concept of a
officer would grasp a really well-evolved     this regard. As a corollary, security         ‘healthy and constructive tension’
professional training to become a better      demands and VIP protection and the likes      would help the police to effectively
and more effective policeman. Further, it     are becoming more and more explicit and       ensure an internal vigil. As a corollary
is seen that there is tremendous support      the real protection that the police can       the system would also stand scrutiny of
in those lands for all ranks to improve       give by an unobtrusive umbrella is            a continuous social audit, which is
their own knowledge and skill-base on a       misplaced.                                    indeed the lifeline for a Jeffersonian way
continuous basis by several supportive                                                      of life.
arrangements. A sad commentary on the         V. Build a strong Community - Police
status of prevailing police training          Partnership - the only insurance for          VII. Reforms in other wings of the
approaches in the country was evident         the future of the police in a democracy       Criminal Justice System
in an official survey made during the
preparation of the Gore Report. Strange               Involving the community is the              The political, administrative, social
as it may seem, most of the State Police      key to police success and this aspect         and professional leaders would do well
Systems have not even evolved a really        has been not fully utilized by the            to seek improvements in all facets of the
viable ‘Training Policy’ that can enable      leadership both at the executive and at       Criminal Justice System so that the
their ranks to cope with the increasing       the political levels. Ensuring a systematic   benefits of improvements in the penal
challenges that are relentlessly              public education and eliciting their          processes would be meaningful enough
confronting them. On the contrary, many       support is a non-stop effort, which the       to fight the slowly pervading cynicism
of them (leadership particularly at the       concerned have to plan and pursue.            about the real value of the democratic
middle and cutting edge level) are not        There are several dimensions to this          way of life and the concept of rule of law.
even aware of the emerging threats to         elemental facet of getting the people’s       There is a justifiable apprehension that
various aspects of police work that is        support. Alas! there is really no steady      the people’s confidence in the system is
sure to engulf and swamp them sooner          policy in most of the States as indicated     waning rapidly. Unless such pessimistic
or later.                                     by the obtrusive fact that there is no law    and helpless notions are not reversed,
                                              or strategy, which invokes the measures       all our efforts to realize the eminently
b. In that specific framework, it may be      that are concomitant with various styles      desirable goals and ideals of our
useful to evolve a strategy to                of community policing. Though the             Constitution will be shattered.
continuously integrate the training plans     Police Act and many administrative
with the field realities. A successor to      guidebooks speak of public support, the             To sum up, the prescience of
the Gore Committee should be a                required legal base and a formal              National Security in all its internal
Permanent Standing Committee that can         prescription of methods of practice to        dimensions could be answered
help the States (and the Union Territories    elicit that underlying buttress is glaring    competently only when they (the police)
as well as Center) to avail the intense       by its deficiency.                            become responsible, responsive and
research and planning that must be
                                                                                            effective in a democratic ambience. If
catalyzed at the level of institutions like
                                              VI. Seek media help with a sound Police       they are able to accomplish that at least
the BPR&D and ICFS or the NPA, etc.
                                              - Media policy for an egalitarian way of      to a great extent, then they can hope to
                                              life                                          stay relevant. In that quest, a catalytic
d. As stated earlier, the main focus of
                                                                                            spur of life can be given to the Indian
the police is virtually clinging to the
                                                    The need for developing and             Police by systematically addressing suo-
‘Order Orientation’ and that has resulted
                                              sustaining a sound Media Policy to            moto some of the vital issues. That innate
in loss of focus on real police tasks of
                                              advance police effectiveness and also         urge and a burning desire to fulfill that
crime fighting. As a result, the inevitable
                                              ensure the community goodwill warrants        must become apparent from within. Yet,
imbalance has led to distortions in
                                              no emphasis. A strategy, which generates      they really need not wait for others like
policing styles and police ethos. As the
                                              continuous awareness levels of the            the political executive, courts or the
political executive is virtually dominating
                                              people on all essential facets of law         media to take the initiative, as the
the police functions by its behind the
                                              enforcement, is vital for the growth and      leadership coupled with a motivated
scene influence, the police systems are
                                              nourishment of democracy. An                  ensemble of the rank and file, can really
slowly becoming an extended armed unit
                                              enlightened and civic-minded society is       come up with practical working plans to
of the political party in power and the
                                              the best insurance for an egalitarian         do all that the organization can pro-
wearing of uniform to represent the law
                                              milieu. Such an environment would             actively venture towards those
of the land seems to be slowly getting
                                              surely call for a vigilant media and to       eminently desirable goals.
diffused. The public perception also
throws immense doubt about the                advance that cause, a Media-Police                              ***

                                                                    17                                               July - Dec 2002
                  TRAINING IN CYBER CRIME :
                  Dr SC Agarwal

                               Cyber Crimes have become a               computerised creation of false bank
                         reality in India too. Indian Airlines was      accounts in another nationalised bank. In
                         defrauded by several lakhs of rupees with      another case, an MTNL official
                         the tampering of its computerized booking      manipulated computer terminals by
                         records. In the arms drop case of Purulia,     reversing the electronic telephone meter
                         the main players used Internet for their       systems, thereby allowing some
                         communications, planning and logistics.        companies to make overseas calls without
                         Computer hackers have also got into the        charges.
                         Bhaba Atomic Research Centre (BARC)
                         computer and pulled out important data.               Technology empowers. And does
                         Some computer professionals who                so universally. The benefits of such
                         prepared the software for MBBS                 empowerment reaches criminals too.
                         examination altered the data and gave an       Cyberia (or) Cyberspace can be defined
                         upward revision to some students in            as a system made up of millions of people
                         return for a hefty payment.                    who communicate with one another
                                                                        through computers. It is just not the
                                A sample of few other cases being       people who make up the Cyberspace but
                         investigated in India include the following:   it includes the information stored on
                         A loss of Rs 1.39 crores to a nationalised     millions of Computers world wide
                         bank where the computer records were           accessible to others through telephone
                         manipulated to create false debits and         lines and other communication
                         credits; a loss of Rs 2.5 lakhs due to         channels.

Academy Journal                                 18
      The Cyberspace or the Internet is             Table given below gives details of              Since India has the best software
a complexity in itself and the most           the various types of crimes concerning         professionals, computer experts feel
identifiable part is the World Wide Web       computers and Internet, that occured           that, India may also have the best
(WWW). This consists of web pages             globally, in 1998.                             hackers. In due course of time it is
which can be used with a web browser.                                                        probable that frustrated programmers
E-mail is another component which is a                          TABLE                        who realise that they cannot earn good
user-friendly communication device.               Type                          Percentage   money in writing programmes will slowly
Internet Relay Chatroom (IRC) is                                                             shift into hacking.
                                                  Virus Contamination               27.0
another component, which allows real
time chatting between/among thousands             Notebook Theft                    24.0
                                                                                             COMPUTER GAMES & VIOLENCE
of people. The Internet also comprises            Insider Abuse of Net Access       12.8
the Gophel which is similar to the
WWW, but it is more for academic
                                                  Telecom Fraud                      6.9           T he    present day powerful
purposes. The File Transfer Protocol              Unauthorised Access by insider     6.7     computers and the Internet have once
(FTP) allows the transfer of files from           Theft of Proprietary               5.8     and for all changed the way in which
one computer to another. According to             Information                                Computer Games are played. There are
the available statistics, the number of           Financial Fraud                    5.3     thousands of games - related sites in the
Personal Computers (PCs) per                                                                 World Wide Web. Multi-national
                                                  Sabotage                           4.5
thousand persons in India is about 2.8.                                                      software companies have also hosted
                                                  System Penetration by outsider     3.5     special game sites for people interested
In the year 2002, it is estimated to be
about 10 per thousand.                            Spoofing                           1.0     in this area. In the name of high-tech
                                                  Active Wire Tapping                1.4     games the players are exposed to extreme
                                                                                             violence and sex. There are many
MAGNITUDE OF CYBER CRIMES                         Telecom Eaves-dropping            1.15
                                                                                             pornographic games on the net and they
                                                                                             have many players from throughout the
      Alexander (1995) conducted a                                                           world. There are theoretical arguments
survey among businessmen and found            CRACKING                                       that people who do not feel successful
that 93.6% of the respondents were                                                           in the real world use these games in the
victims of Computer Crimes and 43%                    Among themselves, world-class          cyber world for a new degree of
claimed to be victims at least 25 times.      hackers and crackers, were able to             recognition, power and a super human
According to Stephen (1995),                                                                 identity. They are exposed to
widespread availability of user friendly          •      use the Internet for the purpose    unmeasurable quantum of avoidable
computers had assisted the criminals to                  of financial frauds (banks,         emotions like fear, death and nightmares,
learn computers and use them for                         insurance companies, etc.)          thereby changing their personality and
criminal purposes, which resulted in a                                                       outlook of life.
loss of billions of dollars. A study              •      decrypt encrypted messages
conducted by Flohr (1995) found that in                  and use for fraudulent                     Cyber pornography with increased
two months about 300 million dollars                     purposes                            graphic capability and animation,
had disappeared, electronically, from the         •      steal and sell Cell Phone           Pornographic Computer Games and
various banks of the United States. This                 numbers                             Interactive Pornographic Movies are
study concludes that the bank robbers                                                        common in the net. The proliferation of
are trading their guns for computers.             •      sabotage data and computer          pornography in the Internet is so wide
Studies have not only found that there                   networks of important defence       that typing words like ‘porn’ or ‘sex’ in a
is an enormous loss due to Cyber                         organisations, acting on behalf     particular search engine, brings about
Crimes, but there is an increase in                      of foreign intelligence             57 lakhs options for the person to
Internet Crimes. According to a survey                   operators                           choose for viewing.
of 1,000 companies, conducted by
Fortune, theft of Intellectual Property             Such Cyber attacks are very              DEVELOPING TOOL - BASED AND
Rights (IPR), which is one of the areas       common and increasing. Crackers also           PROCEDURE - SPECIFIC SECURITY
of operations for the Cyberspace              have their own Web Sites where they
burglars, is on a steep increase. There is    exchange programmes and information,                 Professionals in the IT industry
a loss of an estimated 300 million dollars,   for money. Security experts of US have         suggest various methods to deal with
annually, due to theft of IPR, on the         found that about 20 nations have already       security threats to the Computer and
Internet.                                     penetrated US Information Systems.             these methods are:

                                                                     19                                               July - Dec 2002
    •     Firewalls: Programmes which               •     A feature which will ensure                In USA, for years now, computer
          enforce security restrictions                   integrity when booting or            crime specialists have used the Internet
          and restrict inappropriate                      starting a computer                  to exchange techniques and technical
          access.                                                                              information. Forensic lab experts are
                                                      With these security measures in          plumbing Internet’s depths to exchange
    •     Authentication: Authentication        the computer, a user will be in a position     data with their counterparts. Lately, the
          is the verification of a user’s       to do business securely on the Internet.       Internet has become the intellectual
          claimed identity, when logging        But the ‘Privacy Lobby’ in the US has          stomping grounds of crime prevention
          into a system by passwords,           already reacted to this and they have said     specialists, and a whole lot of specialists
          personal challenge, response          that they will boycott these chips,            and services useful to law enforcement.
          calculations, etc.                    unless, these features are removed from
    •     Biometrics:          Biometric        the hardware.
                                                                                                     The Western law enforcement
          techniques involve verification                                                      agencies are using the Internet in the
          of an individual based on             COMPUTER CRIMES :                              following ways :
          Physical Biometrics (face, eye        CRIMES IN CYBERSPACE
          or retina scans, finger print,                                                        •     Exchanging information on police
          thermal images, etc) and
          Behavioural Biometrics (voice
                                                        C omputer      use has grown                  procedures and technical matters-
                                                dramatically in the past decade and so                firearms, uniforms, vehicles,
          prints, hand written signatures,
                                                has the opportunity for computers to be               neighbourhood                 watch
                                                linked to crime. Magnetic media are                   programmes,          investigative
    •     Authorisation : This includes a                                                             techniques,         administrative
                                                rapidly replacing ink on paper as the most
          process of determining how an                                                               procedures,              electronic
                                                common form of readable information. Of
          authenticated user is permitted                                                             fingerprints, etc. If information is
                                                course, with this expanding technology,
          to use specific resources by                                                                classified, it can be sent encrypted
                                                comes an ever-increasing opportunity
          granting or denying access to                                                         •     Exchanging information with the
                                                for illegal activity.The more significant
          read, modify or create data                                                                 public - getting the public opinion
                                                types of computer crimes include :
          records and by controlling the                                                              as to how we could serve them
          creation or deletion of data.             •     stealing tangible/intangible                better
    •     Administration: It is the process               assets                                •     Sharing criminals and safety
          of defining, maintaining and              •     destroying or altering data                 information with the public -
          deleting users and resource               •     embezzling funds                            missing person reports, crime
          material or the authorised                                                                  alerts (frauds, robbers, rapists),
          privilege relationship between            •     destroying or altering software
                                                                                                      requests to public to help solve
          the user and the material.                •     defrauding        consumers,                crimes
                                                          investors or users
                                                                                                •     Communicating with the experts
MODIFICATION OF EXISTING                            •     stealing computer software.                 who are knowledgeable in a
HARDWARE FOR SECURITY                               •     producing/distributing                      subject you need help with
                                                          pornography online                    •     Keeping in touch with officers met
        O ne of the best methods to                                                                   at conferences, training courses
ensure the identity of the web user is by       THE INTERNET AND ITS USE                              and investigations
appropriately modifying the existing                                                            •
hardware, including the chip and the                    The Police Chief of a well known              Exchanging intelligence across the
                                                                                                      jurisdictional lines
mother board. Chip manufacturers would          law enforcement agency in US claims
soon incorporate four-level security            that two years from now- if you were                  Use of computers in India is a
features on their chips which are               Sheriff/Chief, Commander, Administrator,       study in contrast. We can introspect and
important from the security perspective.        or support staff in law enforcement            realise that all the Personal Computers
                                                agency, and come to work without the           kept at the tables of the officers are mainly
    •     A       unique     processor          Internet, it will be like a patrolman coming   being used as sophisticated typewriters.
          identification number                 to work without his patrol car. The            Police officers should know about
    •     A randomly generated number           Internet will be that critical in              POLICE-L and COPENET and File
          for encryption                        accomplishing our mission by virtue of         Transfer Protocol (FTP), and “Gopher”
    •     A special Internet security           it being more efficient and its timely         their way to zillions of categories of
          protocol                              access to information.                         information on any subject.

Academy Journal                                                       20
   Need for General                            create an awareness and educate              electronic diskettes, which include a
                                               specific target groups like parents,         search and retrieve software. Officers
 Awareness and Training                        teachers and Internet users on the darker    can retrieve any statute contained in the
                                               side of the Internet so that it is easy to   database simply by typing in a key word,
CYBER - SENSITIVE POLICE                       monitor the users.                           such as “assault” , “firearms” or “rape”.
                                                                                            These laptop computers are also being
      The focal point of any crime                   We are witnessing exponential          used to access the wide range of
                                               social, demographic, and technological       information available from online law
investigation, including Cyber Crime,
                                               changes and new criminal types are           enforcement libraries on the Internet. In
rests with the law enforcers. The strategy
                                               emerging. The modern day technological       addition, specific Law Enforcement
to combat these crimes lies in creating a
                                               criminals and hackers steal Cell Phone       News Groups sponsor electronic
Cyber Police Force for which adequate
                                               identifiers with cheap scanners, sniff       conferences where individuals can
empowerment in terms of training,
                                               e-mail on the Internet, and stalk people     participate in written discussions from
infrastructure, motivation and other
                                               in Cyberspace. Computer Crime,               their computers.
logistics is required. A beginning should
be made in Police Training Colleges,           consumer fraud, and white-collar crime
throughout India, where Computer               are going to become reality. Cyber-                 There are those who predict that
Training should be included as a part of       Terrorist will run amuck attacking the       computer crime and crime perpetrated
the curriculum. This Computer Training         integrity of computers that control our      across the Internet will be law
should, apart from teaching Data Entry         financial destiny.                           enforcement’s biggest problem in the
and Computerising of Police Records,                                                        future. And they say that this future is
should also teach investigation of crimes            Our police officers spend a large      not far off. Indeed, a look at the statistics
in the Cyberspace.                             percentage of their time doing               on home computers and Internet users
                                               paperwork. In fact, they feel that the       suggests that the potential for criminal
                                               inordinate amount of time spent on           behaviour is staggering. According to
AWARENESS EDUCATION                            writing arrest reports, seizure              the World Futurist Society, theft by
                                               panchnamas and writing case diary            computer will outstrip drugs as the
      Financial institutions are given         leaves little time to accomplish any         biggest problem in the USA within next
into the threat of sophisticated “Cyber        “real” police work.                          4 years.
Terrorists” who penetrate their
Computer Systems and leave messages                   In Western countries, laptop          NEED FOR A KNOWLEDGE
threatening to destroy them unless they        computers and notebook, coupled with         MANAGEMENT CELL
receive huge sums of money. Banks              the availability of various software
around the world have been victimised          packages are changing dramatically the             The exponentially increasing
by paying millions of dollars as extortion     way the police officers use their time and   number of PC and Internet users,
money to keep their system intact.             obtain information. Using forms - based      coupled with an army of computer literate
Hackers can sneak into database that           software, their laptops are simplifying      unemployed/underemployed youth
house everything from criminal histories       paperwork by printing reports on pre-        would inevitably give rise to computer
and medical records to confidential            printed forms. Using cellular                crime in a couple of years in our own
information in private companies, and          technology, which allows e-mail and file     cities. Police Station in our country
either sell it to the highest bidder or        transfer capabilities, these officers are    should be equipped sufficiently to
change it to suit their purposes. Several      sending their reports electronically to      properly investigate such cases. We
studies suggest that the faster-growing        the head quarters. Thus these laptops        should propose laws on Cyber Terrorism
computer crime is theft of information,        are also acting as time saving devices       and Cyber Pornography to be passed by
such as product plans, research,               for the administrative personnel, who no     the legislature.
marketing plans or prospective customer        longer have to type information into
lists.                                         their processing systems from written              While the biggest source of
                                               reports.                                     knowledge for this agency would be the
        The Internet is a totally new and                                                   knowledge residing in the minds of
unique form of communication and is of               These officers in the field are also   employees of the organisational
full anonymity. There are no signature         using laptop computers to access the         database (including all the reports,
or photo IDs on the Internet Therefore,        information they need to complete their      documents, registers, etc.), the agency
it is very difficult to identify the Cyber -   paperwork. For example, criminal codes       would have other sources of information
Criminals. Hence, it is always better to       and other legal data are available on        as well, like primary data collection from

                                                                     21                                               July - Dec 2002
the field and secondary data collection        the need for setting up in the Central        investigations with Electronic Crime
from the books/magazines, libraries,           Bureau of Investigation (CBI) and in          Branch of the Secret Service. Besides,
publications, training reports and the         State Police HQRS and CID and                 there is the hi-tech crime network
Internet.                                      Detective Department, a COMPUTER              comprising of computer expert police
                                               INVESTIGATION SUPPORT GROUP,                  officers who are trained to solve
      The knowledge would range from           consisting of police officers who are         computer crimes.
that required for policy making (e.g.,         trained and experienced in computer
suggesting a new Cyber Code for                hardware, software technology,                     Following is the proposed 3-4
prevention and investigation of                electronics and telecommunications.           week training syllabus for Investigation
Computer Crimes) to simple operational         Such a unit could also be a Computer          of Cyber Crime for Officers and
matters of day-to-day importance (e.g.,        Crime or Technological Crime                  Members of the Computer Industry and
how to hold effective meetings in              Investigation Unit, on the lines of similar   Banking/ Financial Institutions
Community Policing programmes).                units existing elsewhere in the world,
                                               such as in the RCMP, Canada or the FBI,          [1] Interaction        with      the
      The agency mostly would work             USA. The Group should be equipped                    Participants.
proactively. It would also cater to specific   with the required Computer Forensic
issues referred to it.                         analysis tools including hardware and            [2] Overview of the course
                                               software. While CBI has already made a               mentioning the objective it
      This agency would neither be a
                                               beginning, the State Police are yet to               seeks to achieve.
policy formulating and performance
                                               gear up their resources on this issue. It
evaluatory body, nor would it be an                                                             [3] Difference between Cyber
                                               may be surprising that Computer
implementing body. It would only be a                                                               Crime and Conventional
                                               Forensics, which is a growing and
knowledge support system for both of                                                                Crime.
                                               specialised area in Forensic Science and
the above named functions.
                                               Technology, the world over, is yet to
                                               catch the attention of Forensic experts          [4] Overview of Computers
NEED    FOR A COMPUTER                         in India.                                            Hardware and Peripherals,
INVESTIGATION SUPPORT GROUP                                                                         CPU, HDD, Mother Board,
IN STATE POLICE (HQ) AND IN                                                                         Printers, CD Writers,
                                               TRAINING                                             scanners, Hub & Routers,
DISTRICTS                                                                                           Modems, Ethernal Cables.
                                                     T here     are not enough law
       A Police Officer conducting a                                                            [5] Operating Systems and its
                                               enforcement officers who are trained to
computer search in pursuance of                                                                     Security. Understanding and
                                               combat computer crime. There is also the
investigation of cyber crime should have                                                            changing BIOS and CMOS
                                               problem of acute shortage             of
high-level technical skills for success. A                                                          set-up. DOS, UNIX, LINUX,
                                               Component Investigating Officers and
well-meaning investigator with amateur                                                              Netware, Novell, Windows.
                                               almost no prosecutors are capable
skills could inadvertently, but                enough in prosecuting computer                   [6] Booting Process. Basic
irretrievably, damage the data. When in        criminals. So what are law enforcement               System Commands, Opening,
doubt, rely only on experts. It may be a       agencies supposed to do? A former FBI                Saving & Closing a Text files,
useful advice to associate and get the         Computer specialist suggests: “You                   Data Storage, formatting of
cooperation of the computer experts from       either have to take a cop and make him a             Storage Media.
the victim organisation or target              computer expert or take a computer
computer system group even if they             specialist and make him a cop”.                  [7] Understand and use of
belong to the suspects or accused                                                                   Norton Software. NTI File
because they will be more conversant                                                                List, File cnvt, Gettime,
                                                     And I fully agree with this view
with the systems they use than even the                                                             Disksig, Various FAT File
                                               and we must start harnessing our
experts. Such cooperation could also                                                                Systems. File Attribute, File
                                               available talents in this regard.
save valuable time of the experts.                                                                  Storage. Compression of
                                                     In 1992 the FBI established its                Files. Hiding Data, Data
     The growing number of cases in            National Computer Crime Squad at                     Retrieval. Use of Software to
CBI and Sate Police, where computers           Washington. This Squad reports to                    Retrieve Data. Creation and
ranging from digital diaries and               Financial Crimes Section at FBI                      deletion of Directories & Files
notebooks to computer networks are             Headquarters. The FBI shares                         Attribute. Recovering Deleted
encountered, would perhaps underline           jurisdiction over computer Crime                     Files.

Academy Journal                                                      22
[8] History of Internet. How            [18] Visit to ISP, Working of ISP.            ingredients. Interception and
    Internet works and various               Interacting with the staff of the        tracing. Preparing for searches.
    facilities provided by Internet          ISP and practical session.               Precautions to be taken while
                                                                                      conducting searches. Recovery
[9] Overview of ISP & OSP. Types        [19] E-mail Crime. Detecting origin           and sealing of seized material.
    of Internet Accounts and                 of e-mail from its headers and           Seized Memo. Preservance of
    service provided by the ISP &            messages IDs. Anonymisers.               soft evidence.
    OSP.                                     Anonymous Mailers. Forged
                                             e-mail Addresses.                   [27] E-Banking. Inter Banking
[10] World Wide Web, Domain                                                           System. Electronics Payments.
     Name, URL & IP address.            [20] Investigation of e-mail Crime.           Card Technology. E-cash, Credit
                                             Hacking, Cyber Attacks,                  Cards, Debit Cards, Smart
[11] E-mail, various Protocols used          Tracking. Denial of service.             Cards.
     for e-mails. E-mail Account
                                        [21] Trojan Horse, Intrusion,            [28] IT ACT, 2000 and rules framed
[12] Bulletin Board Service.                 Detection, Port Numbers used             there under, IPC and other Laws
                                             21,23……. 65, 000 and Counter             related to Cyber Crime.
[13] Functions of News Group and             measures.                                Arbitrators. Powers of Courts,
     Chatrooms and server.                                                            etc.
                                        [22] Misuse of Internet Hiding
[14] Protecting Data. Use of                 identity. Copyright Violation.      [29] Computer Forensics. Computer
     Passwords. Encryption, Digital          Gambling, Fraud, Money                   Forensic Expert’s Report.
     Signature, Private Keys and             Laundering,       Espionage.
     Public Keys, Cracking                   Alteration of Data.                 [30] Hardware, Software for
     Password.                                                                        Investigation and Forensic
                                        [23] Case studies on various crime            Aanalysis.
[15] Networking Getways, Bridges,
                                             facilitated by Internet Hands
     Network Security , Firewalls,
                                             on experience to detect             [31] Information Warfare. Cyber
     Proxy Servers, De-Militirized
                                             Hacking, Breaking Passwords.             War, Netwar, Activism,
                                                                                      Hactivism and Cyber Terrorism.
[16] TCP/IP Basics and Routing          [24] General principles to be
     Protocols. IP Sniffing and              followed for investigation. Risk    [32] Different kinds of information
     Spoofing and Proofing. Mac              awareness. Knowledge of                  Warfare. Counter measures and
     Address. Packet Spoofing.               relevant Laws. Line of action.           references.
     Network Utilities. Telnet, Ping,        Speed of reaction.
     Net Stat, Whois, Ports.
                                        [25] Co-operation of         ISP’s,
[17] Recording Directories and               Telecom. International Police                    ***
     Folders. Temporary Folders.             and Judicial Co-operation.
     Temporary Internet Files.
     Cache Bookmarks, History,          [26] Securing Digital Evidence.
     Cookies, etc.                           Registration of FIRs and its

                                             not pedigree,
                                         will win in the end

                                                          23                                        July - Dec 2002
                  WOMEN LEADERS IN POLICE :
                  Jija Madhavan H Singh

                                A ny     major     issue   today            That assessment implied the role
                          demonstrates how inter-linked we all       of organized crime in corrupting
                          are, no matter where we live on Planet     government machinery and forging a
                          Earth. Globalization and the               political-criminal nexus that is a threat
                          technological revolution have shrunk       not just to the US and developed
                          the world to a virtual village.            nations, but even societies in the
                          Communication, transportation, trade,      developing world. No country can
                          money flows and ideologies have            remain immune to what is happening in
                          rendered national frontiers increasingly   any other part of the world.
                                                                            At the operational level, more and
                                                                     more often does an investigator from
                                Releasing the International Crime
                                                                     (say) Orange County, Florida or New
                          Threat Assessment in December 2000,
                                                                     York City, Toronto, London, Sydney or
                          the President of the United States
                                                                     New Delhi have to reach beyond not
                          accurately warned of the growing global
                                                                     just county and state, but even national
                          reach and sophistication of Organized
                                                                     frontiers to link up investigative leads,
                          Crime groups, and its links with
                                                                     examine witnesses, track money flows
                          insurgent and extremist groups. He said,
                                                                     and apprehend fugitives.
                          “International crime is a direct and
                          immediate threat to the United States.”
                          September, 11 sadly proved how                   Title of the paper presented
                          prophetic this insight was.                at ‘Federal Law Enforcement and the

Academy Journal                               24
International Community’ at Women           countries to meet. International               contemporary information revolution and
in Federal Law Enforcement                  Association of Chiefs of Police (IACP)         its attendant brand of globalization are
(WIFLE 2002) Third Annual Training          is the largest individual network of law-      transforming and shrinking the world
Conference at Grand Hyatt Hotel,            enforcement officers worldwide. The UN         on the chessboard... in the transnational
Washington, DC from August 12-16,           has a permanent Commission on Crime,           relations includes actors as diverse as
2002.                                       though CIVPOL is now its better-known          bankers electronically transferring huge
                                            involvement in international policing and      sums at the more benign end of the
      More than any other country, the      its agencies are increasingly involved in      spectrum, and terrorists transferring
United States has global linkages that      supporting social services projects            weapons or hackers disrupting Internet
reach to every corner, because of its       (including law enforcement) in many            operations at the other. September 11
transnational economic linkages and the     countries, to achieve acceptable quality-      illustrated these deeper changes.
flow of immigrants from all over the        of-life standards. Global institutions like    Technology has been diffusing power
world. The richest and the most open        the US-based World Bank have found a           away from governments, and
economy in history is also a natural        need for an international law-                 empowering individuals and groups to
target for criminals including offensive    enforcement perspective, since fraud is        play roles in world politics - including
Islamic fundamentalists. Trafficking in     common in the diverse cultures that it         wreaking massive destruction - that were
humans is another crime that is impacting   operates in.                                   once reserved to governments.
the US, Australia, Europe and now
                                                                                           Privatization has been increasing, and
surfacing in India. It recalls the slave           The challenge that faces us is how      terrorism is the privatization of war.
trade, except that in some instances        to ‘think global and act local.’ In this       Moreover, the process of globalization
today’s human cargo pay huge sums to        context, the subject of today’s session        are shrinking distance, and events in
international gangs that offer an           is very significant and exciting. That this    poor weak countries half way round the
opportunity to escape the poverty or        session is discussing such a universal         world - like Afghanistan - are able to have
repression of their home countries to       theme lifts the Conference itself to           enormous impacts on American lives.
reach some fantasy ‘promised land’ of       another plane. It shows that today             The world has changed from the Cold
freedom and abundance.                      Women in Police have matured and               War to the Global Information Age, but
                                            attained the stature and poise to step         our dominant paradigms have not kept
      This complex environment raises       out of the usual discussions of gender         pace.”
many issues: What are the current models    issues in the work place, to issues of
of global law-enforcement? How can any      larger professional concern. What is                 In a nutshell, he says that it is not
model work, when there is still no          exciting is also that it is establishing the   that such crimes were non-existent but
universally accepted code for               fact that there is a Woman’s Perspective       our awareness of them as well as of the
international crime? What about national    on critical issues and this PERSPECTIVE        affairs of countries in the developing
sovereignty? What has been the              demands attention.                             world like Afghanistan, and the
experience of law-enforcement from                                                         destructive potential of criminals were
different cultures working together?              In my presentation, I attempt to
                                            look at four major facets of the topic. It     brought into sharp focus for Americans
These are questions that law-                                                              by the events of September, 11.
enforcement thinkers have been              touches briefly on the obvious issues of
grappling with, ever since technology       Crime and Law and Order and goes on
brought about a revolution in               to the main contributory factor, the           CRIMES
international travel and communications     Leadership Crisis. Focusing on the other
over a century ago. Far-sighted police      half of the topic is the geometry of
                                            Gender and Law Enforcement from an
                                                                                                 What is the main international
leaders in continents ranging from South                                                   law enforcement issue with respect to
America to Europe had convened several      Indian perspective and lastly but
                                                                                           the Indian crimescape? Terrorism would
international conferences at the turn of    perhaps the more significant part of the
                                                                                           top the list claiming over 40000 lives in
the 19th century to discuss the challenge   presentation, the potential Role Women
                                                                                           the past decade. We have what we
of international crime. Several models      in Leadership positions in Police can
                                                                                           perceive as trans-border sponsored
have been developed to respond to the       play.
                                                                                           terrorism in Kashmir and spilling out to
needs of existing international law-              Talking of international law             the rest of India. “September 11” in the
enforcement.                                enforcement issues, I am reminded of           US was followed for us by a “December
                                            how Mr Nye, Dean of Kennedy School             13”, when there was an attack on the
      Interpol is the formal forum for      of Government, Harvard, succinctly puts        Indian Parliament by a similar extremist
exchange of information and for law-        the current scenario in his recent letter      group. There have been bomb blasts and
enforcement agencies from almost all        to the Alumni. I quote: “The                   shootouts in the vicinity of US embassy

                                                                   25                                               July - Dec 2002
in Calcutta. I am not going to talk about     (Afghanistan, Iraq & Pakistan) and the         Goa of procuring children for making
this in detail as this Conference had a       Golden Triangle (Laos, Myanmar &               porn films for paedophiles.
full session devoted to the topic, except     Thailand), the two major opium producing
to point out that the dimensions of such      regions. In 1999, Afghanistan accounted               Mafia activities have long been
a problem increase manifold when the          for 75% of world’s opium production            recorded in India in the coal mining belts
terrorists have a state sponsoring their      and Myanmar 20%. It is difficult to            of Bihar, Madhya Pradesh and Orissa.
activities under the guise of being           estimate the quantity or value of the un-      Mafia has been surfacing in Mumbai in
‘freedom fighters’ and giving the whole       detected drugs, which have been                various blackmails, kidnapping and
thing a religious overtone as in Kashmir.     smuggled into the country, which is much       murders. The Mafia dons now organize
                                              more than that has been seized. The            offences in India from their safe havens
       Then, we have the LTTE                 seizure figure as per the Annual Report        in the neighbouring countries. Their acts
‘Liberation Tigers of Tamil Ealam’ and        of the Narcotic Crimes Bureau for 2000-        of terrorism and intimidation have been
affiliates striking terror in Tamil Nadu in   2001 was 12460.                                reported even in the international media,
the south of India. An LTTE human                                                            the most prominent being the serial bomb
bomb blew her up killing Rajiv Gandhi,               Trafficking in arms hit international   blasts in Mumbai on 12th March, 1993,
our charismatic former Prime Minister.        headlines when a consignment of 300            killing 257 and injuring 713.
                                              Kalashnikov rifles, 25 pistols, 25000 loads
      There is another ribbon like spread     of ammunition, 10 rocket launchers and                 These crimes do not need any
of Maoist/Naxalite terrorism from the         other items were air dropped in Purulia        further elaboration to the experts in the
Nepal-China border in the mid-north of        in West Bengal from a plane which was          field of law enforcement. The statistics
India running down to the southern tip        transiting through Indian airspace from        of these crimes appear frightening, but
near the state of Kerala. In the              Pakistan. British and Latvian citizens         they are kept in check by a law and order
northeastern states, which wing out on        were arrested. Illegal manufacture and         machinery of about two million strength.
the map, east of Bangladesh, there are        smuggling is a prevalent crime within the      Women in the senior levels do get a
insurgency and separatist movements by        country. Money laundering or what is           chance to work in these areas, though
four different groups.                        called ‘Hawala’, the illegal international     they are generally discouraged. However
                                              transfer of money is a major issue. It is      in strife-torn Kashmir, women at all levels
       Several of our neighbours are          related to all other organized crimes.         have started taking part in operations
helping to keep the terrorist pot boiling     Automobile thefts have gone up manifold        against terrorists.
and there is always the threat of bio-        in recent times as in the east European
terrorism and nuclear blackmail. Indeed       countries, with increased smuggling
it takes up a lot of our energy and           through Nepal.                                 LEADERSHIP CRISIS
resources to ensure adequate security
for the citizens and for law enforcement.            Trafficking in women and children             In discussing international law
                                              from poorer regions to the metropolises        enforcement issues it is not enough to
      When we come to the next                for various illegal practices have been        just identify them without a glimpse into
category, the Organized Crimes, the main      prevalent. But , recently many cases have      the causes. Perhaps the buck stops at
ones we constantly battling against are:      come up where children were found              the issue of a Leadership Crisis
    • Drug trafficking                        smuggled out of the country not only           pervading in many parts of the world.
    • Illegal manufacture and                 for illegal adoption in the west but also      Woman, if adequately sensitized to the
          smuggling of arms                   for such cruel pastimes like camel races       issues, with her down to earth wisdom
    • Money laundering                        in the Gulf countries. Instances of rackets    and agility of mind can address the
    • Automobile thefts and                   of trafficking in women from Bangladesh,       general decay around. Instead of side
          smuggling out into mainly           Maldives and Nepal have also been              stepping it or blindly following the male
          Nepal                               reported.                                      perception of her understanding of
    • Trafficking in women and                                                               world matters, can she play a
          children into and out of India             Crimes against women and                constructive role?
    • Crimes against women and                children are mostly localized crimes, and
          children                            generally suppressed in a conspiracy of               The profound changes of
                                              silence, except that instances are coming      globalization that I have spoken about
    • Mafia activities
                                              up where foreign nationals visiting India      earlier have thrown-up an entirely new
    India’s geographical location is          organizing illegal activities. There was       set of challenges. These require thinking
between the Golden Crescent                   this sensational case which surfaced in        through from the ground up rather than

 Academy Journal                                                    26
just a tinkering that tries to make do with   where weak structures, weak rule of law,       We have the concept of “Shakti” on
the minimum changes.                          weak media and weak NGOs exist. An             Divine Woman Power in legends. India
                                              able woman at times emerges and takes          had produced many heroic women role
       In many parts of the world, societal   charge to be ousted soon after by vested       models down the centuries. Even today,
and democratic mechanisms have given          interests.                                     there are many who stand head and
importance to projecting leadership                                                          shoulders above the rest of the leaders
qualities, and consequently leaders, who            We are reminded of Sir Bernard           in politics and professions including
have cut their teeth on debates that          Shaw’s quotation and the futility of it all,   police. It is a matter of honor for the
flourished half a century ago. They find      “Those who can reform the system do            Indian police that the International
themselves strangely out of depth while       not want to attempt it and those who           Magsasay Award was given to Kiran
grappling with current issues. The            really wish to reform just have no power       Bedi, a police officer for innovative
solutions offered are often irrelevant and    or capability to do it”.                       practices enriching the quality of life of
inadequate. This inadequacy shows off                                                        prisoners of the Central Prison of Delhi.
in the inability of the leaders, and by                                                      She is the only government official to
                                              LAW ENFORCEMENT AND GENDER                     get this award.
extension the institutions they govern,
to meet the genuine aspirations of the
people. This gives rise to frustration and          This is a complex and difficult                 India has about 20,000 women of
acts of disobedience and rebelliousness       issue in India as elsewhere. The               all ranks in police in the 2,000,000
towards established authority. In turn,       Constitution of India guarantees gender        (2 million) strong police force. They are
such antipathy erodes the rule of law and     justice - freedom of choice and equality       at a stage when they are confronting the
the legitimacy of established                 of opportunity for education,                  negative attitudes and values of the
institutions. Ineffectiveness and apathy      occupation, wages and the like. But, this      society and are struggling to find their
of the instruments of the state               “de jure” freedom or equality does not         feet. Ironically, many a time they
encourages groups - ethnic or regional -      often get translated on the ground. We         themselves get bogged down by their
to takeover the legitimate functions of       have about 500 million women, a big            own patriarchal upbringing, and bring in
the state and organize themselves for         number if we think of it as a cohesive         the societal biases, prejudices,
security and tax collection. As non-state     whole. But, in ones and twos across the        predilections, dogmas, myths,
actors there are no binding covenants         country in family, at the work place, in       stereotypes, etc., when dealing with
or treaties to ensure “civilized” behavior.   the fields and on the road women often         women victims. A lot of gender- related
The independent groups develop their          continue to be victims of discrimination,      work is being done. Still, a lot remains to
own agendas - illegal mining, drug            harassment and crime. Illiteracy and           be done.
trafficking, and the like, that require       poverty coupled with suppressive
interaction and close collaboration with      customs and traditional mindset in the                In addition to drawing up a
similarly placed groups elsewhere.            patriarchal Asian milieu have placed           “National Policy for Empowerment of
                                              women in a dark corner.                        Woman”, there have been two
       Soon the state is under threat and                                                    significant initiatives. One was a National
its finances under pressure. Economic               Juxtaposed alongside we have a           Workshop with 600 participants on
growth slows down, and in some cases,         fair percentage of educated and                Gender and Law Enforcement. This was
even reverses so that issues of               empowered women spread across all              the result of several regional workshops
unemployment, poverty, and decline of         walks of life. In a way, Women’s               organized by National Commission for
administrative standards become a             Movement in India has come of age.             Women in collaboration with NGOs. The
reality. People’s perceptions undergo a       Women occupied high positions in               other was the “ Springboard” programme
change and the vicious cycle begins           India’s freedom struggle. Today, the next      to empower women in the police. This
again. It is in such an environment that      generation seem ready “to pause, reflect       initiative is an attempt at forging a new
disenchanted youth congregate and             and explore our identity as women              future for women in police. Modeled on
expose themselves to fundamentalist           beyond gender stereo types, colonized          the “Gender Agenda” launched in the
influences. A combination of porous           mindsets, western psychological                UK, it seeks to awaken the police to
borders, breakdown in rule of law, decline    theories and constructs, male centric          issues which must be tackled if it is to
of state instruments especially the police    leaderships and racial hierarchy. We           develop women’s potential as a deliverer
and judiciary, make radicals like Osama       know that deep within us, women’s              of quality services to the public in the
Bin Laden believable and facilitate           bodies, we carry immense wisdom,               21st century. “Springboard” was with
breeding grounds for terrorists.              authority and strength that may not be         similar regional training endeavors,
Criminals operate and thrive in regions       easily comprehended and verbalized”.           culminating in a National Conference

                                                                     27                                               July - Dec 2002
where 550 Women in Police from               No need to integrate        Want to be in      agent for bringing about and sustaining
Constables to Inspectors General of                                      mainstream         the change. There is a change in the
Police took part in deliberations, sharing   Men are more capable        Women are          ethos with many reform initiatives and
experience and displaying their strengths                                capable            more and more women coming into the
and projecting their aspirations.                                                           police at all levels.
                                             Superiors view equally      Discriminate

      A definition of gender                 Need more training          All need                  In addition to the induction of
sensitization and gender stereotypes                                     training           women, another important change
emerged out of these massive endeavors.                                                     mechanism has been gender
“Gender sensitization should be seen as            Mahatma Gandhi, father of the            sensitization programme that has been
a higher responsiveness to the inequity      nation, as early as 1930 observed: “It is      introduced at various levels. In the
and unequal power equation of gender         wrong to treat woman as weak. This is          predominantly patriarchal, conservative
relations, heightened receptivity to a       gross injustice to womanhood. If the           Indian society, survival of the women in
gender-value framework that challenges       definition of strength is physical             the male bastion of the police without
the patriarchal stereotypes in order to      strength, women may be considered              acquiring some characteristics of the
ensure gender justice. It denotes a          weak. But if strength is defined in terms      ‘force’ concept and ‘male’ behaviour
process of resocialisation - a process of    of moral character, women are stronger         often became difficult. Many gave in, and
unlearning the gender bias, both societal    than men are, women have more insight,         become part of the milieu or even quit
and organizational”(Report of the            are more devoted than men, and have            the job when they could not handle the
National Workshop on Gender and Law          more self-control”. Striving towards this      psychological and physical dualities.
Enforcement by National Commission           vision, National Policy for Empowerment        Happily, there are some signs of
for Women).                                  of Women was aimed at all round political      changing attitudes and women being
                                             and economic participation of women            accepted as they are. The next step
                                             and mainstreaming of gender.                   ideally would be to see women as an
   Gender Stereotype/ Springboard
                                                                                            asset with special, positive strengths,
                                                    There is one very strong argument       which can be gainfully utilized to revamp
Men’s                      Women’s
                                             in favor of inducting more women in            and rejuvenate the Police Service. That
Perception                 Perception
                                             police. The context of a paradigm shift        perhaps is a far away dream!
                                             from colonial policing to a democratic
Woman suited for           Can perform
feminine funtions          all funtions      one. In India we still follow the Penal        WOMEN LEADERS IN POLICE
                                             Code and Criminal Procedure Code set
Take same pay but do       Do more work      out by Lord Macaulay in a bygone era.                 Where do we go from here? What
less work                                    The police force was the coercive arm of       Women Police Leaders can instigate?
                                             the traders turned colonial rulers to          More women are joining the law
Not enthusiastic or        Committed         suppress the Indian subjects. In the half      enforcement services today. There are
career minded                                a century since independence, the police       now a significant number of women at
                                             forces in India had to gradually and           all level including senior levels. Statistics
Difficult to cope with     No problem                                                       show that annual recruitment to senior
police                                       grudgingly move from a ‘Force concept’
                                             to a ‘Service concept’.                        executive levels in 1972 was 1 woman in
Cannot work in            Can handle                                                        IPS. There had been a regular intake
operations                everything                                                        thereafter, one each year till 1975 out of
                                                    What are the pre-requisites to such
                                                                                            annual intake of about 65. There was a
                                             a change from being a Force to a Service?
Too gentle and soft        Can be tough                                                     steady increase and had reached double-
                           when needed       The shift has to be from being a
                                                                                            digits in the past 5 years.
                                             Controller and Enforcer to a Facilitator
Gender Discrimination and inequality         and an Expert to help in need. It calls for
                                             different qualities: greater sensitivity and         Several issues are still relevant
Women are not              There is          sensitiveness in responding to                 which need to be resolved. A core central
discriminated              discrimination    situations and people for a start. When        issue is the concern for equal
                                             such a transformation is being demanded        opportunity. The system has to ensure a
Given the same             Not given         of the police in the present democratic        level playing field if women are to have
responsibilities                                                                            satisfaction and just advancement.
                                             set-up, the relevance of woman with her
Given the same             Not given         innate strengths of patience, sensitivity      Women leaders have to assert their role
incentives                                   and sensitiveness fits the bill as the         in ensuring this for the others.

 Academy Journal                                                    28
     The need of the hour also is to                Women police should also focus        would be relevant and of great value to
motivate women in police towards             on non-traditional areas like ethics,        professional functioning, societal
                                             community policing, emerging crime           development and individual aspirations.
    •     Continuous training and            areas including IT, environment, minority    A common knowledge network platform
          development                        rights, and leadership where they can        to facilitate sharing and learning can form
    •     Professionalism                    make a critical impact. It could be the      the basis for personal and professional
                                             role of women leaders to show the way        development all around. Informal
    •     Aim for excellence                 to maximize the potential of the special     organizations of women can strengthen
    •     Stress on team playing             qualities of woman. While she can do all     and support existing formal structures
                                             the jobs well, she can excel in some and     like Interpol and IACP contributing fresh
CONCLUSION                                   she should have the freedom of the           insights, a new perspective and
                                             knowledge.                                   hopefully, viable solutions. Finally, we
                                                                                          could go along with the exhortation of
        The time has come for a critical            Simultaneously, increasing
                                                                                          Ron Noble, Secretary-General, Interpol
evaluation of women’s contribution and       political sensitivity is also necessary to
                                                                                          who inaugurated this Conference, I
new opportunities for leaders to             influence policy for positive outcome for
                                                                                          quote, “police professionals...must build
encourage greater contribution and           women, especially in providing the right
                                                                                          bridges to the rest of the international
impact. In today’s knowledge-intensive       quality of working environment.
                                                                                          community...increasingly work with
world, it is imperative to develop           Women’s awareness of issues and active
                                                                                          international well as
strategic management approach to help        involvement can instigate betterment all
                                                                                          with regional police organizations...
women in their personal and professional     around. Even better governance can be
                                                                                          where possible we must avoid
development in the context of their          insisted upon by pressure groups/
                                                                                          unnecessary duplication.” This is
gender. Identifying barriers to progress     NGOs with women playing a catalytic
                                                                                          equally true of forging relationships and
and strategize to overcome these barriers    role.
                                                                                          networking for empowerment by Women
by putting in place formal procedures for          Women “hold up half the sky” and       leaders in police, to work to their full
gender auditing is essential.                the service and society will only gain if    potential, and more significantly benefit
Professional, well-trained women leaders     the full potential of its women can be       society.
in police can play the role of motivators    tapped. In this direction, any initiative
and agents of change.                        attempting to forge linkages globally

                                                       Every Job
                                            is a self-portrait of the person
                                                       who did it

                                                       your work
                                                     with excellence

                                                                   29                                              July - Dec 2002
                  INDIA - A PERSPECTIVE
                  Tejdeep Kaur Menon

                                It is by now commonplace to           Immoral Traffic (Prevention) Act, Sati
                          talk about the fair sex getting a fair      Prevention Act, Dowry Prohibition
                          deal. Be it the enactment of new social     Act, Indecent Representation of
                          laws, the creation of new institutions      Women (Prevention) Act. In the year
                          for target groups and even the lip          2000 a total of 1, 41, 373 cases were
                          service about providing reservations        reported.
                          for them in all elected bodies. Yet, we
                          are still far from it. There is no better          A study of the CAW data shows
                          evidence of how and why the                 that there was an increase of 4.1 per cent
                          empowerment of women in India is            and 3.3 per cent in 2000 over the
                          poor than in the revealing statistics of    previous years 1999 and 1998. In
                          the Crime Against Women (CAW), the          absolute numbers, an increase of 5, 502
                          handling of these grave offences, the       cases was reported at the national level
                          profile of the victims, the accused and     in 2000 over 1999. This increase should
                          the ultimate disposal of the cases.         be viewed against the 0.4 per cent
                                                                      decrease in the Indian Penal Code (IPC)
                                 Crime against women has              crimes and 7.9 per cent decrease in
                          traditionally been classified to include    Special and Local Laws (SLL) crimes in
                          cases of rape, kidnapping and               2000 when compared to that in the
                          abduction, dowry death, torture,            earlier year 1999. It is noteworthy that
                          molestation, sexual harassment,             Lakshwadweep did not report a single
                          importation of girls, cases under the       incident of CAW in 2000.

Academy Journal                                30
        The proportion of CAW to the           Madhya Pradesh alone accounted for                The absence of adequate civil
total crime reported in the country (IPC)      23 per cent of rape cases in the country   courts, especially family courts, and the
is 7.2 per cent. The all India crime rate      and about 26 per cent of the total         failure of family courts to function as per
that is number of crimes per lakh              molestation cases.                         the spirit of the Family Courts Act, 1994,
population for CAW, reported to the                                                       have made many a woman seek police
police worked out to be 14.1 during 2000.            Incest accounted for 2.2 per cent    help outside a police station and exploit
This state of crime that may not appear        cases. In the majority of the cases of     Section 498 A IPC to secure divorce or
alarming at first sight is to be viewed with   incest, the victims were below eighteen    settlement involving her life, the children,
caution as a sizeable number of crime          years of age. Forty seven per cent of      maintenance and property.
against women go unreported due to             all rape victims were less than
various reasons. Clearly, this is a pathetic   eighteen years old. This shatters the
                                               myth about women shouting rape while             This is not an attempt to demolish
situation.                                                                                the nobility of an enactment like the 498
                                               caught in a willing act. In fact, one of
                                               every five women raped is an innocent      A IPC, but to enlighten the lawmakers
      Consider the larger picture. The 23
                                               and helpless child.                        and the stakeholders in the criminal
big cities accounted for 12 per cent of
                                                                                          justice system towards bringing about
the total CAW cases in the country. Of
                                                      The cases of torture for dowry      long desired changes in the civil law and
these, Chennai accounted for 24 percent
                                               are the highest among CAW cases            the legal procedures governing rights of
of these cases, followed by Delhi at 12.6
                                               accounting for 32.4 per cent of the        women seeking divorce or relief from
per cent. However, the rate of CAW
                                               cases. The incidence of increase is 4.4    marital harassment.
presents a different picture. Significantly,
it shows a higher rate of 59.8 per cent for    per cent over the previous year. There
Chennai, followed by Kanpur and Jaipur         is intense criticism against the misuse           The conviction of an errant
at 39 and 36. Among the six metros,            of Section 498 A IPC by women to           husband under Section 498 A IPC does
Calcutta is the safest for women. It has       harass the gullible spouses. The fact      not entitle a woman to an automatic
recorded half of what was reported in          is that civil law is lagging way behind    divorce. She would have to approach a
Bangalore.                                     the changes and nuances in family and      civil court and battle with her husband
                                               gender relations in the ongoing            for divorce and also pursue the criminal
       As much as 31.8 per cent of dowry       churning process and rapidly               case filed in a police station to seek justice.
death cases reported at the national level     transforming Indian society.               In fact, if she is economically dependent
were from Uttar Pradesh (UP) alone,                                                       on him and he has to undergo
followed by Bihar with 15.5 per cent. It is          The Guardians and Wards Act,         imprisonment, the question of
logical to conclude that the harassment        1890, the Special Marriage Act, 1954,      maintenance may not arise. Therefore,
on account of the pernicious practice of       Hindu Marriage Act,1955, the Hindu         women use Section 498 A IPC more often
dowry is very high in both the states.         Succession Act, 1956 and the Hindu         to redress all marital grievances for a
However, it should be noted that the           Minority and Guardianship Act,1956         quicker and advantageous settlement.
incidence of torture cases (under section      do not in any way reflect the              This is reflected in various parameters.
498 A IPC) in UP accounted for 13.2 per        aspirations of a woman trapped in a        The very high percentage of cases under
cent and Bihar only for 3 per cent of cases    murderous marriage and seeking early       Section 498 A of IPC, that is 8.9 per cent,
reported under this head. This leads us        relief from its bondage. Irretrievable     in which the police found the charge to
to believe that these states take account      breakdown of marriage is not               be false, mistake of fact or law, or other
of the practice of harassing women for         maintainable as a ground for divorce       grounds for referring the case is in
dowry only when they are confronted            in India - a common ground for grant       contrast to only 4.1 per cent of cases of
with the bodies of the helpless women.         of divorce by courts in the USA.           dowry death in which the police did so.
      In cases of rape, 40 per cent of
the victims were in the age group of 19              Coupled with this is the problem            Also there is a very high
to 30 years and 20.8 per cent in the age       of archaic methodology employed by         percentage of acquittal/discharge in
group of 16 to 18 years. Also in cases of      courts in settling disputes relating to    cases of cruelty by husbands and
rape, victims knew the offenders in 87.4       custody of children, computation and       relatives at 78 per cent of cases tried by
of every 100 cases. This is the picture        division of the marital property, return   courts. The crime rate (rate of report) of
that emerges from an analysis of the           of streedhan, fixation and securing of     cases of cruelty by husband or relatives
16,496 rape offences that were reported        maintenance, often weighed heavily         is as high as 4. 6, while the crime rate for
in 2000. Neighbours were accused of            against the interests of the woman         dowry death is 0.7 and sexual harassment
rape in three out of every ten cases.          seeking relief.                            is 1.1 in every 1 lakh population.

                                                                    31                                               July - Dec 2002
      Similarly, the arrest rate for cases         The Domestic Violence                       Now, consider this. One in every
of cruelty by husband or relatives is        (Prevention) Bill, 2000 tabled in           five or 21.3 per cent of the total number
10.5 and is the highest in the CAW           parliament on March 8, 2002, is a           of murders in 2000 was of women. This
category. This comes fourth following        significant step forward in recognizing     added up to 8,430 murders of women
arrests in cases of rioting, hurt and        the problems of women, children and         that year. Of these, 46 per cent were in
thefts.                                      their other family members living in a      the prime of their life – the 19 – 30 age
                                             household where domestic violence is        group. Karnataka (1293), Maharashtra
      All these are pointers of the          practiced. When it is finally enacted       (1132), Uttar Pradesh (1082) and Bihar
yawning gap between civil and                as law, it will provide protection to the   (918) accounted for 56.5 per cent of
criminal law that needs to be bridged.       woman against domestic violence by          the cases. Personal enmity, property
The absence of a single window where         obtaining protection orders, residence      disputes, love intrigues, dowry and
a woman can obtain different kinds of        orders and monetary relief orders. It       gain are the major reasons for
relief on an emergency basis                 will obtain for her right to reside in a    murdering women.
beginning from basic protection to           shared household, the right to be
stop the violence, being turned out          informed of the access to such orders              Another alarming fact is that as
from the husband’s home, restraining         and the service of accredited service       many 36, 310 bodies of unidentified
the husband from disposing of                providers.                                  men and women were recovered in
property, emptying bank lockers and                                                      2000. That means, as many as 99
accounts and depriving her the right                                                     bodies were found on an average,
                                                   The bill bureaucratizes the
to be with and custody of her children.                                                  every day that year. The metropolitan
                                             process of justice by introducing
                                                                                         cities of Hyderabad (2672), and Delhi
                                             another avoidable tier – protection
                                                                                         (3571) reported very high incidence
      In this bleak scenario, it is easy     officer - between the complainant and
                                                                                         that year. This leaves one with the eerie
for a man to throw his wife out of home      the court. There is enough experience
                                                                                         feeling that it is still possible to murder
and wait for her to trudge the long          with other legislations like the Dowry
                                                                                         and screen the identity of the victim.
winding route through the courts for         Prohibition Act and the Immoral Traffic
                                                                                         Worse still, law is unable to inspire
whatever little relief she can get in the    (Prevention) Act to suggest the
                                                                                         enough confidence in the next of kin of
end. Consequently, in the anxiety and        inefficacy of this tier.
                                                                                         the dead to help identify their dear ones.
eagerness for a settlement, the harried
woman is forced to agree to what is far             Further, the bill does not cater           Women victims far outnumber men
less than her due. In the bargain,           to the longstanding demand of women         in the category of kidnapping and
perhaps to get custody of her children,      for a appropriate linkages between          abduction crime. They account for 67
the woman may succumb to obnoxious           civil and criminal law to make Section      per cent of the 22,938 cases reported in
visiting rights that have, in fact, long-    498 A effective. At most, the portent       this category. Of the kidnapped or
term adverse impact on the growth of         of the proposed legislation is like         abducted women, 59 per cent were for
the children.                                providing first aid to a critical patient   marriage and 14 per cent for rape. A
                                             in an emergency.                            significant feature is that 37 per cent of
      Most harassed women seeking                                                        all women victims were less than 18
justice can file a criminal case under                                                   years old.
Section 498 A IPC on the charge of                 However, this temporary relief
mental and physical cruelty and a            should be followed up with setting up             The failure of the investigating
divorce on the same grounds.                 of more family courts to deal with          agency can be seen from the fact that 25
However, deterred by the painful span        divorce, maintenance, child custody         per cent of the cases remained under
of three to five years that it takes to      and division of property and reverting      investigation without finalisation of the
secure the first order from a court and      to the spirit that led to the formation     case till the end of the year. These are
the proverbial Damocles sword                of the family courts providing early,       cases in which the victims remained
hanging over her head, with the series       easy solutions to domestic problems.        untraced or the investigation was
of appeals the husband can file to set                                                   underway to establish the charge.
aside the first court order, forces her            The need to revise the rates of
to seek closure of the criminal case         maintenance is long overdue. Also, the             The police closed as many as 3,847
under Section 498 A IPC and settle for       protracted procedure to get a paltry        cases of kidnapping and abduction of
a divorce on grounds of mutual               maintenance defeats the very purpose        women and girls or 16 per cent of the
consent. In effect, the man has the          of the existence of the maintenance         cases were found to be false, mistake of
cake and eats it too.                        laws.                                       fact or law.

Academy Journal                                                   32
        This signifies the shifting stand      Representation of Women (Prevention)                 Though the sex ratio in the country
taken by the victim or her guardian            Act. Under the first act, 73 per cent of      was 946 females for 1,000 males in 1951,
towards the crime and the criminal, in         the cases were from Tamil Nadu alone          it has worsened to 927 females for 1,000
view of the existing social environment.       and in the case of the second law, 57 per     males in 2000. What then has happened
They are perhaps handicapped and               cent of cases were from Andhra Pradesh.       to our pre-natal, post-natal, nutritional
forced to get the victim married to the        Many states like Karnataka, Haryana,          support, health care, girl child education
accused or someone else by putting a           Orissa, Madhya Pradesh, Punjab and            programmes throughout the country?
lid on the case. What is interesting to        West Bengal did not report a single case      The deep seated bias in India against
note is that in 20.4 per cent of the cases,    of indecent representation of women           the girl child with the availability of the
the children were kidnapped from Delhi         during the year. This is yet another stark    most modern scientific techniques to
itself.                                        pointer to the callousness of the police      determine the sex of the foetus has
                                               and society in being insensitive to the       resulted in large scale detection and
       The number of sexual harassment         issues relating to women that can             snuffing out of the birth of a girl.
cases, referred to as eve teasing in the       possibly help in nipping in the bud
past, rose by 24.5 per cent over that in       potential cases of gender crime.                    This grave injustice is not reflected
1999. More than 25 per cent of these                                                         in the crime records of the country.
cases were reported from Uttar Pradesh,               A study of the figures of cases        Shockingly, just 104 cases of infanticide
followed by Andhra Pradesh and Tamil           reported under the Immoral Traffic            and 91 cases of foeticide were reported
Nadu.                                          (Prevention) Act gives an impression          from the entire country in 2000.
                                               that prostitution in India thrives in Tamil   Infanticide and foeticide are a way of life
       It is natural to expect a significant   Nadu, Andhra Pradesh and Karnataka,           in both urban and rural India and,
co-relation in the pattern of rape,            as 93 per cent of the cases have been         therefore, the provisions of a progressive
molestation and sexual harassment cases        reported from these states only. Tamil        law like the Pre-natal Diagnostic
reported from a state. Sadly, this pattern     Nadu alone accounted for 73 per cent of       Techniques (Registration and Prevention
is not reflected in the statistics. Madhya     these cases. Does this mean there is no       of Misuse) Act, 1994 remains a worthless
Pradesh recorded the largest number of         prostitution in the cities? Or, are cases     scrap of paper.
rape (3737) and molestation cases (8516)       not reported from the cities of Nagpur,
but ranks much lower in the reporting of       Patna, Bhopal, Pune, Lucknow,
sexual harassment cases (840). The                                                                  Who is a girl child? If one goes by
                                               Ahmedabad, Indore, Kanpur, Vadodara,          the Juvenile Justice Act, 1986 a girl child
reason for Uttar Pradesh recording far         Varanasi ?
lesser number of rapes (1865) and                                                            is one below 18 years of age. The Child
molestation cases (2604) than most                                                           Marriage Restraint Act, 1928 also
states and then recording the highest                Both, the Immoral Traffic               specifies 18 years as the cut off mark for
number of sexual harassment cases              (Prevention) Act and the Indecent             preventing child marriage. However, for
(3160) is an issue for serious study. This     Representation of Women Act, are              the purpose of defining rape, under
is suggestive of the failure of the criminal   comprehensive laws. But, these laws           Section 375 IPC, the age of consent for
justice system to inspire confidence in a      were made without repealing provision         sexual intercourse is 16. This very
victim of rape or molestation and the          in the existing laws in the state and         provision provides for sexual
inability of the victim to speak out on        that of the Indian Penal Code.                intercourse by a man with his wife even
the atrocity due to the prevailing socio-      Consequently, investigating officers          if she is below 16 and above 15. Further,
economic conditions in the state. It also      take advantage of the more lenient            in the next section 376 of IPC, exception
raises serious doubts of the correct           provisions of the old laws to book            is made for a husband for lesser
recording of cases as they occur and the       cases and, inadvertently, make a              punishment if he rapes his wife who is
shocking apathy to gender issues.              mockery of thriving crime. It is              above 12 years of age. It is time that we
                                               possible to herd a dozen women                clearly rid ourselves of such blatant
      The significantly large number of        accused of prostitution and get them          anachronism, define who is a girl child
sexual harassment cases reported from          fined Rs.25 each under an existing law        and shelve once and for all antiquated
Tamil Nadu and Andhra Pradesh are              such as a City Police Act or Town             social laws.
perhaps a pointer to the drive taken up        Nuisance Act. This is a cakewalk in
by these states against gender crimes.         comparison to the elaborate                         Crime against women has been
                                               investigation required under the              classified traditionally as marital and
     An interesting trend is seen in the       Immoral Traffic (Prevention) Act to           sexual crime. However, an important
reporting of the Immoral Traffic               book financiers, brokers, building            section of violent crime victimizes
(Prevention) Act, and Indecent                 owners and the clients of prostitutes.        women even more. This is robbery and

                                                                     33                                               July - Dec 2002
dacoity on homes. Women are prime                  Significantly, the majority of the    for juvenile offences were 4,128 or 23 per
targets for the jewels, usually the          women are between 15 and 29 years of        cent of the juvenile offenders picked up
ornaments they wear and keep at              age, while male victims who commit          that year.
home. A total of 7, 624 cases were           suicide are between 30 and 44. For
reported under the head dacoity and          every 59 male suicides there were 41               But there is just one policewoman
robbery at residential premises and          of women. It is seen that social and        for every 52 policemen representing a
property worth Rs.3249.70 lakhs was          economic causes led most males to           woefully inadequate 2.09 per cent in the
looted from the inmates and homes by         commit suicide while emotional and          entire police force. The total strength is
dacoits.                                     personal factors drove females to end       21,633.As many 18 states have a strength
                                             their lives. This is evident from the       of less than 1,000 each. Tamil Nadu is in
       Other property crime that             dominant factors for female suicides.       the lead with 4, 415 policewomen. The
erodes the safety and confidence of          Suspected/illicit relationship, 56 per      share of women in armed police is 0.45
women is burglaries and thefts. The          cent, non-settlement or cancellation of     per cent. They exist only in a handful of
only consolation is that it is not violent   marriage 66 per cent, not having            states – Madhya Pradesh, Himachal
in nature.                                   children 73 per cent, dowry dispute 98      Pradesh, Jammu and Kashmir, Assam,
                                             per cent, divorce 65 per cent, physical     Goa and Delhi. All this means, there are
      Another area of focus for those        abuse 68 per cent and illegitimate          not enough policewomen to investigate
analysing issues of gender justice is        pregnancy 98 per cent.                      the cases of female criminality.
the commission of suicide.
Housewives accounted for 52 per cent                All this casts a heavier                   In such a dismal situation there is
of the total female suicide cases.           responsibility on women police already      therefore no question of policewomen
Married women account for as high            saddled with important tasks to             being available to tackle cases where the
as 66.6 per cent of all suicide victims.     perform under the Criminal Procedure        woman is the victim rather than the
The complex way in which bad                 Code in issues relating to search,          offender. It is time we put on the thinking
marriages operate in driving women to        arrest, and custody of women                caps to get our act together.
suicide is still to be fully understood.     witnesses, arrestees and juvenile
Further, 46.8 per cent of the victims        delinquents. The female criminality in
had less than middle school                  the total crime amounted to 5.4 per
education. Women preferred to drown,         cent. In all 3,22,631 women were arrested                     ***
hang or immolate themselves.                 during 2000. The number of girls arrested

                                                  setting a good example
                                                     for your children
                                                       does nothing
                                                       but increase
                                                    their embarrassment

Academy Journal                                                   34
AP M a h e s h w a r i

                  Our overstretched democracy,           difficult to contain the very fighter force
            heavily loaded with enumerable pulls and     which was in itself meant to contain the
            pressures of various shades, has now         disintegrating elements. Guided by
            come to a point where peace is a rare        common impressions, we refuse to peep
            occasion. We buy peace in installments.      into the reality. Alleged as necessary evil,
            We buy temporary peace at a huge cost.       apparently disliked and labeled as
            Suffering the vagaries of caste and          corrupt and high headed, this social
            communal divide, struggling against the      segment of peace-keepers in uniform has
            distortions of poverty and the economic      its own pathological woes when the job
            divide, decrying the outcome of low          requirements oscillate from crime to
            values and corrupt practices, fighting       public disorder, from insurgency to
            against system failures marred by            terrorism, from sabotage to subversions,
            pressures of population and repulsively      from communal policing to urban
            bearing the influence of bad managers.       warfare, its tasks are ever increasing.
            The list of fights and divides is adding     Normal system balances having failed,
            further on day by day. In order to attain    it faces the brunt of all the bad spillover.
            some sort of synthesis, though               Not one day, two days or two years, for
            superficial, we have generated a tall        years the fire fighting is going on. They
            battery of fighter forces as a containment   were never linked as an integral sub-
            exercise. The containment exercise has,      system of a development planning; they
            however, been rolling on for days. This      came into being as a ‘patch work.’
            ever fighting scenario has now made it       Hence, they are still reactive and not

                                  35                                               July - Dec 2002
truly proactive. The attempt here is not      would celebrate your death and take           adopted since time immemorial by all
to generate any illusions but draw the        away the weapons too, in order to have        civilisations to handle the bad
attention on the intrinsic aspects of the     more feasts. In many situations, there are    components, like a bad sore or a boil on
job of these ever fighting men.               no clear-cut solutions. Over-doing is         the body. Consequently, the peace-
                                              often regarded better than underplaying.      keepers tend to build a sub-culture full
       Every society is prone to crime and    Thus the jobs of peace-keepers swindle        of inherent contradictions vis-a-vis the
violence. Socially Augmented Crime            from normal to the abnormal. One can          superficially perceived reality of the
Prevention Drives (SACPD) and the             have no two options that a normal             society.
deterrence infused by the Criminal            situation should be met by normal and
Justice Administration (CJA) are the two      decent human norms. But a highly                     The job of peace-keepers has, due
known methodologies to create peace           abnormal situation calls for contingency      to the above complexities, gone down
and order. Both are in a way                  management which may even entail a            on priority of the society’s youth. The
supplementary to each other. Amidst so        surgery. This is true about medical field     discarded young aspirants join them as
many divides in our society, the later has    as well as business enterprises so also       a last fight against hunger. In order to
to face the brunt, more often than not.       for any organisation fighting against         need more people to fight and die, we
How effectively do they perform needs         advanced crises. Adding to it is the fact     keep buying their helplessness against
no elaboration. The job of the peace-         that these tasks are done by people who       hunger. Yet they join and imbibe the
keepers has become wide-ranging. Rural        live against the norms of a healthy life      lessons of patriotism and loyalty under
segments need a different set of policing     style. Away from families for ten months      the tuning for discipline. The vertical and
skills in comparison to high-rise             out of twelve, irregular working hours,       horizontal divides of the society baffle a
metropolitan towns where art of policing      unhygienic living conditions, over-           cop till he draws a perpendicular and
is often put to test. The high-tech urban     loaded with negative floats of life. With     hangs on to it as his anchor. It could be
Mafiosi and white collared criminals          the breaking down of joint family             anything under the sky which his
pose a challenge. Neo-elite need faithful     systems, the nuclear families, where male     environment can give. He had been the
watchdogs. Political manipulators need        member remains away for ten months in         part of the same society and takes what
a repressive tool. The brutal segments        a year, find it difficult to cope with the    it gives and does it so, at times, with no
whose sentiments are fuelled by               problems of life. This also eclipses the      sensitivity. Thus, the contradictions in
fundamentalists entail use of equal force     mental peace which he could afford            personal and organizational goals,
to contain the tide. Over and above all,      otherwise.                                    perceptional difference of roles and
the subversive elements, whose actions                                                      responses vis-à-vis the social
are master minded by unfriendly                      Everyone needs some privacy and        expectations are bound to occur.
neighbours, become ruthless and make          space in relationships, in order to
indiscriminate use of weapons,                survive. This is an inherent human                      Another area hampering his
explosives and advanced technologies          requirement. The peace-keepers thrive on      functioning is the flow of information
to cause loss of life and property,           imposed relationships with no mutual          from the community which is often
whether of citizens or the security forces.   space and privacy as they have to any         blocked due to lack of trust and the
The constant threat of the unknown            way roll on in a make shift arrangements,     prevalence of a negative image. Once the
devil of death forces one to take all         so called barracks. With human                timely information becomes a casualty,
possible counter measures. SACPD is           sensitivities increasing day by day the       the operational requirements force him
nearly absent. Community indulgence in        old patterns may require drastic changes.     to adopt other means. The time tested
adducing evidences is also at a low mark.     But cost is a limiting factor. Hence, there   methods in this category are either
CJA is also not producing results. Under      is a big trade off between normative and      monetary allurement or looking for a
such an environment, the psycho-              real conditions. The problem of               break-away group of the same gang or
behavioural domains, emerging within          emotional stress is mostly prevailing at      locate the enemy’s enemy or play one
the internal configuration of the human       lower cadres. The higher cadres may not       against the other. At times, when nothing
being working as a peace-keeper, tend         feel the brunt so much as do the peace-       flows, general brooming is done. The
to become rigidly complicated. They are       keepers at lower rungs. Though a couple       result is the violation of the rights of
fractured from basic humane touch to the      of deviant tendencies acquired by them        many. But what has been prevented is
brutal instinct, they encompass anything      cannot be let go scot-free, certain types     intangible and a peace-keeper cannot
from love to hate, constant fight against     of deviant behaviours are normal, i.e.,       take credit for it, yet he has to explain
terrorism or insurgency make them             likely to be adopted by any person doing      what has tangibly occurred. One effective
moron, insensitive and full of negatively     those jobs. Thus the job context and job      way to win community support and win
heightened emotionality. If you do not        content factors cannot be ignored. Still      favour is to add the charter of providing
act as a death devil for the terrorist, he    glaring are the tactics which have been       material services to the community in

Academy Journal                                                     36
contrast to the singular role of checking     prescriptions for its health forever. The    Police Act of 1861 made by British for
the people against their deviant              system has to follow certain norms for       colonial       control       nor       the
behaviours. These type of job profiles        maintaining its health. Thus, the            recommendations of National Police
have been adopted in insurgency prone         importance of inbuilt social mechanism       Commission have been implemented for
areas but selectively. Community              to prevent the occurrence of crime or to     decades. Rather top-heavy structures
development programmes, health camps,         control the deviant behaviour cannot be      along with various autonomous bodies
education initiatives, etc., are being        ignored. Whether one is being raped or       have been formed for multiple controls.
undertaken by security forces so as to        tortured or any accidental crime takes       We control the symptoms but not the
gain community support and improve the        place in public, rarely do people come to    basic ailment. Amidst all this, the social
image from that of a monitor to the image     the rescue of the victim or help resist      concern shown in some cases, including
of a helper. Police agencies abroad have      the criminal on the spot. The                media trial, any superficial effort would
these roles in normal course too, e.g.,       grotesquely apathetic behaviour of           miss the mark and any comment or study
providing services of vehicles in case of     people sends a wave of repugnance.           in a non-holistic scenario may be
accidents. The situation of trust as a        Public apathy in itself encourages crime.    eventually impact-less. A superficial
friend prompts real time voluntary            In India, we have lost control of social     post mortem and the passing of
information from people. Peace-keepers        defence mechanism and adopted                judgement against crisis managers are
do not have such roles in India yet as a      legalistic approach for enforcing any        not going to fetch any desired benefits.
normal charter, on the contrary the short     value or behaviour. This deterrent           A few analysts feel that the society may
tenures of postings keeps people more         approach has its own fallouts if the         have to repent for the dampening
apprehensive what will happen if he goes.     former is substantially non-existent.        demonstration effect down the
Developing rapport does take time.            This is a crucial fact not to be missed.     hierarchy, if the heroes of crisis
                                              This is another big contradiction in         environment are deplored and their
       It is this environment a peace-        reality arising out of the overindulgence    tactics are put to an audit as per the
keeper works in. What was thought as          of society in coercive methods via legal     parameters of the ‘normal situations’.
an exception became a routine and that        approach to problem solving and under-       Handling of Punjab can be taken as a
also on a multifarious scale. There are       indulgence in socially and culturally        case study to decide the authenticity of
situations where no clear cut solutions       induced self-sustaining approach.            this hypothesis. ‘The opportunity lost’
are available nor does the time permit to                                                  factor cannot be ignored. It is difficult
think for long. There is a constant race            A liberal social perception of         to say, “had it not been the situation,
against time. Compromise in quality may       human rights should find its way in all      then what.” At times, the best medicine
occur. But we cannot afford the cost of       the facets of life. But when a cop           is no medicine. In the same coin, at
error or delay in extreme cases of violence   perceives human rights, at least in areas    times, the best medicine is the only
which is irreversibly colossal. It has to     of high-risk zones where gun totting         medicine which works. Every patient has
be either in terms of dead bodies or          militants kill peace-keepers or innocent     his own system and capacity to
damaged property. Further, the low social     public, he comes in contradiction with       respond. On the same logic, Punjab
contribution and indulgence towards           liberal social perceptions. Many             cannot be compared with J & K and J &
policing, high expectations and constant      societies have, therefore, narrowed          K with North-East. But what we need to
criticism under such a situation makes        down on this issue and tend to ignore        perform are seen in two important
them either inactive or prompts them to       the human rights of an oppressor to the      aspects - the commitment towards a
match the gap through short cuts. Either      extent he has himself gone against the       given task and the efficiency level
situation is bad. All the cases of malafide   norms of human rights or damaged the         required to perform the task. The
acts on part of the peace-keepers are         public life and property.                    commitment level has to be controlled
purported to be dealt strictly under law                                                   through proper psycho-behavioural
but acts done in good faith need to be               Psycho-behavioural aspects and        inputs, right social support systems and
tolerated. At times, the premature social     inherent contradictions are one side of      appropriate demonstration effect,
audit or media trial damages the              the total issue. The extrinsic aspects are   proper internalisation of the force, right
enthusiasm. ‘Play safe’ psychology sets       equally important which provide the          leadership upto political level (the
in. We cannot ignore this fact also that      logistic support system for efficient        controlling visionaries) and judicial
for crisis management, the higher risk is     functioning. The foremost logistic           support system. Coming over to the
to be taken. It is here that the low risk     support comes from the working               efficiency aspect, a few glaring changes
bearing psyche comes in contradiction.        environment. The systems which control       in logistics need to be considered to
Even the best of the existing systems,        the police functioning have been found       cope with changing circumstances
the human body, which has no parallel,        basically defective but no efforts have      where rebels or the so called militant
cannot thrive on the doctor’s                 been made either to change the old           groups now frequently resort to the use

                                                                    37                                             July - Dec 2002
of improvised explosive devices (IEDs)           •    Uniforms may be made up of the        operational level are having higher age
and also adopt the tactics like hijacking             material ensuring survivability,      profile not compatible with the
or arm-twisting through a hostage                     should be facilitating any type of    situational requirement. Generally,
situation. Here we ought to focus more                camouflage and harnessed to           twenty to thirty five is the viable age
on functional requirements at the                     carry all types of tools and kits,    bracket to work as line functionary at
operational levels of the security forces.            besides arms and ammunition,          a high efficiency level. These jobs are
                                                      such that hands and other limbs       full of stress (overt and covert). They
      Though efforts have been made                   are unconstrained for any             are critical as the opportunity cost of
to modernise the security forces to face              movement or action.                   error is high. The systems of periodic
the crisis, which has deepened over a                                                       leave, healthy entertainment and
period of time, much remains to be done
                                                 •    Men be provided with food or          indulgence in positive flows of life
in a resource constraint situation.                   energy inputs in concentrated         become indispensable conditions for
Secondly, modernisation is a constant                 form as a capsule which is lighter    stress release. Peace-keepers have to
chase as criminals and perpetrators are               to carry in good quantity and not     deal with human beings with respect
at a faster pace. Certain professional                occupying much space. Water           to their deviant behaviour.
studies have suggested the following                  purifier kits can be provided in a    Unfortunately, they are least adept in
advanced logistic support systems for                 handy way. These things would         human relations or behavioural
the security forces in order to cope with             make him survive at least for a       aspects. A right focus is needed.
the impending violence in all terrains                week without any hindrance for
including urban topography.                           want of basic body intakes. Such            The idea of presenting such an
                                                      sort of sustainability is not         analysis is neither to defend the
  •    Devising semi-autonomous                       difficult to plan.                    peace- keepers for their wrongs nor
       robotic systems to work as a                                                         depict any helplessness. We must be
                                                       Though the various types of
       detective as well as ‘pilot-                                                         clear where to go and how to go. One
                                               advanced equipments are gradually
       defence’ against use of IEDs or                                                      must have an exact road map for that.
                                               being made available, the rapidity of
       attack by terrorists in a hostage                                                    If we do not proceed systematically
                                               technological changes keep the
       situation. These robots could be                                                     and provide effective designs, the
                                               obsolescence fator high. With the
       made capable of accessing                                                            result would be subjective and based
                                               upgradation of technology, the
       digitalised or voice activated fires.                                                on individual preferences. If the
                                               corresponding problems of modified
       The lethal fire assault weapon                                                       general ratio of good to bad is twenty
                                               learning are not being attended to in an
       could be made more precise.                                                          to eighty, so would be the natural
                                               appropriate manner. Hence, the gaps in
                                                                                            outcome in individualized designs.
  •    Advanced mobility systems, not          capability tend to persist compromising
                                                                                            Hence, in order to make the social
       only to cover horizontal distances      the efficiency factor.
                                                                                            concerns for the existing malaise
       but also to leap vertically in a high                                                meaningful, it is not enough to criticize
       rise topography including urban               The constant and wide area             or put someone to social/media trail.
       multi-storey scenario.                  deployment has also raised the               One must not also undermine the
                                               problems of quick movement,                  importance of inbuilt social defence
  •    Various scanners, cameras,              temporary camping and availability of
       satellite controlled mapping                                                         mechanism of crime prevention and
                                               basic amenities. Physical environment        crime control. Action by security
       systems, etc., could be provided        has got its own covert impact on the
       to exactly locate what is where                                                      forces can only be supplementary and
                                               psyche of a person. One’s capacity to        workable for temporary containment.
       inside a building or a covered          develop positive thoughts and his
       place. Developing such systems                                                       It cannot be the final answer. Despite
                                               capacity to tolerate functional irritants    this fact, we are rolling much on the
       is not difficult. Cost would indeed     is another area of concern. Certain
       be a limiting factor. But it is high                                                 shoulders of indoctrinated peace-
                                               forces are still working on bureaucratic     keepers who are themselves not at
       time human life should also be          patterns instead of ‘viable team’
       valued more.                                                                         peace. We must take care of the
                                               concept. Though QRTs (Quick                  required        psycho-behavioural
  •    Advanced       communication            Response Teams) are constituted,             conditions and the logistic support
       systems, which can also provide         they may not be so effective. Absence        systems, technical as well as social.
       navigation facility across              of the system of retrenchment or
       unmanned vehicles or through            retirement at various levels has carried
       robots including piercing through       the police forces in a state that majority
       the walls.                              of people at cutting- edge level or key-                      ***

Academy Journal                                                     38
M Nageswara Rao

             S tatistical    model is used          PERFORMANCE INDICATOR-I :
       extensively often to the exclusion of        SENSE OF SECURITY
       other methods in judging the                        More than statistics, it is the sense
       performance of police. As can be             of security that a common man feels
       expected, the police, like any other         should be the indicator for judging the
       entity, has for long been able to            police performance. But quantifying
       circumvent any surgical analysis and         ‘sense of security’ is a very difficult task
       assessment of its performance by             and it may be subjective too. However,
       cooking up statistics resulting in many      the extent of satisfaction of police
       distortions in the system of policing. IPS   performance felt by the local people
       officers often call themselves to be         expressed through their elected local
       leaders of the police. In order to be true   self-government bodies can be a
       to such claim, they need to go deep into     criterion for judging the sense of
       the distortions and diagnose the             security.     Since        the      elected
       problem for finding solutions to judge       representatives of the local self-
       the police performance as objectively        government bodies are answerable to,
       and realistically as may be possible on a    by being very proximate and part of the
       continuing basis. This requires              local people, the sense of security as a
       prescription of certain performance          performance indicator, can be judged
       indicators for the police. In my view, the   very well through the fora of
       following few, among others, are worth       democratically elected local bodies. For
       consideration.                               this to happen, the elected local self-

                             39                                               July - Dec 2002
government bodies have to be given a        areas under section 20 of the CrPC, 1973.      exploitative. It is high time for a change
say in the functioning of police. To put    The other elected representatives of the       to a democratic system with some local
it in simple terms, the police should be    Urban Local Bodies and Panchayat Raj           control over police. Heavens will not fall
democratized to provide the much            Institutions may be declared as Special        if it is given a try.
needed sense of security to the people.     Executive Magistrates in their respective
                                            areas under section 21 of the CrPC, 1973.
                                                                                           PERFORMANCE INDICATOR-II :
                                            This will atonce make the police
       The world over, in most                                                             FREE REGISTRATION OF CRIME
                                            answerable to the local self-government
democratic countries and historically in
                                            bodies and the elected representatives                A moderate increase of crime is one
India, till the advent of British rule,
                                            of these bodies get involved on a regular      of the indices of dynamism of a society.
policing was a municipal function and
                                            basis in prevention and detection of           The quantum and nature of crime in a
police worked under the control of local
                                            crime and maintenance of law and order         given society is a function of the size of
self-government bodies. But in India,
                                            in their areas. Since the Police Manuals       its population including changes in
we have a monolithic leviathan of
                                            and executive instructions of the              demographic composition, the extent of
colonial construct called the Indian
                                            Governments stipulate a well defined           urbanization, industrialization, mobility,
police, which is not answerable or
                                            role for the Executive Magistracy vis-a-       unemployment, awareness of rights, new
accountable in any manner to the local
                                            vis the police, it will be a very smooth       legislations creating new types of
people whose lives and properties it is
                                            transition of police getting democratized      offences, technological advancements, etc.
supposed to protect. The control of
                                            and becoming answerable to the local           In the context of present day society, all
police by the State level democratic
                                            people through the constitutionally            these factors have been increasing
bodies, i.e., the Legislative Assemblies,
                                            elected local self-government bodies.          which should, therefore, naturally lead
is at best minimal and at worst nebulous.
                                            This is akin to the democratically elected     to commensurate rise in crime. But a look
Democracy has no real meaning unless
                                            Indian leaders replacing the British rulers    at the crime figures registered by the
the people are able to manage their own
                                            after independence, on the existing            police indicates that crime has remained
immediate affairs including security of
                                            bureaucratic substratum and, therefore,        more or less stable giving an impression
their lives and properties, which is the
                                            does not require any change in the laws,       that our society is static. This cannot be
most basic and immediate concern of
                                            rules and procedures. A simple                 true. It is an open secret that there is
every human being. After the 73rd and
                                            notification by the State Governments          rampant burking of crime. Hence, the
74th amendments to the Constitution of
                                            under sections 20 and 21 CrPC, 1973 will       only inference that could be drawn from
India, the Urban Local Bodies and
                                            suffice.                                       the crime statistics is that they do not
Panchayat Raj Institutions became
permanent constitutional bodies. Hence,                                                    project complete picture of crime and
                                                   This idea may be considered very
these democratic bodies can and need                                                       criminality in the society. Such
                                            unorthodox and for some it may even be
to be given certain responsibilities of                                                    incomplete picturization leads to
                                            blasphemous. Vehement opposition to
policing of their areas for ushering in a                                                  complacency on the part of law
                                            an idea is one of the indicators of the
democratic police responsive and                                                           enforcement, governmental and non-
                                            strength of the idea itself. That apart,
responsible to the needs of, and at the                                                    governmental agencies leading to
                                            such objections will be as specious and
same time accountable to, the local                                                        increased levels of tolerance of crime
                                            similar in nature as to those of the British
people through their democratically                                                        which will have disastrous long term
                                            to the demand for Indian independence
elected local self-government bodies.                                                      effects on the whole society itself. It is,
                                            that Indians are incapable of managing
                                                                                           therefore, necessary to reverse the trend
                                            their own affairs and, therefore, unfit to
                                                                                           of non or selective registration and
      Such a change can easily be           be independent. It is high time that we
                                                                                           minimization of crime by the police.
brought about by the State Governments      repose more trust in our own people and
declaring the Zilla Parishad Chairmen as    elected representatives and stop
District Magistrates; the Zilla Parishad    demonizing the political class, lest it may           The first and foremost
Vice-Chairmen and the Mayors of             degenerate into questioning the very           requirement to achieve this objective
Municipal Corporations as Additional        legitimacy of democracy.                       is that senior police officers should not
District Magistrates; the Deputy Mayors                                                    feel shy of accepting the reality and
of Municipal Corporations, the                    Indians have a tendency to resign        stating that rise of crime is natural
Chairmen of Panchayat Samitis and           every privation to their karma or fate. And    when the factors contributing thereto
Municipalities as Sub-Divisional            consequently, they continue to endure          are increasing. Secondly, the
Magistrates; and the Vice-Chairmen of       unabatedly for more than 140 years the         periodical crime reviews must not
Panchayat Samitis and Municipalities as     rapacity of the colonial police set-up,        routinely comment adversely on increase
Executive Magistrates in their respective   whose character is mercenary and               of crime. On the other hand, the focus

 Academy Journal                                                  40
should, inter-alia, be more on why crime       is leading to distortion in the system and     various ranks of senior officers. But
in a given area has remained static or is      police officers, not in the least the senior   over a period of time, supervision by
decreasing. Thirdly, free registration of      police officers, cook up fake detections       senior officers has become a ritual and
all cognizable offences brings small           to project a magnified picture of their        there have been any number of
time or casual criminals within the police     efficiency. As the old adage goes, “the        instances where the senior officers did
scrutiny, which may prevent their              test of a pudding lies in eating.” A crime     not even bother to visit scenes of
transformation into big operators. This        can really be claimed to have been             crimes, let alone participating in
is like a stitch in time saving nine.          detected only when it ends in conviction       investigation. There are many
Lastly, registration of crime cannot be        and not otherwise. It is accepted that         instances of senior officers simply
captive to the whims, fancies and sweet        police is not the only sub-system of           appending their signatures on the
will of police officers suiting their needs.   criminal justice system responsible for        supervision notes prepared by the
The law unequivocally stipulates that          very poor rates of conviction. But it must     investigating officers. As a result,
every cognizable offence must be               be admitted that police is the most            supervision by senior police officers
registered and police have no                  important sub-system of criminal justice       is becoming a farce without any
discretion. But this mandate is followed       system on the basis of whose records           substantial impact on the quality of
more in breach than in practice leading        the criminal law is normally set into          investigation and detection. In order
to disaffection of a large segment of          motion. Notwithstanding the claims of          to assess the performance of senior
population who are victims of crime. As        detection, if a crime is not properly          police officers in supervision of cases,
it is, non or selective registration and       investigated it can never end in               which is one of their most important
minimization of crime is the single            conviction even if best legal brains are       duties, it is necessary to analyze and
biggest grievance of the people against        engaged as prosecutors and even when           take the conviction rates of cases
police. If this trend is allowed unabated,     the judge is favorably inclined.               supervised by them as one of their
sooner than later, people will start           Moreover, by artificially increasing the       performance indicators. For the same
questioning the very raison d’etre of          detections to unrealistic levels the           reasons as mentioned            above,
police when it is not able to even             criminal courts are over-burdened with         conviction rather than detection
register the crime, let alone bring the        huge pendency as every charge-sheeted          figures should be the basis for this. It
offenders to justice. The specious             case has to be tried consuming valuable        is very essential to make the senior
argument that police lack adequate             time of courts, prosecutors and police         officers directly accountable for
manpower to freely register and                officers. Consequently, trials of              proper detection and conviction in at
investigate crimes does not cut much           genuinely detected crimes are getting          least the cases supervised by them.
ice as the victims of crime want justice,      inordinately delayed as courts are             This has many advantages that senior
not justification. Hence, the paramount        burdened with disposing of spurious            police officers will start taking more
need to make free registration of crime,       detection cases. It is, therefore,             active interest in the functioning of
an important performance indicator of          imperative to rely only on conviction and      police at the basic level, i.e., police
police.                                        not on detection figures as a                  station, which will result in overall
                                               performance indicator of police.               improvement of police performance
                                                                                              including discipline.
DETECTION                                      CONVICTION OF CRIMES
                                               SUPERVISED BY SENIOR
      A     look at the crime statistics       OFFICERS
indicates that the percentage of crimes
claimed to have been detected by the                  As per section 158 CrPC, senior
police is increasing to unrealistic levels.    police officers of the rank of Inspectors
On the other hand, large-scale acquittals      and above supervise investigation of
and abysmal rates of conviction are            crime. There are yardsticks for the
distressing. Over emphasis on detection        number of cases to be supervised by

                                     Enthusiasm is a sign of spritual health

                                                                      41                                             July - Dec 2002
                  COMMUNITY POLICING
                  IN ANDHRA PRADESH
                  Dr C R a m a c h a n d r a N a i d u

                                     C ommunity           Policing was       by allowing average citizens a say in the
                               introduced in Andhra Pradesh in the year      police process, in exchange of their
                               2000 under the name ‘Maithri.’ The Chief      support and participation.
                               Minister of Andhra Pradesh inaugurated
                                                                                    Maithri rests on the belief that
                               the programme at Gundla Pochampalli
                                                                             contemporary community problems
                               Village in Ranga Reddy District on
                                                                             require a decentralized and personalized
                                                                             police approach which involves citizens
                                      It is a police-public partnership      in the process of policing themselves.
                               programme. This programme orients the
                               way the police should think and act. It              It creates a positive shift in the
                               broadens the police mandate beyond the        role of the police from ‘working against
                               narrow focus of fighting crime to include     the bad people’ to ‘working with the
                               efforts to fight fear of crime and disorder   good people’ in the society. As a result,
                               as well.                                      police no longer remain as law enforcers
                                                                             but take the role of facilitators and
                                     This philosophy provides an             mentors to the society .
                               organizational strategy that motivates
                               police officers to solve community            OBJECTIVES:
                               problems in new and innovative ways. It
                               envisages that the police must closely              The objectives of Maithri are
                               work with the people in the community         mainly:

Academy Journal                                      42
    1.     To meet the felt and expressed        3) Youth                         40%        More meetings are held when there are
           needs of small and varied             3) Members of SC/ST              15%        several issues to be solved. A convenient
           groups of people in the                                                           date and time is fixed well in advance,
                                                 4) Minorities                    05%
           community by actively                                                             after consulting Maithri Committee, so
           involving them in the process.        5) Professionals and others      20%        that most of the members are enabled to
                                                                                             attend the meeting. Apart from Maithri
    2.     To organize proactive measures           Such a composition is aimed at
                                                                                             members, local people who have a stake
           to prevent and detect crime, and   giving due representation to all the
                                                                                             in any issue are also allowed to attend
                                              sections of the society so that their
    3.     To provide personalized quality                                                   the meeting.
                                              special problems and views are taken
           service to the people at the       into account in formulating the local
           decentralized level.               Maithri programmes.                            ROLE OF VARIOUS POLICE
                                                    Traffic Maithri committees consist
         Police-public partnership under      of various stake holders like local shop             Unit Officers of the local police
                                              keepers, hoteliers, cinema hall owners,        are responsible for organising and
Maithri is operationalised by organising                                                     monitoring Maithri in their jurisdiction.
                                              school and college principals, auto or taxi
local citizens into committees called                                                        Station House Officers are responsible
                                              drivers, members of other departments
‘Maithri Committees’.                                                                        for setting up the Maithri committees at
                                              like R&B, Electricity, Water Works,
                                              Municipal administration, etc., who are        the local level, after verifying the
       The role of the Maithri Committees
                                              affected by the traffic problems in that       suitability of the members. They organise
lies in identifying the local problems or
                                              area.                                          various activities in collaboration with the
issues, finding innovative solutions and
                                                                                             Maithri Committees and other local
helping the police in implementing the
                                              QUALIFICATIONS FOR MAITHRI                     agencies - both public and private.
      All the Law and Order police                                                                  An Assistant Sub-Inspector
stations and Traffic police stations form              Maithri members are chosen            (ASI) or a Head Constable or a Constable
Maithri Committees. Maithri Committees                                                       acts as facilitator for each Maithri
                                              with great care, after verifying their
are formed covering small and                                                                Committee. He keeps in constant touch
                                              antecedents and their usefulness. It is
homogeneous local areas, the residents                                                       with the Maithri members, attend to day-
                                              normally ensured that every member of
of which generally face the same issues                                                      to-day matters relating to Maithri,
                                              Maithri is:
so that the committee members can have                                                       organise Maithri meetings and work in
a common agenda to discuss and to                 1)     A respectable member of the         the field to implement the decisions of
collaborate. In urban areas, the Maithri                 local community not involved        the Maithri.
committees are formed locality-wise or                   in any criminal activity directly
colony-wise and in rural areas they are                  or indirectly.                            Al1 the supervisory officers like
formed village-wise. Traffic Maithri                                                         Inspectors, Sub-divisional Police
                                                  2)     A person not involved in any
Committees are also formed area wise.                                                        Officers, Addl. Superintendents of
                                                         political or social controversy,
                                                                                             Police, Dy.Commissioners of Police, etc.,
SIZE AND COMPOSITION                                                                         constantly guide and empower the SHOs
                                                  3)     A person willing to voluntarily     and co-ordinate with other governmental
                                                         take up the cause of the            and non-governmental agencies for
         Maithri Committees normally                     community.                          making Maithri Committees work
consist of about 50 members of the local                                                     successfully.
community. The members are carefully          Maithri Meetings:
selected by the SHOs of the police                                                                 Maithri has become a great
stations. The strength varies marginally            Maithri Meetings are held in the         success in the State. Within 2 ½ years of
depending upon the size of the area           villages in the rural areas and localities     launching the programme as many as
covered. The composition of each              or colonies in urban areas, where Maithri      7206 Maithri Committees with 281580
Maithri committee will be generally as        Committees have been set up so that the        members were formed all over the State,
follows:                                      members can attend the meetings                covering about 28% of habitations.
                                              without much inconvenience. Efforts are        District-wise Maithri Committees and the
   1) Senior Citizens              05%        made to ensure that every Maithri              socio-economic composition of Maithri
   2) Women                        15%        Committee meets at least once a month.         members as on 30/9/2002 is as follows:

                                                                      43                                               July - Dec 2002
 S.NO Unit            No of    N o. o f       Yo u t h   Profess-   Women   SC/ST     Senior        Minorities           Miscella-     To t a l
                      PS      Maithri                     ionals                      Citizens                             neous
                              Committees                                              Freedom                             such as
                                                                                      Fighters                          Trade Unions
 1    Srikakulam       42        224          3197         700       1653     745      786                207             1499          8787
 2    Vizianagaram     42        190          2955         681       1344    1003     1209                278               760         8230
 3    Visakhapatnam 4 6          126          1245         356        448     474      303                172               411         3409
 4    E.Godavari       73        381          3633        1293       1625    1894     1071                392               976        10884
 5    W.Godavari ~, 5 7          337          4572        1758       1497    1699     1343                556              1349        12774
 6    Krishna          47        265          5014        1700       1792    1277     1102                596             1090         12571
 7    Guntur           77        462          4523        1031       2510    2567     2199              1589              3471         17890
 8    Prakasam         62        372          3380        1188       1520    1590     1760                560             1140         11138
 9    Nellore          63        280          4561        1376       1745    1780     1700                935             1600         13705
 10   Chittoor         77        562          5940        1476       4362    2641     3188              2407              2800         22814
 11   Cuddapah         60        273          4167        1141       1557    1633     1646              1197              2296         13637
 12   Anantapur        76        280          4800        1555       2259    1549     1726                835             1135         13859
 13   Kurnool          77        414          3131        1189       1945    1639     1468              1343              1729         12444
 14   Mahabubnagar 7 1           436          4535         998        962    1257     1190              1105                717        10764
 15   Nalgonda         66        468          6352        2116       3395    2078     1635              1073              1911         18560
 16   Ranaa Reddv      51        214          1514         487       1476     734      428                751            5144.         10534
 17   Medak            54        494          7206         945       2054    2958     2081              1140              1760         18144
 18   Nizamabad        42        239          3629         352       1077    1236     1484                970             3677         12425
 19   Adilabad         69        150          1352         177        622    1127      630                316               436         4660
 20   Karimnagar       65        270          3872        1618       2207    1764     1078                459             1207         12205
 21   Warangal         59        214          3396         936       1940    1283     1050                521             1547         10673
 22   Khammam          60        268          3734         971       2432    2058     1288                579             1048         12110
 23   Visakhapatnam 1 2           41            389        188        162     144        81                33               230         1227
 24   Vijayawada        1         58            603        200        305     249      302                174               700         2533
 25   Hyderabad        79        188          1374         383        469     458      473              1056              1354          5567

 Total               1445              7206    89074     24815      41358   35837   31229        419244         39987     28154

       Several crimes have been                  have played an important role in                      There is increasing public demand
prevented and lot of crimes have been            managing crowds during major festivals          for Maithri and the entire state is likely
detected on account of this programme            and maintaining communal harmony in             to be covered under this programme in
in the State. Many community outreach            several parts of the State. There is            the next few years.
programmes relating to eradication of            perceptible change in the attitude of the
superstitions, traffic awareness, women          police towards the people and their
protection, street children, marital             problems and towards human rights,
disputes, AIDS awareness, faction crime,         after launching the programme. Public                              ***
etc., have been organised with the help          perception of the police is also
of Maithri Committees. Maithri members           undergoing change for the better.

                                Your imperfections are what make you beautiful

Academy Journal                                                        44
SN Pradhan

              All over the world, the police          an increasing social and political non-
                                                      acceptability of any destruction or
        have had to reckon with an ominous
                                                      damage to life and property. Indeed, the
        trend in riot control operations. It is
                                                      governments of the day are increasingly
        found that more and more crowds are
                                                      sensitive to any public order situations
        gathering for more and more reasons with
                                                      where there is grievous damage to
        a greater frequency than ever before.
                                                      human life or any public property.
        Along with increased numbers and
                                                      Naturally this becomes a very difficult
        frequency, the police also have to
                                                      situation for the police. The bottom line
        contend today with a greater level of
                                                      seems to be control the riot but also
        violence from the crowds. The violence
                                                      ensure minimal or no damage to life
        manifests increasingly in the use of
                                                      and property.
        weapons of offence including firearms
        along with the traditional ‘weaponry’ -              This seems to be an apparently
        acid bottles and Molotov cocktails. In        dichotomous trend wherein the police
        many situations, anti-social elements         is arguably faced with a lose-lose
        from the crowds have been known to            situation. In other words, the police is
        throw bombs at the police. Today it is a      sometimes confronted with situations
        truism to say that every time the police      where, to paraphrase from a R.K.Laxman
        gear up for a riot control operation the      cartoon punch line “if (the police) do
        possibility of violence and casualties        not use force, they are accused of
        looms large. In the face of this disturbing   inaction... if they use force there are
        trend, the police are also burdened with      complaints of high-handedness.”

                               45                                             July - Dec 2002
       The use of non-lethal weapons        UNDERSTANDING NON-LETHAL                         the valuable public property. In a riot
in riot control has often been touted       WEAPONS TECHNOLOGY                               situation, the police confronts a situation,
as the way out of such situations as                                                         per se, and not the enemy. In all such
described above. However, the know-
how and general understanding of the
                                                   Major General Dr. Yitzhak Ben-            scenarios the confrontation has to be
                                                                                             ‘managed’ in such a way that the
                                            Israel, who heads the Authority for
range and the utility of the non-lethal                                                      situation does not get out of control. In
                                            Weapon Research and Development
weapons in riot control still remains at                                                     the backdrop of democracy and the right
                                            (AWRD) of the IDF of Israel, has given
a less than satisfactory level. Even                                                         to assemble and even agitate, there is
                                            one of the best definitions of non-lethal
senior professionals in the police                                                           but a thin line between a peaceful
                                            weapons. He defined non-lethal weapons
forces are not aware of the varied uses                                                      situation and a violent situation (read a
                                            in the following terms, “Weapons
of non-lethal weaponry and their                                                             peaceful crowd and a violent mob). The
                                            intended to impair the movement of
relevance to modern policing needs.                                                          police is strapped with the responsibility
                                            individuals without killing them and
Indeed most police forces around the                                                         of :-
                                            without causing them irreparable, long-
world, including the modernized
                                            term damage. The purpose of such
countries, are not actually using the                                                            (a) De-escalating the situation
                                            weapons... is to temporarily disable, to
whole range of non-lethal weaponry.                                                                  through early intervention.
                                            confuse, to halt any further movement,
In fact, most of the advances in non-                                                                (‘ De-escalate early’)
                                            to neutralize, to disperse crowds, to
lethal weaponry are confined to
                                            prevent the entry of unauthorized                    (b) Making individual members of
research experiments and a few
                                            individuals and vehicles and to deter.”                  the mob accountable, before it
demonstrations. Beyond this, not
                                            Some scholars have opined that ‘non-                     becomes too late to even
much regular use can be found.
                                            lethal’ is actually a misnomer. A more                   identify and isolate such
However, in India, while the non-lethal
                                            definitive and exact term would be ‘less-                individuals. (‘Make it
weapon armoury is not wanting in
                                            than-lethal.’ The rationale often                        personal’).
matching some of the advances in this
                                            provided for this is that every non-lethal
technology around the world, the truth
                                            weapon has the potential of becoming                 (c) Neutralising actions of any
remains that wide scale use of non-
                                            lethal under certain conditions. For                     over-zealous or violent agitator.
lethal weaponry like rubber bullets,
                                            example, even a rubber bullet, if fired                  (‘Put out the match in addition
tear gas, water cannon etc., (which are
                                            from within a certain range and at a                     to the fire’)
entry level non-lethal weapons) in riot
                                            certain spot on the human body, may
control is still not a regular feature.                                                          (d) Responding to the mob in
                                            cause fatal injury. Therefore the term
Moreover, there is hardly any serious                                                                proportion with the threat being
                                            less-than-lethal may be more apt to
research and development (R&D)                                                                       presented (‘Don’t drive tacks
                                            describe such weaponry. Jon B. Becker
backup, except in the area of tear gas                                                               with a sledgehammer’), and
                                            and Charles “Sid” Heal have clarified this
munitions. If the armed forces of the
                                            lucidly by underlining that non-lethal               (e) (Since the actions of a
country are doing any research in this
                                            technologies may have “ many different                   peacekeeping force can act as
area, it is not very well known in police
                                            names (e.g., non-lethal, limited effects,                a catalyst themselves) taking
circles as to whether there is any
                                            less-than-lethal, soft-kill, pre-lethal, etc.)           care and ensuring that the
significant technology transfer being
                                            For clarity and simplicity, the term less-               actions of peacekeepers
effected. The upshot of all this is that
                                            lethal is the more accurate term as many                 themselves do not exacerbate
the police forces of the country face
                                            of the other terms imply either that the                 the situation. (‘Don’t put out a
serious riot situations almost on a
                                            weapons are not capable of killing (which                fire with gasoline’)*
daily basis but not much serious
                                            is not true in some cases) or that the
thought has gone into developing a
                                            weapons are intended to kill in a more                   In the above tasks, non-lethal or
non-lethal weapon backup down to
                                            ‘humane’ fashion.”                               less-than-lethal weapons can be a great
the unitary level of police
administration, i.e., the districts, the                                                     aid. Non-lethal weapons, when
sub-divisions and the thanas. It can              The need to develop non-lethal             appropriately used, can be of great help
be hoped that, with greater emphasis        weapons technology arises directly from          in literally stopping mobs ‘in their tracks.’
being laid on modernization of the          the imperative political and social need         The US Marine Corp is at the forefront
police force in recent years, this will     to defuse mob situations with little or no       in the use of non-lethal weapons in
get due emphasis sooner than later.         damage to the lives of the citizens and          military operations.

* (Extracted from Non-lethal Weapons and Peacekeeping Riot Control by Jon B. Becker and Charles “Sid” Heal)

 Academy Journal                                                    46
        The United States and the Great      (d) Flash/bang grenade: It is              (k) Taser TM Stunguns: It is a
Britain have invested greatly in non-            intended to scare people away              flashlight sized device that
lethal weapon technology to aid their            and not incapacitate them. The             uses gunpowder to propel
armies as well as the police. However, in        idea is for non-combatants to              barbed, dart, shaped electrodes
both these countries, as well as other           leave the scene. It can cause              to the subject’s body. High
European countries, and countries like           temporary vision impairment                voltage/low amperage pulsed
Israel, non-lethal weapons technology            and hearing loss.                          shocks immobilize the subject
is still, in the main, the preserve of the   (e) Concussion grenades: They                  (specifically 50,000 volt pulses
Military.                                        explode at 160 decibels and                at two million of an amp are
                                                 cause temporary deafness.                  delivered 12-14 times per
INNOVATIONS IN NON-LETHAL                    (f) Acoustic dazzler grenade: It
WEAPONS TECHNOLOGY                               explodes at 145-155 decibels           (l) Sting rag: Developed by US
                                                 and lasts for up to 45 seconds.            military is a pliable ring of soft
      Great advances and innovations             It is considered more                      rubber about 2 1/2 inches in
have been made in non-lethal weapons             disorienting        than     the           circumference, fired from a
technology, especially for the use of            concussion grenade.                        launcher on the end of an M/6
military outfits, in the advanced                                                           rifle-
                                             (g) Aero-rubber ring: Fired from a
countries of the world. It has been              grenade launcher, it is a rubber   CONCLUSIONS
known that US soldiers are given as              baton round. This hard rubber
intensive training in use of non-lethal          projectile is effective at 40-50          Despite advance in non-lethal
weaponry as they are to handle lethal            meters. It was designed for        weapon technology as outlined above,
weapons. Indeed, the US soldiers are             crowd control after the Kent       one must understand that it is not the
provided with ‘non-lethal capability             State shootings in 1970.           panacea for all riot control situations. It
sets.’ These are pre-packaged metal          (h) Oleoresin capsicum: It is better   should be understood that low-lethality
containers that include 57 types of items        known as pepper-balls and is       technologies are simply force multipliers
ranging from non-lethal weapons,                 fired by a CO2 gas cartridge. It   and cannot on their own solve problems.
munitions and training gear, to                  has the same effect as pepper      It is important to understand that “less-
protective equipment - such as helmets,          spray but is delivered in          lethal weapons are simply tools which
face-shields and body armour. Indeed,            powder form from a greater         can be utilized to assist in solving a
such convergence and complimentary               distance.                          problem. In the same way that a hammer
use of available technology is the need                                             cannot build a house without a skilled
the hour. Police forces around the world     (i) Sponge grenade: Fired from a       carpenter, the most advanced less-lethal
must take a cue from this and adapt              40mm grenade launcher, this        weapons in the world cannot by
themselves without any further loss of           device is either a metal or        themselves carry the burden for an
time.                                            plastic mass covered in front      effective peacekeeping operation.
                                                 with a soft sponge-type            Instead, they are wholly dependant upon
       Some of the innovations made in           surface. It is a blunt-trauma      the riot control tactics of peacekeeping
the non-lethal weapons technology are            instrument that is designed to     forces for their effectiveness. As a result,
as follows:                                      stun. Currently the Marine         if peacekeeping forces do not
                                                 Corps use it.                      understand the dynamics of riot control,
    (a) Kinetic impact devices like          j)   Rubber baton: A hard rubber       less-lethal weapons will be ineffective
        beanbags and sockbags                     projectile that resembles a       and may even make the situation worse.
        rounds fired from shotguns.               stopper or a plug more than an    It is fundamental that although sound
    (b) Plastic pellets (with reinforced          actual baton, is used against     tactics can often overcome the problems
        plastic).                                 massed crowds. The South          created by bad equipment, the converse
    (c) Instant Banana Peel: It is a              Africans used to fire them from   is not true! Effective tools are not a
        slippery surface coating first            machine guns. They called         substitute for sound tactics. Thus, less-
        used for riot control in 1972 to          them ‘sausages.’ The South        lethal weapons must be kept in proper
        deny either foot or vehicular             African version was designed      perspective; they are simply tools to be
        travel.                                   to tumble for greater impact.*    employed in concert with effective riot

      * (Extracted from Feature Article, “Peace Keeping Duties Bolster Demand for Kinder Weapons” National Defence
                           Industrial Association Journal written by Stephen Willingham - June 2000).

                                                              47                                             July - Dec 2002
control tactics.” (from Non-lethal                       assemblage. With the revolution of rising                   potency as well as capability of
Weapons and Peacekeeping Riot                            expectations the ‘protest virus’ (a term                    countering        crowd       violence.
Control by Jon B. Becker and Charles                     coined by Peter Evans) is bound to afflict                  Unfortunately, as the situation stands
“Sid” Heal).                                             citizens round the world. The police will                   today, only in the developed countries
                                                         need to face these situations and manage                    are the alternatives readily available to
       It cannot be gainsaid that in most                the confrontations without much loss to                     the police. In India, serious
situations which warrant use of non-                     life and property. To put the situation in                  consideration has to be given to this
lethal weapons, a lethal backup is an                    right perspective, the police should                        aspect of policing to improve our record
absolute must. The point to be not missed                always try the non-lethal alternative                       in successful handling of riot situations
is that any democracy which by its very                  before taking resort to lethal weapons.                     in the interest of democracy, human
nature champions the rights of the                       But to exercise this very choice, it is                     rights and police efficiency.
individual and fundamental rights of                     absolutely essential that the police have
expression and assembly will always                      access to a vast array of non-lethal
throw up situations of potentially violent               weaponry with varying degree of


        The Prime Minister’s Silver Cup Essay Competition is conducted every year by the Academy. All Police Officers are welcome to send their essays for the
        competition. The rules and regulations in this regard are as follows:-

  1.    The Sardar Vallabhbhai Patel National Police Academy will hold an All India Annual Essay Competition for the award of the Prime Minister’s Silver Cup.
  2.    The Prime Minister’s Silver Cup shall be awarded for the best essay. The topic for the essay for the year 2003 shall be:-


  3.    The competition shall be held annually and shall be open to all serving police officers/men of India including those serving in Central Police Organizations in
        India and abroad, provided that an officer who has wont he first prize for two successive years shall be debarred from taking part in the competition for a period
        of three years at a stretch following the year in which the first prize was annexed by him for the second time.
  4.    The Committee of the competition shall consist of the following members to be invited by the Director of S.V.P. National Police Academy: (a) An eminent jurist
        (b) an eminent educationist (c) an eminent journalist/public man (d) one serving Inspector General of Police (e) a nominee of the Prime Minister’s Office, and
        (f) The Director, SVP National Police Academy, Hyderabad (Convenor).
  5.    Any question as to the eligibility of any competitor shall be determined by the Committee of the competition.
  6.    a. Essays must be submitted in English.b. Essays must be the original workc. Essays must not be more than 5000 words in length, must be type-written
        (with double spacing) on only one side of the paper with 1.5 inches margin space on the left hand side and 7 copies must be submitted for the competition. d.
        The pages must be serially numbered and securely stapled or clipped together. e. Where a reference is made to any published work, the title and the page
        number must be quoted in a footnote.
  7.    Essays must be submitted by registered post or recorded delivery. A letter should accompany every essay. This letter must contain details about the
        competitor’s name, rank and the official address of the Force to which he belongs and an endorsement about his age with reference to his service record.
  8.    The Committee reserves the rights to disqualify any entry, which fails to conform to these rules. If any default comes to the notice of the committee after a prize
        has been awarded, the committee also reserves the rights to take such action against the defaulter as it may deem fit.
  9.    The essays will be submitted to the Director General of Police/Head of Central Police Organization concerned. After due screening at the State/Central Police
        Organization level, the Director General of Police/Head of the Central Police Organization will forward not more than three essays to the Convener of the
        Committee of the competition for final selection of the best essay.
  10.   The decision of the committee shall be final and no appeal lie against its decision, the award shall be made public in such manner as the committee shall think
        fit. Any essays submitted for the competition and adjudged of sufficient merit and the prize-winning essay may be published by the Director of the Sardar
        Vallabhbhai Patel National Police Academy and the copy right for such published essays shall vest in the Director. The essays not accepted will not be
        returned to the competitors.
  11.   Besides the Silver Cup, which will be returned to the S.V.P. National Police Academy, the Officer adjudged to have written the best essay will be given a
        prize money of Rs.10,000/- and a replica of the Silver Cup. The essays considered next in order of merit will be awarded Rs.6000/- and Rs.4000/-
        respectively, along with medals and certificates of distinction. The Cup and the First Prize will be awarded on the occasion of the Annual Passing Out Parade
        at the Academy.
  12.   The essays shall be forwarded through the Director General of Police/Head of Central Police Organizations concerned and addressed to the Director, SVP
        National Police Academy, Hyderabad –500 052 so as to reach him on or before 30th September, 2003.

 Academy Journal                                                                      48
Mu k te s h C h a n d e r

             INTRODUCTION                             Fred Cohen, a student of University
                                                      of Southern California first time
                  B iological viruses have been       demonstrated         that    small
             in existence in the living world since   programmes can be written which
             its beginning but their discovery has    can ‘infect’ and modify other
             occurred only in the last century        computer programmes in such a way
             with the invention of sophisticated      that the ‘infected’ program carries
             microscopes. Currently mankind is        a copy or evolved copy of the
             fighting a battle with latest virus of   ‘virus’. Fred Cohen wrote first
             HIV and no cure seems to be in sight.    computer virus as a part of his
                                                      doctoral and also presented it in a
                   When       computers       were    seminar.
             invented and PCs came into
             existence, no body had imagined          DEFINITION
             that the viruses similar to the
             biological viruses could exist in the         C omputer viruses are small
             cyber world and they would almost        programmes usually of about 1-2 KB
             exactly behave like the living           that are capable of multiplying and
             viruses. Till 1983, the term ‘computer   modifying themselves and are able
             virus’ was used only in some             to propagate through various means
             science fiction. David Garrold first     just like living viruses in biological
             used this term in his fiction stories.   world.

                                 49                                         Jan - June 2002
      According to S-43 (h) (iii) of         files may increase due to lodging of         1) Boot Sector Virus & File Virus:
Information Technology Act, 2000,            virus in them. There could be unusual        Boot sector is that part of the computer
computer virus means any computer            sounds or messages on the screen. In         hard disk memory where programme to
instruction, information, data or            the worst scenario, the computer may         load operating system resides. Every time
programme that destroys, damages,            not boot by itself. Under all these          a computer is started, the booting
degrades or adversely affects the            situations, performance of a computer        programme is executed and if a virus
performance of a computer resource or        may get affected in one of way or the        exists there, it will activate every time
attaches itself to another computer          other.                                       when computer starts. Such viruses are
resource and operates when a                                                              very effective as removing its copy from
programme, data or instruction is                   Having noticed the presence of a      any other part of the computer will not
executed or some other event takes           virus in a computer, it is necessary to      remove it. On the other hand, file sector
place in that computer resource.             identify, with what kind of virus the        virus only affects programmes or files
                                             computer is infected and try to cure the     and normally deletion of infected file
       In order to understand the            system and to recover the infected           removes the virus also. About 5% of
computer viruses, their comparison with      program or file, which may not be            total viruses found are boot sector
biological counterpart is of great           possible always. I would discuss the         viruses and 85% are file infectors.
assistance. I would use this analogy to      details of this in subsequent paragraphs     Bimodal viruses are capable of infecting
describe the computer viruses in detail      of this article.                             both boot records and files.
in the following paragraphs.
                                                   The computer viruses are               2) Over-writing and Appending
LIFE CYCLE                                   designed to multiply and spread. Some        Viruses: The virus code is approximately
                                             of the computer viruses have been            1-2 KB in length. The virus writes itself
       Computer viruses are born when        found to multiply at exponential rate and    normally in the beginning of the host
they are written by humans. They spread      have the capability of infecting             programme without affecting the normal
when a healthy computer comes in             thousands of computers within hours.         functioning of programme. If it appends
‘contact’ with an ‘infected’ computer or     There is a need to develop vaccines for      itself to the host programme, it is called
programme or data. This could be             viruses as soon as they are noticed.         appending virus and when the host
through contaminated floppies or CDs         Once a cure for a virus is developed by      programme starts, virus code is executed
just like transmission of sexual diseases    antivirus specialist, it has to be           first. The over-writing virus writes its
or by exchange of mail, data, etc.,          incorporated into antivirus programmes       code over the host code and thereby
through internet. After the ‘infection’ or   and other software, so that unaffected       normally the host programme is unable
contamination, a computer virus may          systems can be immunized.                    to run properly.
remain in a dormant stage and during
this incubation period it may continue             During propagation, a computer         3) Based on where the virus stores
to infect other machines, data or            virus may mutate to different forms also,    itself, it can be called memory resident
programmes without showing any               to avoid detection.                          or non memory resident virus.
symptoms of unhealthiness.
                                                    Computer viruses form only a part
                                             of a large number of other mischievous       4) Stealth Virus: A virus which conceals
       In its active stage, a computer                                                    itself is called stealth virus. Most of the
virus may affect the performance of a        programmes which can be collectively
                                             called malicious codes or programmes.        viruses in existence today are stealth
machine in several ways and the various                                                   viruses.
symptoms shown are similar to that of a      There are malicious codes like Trojan
diseased person. The computer                Horses, bacteria and worms. Viruses
programmes may take longer time to           differ from most of them as they posses      5) Polymorphic virus (Mutating virus):
perform a particular task. The disk          the quality of replication but need a host   A virus which modifies its codes
activity and input/output activity may       programme to do so.                          periodically or every time it infects other
increase, system may hang or crash                                                        programme to avoid its detection is
frequently. Files are either corrupted or    CATEGORISATION OF VIRUSES                    called a mutating or polymorphic virus.
completely disappear. Hard disk gets                                                      This gives rise to several strains of a
formatted automatically wiping out                 B ased    on various criteria,         particular virus.
everything it contains. There could be       computer viruses can be classified in
bad sectors in the hard disk or frequent     several ways. Some of them are               6) Macro Virus: Documents made on
file reading errors. The file size of some   discussed below.                             recent word processors, spreadsheets

Academy Journal                                                   50
and datbases management software             world wide. The virus originated from          virus. This unique string is called ‘Virus
have the capability of executing             Philippines. Some other viruses recently       Signature or Definition’ and while
automatic script-based sequence of           active are Code Red (July 2001), Goner         scanning for viruses in various files and
events, every time the file is opened.       (Dec 2001).                                    memory, this virus signature is searched.
These scripts or sequence of codes are                                                      In this kind of detection, the possibility
called macros. A virus can be written        DAMAGE CAUSED BY VIRUS                         of false alarm is very less but the
using such scripts or macros. These                                                         disadvantage is that they can detect
viruses spread faster as most of these
files of word processors or DBMS are
                                                   A large number of viruses are            only those viruses, whose virus
                                                                                            signatures or definitions are in its
shared frequently. ‘Concept’ was the         harmless but there are thousands of            database. For previously unknown
first macro virus written in MS Word         viruses which have caused damage to            viruses false negative error would occur.
macro in 1995 and is the most prevalent      millions of computers, PCs and networks        Such antivirus programmes need periodic
virus.                                       allover the world.                             updation to cope up with new viruses
                                                                                            which are being generated every day by
                                                    As per a survey conducted by
8) Encrypted Virus: A virus, which uses                                                     dozens. Extracting a virus signature is a
                                             National Computer Security Association
encryption technology to prevent                                                            difficult and laborious process but now
                                             of USA in 2001, out of the companies
detection, is called encrypted virus. The                                                   automatic software techniques are also
                                             whose computers were affected by
code of an encrypted virus begins with                                                      available. Even though while searching
                                             viruses, 62% reported loss of
decryption algorithm and is followed by                                                     for a virus signature in a suspected
                                             productivity, 41% reported lockup or
encrypted code of the remaining virus.                                                      system, very efficient pattern matching
                                             interference, 38% reported corruption of
Each time it infects other programmes, it                                                   algorithms are used, still they are very
                                             files and 30% reported loss of data. With
is automatically encoded by a different                                                     slow as they have to scan the entire
                                             the increase in the number of viruses in
key and therefore its code is never the                                                     memory and this may take several
                                             the wild, every computer is vulnerable
same and it is able to fool Antivirus                                                       minutes.
                                             to damage caused by viruses.
                                                                                                   Once a file containing a virus is
                                             DETECTION OF VIRUS
9) Web site Virus: As soon as a web                                                         detected, the Antivirus Software tries to
                                                                                            delete the viral code from the infected
page is loaded in a computer, a code
written in one of the languages like
                                                   Normally, the presence of a virus        file or from memory. If it is not possible
HTML is executed. A virus code can be        is revealed by tell tale symptoms. But         to delete the code, the file is quarantined
written in JAVA Script embedded in           many a time it is not possible to detect       so that it is not able to infect other files
HTML code which executes, when the           this without a detection software.             and propagate further. Alternatively, the
web page is visited. Such scripts are                                                       infected file can be replaced by a new
capable of making several changes in the          There are two kinds of Antivirus          copy of the programme.
host machine, including deletion of files.   Technologies:
Such viruses are called website viruses.                                                          Some of the famous Antivirus
                                             i) Generic/Heuristic Virus Detection:
                                                                                            Vaccines are Norton, Mecaffe, PC Cillin,
                                             These antivirus programmes are not
HISTORY OF COMPUTER VIRUS                                                                   Dr. Solomon, etc. Many vaccines are
                                             virus specific and work on the principle
                                                                                            available free of cost to home users and
                                             that presence of virus alters memory and
      ‘Brain’ was the first virus which      modifies certain crucial files in specific
                                                                                            there are many online sites which can
                                                                                            scan your PC for presence of virus.
spread in the wild in 1987 and was written   manner. In a way they watch for effects
in MS DOS by some Pakistani. It was a        of viruses rather than the virus itself. So
boot sector virus and infected only 360      in such generic way they are capable of        DIGITAL IMMUNE SYSTEM
K floppy disks. ‘Jerusalem’ was the first    detecting even unknown or future
file infector virus. Since then, we have     viruses. Their operation is simple and fast          Research is being carried out at
seen viruses like Raindrop, Yankee           but can also give false positive error         present to make Digital Immune Systems
doodle, PC stoned, Michael Angelo, etc.      showing presence of a virus even               by many computer companies including
Melissa virus which spread in March, 99      though no virus is present.                    IBM. In biological world, a living creature
was written in Word macro. It caused                                                        has the inbuilt capability of fighting any
damage to the tune of about $80 million      ii) Scanning Antivirus Detector: They          outside or foreign body by creating
to computers world wide. ‘I Love You’        work on the principle that for every virus     antibodies. Once such immunity is
virus was written in Visual Basic script     it is possible to identify a string of 10-30   developed any subsequent exposures to
and it caused loss of about $15 billion      bytes in its code which is unique to the       virus is controlled by these antibodies.

                                                                    51                                               Jan - June 2002
       In a Digital Ecosystem, there could   as “Do not send a bullet where you can           v)    Do not download from
be created what would be called Digital      send a byte”. Computer viruses can be                  unreliable sites.
Immune system. In such a system of inter     deadly tools in the hands of international
connected computer, each computer            terrorists like Osama Bin Laden, whose           vi) Disable automatic execution of
would monitor the presence of computer       organization Al-Queda is known to be                 Macros, Java Scripts and
virus by a generic virus detecting system.   using strong encryption, steganography               Active-X controls.
Once a suspected virus is detected, a        and internet technologies to plan and            vii) Make some Antivirus Tool Kit
copy of infected file would be sent by       organise terrorist acts. A day is not far             to enable you to boot your
the computer to a Central Virus Analysis     off when such terrorist attacks would be              system from floppy in case of
Laboratory, which is a sophisticated         executed in the cyber space using what                trouble.
system capable of analyzing the viral        can be called Digital Inter Continental
code by luring it to infect decoy            Ballistic Missiles in the shape of logic         viii) Backup your data regularly.
programmes          under     controlled     bombs, computer viruses and worms.               ix)   Do not use pirated software and
conditions. After analysis, the viral        Millions of computers and networks may                 freebies.
signature and its cure is extracted          collapse just like World Trade Center’s
automatically and the same is being sent     twin towers wiping billions of computer          x)    Stay calm and note down what
to each computer in the network,             files and data and crippling the entire                is happening to your PC, when
including the infected computer. The         world. Cyber terrorism is not a myth and               it is struck by a virus. Shut
infected computer is secured of the          can be a, not so distant, reality.                     down and call for experts help
infection and in this way all the                                                                   if you are not sure what to do.
computers in the network become              PRECAUTION TO BE TAKEN
immune from the subsequent attack of                                                          xi)   Regularly update your
the virus.                                         The old saying “Prevention is                    software so that the vulnerable
                                             better than cure” applies to the cyber                 bugs and holes are patched.
WHAT LIES IN FUTURE?                         space also. Simple precautions which
                                             must be taken are:                           CONCLUSION

      Whether we like it or not, viruses         i)     Always scan your system,
                                                                                                  Although virus writing and its
                                                                                          release is a criminal act in many countries,
and other malicious codes are likely to                 floppies & CD., incoming and      unfortunately as per IT Act 2000 of India,
stay and evolve with the computer                       outgoing e-mail with good         it is only a civil offence. We have to learn
technology. For various reasons, virus                  latest Antivirus Programme.       to live with the viruses and guard
writers would keep on writing better and
                                                 ii)    Do not open any e-mail            ourselves against them. Every computer
more deadly viruses. Efforts are also
                                                        attachment unless you are sure    user must take precautions. It is yet one
being made by various people to write
                                                        of its origin.                    more fight between the good guy and
‘Flash Worm’ which would be able to
                                                                                          the bad guy and has to be fought by all
propagate at lightening speed and                iii)   Update virus definitions, virus   for the benefit of cyber community and
cripple millions of computers world wide                signatures and programmes of      every nation in this world must unite and
in a matter of several minutes. There is a              your Antivirus Software.          cooperate in this endeavour.
saying in army that “Do not send a man
where you can send a bullet”. The same           iv) Do not visit suspicious sites or
can be modified in a cyber war context               bulletin boards.                                       ***

                                         It’s difficult for humans
                                to accept the phenomenon of coincidence;
                                             they always look
                                              for explanations

Academy Journal                                                    52
Va r u n K a p o o r

             INTRODUCTION                                  4.   Behavioural and manpower
                                                                management training to
                     T his   paper deals with the               personnel to once again
             following issues which will ensure                 enhance performance.
             that with the resources available with        5.   Financial burden of such
             the police in the state a more holistic            upgradation, introduction
             and enhanced performance can be                    and training.
             achieved. An attempt will also be made
             to suggest reduction in the force             6.   New        techniques  of
             presently available. These issues are              community policing and its
             as follows:                                        impact on manpower
                1.     Analysis of the resources
                       available and its present       Planning is defined by the Webster
                       utilization.                    dictionary as the act or process of
                2.     Enhancement of the output of    carrying out plans, specifically the
                       the existing resources by       establishment of goals, policies and
                       upgrading the existing          procedures for a social or economic unit.
                       equipment.                      Thus, considering a police organization
                3.     Improvement in the output by    as both an economic and social unit, an
                       introduction of new gadgetry    attempt to plan a better, more organized
                       and equipment.                  and efficient police force, can be made.

                                  53                                           July - Dec 2002
       The main ingredient of any police            Dhar in Madhya Pradesh is a tribal      8. Beat Incharge & Investigating
outfit is the manpower, which                dominated district. The total tribal              Officers:
constitutes its force. Thus, for             population of this district is nearly 54%.              Sub-Inspectors :              14
increasing the effectivity and efficiency    Thus, when the district police was set                  Asst Sub-Inspectors:          30
of any police force, it is essential that    up after the States reorganization in 1956,             Head Constables :             67
the manpower utilization be properly         the number of police personnel was
planned. Often in the police units           according to the need of those times. The      9. General Duty (Patrolling, producing
functioning in the state, total wastage      problems and challenges facing the             prisoners before the courts, medical
of manpower is seen. Police personnel        district police have multiplied since then     examination, dak duty, police station
of all subordinate ranks are found doing     - the district is now the most communally      duty, accompanying the SHO or IO, law
all types of non-essential and routine       sensitive district in the state. Pithampur     and order duty, serving summons, police
duties. This can be curbed, as a result      industrial area has come up after 1982         assistance booth duty, etc):
of which manpower saving can be              and is the largest industrial area of Asia.             Patrolling (Const.)    :      75
achieved. In addition, new equipment         Tribal crime has taken a serious upswing.               Producing prisoners    :      31
and advanced gadgets can be                  All these have put severe demands on                    Medical work           :      15
introduced to further enhance the            the local police and a time has come                    Dak duty               :      29
capabilities of the existing force.          when sheer numbers cannot solve the                     PS duty                :      25
                                             problem. A high-tech, well-equipped and                 With IO                :      19
       The methodology adopted in this       modernized police force is the need of                  Guard duty             :      12
study, rationalizing the inputs to           the hour.                                               Summon servicing       :      14
maximize the outputs is to consider the                                                              Total (Const)                220
district as a unit of study. The district    Police Station utilization
police is further subdivided into two                                                       10. Wireless Duty:
                                                   The available force with the 21                  Constables:                    16
categories - the police station and the      police stations in the district is given
District Reserve Police(DRP) line.           below:                                         11. Attached:
Both these subdivisions will be studied                                                              Gazzetted officers Office:
individually to assess the present           Inspectors          :              08                   Head Constables :             01
utilization of manpower, the possibility     Sub-Inspectors      :              27                   Constables         :          03
of up gradation of the existing              Asst Sub-Inspectors :              31                   Summons Cell:
equipment, the introduction of new           Head Constables     :              101                  Head Constable :              01
gadgetry and the resultant possibility       Constables          :              395                  Constables         :          06
of reduction in the present level of                                                                 Others:
                                                    The present utilization of this force
manpower.                                                                                            Constables         :          08
                                             is given below:
       The last aspect of this study, the                                                   District Reserve        Police        lines
                                             1. Police Station Incharge:                    utilization:
financial burden of this addition of new
                                                       Inspectors        :            08
gadgets is beyond the scope of this
                                                       Sub Inspectors. :              13           Total available force with the DRP
paper. It can be only said that such an
                                             2. Head Constable Moharrir:                    line is as follows:
enhancement will definitely be an added
burden on the police budget. However,                  Asst Sub-Inspectors:           01             Inspectors      :             01
an attempt will be made to offset this                 Head Constables :              20             Sub-Inspectors :              04
burden by recommending ways to               3. Office Work:                                         Asst Sub-Inspectors:          07
reduce the personnel employed at the                   Head Constables:               02             Head Constables :             42
field level.                                           Constables:                    36             Constables      :            179
                                             4. Modus Operandi Bureau Work:                          Recruits        :             31
PRESENT UTILIZATION                   OF              Constables:           20
FORCE:                                                                                      1. Traffic police wing:
                                             5. Judicial Court Work:                                  Sub-Inspector:               01
      This section will highlight the                 Constables:           40                        Head Constable:              02
present utilization of police personnel      6. Sentry Duty:                                          Constable:                   15
employed in the district police. Once that            Constables:                     09    2. Motor Transport Section:
has been outlined, the ways to improve       7. Treasury/Bank guard duty:                            Head Constable:               03
this manpower management will be                      Head Constables :               09             Constable:                    17
discussed.                                            Constables      :               38             Recruits:                     03

Academy Journal                                                    54
3. Women Police:                                Thus, from the above, we can              and 9mm pistols should be replaced with
       Asst Sub-Inspector:         01     gather the deployment and utilization of        9mm Uzi sub-machine pistols and 9mm
       Head Constable :            03     the police force in the district. In addition   Glock pistols. Glock Company produces
       Constable:                  10     to the above, there exists certain other        high-class pistols with superior aiming
4. Judicial Court Duty:                   categories of employees in the district         technology and a superlight fiberglass
          Sub-Inspector :          01     police. These are:                              body.
          Head Constable :         01     1. Ministerial staff: Total 19 members
          Constable      :         10                                                            To face law and order situations, it
5. SP office duty:                        2. District Crime Branch:                       is not only essential to have the all
          Sub- Inspector:          01               Sub-Inspectors:                02     important tear gas guns and canisters.
          Head Constable :         04               Asst Sub-Inspectors:           02     Newer devices are required to meet the
          Constable       :        10               Head Constables :              03     situations, as the law and order problems
          Recruits        :        01     3. District Special Branch:                     have become more acute and complex.
                                                    Inspectors       :             01     The need of the hour is rubber bullets,
6. Ghat security:                                                                         shock batons, water canons and stun
         Asst Sub-Inspectors:      02               Sub-Inspectors :               01
                                                    Asst Sub- Inspectors:          02     guns. These advanced devices for crowd
         Head Constables :         04                                                     control are becoming an absolute
         Constables:               08               Head Constables :              03
                                                    Constables       :             04     necessity.
7. Gazzetted Officer duty:
         Head Constable :          01     UPGRADING EXISTING                                    If the above mentioned changes
         Constable:                02     EQUIPMENT                                       are brought about in the arms and
8. Line duty:                                                                             ammunition available with the district
          Head Constable :         02           The existing equipment available          police, the resultant police force will not
          Constable:               05     with the local police is both outdated and      only be better equipped but it will also
9. Trade man duty:                        ineffective. It is in urgent need of            be a more confident police force. Thus,
         Constables        :        07    upgradation and improvement. If this            the use of sheer numbers can be curbed
                                          upgradation is carried out, it will not only    and quality rather than quantity would
10.Dak duty:
                                          make the police more effective and              be the order of the day.
         Constable         :        06
                                          efficient but it will also help to reduce
11. Constable Moharrir,
                                          the manpower required for policing. Let         RECOMMENDATION
    Armourer & Cloth store:
                                          us now analyze the equipment that needs           a. Phasing out of .303 Rifles.
         Head Constable :           04
                                          to be upgraded, the equipment with
         Constable:                 03                                                        b.   Replacement with SLRs.
                                          which to upgrade, the resultant benefits
12. Welfare activities:                                                                       c.   Introduction of 9mm Uzi
                                          and saving in manpower, if any:
         Sub-Inspector :            01                                                             sub-machine pistols.
         Head Constable :           01                                                        d.   Introduction of 9mm Glock
                                          1. Arms and ammunition: The present
         Constable         :        04                                                             pistols.
                                          standard of arms available with the
13.Producing prisoners:
                                          district police is appalling. Most of the           e.   Introduction of rubber bullets.
         Constables        :        10
                                          .303 rifles are of World War-II vintage.
14. Wireless duty:                                                                            f.   Introduction of shock batons.
                                          The ammunition is also very old and
         Constables:                03    often found wanting when the situation              g.   Introduction of water cannons.
15. Control Room Duty:                    arises. There are a few SLRs available              h.   Introduction of stun guns.
         Sub-Inspector     :        01    with the district, but their numbers are
         Asst Sub-Inspector:        01                                                        i.   Introduction       of    aerosol
                                          negligible. The hand-held weapons are                    irritants.
         Constable         :        02    basically .38 bore revolvers and 9mm
16.College guard duty:                    pistols. These are also quite old and have      2. Riot Gear: These basic equipment of
         Head Constable:            01    lost their accuracy and dependability.          the district police is also outdated. It is
         Constable:                 02                                                    time to replace the lathis with rubber.
17. Other duties, suspended & On leave:          The requirement is that all .303         batons. These are easy to carry and use.
         Sub-Inspector     :        01    rifles be phased out. These should be           They can be placed in special holsters in
         Head Constable :           08    replaced with Self-Loading Rifles. The          the belt, as a result of which the hands
         Constable         :        34    hand-held weaponry also needs an                become free. They are also provided with
         Recruits          :        09    overhaul. The outdated .38 revolvers            specially desired handles, which ensure

                                                                  55                                               July - Dec 2002
better grip and greater efficiency, while      totally cut out. This will speed up            networking will ensure that the officers
using the same. The cane bodyguards            response time and increase police              and mobiles of police are in continuous
should be replaced with fiberglass ones        efficiency to a large extent.                  touch with the police station and the
which are easy to handle. The existing                                                        district control room. Thus, greater
helmets must give way to better-modeled        RECOMMENDATION                                 effectivity in police working can be
and moulded plastic helmets. This will            a. All police stations to be                achieved.
ensure greater safety and ease of use.               equipped with vehicles.
These changes will also ensure a better-                                                             As far as telephone connectivity
equipped and motivated force. This will            b.    City police stations to have
                                                                                              is concerned, all police stations should
automatically reduce the number of                       light vehicles.
                                                                                              have a telephone connection. All
police personnel required to perform law           c.    Rural police stations to have        gazzetted officers in the district should
and order and crowd control duties.                      medium vehicles.                     also have separate telephone
                                                   d.    All beat-in-charges to have          connections. It is said that in today’s
RECOMMENDATION                                           motorcycles.                         world, information is power. Proper and
    a.    Introduction of rubber batons.                                                      sufficient wireless equipment and
                                               4. Police Communication: Another               telephones ensure smooth flow of
    b.    Introduction of fiberglass           important component of police work is          information. A well-informed police force
          bodyguards.                          the quality and quantity of                    is also an all-powerful police force.
                                               communication equipment available with
    c.    Introduction of moulded
                                               the police force. Communication includes       RECOMMENDATION
          special plastic helmets.
                                               both wireless communication and                   a. Total switch-over from low
3. Police mobility: One of the most            telephony.                                           band to high band wireless
important factors in enhancing police                                                               equipment.
performance is greater and efficient                  Presently, low band wireless               b. All police stations to have
means of police mobility. This enhanced        equipment is available with the district             static sets.
mobility ensures reduction in response         police. This equipment is quite outdated          c. All police outposts to be
time of the police. This reduction goes a      and even the spare parts are not readily             equipped with static sets.
long way in winning the confidence of          available in the market. High band                d. All police mobiles to have static
the public because a responsive police         equipment is the one, which must be                  sets.
is what the public demands all the time.       introduced in a phased manner. The
                                                                                                 e. All officers above the rank of
The scale of the vehicles available to the     advantages of high band wireless
                                                                                                    Sub-Inspectors to have walkie-
police has been worked out as follows.         communication over the low band variety
Each police station should have its own        are many. Thus, high band wireless
                                                                                                 f. All police stations and out
police vehicle. For city police stations,      equipment should be introduced in the
                                                                                                    posts to have telephone
this vehicle should be a light vehicle,        state police. This equipment should
whereas for rural police stations it should    preferably be of the Motorola company.
                                               This is because the equipment of                  g. All Gazzetted officers in the
be a medium vehicle. Each police station
                                               Motorola is more reliable and durable                district to have telephone
area is divided into police beats. For large
                                               (field tests have proved these facts in              connections.
police stations, these beats are headed,
by a SI/ASI whereas in smaller police          Dhar district).                                INTRODUCTION OF
stations the beat incharges are Head                                                          NEW EQUIPMENT
Constables. Thus, for increasing police               In addition to the change over from
mobility and as a result enhancing             low band to high band equipment in the                In addition to the upgradation of
efficiency, each beat incharge should be       state police, the availability of wireless     the existing equipment, it is also
provided with a motorcycle. This will          equipment should also be increased. All        necessary to introduce new, more
ensure that the beat incharge will reach       police stations and outposts should be         sophisticated and more advanced
the scene of crime or scene of the             equipped with static wireless sets. In         equipment, for use by the district police.
incident in a short duration of time. After    addition, all police mobiles should be         Introduction of these new gadgets will
he reaches the scene of crime, he can          equipped with static sets. All gazzetted       not only increase efficiency, but will, in
assess the situation and can call for          police officers in the district and all non-   an oblique way, reduce the manpower
backup, if required. Thus, excessive           gazzetted police officers above the rank       demand of the local police. Let us analyze
deployment of force can be avoided and         of Sub-Inspectors should be equipped           the new and advanced gadgetry, which
unnecessary force movements can be             with hand-held mobile sets. This kind of       can be introduced in the district police.

Academy Journal                                                      56
       1. Advanced varieties of               They provide adequate illumination to          with smaller packaging. These
Flashlights & other illumination              ensure effective firing during the dark        performance improvements made
devices: New and sophisticated varieties      hours. As they are gun mounted, they           observations possible down to 1/4th of a
of searchlights and flashlights are           also ensure that both the hands are free       moon. Generation-II may be the choice
available in large numbers in the market.     to carry out the required tasks.               when there is higher levels of ambient
These are a must for improving the                                                           light.
standard of night patrolling and also for            Another revolutionary concept in
the security of the police personnel          the field of providing illumination to               Developed in the 1980s, the
themselves. Presently, the police stations    security forces during night operations        Generation-III NVD, enables safe
are poorly equipped with flashlights.         is called the Sapphire light. This light is    navigation in the darkest nights.
Some outdated battery-operated torches        bright and reliable. The device can be         Distinguished by its Gallium Arsenide
are in use. However, with the changing        clipped onto the belt. The light is            Photocathode, Generation-III is
times and the security environment,           produced by a blue sapphire crystal,           optimized for sensitivity to the near infra-
these torches are no longer useful and        which produces a highly efficient, solid-      red light available from the night sky.
effective. Advanced flashlights and           state, non-deteriorating beam. It              Improved MCPs provide higher
searchlights should be introduced in the      produces a soft illumination in 180            resolution and extended operational life.
district police.                              degrees-viewing radius. It is visible for
                                              over one mile. It can be effectively used             These NVDs are a must for local
       Flashlights made under the brand       for signaling and providing indication to      police forces now. Often during night
name of Dragonlight, were highly              patrol parties, etc.                           patrols, members of criminal gangs hide
effective in tackling the menace of                                                          in the darkness and escape detection by
terrorism in Punjab. Flashlights of other     RECOMMENDATION                                 patrol parties. When such parties have
companies are also available in the                                                          passed by, they carry out the crime on
market. These flashlights are                     a.    Providing advanced flashlights       the highways or towns/villages. A
rechargeable and are provided with                      at police station level.             classical example of such criminals are
Xenon bulbs. Their beams can be                                                              those who operate on the infamous
                                                  b.    Each beat be provided with a         Machliya ghat and other ghats in the
focused as either spot or floodlights.
                                                        flashlight.                          district. The members of these gangs
They are provide with both AC plug in
charger and DC car charger as well as             c.    Providing tactical lights to all     hide by the roadside and as soon as the
with rechargeable Nickel-Cadmium                        police stations.                     police patrol party passes by, they
batteries. Some of the leading flashlight                                                    commit heinous crimes on the highways
manufacturers, whose flashlights can be           d.    Providing Sapphire lights to all     and villages/towns. Thus, it is essential
incorporated into the police force are -                police stations.                     that all police stations are equipped with
Maglite, Streamlight, Eveready, etc.                                                         at least Generation-II or Generation-III
                                              2. Night Vision Devices: The night vision      NVDs. This will make police patrolling
       There is also a requirement of other   devices are based on the principle of          more effective and the morale of the
advanced illumination devices for the         converting light energy (photons) into         criminal gangs will also fall considerably,
police force. During night operations, the    electrical energy (electrons). This results    giving the police an upper hand over all
police force often locates criminals and      in immense amplification of light and, as      criminals who operate in the area using
other anti-social elements in the region.     a result, night viewing is accomplished        darkness as their cover.
To spot them effectively, the police          with ease. There are three generations
needs proper flashlights, as described        of NVD. The Generation-I NVD was               RECOMMENDATION
above. However, taking advantage of the       developed in the 1960s. They lacked the           a.   All police stations to be equipped
darkness, often these criminals make          sensitivity and light amplification                    with at least one NVD.
good their escape or even attack the          necessary to see below a full moon. As a
police party and cause casualties             result they were large and cumbersome,               3. Thermal Infrared System:
amongst them. Thus, there is an urgent        less reliable and relatively poor, low-light   These systems see heat, not light. Thus
need to have handgun and shotgun              imagers.                                       they can detect humans hiding in the
mounted lights for effective firing during                                                   darkness, that too behind some solid
nighttime. These lights are classified as           The development of the Micro-            cover. These systems are a leap forward
Tactical Lights and they are mounted          Channel Plate (MCP) led to the birth of        over the Night Vision Devices. They can
on top of the barrel of shotguns and          the Generation-II NVD in the early 1970s.      be used to detect criminals hiding in the
rifles and under the barrel of handguns.      Higher electron gains are now possible         bushes and shrubs.

                                                                     57                                               July - Dec 2002
       Thus, their presence would              RECOMMENDATION                               kit should be assembled into a box and
definitely enhance the performance of the                                                   labeled FS kit. This should be provided
                                                   a.   A K-9 unit consisting of one
police forces.                                                                              to each police station to increase the
                                                        K-9 and one handler to be
                                                                                            efficiency of the available staff to tackle
                                                        provided to each police station.
RECOMMENDATION                                                                              complicated and challenging cases.
                                                   b.   Larger police stations can have
    a.     Each district to be provided                 two K-9 units, with two
           with at least one Thermal Infra-                                                 RECOMMENDATION
                                                        handlers. These will be trained
           red System.                                                                        a. Providing one FS kit to all police
                                                        as sniffers, trackers and patrol
4. K-9 Unit: It means a Dog unit. A                                                           b. Providing proper and up-to-
properly trained dog can perform many                 5. Forensic science kits: There is         date Forensic training to as
functions and can prove an asset to any        only one FSL unit in the district located         many police station staff
police unit or police setup. The K-9 can       at the district HQ. The present scenario          members as possible, using the
effectively perform the following              of crime trends indicate the occurrence           FSL unit available at each
functions:                                     of a large number of complicated crimes.          district HQ. This will enable
                                               Thus there is a persistent and grater need        them to effectively use the
   • Tracker: K-9 can be used to track         of FSL experts at a number of scenes of           provided FS kits and to
         scents of criminals after they have                                                     improve their standard of
                                               crime. However, due to the paucity of
         perpetrated the crime and have                                                          investigation.
                                               time available with them, they cannot go
         fled and also to track down scenes
                                               to all the crime scenes and as a result      6. Mounted Police Unit: Horse is a
         of crime.
                                               very important evidence cannot be lifted     very useful animal for a variety of
   • Sniffers: K-9 can be used very            from such scenes. This not only effects      police purposes. Mounted police can
         effectively as Sniffers. The  K-      the process of investigation but also        be used for effective patrolling and
         9s can be trained to sniff out        adversely affects the prosecution and as     also for efficient crowd control. Horses
         explosives, narcotics and arms.       a result, the conviction rate comes down.    can be used to patrol areas which are
         Thus they can prove to be a great                                                  off the main roads and they can go
         boon for the police force.                   The number of FSL experts cannot      into even bushes and forests. They
                                               be increased but each police station can     are also very silent when moving
   • Patrol: K-9 can also be used as           be equipped with proper and up-to-date       through dense undergrowth. Thus, for
         reliable and efficient patrol dogs.   Forensic Science kits. These kits should     patrolling purposes, the horse patrol
         This is another important activity    at least have the following basic forensic   is one of the most effective, silent and
         of any police unit and a well-        equipment:                                   efficient systems available. The horse
         trained K-9 can greatly aid the
                                                                                            can also be trained to be sensitive to
         police in enhancing the                   •    Photography camera                  movements, sounds or smells which
         effectivity of patrolling in the          •    Scales                              are not initially apparent to human
                                                   •    Binders                             senses. It also enhances the search
                                                                                            capabilities of the rider. The riders also
       Thus, it is recommended that                •    Compasses
                                                                                            have a vantage point, some 5-7 feet
well trained K-9 be considered as a                •    Fingerprint lifting powders         off the ground, which expands their
resource. Their presence will greatly
                                                   •    Fingerprint dusting brushes         vision in rural and back country as well
enhance the performance of the police
                                                   •    Drug testing kits (cripkits)        as in urban settings.
station staff. K-9 will share a lot of the
burden of the police personnel and will            •    Swabs to pick up trace
instill a sense of confidence amongst                   evidences                                  Similarly, for purposes for crowd
the local public. Thus, it is worth                                                         control too, mounted police is very
                                                   •    Forceps
considering the fact that each police                                                       effective. It can be said from experience
station be equipped with at least one
                                                   •    Plastic bags to store evidence      that 8 horses can work in a crowd, which
K-9, which is trained for being a tracker          •    Rubber gloves                       would normally require 100 police
as well as a patrol dog. At police                 •    Scalpel                             personnel (Orlando Police Horse Unit).
stations under whose jurisdictions                                                          The people have greater fear of a police
                                                   •    Human blood testing kit
come important airports, railheads and                                                      officer on a horse but at the same time is
bus stations, K-9 trained as sniffers                These and other basic instruments      less hostile towards such an officer. It is
can be deployed.                               for making an effective Forensic Science     truly a winning combination.

Academy Journal                                                     58
       Thus, for reducing the number of          • Traffic cones and barriers                    c.   Intruder Alarm Systems
police personnel required in patrolling                                                          d.   Asset Tracking & Monitoring
and law and order duties, each police
                                                 • Closed Circuit TV (CCTV) at
station should be equipped with a horse               important traffic junctions
                                                                                                 e.   Counter Surveillance Measures
unit. This will vary depending upon the            With the introduction of such
size and location of the various police      gadgetry and traffic aids, the traffic police         All these types of systems are not
stations.                                    will become more efficient and capable          required presently by the district police,
                                             of handling the ever-increasing traffic         but certain systems have become a must.
RECOMMENDATION                               volume. At the same time, the pressure          Amongst them are CCTV systems,
   a. All C-class police stations            on traffic manpower will reduce and a           Access Control Systems and Intruder
      should have a unit of one horse.       rationalization of the same can be              Alarm Systems.
   b. All B-class police stations            brought about.
      should have a unit of two                                                                    These systems are used to protect
      horses.                                       In addition to the above-described       residential houses and complexes as well
   c. All A-class police stations            aspects of traffic regulation, two other        as various business houses. Home,
      should be given a posse of four        important aspects are traffic engineering       residential and commercial complex
      horses.                                and traffic education. As far as traffic        security systems have the following
                                             engineering is concerned, the role of           components:
7. Modernization of the Traffic police:      police is limited. However, in the case of          •    Magnetic contacts: They form
The traffic police is an important wing of   traffic education, the efforts of the police
                                                                                                      an electric circuit between a
the district police. It performs the         require a boost. A small cell should be
                                                                                                      door and a doorframe or a
function, which directly brings the police   constituted for this purpose. They
                                                                                                      window and a sill. When the
to come in contact with the citizens.        should be provided with a vehicle and
                                                                                                      door is opened, it breaks the
Thus, the image of the police is made or     TV sets, video players, tape recorders,
                                                                                                      circuit and sounds the alarm.
broken, depending largely upon the           vide cameras, etc., and be entrusted with
behavior, attitude and performance of the    the job of scientifically carrying out the          •    Motion detectors: Sound an
traffic police. Therefore, the role of the   job of traffic education. If the work of                 alarm if motion is detected.
traffic police is very important and is at   traffic education is properly carried out,          •    Wired window or door screens:
the cutting edge of all police work.         the work of regulation can reduce                        The security system is
                                             considerably.                                            activated if the wire is cut or
       Today, the traffic police is used                                                              the screen is removed.
for mundane traffic direction and point      RECOMMENDATION                                      •    Panic buttons: Can be located
duties, whereas they should be used             a. Introduction of traffic signals,                   next to beds or alongside
more scientifically and appropriately.             even in small towns                                doorways or wireless. They can
There is an urgent need to introduce new                                                              be manually activated if you
                                                 b.    Introduction of traffic aids
innovations, modern machines and                                                                      suspect an intruder or if an
gadgetry into traffic police work. This          c.    Introduction       of    modern                intruder tries to force entry .
will not only reduce the manpower                      gadgetry
required but also at the same time make
                                                                                                 •    Closed circuit TV: A private
                                                 d.    Proper and greater efforts at                  television system that allows
the cops in white, more in tune with the
                                                       traffic education with a small but             you to monitor one or more
demands of the present. The high-tech
                                                       well equipped traffic education                inside or outside areas.
devices, which can be introduced into
                                                       unit                                      •    Keypads: Also known as touch
the traffic police wing are:
                                                                                                      pads or remotes. These devices
    •   Traffic signals                      8. Alarm and Surveillance Systems:
                                                                                                      allow you to turn on and off
                                             These are systems of the future. They
    •   Traffic directing LED                                                                         (arm and disarm) your system.
                                             have to be incorporated in to the police
                                                                                                      It also displays your system
    •   Omniglow Lightsticks                 units in the state, sooner or later. These
    •   Premium traffic vests                systems can be of the following types:
                                                                                                 •    Wired Systems: Uses
    •   Loud hailers                             a.    Closed Circuit TV systems                      concealed or exposed wiring to
    •   Reflecting traffic dividers and                (CCTV)                                         connect the home security
        traffic stops                            b.    Access Control Systems                         systems components.

                                                                     59                                              July - Dec 2002
   •     Wireless System: Uses radio                  code or physical characteristic. It   only make the police work more
         frequency to connect system                  may as simple as a single             systematized and organized but it will
         components.                                  mechanical lock or as complicated     also help in making the police personnel
                                                      as an integrated system               more productive. This will indirectly help
   •     Other components: Glass break                controlling hundreds of doors         in reducing manpower requirement of the
         detectors and stress sensors.                that interface with the alarm and     police. Computerization can be done in
                                                      other systems.                        the police stations, SP’s office and office
      The business security systems are                                                     of other gazzetted officers, DRP lines,
                                                  •   CCTV: It is a television system
an improvement over the above given                                                         Judicial       courts,      etc.      This
                                                      that transmits signals over a
systems. They consist of the following                                                      computerization will help to reduce the
                                                      closed circuit of electrical
systems by which they detect intruders                                                      paper work presently being done and,
                                                      conductors, fiber-optic cable or
and control access:                                                                         as a result, save an incredible amount of
                                                      wireless carriers. CCTV can
                                                      overtly or covertly monitor a         manpower. Let us see how computers
   • Burglar intrusion alarms: The
                                                      process or area from a remote         can be introduced in the various units
       burglar intrusion alarm system is
                                                      location. CCTV systems can also       as indicated above and how best they
       designed to detect unauthorized
                                                      record or document a scene for        can be utilized.
       intrusion into a building or an
       area of a building. Most burglar               later viewing. Multiple locations
       alarms will sound an alarm at the              can be viewed by a single guard              Each police station should be
       site and report to a central station.          or monitor at a remote location.      equipped with a computer, modem,
                                                                                            scanners, CD writers and printer. All such
   •   Fire alarms: Manual or automatic           • Energy management devices:              police station computers should be
       fire systems and sprinkler                     These      include     certain        linked with each other and with the SP’s
       supervisory systems use a                      sophisticated devices like low        office, through Intranet facility. Two
       combination of sensory devices                 temperature monitors, power           trained operators should work on these
       to detect a fire at the earliest               failure monitors, process             computers round the clock. These
       point. Selection of the proper type            monitors, water or moisture           computers should be used to contain all
       and number of sensors is essential             sensors and watchman’s                the police station records. Using scanner,
       to alert all the occupants of a                reporting systems.                    photographs of history sheeters,
       premises and to notify the central
                                                                                            goondas, bad characters, etc., along with
       station so that the fire department           These kinds of alarm systems can
                                                                                            their fingerprints and palm prints can be
       can be dispatched.                      be easily installed in large banks,
                                                                                            fed into the computer. Using CD writers,
   •   Carbon Monoxide gas alarms: A           treasuries and residential complexes
                                                                                            permanent records of the same can be
       signal from a Carbon Monoxide           and their display boards can be placed
                                                                                            made on writable CDs. Thus, even if the
       detector is designed to indicate        in the local police station. As a result,
                                                                                            computer fails, the record is permanently
       that an unacceptable level of           the manpower in the form of bank
                                                                                            available at the police station. The work
       Carbon Monoxide is present in           guards, treasury guards, college
                                                                                            of the MOB constable can also be done
       the room.                               guards, etc., can be saved. When the
                                                                                            on the computer. The details of all
                                               alarm goes off, police party from the
   •   Holdup, panic or emergency:
                                               police station can rush to the spot and
                                                                                            arrested persons along with their
       These systems allow the                                                              photographs and finger and palm prints
                                               take necessary action. These are some
       customer to report an emergency                                                      can be fed into the computer and again
                                               sophisticated systems and instead of
       like an armed robbery or an                                                          permanent records made on CDs.
                                               the police department investing in
       ambush. Most systems allow a
                                               such systems, the management of
       customer to follow robbers’                                                                In the same manner, the computer
                                               banks, treasuries, colleges and all such
       instruction but also allow them to                                                   can be used to compile all types of
                                               institutions which require police
       press a button to trip a switch to                                                   information as and when required by the
                                               guards can be motivated to purchase
       sound an alarm at the central                                                        SP’s office or other offices. There will be
                                               and install such systems in their
       station. Some systems will also                                                      a saving in time, as all the information is
                                               respective premises.
       cause a video film to be taken of                                                    readily available in the computer and it
       the robber(s).                          9. Computerization: The use of               has to be just compiled. Once the
   •   Access Control: This is a process       computers is the need of the hour for        information is compiled, it can be e-mailed
       to grant or deny a person access        the police force. It needs to be taken up    via the Intranet to the SP’s office. This
       to a specific area or object based      in a big way by all police formations.       will save the use of a constable to bring
       upon their possession of an item,       This switch-over to computers will not       dak to the SP’s office.

Academy Journal                                                     60
       In the later stages one can             seats are at Dhar, Badnawar, Mannawar,         police officer coming and providing
envisage that the General Diary be             Sardarpur, Kukshi and Dharampuri. Thus,        training to the members in this
maintained on the computer and even            Dhar can have two operators and all the        committee in respect of crime control.
FIR      being      taken     on    the        other tehsil courts can have one
computers.With the passage of the IT           operator.                                      b. Victim assistance: This includes
bill, digital signatures will be legally                                                      sending victims of different crimes to
valid. This will require the setting up        NEW TECHNIQUES OF                              get medical and police assistance by
of more than one terminal in the police        COMMUNITY POLICING                             the members of the neighborhood
stations. Similarly, in the SP’s office,                                                      watch committees.
computers can be set up in the Steno’s         1. Nagar Suraksh Samities: These
office, OM section, Reader section,            samities are working successfully all over     c. Improving conditions: This includes
Head clerk section, Accounts section,          the state. They were introduced by this        bringing to the notice of the concerned
SRC section, Establishment section,            officer in Indore city, while he held the      authorities about abandoned and other
District Crime Branch and in the               position of Additional SP (City). There        premises, which can be used by
District Special branch. Here too, all         is no need to analyze this concept, suffice    offenders to take shelter. Such
the records maintenance             and        to say that if the citizens join the police    authorities then take action to clean up
compilation of information will be done        in prevention and detection of crime,          or demolish such premises.
on computers. This will make the               police performance is definitely
various wings of the SP’s office more          enhanced.
                                                                                              d. Citizen’s Patrols: The citizens
efficient and also result in saving of                                                        organize themselves into groups and
manpower.                                      2. Mahila Paramarsh Kendra: These
                                                                                              carry out patrol duties.
                                               Kendras have also contributed towards
                                               improving the image of police in the eyes
      In the DRP lines the use of              of the common man. This project was                   Thus, it can be clearly seen that
computers will also prove very                 also started while this officer held the       the Neighbourhood watch scheme is a
beneficial. A computer with all the            position of Additional SP (City) Indore.       self-help scheme, for the citizens of a
accessories can be installed here and          It was under the guidance of Mr NK             locality. This will ensure a partnership
it can serve a variety of purposes. It         Tripathi, the then DIG, Indore and with        between the citizens and the police but
can be installed at the Roznamcha              the blessings of Mr Swaraj Puri, the then      also reduce the burden on the police
section and it can have two operators          IG of Indore. The project had achieved         force as the citizens learn to take
round the clock. It will be used to record     remarkable success during the tenure of        responsibility and secure their own
the general diary, keep all accounts,          this officer at Indore. It was nurtured with   environs.
maintain record of all the arms and            great care and affection. Before this
ammunition, cloth store, grain shop and        officer’s departure, eight centers for         4.Crime-free           Multi-Housing
can also keep a complete statement of all      providing counseling had been opened           programme: This is another community
welfare activities being performed. This       and were working successfully. This is a       policing programme that can be very
will definitely save a lot of manpower.        leading example of community based             effectively incorporated in city policing.
                                               policing at its best.                          Again the burden on police will reduce
                                                                                              and security environment in a locality
       In the same manner, to reduce the
                                                                                              will improve. This includes the following
over-utilization of police personnel in        3.      Neighbourhood           Watch:
judicial courts, computers can be              Neighbourhood watch is a very useful
installed there too. Each magistrate in the    scheme, which can ensure public
district has a police constable/head           participation in police work. The citizens     a. Training: This involves giving training
constable attached to his court. Their         under this scheme are motivated to watch       to the residents of a multi-housing
main function is to issue summons and          their own neighborhood and, as a result        society with respect to securing houses,
warrants. They also maintain a record of       perform police functions and                   businesses and other premises. A beat
all acquittals, take the fingerprints of all   consequently help to reduce the burden         police official at the premises of the
convicts before sending them to the jails      on the police force. A properly designed       society itself can impart this training.
and to organize and put up case diaries        neighbourhood watch scheme has the
on the due date before the magistrates.        following components:                          b. Analysis: After this basic security
Thus, by installing one computer and                                                          training, the citizens are asked to secure
appointing an operator at each seat of         a. Crime prevention training: This             their premises according to the training
the judiciary, this work can be easily         includes forming a committee in the            imparted to them. Then after a few days
accomplished. In Dhar district court           neighborhood watch scheme and a                the same police officer visits the

                                                                      61                                              July - Dec 2002
premises and checks and assesses the          to 10 lakhs the number of citizens                  Thus, the Citizens Police Academy
security arrangements made. If he finds       selected for the CPA should be 30. For        along with all other innovative
any shortcomings, he points it out to         cities with population between 10 and         community policing schemes will have
the resident and he in turn is expected to    20 lakhs the number should be 40.             an indirect effect on the utilization of
remove such defects, so that the              Finally, for cities with population above     police personnel.
premises can be declared well secured.        20 lakhs, the number of citizens chosen
                                              for the CPA should be 50.                     ANALYSIS OF              MANPOWER
c. Certification: After the premises have
been thoroughly checked, they are                   These citizens are thereafter to be           This section deals with the
declared totally secure. This will            put through a 12-week long course with        analysis of reduction in police manpower
increase the confidence of the owner of       3 hour training classes per week. The         possible, using the above mentioned
the premises and at the same time make        curriculum can include training in the        upgradations of existing equipment,
the work of the police force easier.          following disciplines:                        introduction of new and state-of-the-art
                                                                                            gadgetry and innovations in the field of
                                                      · Criminal law
      This scheme once again should                                                         community policing. This will not be an
be introduced in colonies and multi-                  · Recruitment training                accurate picture because there is already
housing complexes in cities, to reduce                                                      an acute shortage of manpower in MP
                                                      · Patrol procedures
the burden on police units. This                                                            police and the scenario given is only a
community policing effort will ensure                 · Narcotics & Vice crimes             hypothetical one.
public participation in police work and               · K-9 & bike patrol systems
thus the demands on the force will                                                                Let us first analyze the reduction
reduce with a consequent reduction in                 · Emergency response                  possible in the police station staff:
demand for police manpower.                           · Communications                      1. With the introduction of large-scale
5. Citizens Police Academy: This is the               · Internal affairs                    computerization in the police stations of
latest concept to train the local citizens                                                  the district, a large saving in manpower
                                                      · Media relations                     is possible. In Dhar district police itself,
in police related fields and then utilizing
them not only to perform quasi-police                 · Accident reconstruction             38 police personnel are performing the
functions but also at the same time to                                                      function of office work in different police
                                                      · Criminal Investigation
propagate the efforts of the police and                                                     stations. In addition, there are another
the problems faced by them, amongst                   · Crime scene processing              20 police personnel functioning as MOB
the general public. The citizens will get                                                   munshis. This makes a grand total of 58
                                                      · Family abuse & Juvenile
an idea as to how police officers perform                                                   personnel, whose work can be easily
their duties and how the police                                                             performed by a computer and two
department serves the community. This                 · Community services                  operators in each police station. Thus
will form a nucleus of well-informed                                                        the requirement is of 42 personnel, giving
                                                      · Crime stoppers
citizens with greater insight into police                                                   a saving of at least 16 personnel.
practices and functions. This experiment              · Defense tactics
                                                                                            2.     In the second stage of
has been vastly successful in the                     · Traffic checks and stops            computerization, when the FIRs and GD
Lexington-Fayette Urban county                                                              are also keyed into computers, a
division of the police in West Virginia,          ·     Firearm training
                                                                                            further saving of 21 personnel can be
USA.                                                Trained in these disciplines, the       brought about from the HCM in
                                              citizens chosen to be part of the CPA         different police stations.
      The programme designed to suit          will fan out in the society and will not      3. Judicial courts also take up a lot of
the local conditions in the district is of    only aid police work but will carry out       manpower. Each police station has at
the following form. A certain number of       excellent public relation work for the        least 2 constables working as court
citizens are chosen from the city             police. As a result, burden on local police   munshis. One of them is the challan
depending upon the population of the          will go down and rationalization of the       munshi, who puts up the challan;
city. In smaller towns, where the             manpower utilization can be brought           deposits seized goods along with the
population is less than 1 lakh, the           about. Trained and motivated citizens will    challan in the court and gives copies of
number of citizens should be 20. In cities    act as a bridge between the police and        all relevant documents to the accused.
where the population is between 1 lakh        the common man of the towns and cities.       The other is called the summon munshi.

Academy Journal                                                     62
He receives all the summons/warrants          personnel are employed in patrolling          SP’s office, in addition to one SI as a
issued by the courts, brings them to the      each day. With the above mentioned            Reader, employs 4 HC and 10 constables
police station, gets it registered in the     revolutions, an average of one person         in various wings. If computerization is
inward/outward register and the               per police station can be reduced. Thus,      carried out in the entire SP’s office
summon/warrant register and issued to         roughly 20 police personnel can be            sections like OM section, Accounts
the police personnel for servicing. In        reduced daily from patrol duties.             section, Head clerk section, Steno
Dhar district, 40 constables of all the                                                     section, Reader section, SRC section,
police stations are involved in this work.    6. With the large scale induction of          Establishment section, Pay and
By providing one photocopy machine            computers at the police station level,        allowances section, etc., the police
at the district headquarters, the work of     equipped with the facility of intranet and    personnel acting as ‘helpers’, in these
the challan munshi can be greatly             e-mail, the use of policemen to act as        sections can be done away with. The
reduced, as now he will just photocopy        dak runners, will also be reduced, if not     concerned Accountants, UDCs and
all the relevant documents and hand it        be deleted altogether. In this district, at   LDCs would work on the computer and
over to the accused. As a result, the work    least 29 constables are used daily by the     do the job on their own. Allowing 2 Head
of the challan munshi and the summon          police stations as dak runners. Thus,         Constables and 4 Constables, for
munshi can be performed by one and the        their numbers can be reduced by at least      emergency duty in the SP office, a saving
same constable. Thus, instead of 40           9 personnel, granted that each police         of 8 personnel can be achieved at the
constables, 20 constables would be            station retains one constable each for        SP’s office by proper and thorough
required to perform the various judicial      emergency dak runner duty.                    computerization.
court functions. Hence, a saving of 20
personnel can be brought about.                    Now let us analyze the saving in               4. With computerization in the
                                              manpower possible in the District             DRP line, the line office can also shed
4. If proper and high quality surveillance                                                  excess manpower. Presently it employs
                                              Reserve Police lines:
devices and alarm systems are                                                               2 Head Constables and 5 Constables.
incorporated into the local police                                                          Two well-trained operators can do the
systems, either by the concerns which                1. The traffic police equipped
                                                                                            job of maintaining the Roznamcha, the
require police guards themselves or by        with modern traffic aids, traffic signals
                                                                                            cash box, different cashbooks and
the police organization, a large saving is    at all important crossings and a proper
                                                                                            ledgers, distribution of force, etc. One
possible in manpower utilization by the       wing for traffic education can definitely
                                                                                            Head Constable can supervise their work
police. At present, 50 personnel (of the      shed some of its manpower. In Dhar
                                                                                            and all of them will ofcourse work under
rank of Head-Constable and Constable),        district the strength of the traffic police
                                                                                            the guidance of the Reserve Inspector.
are being utilized as guards in treasuries,   is 18. This number can definitely be
                                                                                            Thus, a reduction in manpower to the
banks and colleges. Thus, if not the total    reduced by 2 personnel if the above
                                                                                            tune of 4 personnel can be achieved.
number, at least a saving of 25 personnel     facilities are ushered in.
can be achieved.
                                                                                                   5. The armoury, cloth store and
                                                    2. The DRP line also provides
                                                                                            welfare activities use up 13 personnel
5. With the introduction of state-of- the-    police personnel for judicial court duty.
                                                                                            of different ranks. This figure will also
art equipment like advanced flashlights,      Their number is 12. These personnel are
                                                                                            be reduced by computerization. At least
sapphire lights, tactical lights, night       working in the six seats of the judicial
                                                                                            4 personnel can be reduced from various
vision devices, thermal infrared devices,     courts in the district. As mentioned
effective K-9 units, mounted police unit      above, if computers are provided to all
at each police station, etc., and the         the courts, then in Dhar court two
                                              operators and in the other five places,              6. Dak runners will also be
upgradation in police mobility and
                                              one operator each will be able to carry       reduced in the DRP line duty chart. As a
communication and with the
                                              out the job of the court munshi. Thus,        large amount of information will be sent
introduction in a large way of new and
                                              the total requirement would be of 7           and received by e-mail and the Intranet
novel community based policing
                                              personnel and a consequent reduction          and the Internet, leaving aside 2 dak
schemes, the pressure on police
                                              of 5 personnel can de achieved.               runners for emergencies, 4 personnel
personnel in relation to night and day
                                                                                            can be shed from the dak duty.
patrolling, will definitely reduce.
Though the exact number of reduction               3. With the introduction of
in police personnel cannot be                 computers in the DPR line and at the               7. The District Special Branch and
immediately predicted, a rough estimate       SP’s office, a tangible reduction in          the District Crime Branch will also
can be attempted. In Dhar district, 75        manpower is possible. Presently, the          undergo computerization. The

                                                                    63                                              July - Dec 2002
possibility of reduction in manpower in            technological advances, which have             the state police to purchase and operate,
the already understaffed and long                  taken place in the world of security           but it can form the nucleus of future
ignored DSB is negligible. The District            forces and their activities. It is in no way   efforts of modernization. Similarly, the
Crime Branch employs 7 police                      an exhaustive report about all the             figure of saving of 138 personnel may
personnel. Here too computerization will           technological advancements possible            be a bit inflated, but it has been used to
make the branch more effective and                 for the police force in the state. However,    ensure the induction of high tech devices
efficient. However, the chance of                  it is an attempt to include and analyze as     in the state police. This is so because
manpower reduction is not present.                 many of the innovations and                    without the reduction and surrender in a
                                                   upgradations possible in the state police      certain number of police posts, finances
       Thus, from the above analysis it            force. There has also been an attempt to       will not be available to modernize the
is evident that a saving in manpower of            analyze the possibility of reduction in        police force.
police personnel to the tune of 138                manpower in the police force from this
personnel can be achieved, by                      report.                                              Taking all those points into
implementing the above mentioned                                                                  consideration, the RIMODAL report has
suggestions.                                              Once again it is pertinent to point     been drafted. If studied and utilized and
                                                   out that the situation analyzed is             implemented properly, it will go a long
                                                   hypothetical and is based on Dhar              way towards making Madhya Pradesh
                                                   district police as a unit of comparison        Police more efficient, cost- effective and
     The above report is, as mentioned             and study. Some of the gadgetry                a dynamic organization.
before, based on the various                       suggested may be beyond the means of                               ***

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Academy Journal                                                          64

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