VIEWS: 7 PAGES: 49 POSTED ON: 8/21/2011
Opening Act: • Describe life in the Medieval Period • Describe these elements of music from previous lessons – Harmony – Melody – Rhythm The Misery of the Human Condition • inspiring words from Pope Innocent III • . . . man was formed of dust, slime, and ashes: what is even more vile, of the filthiest seed. He was conceived from the itch of the flesh, in the heat of passion and the stench of lust, and worse yet, with the stain of sin. He was born to toil, dread, and trouble; and more wretched still, was born only to die. He commits depraved acts by which he offends God, his neighbor, and himself; shameful acts by which he defiles his name, his person, and his conscience; and vain acts by which he ignores all things important, useful, and necessary. He will become fuel for those fires which are forever hot and burn forever bright; food for the worm which forever nibbles and digests; a mass of rottenness which will forever stink and reek. • Goals • What is Gregorian Chant? • Whom is plainchant named after? • What is the main element of music present in Gregorian Chant? • How was Gregorian Chant the basis of our system of music today? Notation and solfege Medieval and Renaissance Vocal Music • Church music – Religious • Non religious - Secular Examples of Medieval Music Written Hymns • The first written music ever created • Lavishly decorated Medieval Sheet Music • Who created them? • What was it meant to show? • Why is it so pretty? What is Gregorian Chant? (Religious) • Plainsong, Plainchant • Monophonic (one line of music) no harmony • Sung in Latin accompanied celebration of mass • Use of modes (intervals) black notes not invented yet • Sung by monks (Men only) • A Capella – Unaccompanied singing no instruments Why “Gregorian” Chant? • Pope Gregory I – Bishop of Rome, 590 – 604 AD. – simplified and cataloged music – Assigning music to specific celebrations in the church calendar – FIRST WRITTEN FORM OF MUSIC What is a MODE? • The MELODIES in chant are MODAL. – up and down interval steps wavering on two or more notes called a "melisma“ – many notes are assigned to one word or syllable. – What do you think the effect would be? Four pairs of church modes • Example: Church Mode I (Dorian Mode) – starting on d and ending on d – a modern keyboard, these intervals would result: d-e-f-g-a-b-c-d Monophonic Albertus The Guido’s hand system: the basis of The first ever form of Kodaly Solfege Solfege • Guido d'Arezzo in the 11th Century • taught singers pitches in modes using a hymn in honor of John the Baptist Solfege (cont’d) • UT queant laxis RE sonare fibris MI ra gestorum FA muli tu orum SOL ve polluti LA bii reatum Sancte Johannes Solfege • capital letters in this prayer became the basis for the syllables of the solfege system of "do, re, mi, etc. • "do" for "ut" and use "ti" instead of "si." Homework • Look up various websites on medieval manuscript illustrations and Gregorian notation. • Pick a chant, translate it, write clear and detailed directions to a fellow student on how you would like their music illustrated. • EXTRA CREDIT: You are a monk and want to send a new hymn to your brother monk. Create your own beautiful piece of medieval music. Renaissance Music (1450-1600) Review • Middle Ages – Historically, Romans legalized Christianity – 476 AD, Romans left Europe – Left Roman Catholic Church in charge Gregorian Chant • Pope Gregor I – Monophonic songs – A Capella – Modes – Latin Organum • from Ancient Greek ὄργανον - organon "organ, instrument, tool" • Around 1100, other parts were added to the original chant melody, creating 2 and 3-part music called “organum.” • Most continued to be homophonic Motet clause represented a sequence in Latin which was sung as a discant over a cantus firmus. Start of counterpoint in music • Eventually musical texture grew to include three lines, allowing much more fulsome harmonies. Ex. 13th century motet M o t e t Individual Parts (1st Line) Individual Parts (2nd line) Individual Parts (Ground) Sumer is a cumin Secular Round Full Version Summer is coming in, loudly sings the cuckoo, cuckoo, cuckoo.... The seed grows; the meadow blossoms, and the woods alivens anew. The ewe bleats after the lamb; the cow lows after the calf; The bull leaps; the goat capers*; merrily sing cuckoo! Well sing you, cuckoo--don't ever stop now. Sing cuckoo, now.... Gradually became Homophonic (more than one voice moving at the same time in block chords) Pasitime with good company Full Version Alto Tenor Bass Medieval Motet Religious text in Latin • Polyphonic – lots of voices singing different lines at the same time (interweaving melodies) • Each choose your own nursery rhyme. We will sing all of them at the same time • Again only sung by men This is a piece of music by Philippi de Vitry Motet from “Roman de Favel” Troubadours Troubadours • Troubadours (aristocratic poets) and minstrels (musicians hired to perform the music of troubadours). Chivalry • It was the age of chivalry and courtly love, when often the object of one’s affections was distant, and may not even have known the intentions of the author. Love? • Marriages were often dictated by social station and power, thus the issue of love often could only be honored or consummated in song. Instruments of Medieval Period • Because most music was vocal, instruments did not develop quickly • Woodwind similar to the SHAWM How could humanism have influenced Renaissance music? What is humanism? • approach in study, philosophy, or practice that focuses on human values and concerns • Humanism arose from deism and anti-clericalism of the Enlightenment Humanism central theme to Italian Renaissance • The Renaissance was an age of discovery, both geographical and humanistic. Depth and perspective entered the visual arts, and human subjects became of primary importance. Art • Works by artists, such as Leonardo da Vinci, reflect a new interest in the human form and character. Compare the Art? What do you notice? What was the effect of the humanists on society? • humanists sought to create a citizenry (including, sometimes, women) able to speak and write with eloquence and clarity • Educated people can engage in civic life of their communities and persuading others to virtuous and prudent actions What was the effect of the humanists on MUSIC? • the power and authority of music was widely embraced for its ability to move the hearts and minds of men • Anti-Medieval movement Anti-Medieval movement • Zarlino's Le istitutioni harmoniche ( 1558 ) • music of classical antiquity represented the ‘height of perfection’, that of the Middle Ages the ‘lowest depths’ • early renaissance in music is enacted in Italy Medieval Aire / Ballad Secular Song o Solo voice (male or female) accompanied by the lute o melody and accompaniment This piece of music is by Adam de la Halle “Jeu de Robin et de Marion” Renaissance Aire / Ballad Secular Solo Song This piece of music is by an English composer John Dowland “Flow , my tears” Renaissance Madrigal Secular choral music • Highly polyphonic • Sung by men and women • A Capella • Sung in any language (English, French, Italian, etc) • People would gather around each others homes and sing around the table • Very jolly (lots of fa la la la la’s) Famous English Composer – Thomas Weelkes Famous Italian Composer - Monteverdi Renaissance Mass Religious Choral Music • mainly polyphonic • Many sections (Kyrie, Gloria, Credo, Offertorium, Sanctus / Benedictus, Agnus Die) • sung in Latin • sung mainly by men • high parts sung by descant (boys) • Melismatic Lots of notes on one word • Syllabic One note per syllable Famous Composer – Palestrina “Kyrie” from “Missa Pape Marcelli” Other Famous Composers Medieval Renaissance Guillame de Machaut Josquin de Prez Hildegard of Bingen William Byrd (English) Bernard de Ventadorn Orlando di Lasso Perotin Jacopo Peri Guillame Dufay Thomas Morlay (English)
"Medieval and Renaissance Vocal Music"