Medieval and Renaissance Vocal Music

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Medieval and Renaissance Vocal Music Powered By Docstoc
					           Opening Act:
• Describe life in the Medieval Period
• Describe these elements of music from
  previous lessons
  – Harmony
  – Melody
  – Rhythm
           The Misery of the Human Condition
•   inspiring words from Pope Innocent III
• . . . man was formed of dust, slime, and ashes: what is even
    more vile, of the filthiest seed. He was conceived from the
    itch of the flesh, in the heat of passion and the stench of lust,
    and worse yet, with the stain of sin. He was born to toil,
    dread, and trouble; and more wretched still, was born only to
    die. He commits depraved acts by which he offends God, his
    neighbor, and himself; shameful acts by which he defiles his
    name, his person, and his conscience; and vain acts by
    which he ignores all things important, useful, and necessary.
    He will become fuel for those fires which are forever hot and
    burn forever bright; food for the worm which forever nibbles
    and digests; a mass of rottenness which will forever stink and
    reek.
•
               Goals
• What is Gregorian Chant?
• Whom is plainchant named after?
• What is the main element of music
  present in Gregorian Chant?
• How was Gregorian Chant the basis of
  our system of music today? Notation
  and solfege
    Medieval and Renaissance
          Vocal Music
•      Church music – Religious
•      Non religious - Secular
Examples of Medieval Music
   Written
   Hymns
• The first
  written music
  ever created
• Lavishly
  decorated
     Medieval Sheet Music
• Who created them?
• What was it meant
  to show?
• Why is it so pretty?
    What is Gregorian Chant?
                      (Religious)


•    Plainsong, Plainchant
•     Monophonic (one line of music) no harmony
•    Sung in Latin accompanied celebration of mass
•     Use of modes (intervals) black notes not
invented yet
•    Sung by monks (Men only)
•     A Capella – Unaccompanied singing no
instruments
   Why “Gregorian” Chant?
• Pope Gregory I
  – Bishop of Rome, 590 – 604 AD.
  – simplified and cataloged music
  – Assigning music to specific celebrations in
    the church calendar
  – FIRST WRITTEN FORM OF MUSIC
        What is a MODE?
• The MELODIES in chant are MODAL.
  – up and down interval steps wavering on
    two or more notes called a "melisma“
  – many notes are assigned to one word or
    syllable.
  – What do you think the effect would be?
  Four pairs of church modes

• Example: Church Mode I (Dorian Mode)
  – starting on d and ending on d
  – a modern keyboard, these intervals
    would result:

   d-e-f-g-a-b-c-d
Monophonic
             Albertus
  The
Guido’s
 hand
system:
  the
basis of   The first ever
           form of Kodaly
Solfege
              Solfege
• Guido d'Arezzo in the 11th Century
• taught singers pitches in modes
  using a hymn in honor of John the
  Baptist
Solfege (cont’d)
• UT queant laxis
  RE sonare fibris
  MI ra gestorum
  FA muli tu orum
   SOL ve polluti
   LA bii reatum
 Sancte Johannes
               Solfege
• capital letters in this prayer became
  the basis for the syllables of the
  solfege system of "do, re, mi, etc.
• "do" for "ut" and use "ti" instead of
  "si."
              Homework
• Look up various websites on medieval
  manuscript illustrations and Gregorian
  notation.
• Pick a chant, translate it, write clear and
  detailed directions to a fellow student on
  how you would like their music illustrated.
• EXTRA CREDIT: You are a monk and want
  to send a new hymn to your brother monk.
  Create your own beautiful piece of medieval
  music.
Renaissance
Music
(1450-1600)
                 Review
• Middle Ages
  – Historically, Romans legalized Christianity
  – 476 AD, Romans left Europe
  – Left Roman Catholic Church in charge
        Gregorian Chant
• Pope Gregor I
  – Monophonic songs
  – A Capella
  – Modes
  – Latin
               Organum
• from Ancient Greek ὄργανον - organon
  "organ, instrument, tool"
• Around 1100, other parts were added to
  the original chant melody, creating 2 and
  3-part music called “organum.”
• Most continued to be homophonic
               Motet
clause represented a sequence in Latin
  which was sung as a discant over a
  cantus firmus.
Start of counterpoint in music
• Eventually musical texture grew to
  include three lines, allowing much
  more fulsome harmonies. Ex. 13th
  century motet
M
o
t
e
t
Individual Parts (1st Line)
Individual Parts (2nd line)
Individual Parts (Ground)
   Sumer is a cumin
Secular Round Full Version
                Summer is coming in, loudly sings the cuckoo,
                cuckoo, cuckoo....
                The seed grows; the meadow blossoms, and the
                woods alivens anew.
                The ewe bleats after the lamb; the cow lows after the
                calf;
                The bull leaps; the goat capers*; merrily sing
                cuckoo!
                Well sing you, cuckoo--don't ever stop now.
                Sing cuckoo, now....
Gradually became Homophonic (more than one voice
moving at the same time in block chords)
Pasitime with
    good
 company


 Full Version




    Alto




  Tenor




   Bass
                Medieval Motet
                   Religious text in Latin


•     Polyphonic – lots of voices singing different
lines at the same time (interweaving melodies)
•       Each choose your own nursery rhyme. We
will sing all of them at the same time
•        Again only sung by men

This is a piece of music by Philippi de Vitry Motet from
                                      “Roman de Favel”
Troubadours
         Troubadours

• Troubadours (aristocratic poets)
  and minstrels (musicians hired to
  perform the music of troubadours).
           Chivalry

• It was the age of chivalry and
  courtly love, when often the
  object of one’s affections was
  distant, and may not even have
  known the intentions of the
  author.
              Love?

• Marriages were often dictated by
  social station and power, thus the
  issue of love often could only be
  honored or consummated in song.
    Instruments of
    Medieval Period
• Because most music was
  vocal, instruments did not
  develop quickly
• Woodwind similar to the
  SHAWM
How could humanism
have influenced
Renaissance music?
    What is humanism?
• approach in study, philosophy, or
  practice that focuses on human
  values and concerns
• Humanism arose from deism and
  anti-clericalism of the
  Enlightenment
Humanism central theme to
   Italian Renaissance

• The Renaissance was an age of
  discovery, both geographical
  and humanistic. Depth and
  perspective entered the visual
  arts, and human subjects
  became of primary importance.
               Art


• Works by artists, such as Leonardo
  da Vinci, reflect a new interest in
  the human form and character.
 Compare the Art?
What do you notice?
  What was the effect of the
   humanists on society?
• humanists sought to create a
  citizenry (including, sometimes,
  women) able to speak and write
  with eloquence and clarity
• Educated people can engage in
  civic life of their communities and
  persuading others to virtuous and
  prudent actions
  What was the effect of the
   humanists on MUSIC?
• the power and authority of music
  was widely embraced for its ability
  to move the hearts and minds of
  men

• Anti-Medieval movement
 Anti-Medieval movement
• Zarlino's Le istitutioni harmoniche (
  1558 )
• music of classical antiquity represented
  the ‘height of perfection’, that of the
  Middle Ages the ‘lowest depths’
• early renaissance in music is enacted in
  Italy
            Medieval Aire / Ballad
                          Secular Song

o Solo voice (male or female)
accompanied by the lute
o   melody and
accompaniment



This piece of music is by Adam de la Halle
              “Jeu de Robin et de Marion”
Renaissance Aire / Ballad
              Secular Solo Song



This piece of music is by an English composer
                       John Dowland
             “Flow , my tears”
      Renaissance Madrigal
                   Secular choral music
•   Highly polyphonic
•   Sung by men and women
•   A Capella
•   Sung in any language (English, French, Italian, etc)
• People would gather around each others homes and
sing around the table
•   Very jolly (lots of fa la la la la’s)


Famous English Composer – Thomas Weelkes
Famous Italian Composer - Monteverdi
     Renaissance
        Mass
      Religious Choral Music
•    mainly polyphonic
•    Many sections (Kyrie, Gloria, Credo,
     Offertorium, Sanctus / Benedictus, Agnus Die)
• sung in Latin
• sung mainly by men
• high parts sung by descant (boys)
• Melismatic Lots of notes on one word
• Syllabic One note per syllable

    Famous Composer – Palestrina “Kyrie”
    from “Missa Pape Marcelli”
    Other Famous Composers
Medieval               Renaissance
Guillame de Machaut          Josquin de Prez
Hildegard of Bingen    William Byrd (English)
Bernard de Ventadorn         Orlando di
Lasso
Perotin                Jacopo Peri
Guillame Dufay             Thomas Morlay
(English)

				
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posted:8/21/2011
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