Electricity

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Electricity Powered By Docstoc
					                                                   Module Overview

Designed By:
Robert Zuehlsdorf – Director of Facilities and Operations
Carl Ruppel – Master Electrician


This self-paced training program is part
of the continuing education series that
has been designed to assist facilities
employees in their knowledge and
understanding of critical building
systems.

This module highlights basic electrical
systems that are encountered at
district schools and buildings.




                                                            Page 2
                                               Table of Contents
The following topics are presented in this presentation. You may click on any link to
navigate to a certain slide. Use the navigation buttons on the bottom right side of
your screen to navigate the presentation.

  1. Electrical Safety
  2. Electrical Distribution
  3. Outlets and Switches
  4. Special Equipment
  5. Lamps and Light Bulbs



                                                                           
  6. Interior Lighting
  7. Energy Management



                                                                          Page 3
Electrical Safety

    Section Contents

    Types of Electricity
            Overloads
       Shock Hazards
        Danger Signs
             Lock Out




              Page 4
                                                Electricity Types

Two Types of Electricity


   AC – Alternating Current
   This refers to the type of electrical energy which is
   provided by the generating plant to businesses and
   residences. Examples of AC usage are when you
   plug into an electric outlet or an extension cord.


   DC – Direct Current
   DC is typically provided by DC Power Supplies
   connected to an AC power source.




                                                           Page 5
                                          Electrical Overload

If you overload a circuit, you could damage electrical equipment. A 100-Amp
flow rate can theoretically handle ten 10-Amp electrical devices. Plugging in
more devices will overload the system and could cause:


  Tripping of circuit breakers
  Blowing of fuses
  Overheating of wires
  Damage to wire insulation
  Fire




                                                                      Page 6
                                            Wiring

Proper wiring is one of the most critical
steps in providing for safe use of
electrical equipment.
All wiring to be code approved.




                                            Page 7
Electrical Safety




          Page 8
                                Electric Shock Hazards

The following conditions could be indicative of a potential shock hazard:

   Tripped circuit breakers or blown fuses
   Tools, wires, cords, connections, or junction boxes are hot to the touch
   Dim or flickering lights
   Electrical system sizzles or buzzes
   Odor of hot insulation
   Mild tingle from contact with case or equipment
   GFCI shuts off a circuit
   Worn or frayed insulation around a wire or plug
   Burn marks or discoloration on equipment




                                                                       Page 9
           Potentially Unsafe Conditions




                             Damaged Cords
Uncovered Box




                                    Page 10
                                      Lock-Out/Tag-Out

Lock-out/Tag-out refers to the
process of shutting down and
securing a power source so
equipment may be safely repaired.
If power were accidentally turned
back on, it could be lethal for the
repair person!

Maintenance and Engineering staff
are the only authorized employees
to perform a lock-out/tag-out
procedure.

Lock-out procedures are printed on
the back of all work orders.



                                                Page 11
Electrical Distribution

          Section Contents

           Types of Services
                Service Poles
                  Switchgear
                Transformers
                 Disconnects
          Distribution Panels
             Circuit Labeling



                   Page 12
                                            Electrical Service

Things You Should Know:

  Location
  Where does electrical service enter the
  building?

  Size (Amps)
  How many amps are provided to the
  building?

  Voltage
  What is the voltage on the line?




                                                       Page 13
                                Service Pole

Service to Huntley Elementary



     4,160 Volts On Pole




   4,160 Volts To Building

                                      Page 14
                            Main Switchgear

Huntley Elementary                    Power In
                                     From Pole


   4,160 Volts Power In




120/208 Volts To Building


                                     Page 15
                         Main Switchgear

East High School

  4,160 volts enter
  the building and are
  distributed
  throughout the
  building to provide
  electrical service.




                                  Page 16
                          Pole To Transformer

Typical Pole Voltages



   12,470 Volts On Pole




      To Transformer


                                       Page 17
                         Pad Mounted Transformer

Purpose

•   Transforms voltage
    up or down

•   Rated in KVA
    (Kilovolt Amperes)




                                          Page 18
                             Service To Building

Metering Point
Change in Ownership

  All equipment up to
  and including the
  meter is owned and
  repaired by the utility.

  Equipment beyond the
  meter is the school’s
  responsibility.




                                         Page 19
                   Pole Mounted Transformers

12,470 volts come into the
transformers which adjust the
electricity down to 120/208 volts



        12,470 Volts




       120/208 Volts
                                      Page 20
                           Main Disconnects

The handle to the right
is pulled down to turn
off all electrical power
that is being fed by the
panel.




                                     Page 21
                              Main Disconnect Panels

Instead of a handle, this panel
uses a main disconnect
breaker to shut off all power.



Always turn off breakers to a
circuit before working on the
circuit. Verify that power is off
before performing work




                                              Page 22
                             Main Distribution Panels

After the power enters the
building, and is transformed to
a lower voltage, it is distributed
via panels to sub-panels, and
finally to circuits for use.




                                              Page 23
                Main Distribution Panels



Main Distribution Panel




 Feeds To Sub-Panels



                                 Page 24
                    Sub-Panels

Electricity is
supplied to these
sub-panels from a
main panel.




                        Page 25
                          Sub-Panel 1 B

Marking

All panels are marked
with a code so they can
be identified for:

   Schematics
   Troubleshooting
   Lock Out




                                 Page 26
                                Circuit Labeling

Equipment Locations

Circuit Locations and Outlets

Sub-Panel Locations




                                         Page 27
                     Circuit Labeling

Building Engineers
required to
prepare a building
schematic with all
electrical panel
locations
identified.




                              Page 28
                            Circuit Labeling

Marked Outlets

Specifies which
panel is feeding the
outlet

Specifies which
                                     Circuit 37
circuit breaker in
the panel is feeding
the outlet
                                     Circuit 39

                 Panel 14




                                     Page 29
Outlets and Switches

          Section Contents

           AC Switch Wiring
                 Single Pole
       3 and 4 Way Switches
               GFCI Outlets
                Low Voltage

            Special Circuits
         Receptacle Ratings
                Purchasing

                  Page 30
                                Outlets and Switches

Single Pole
Three way/Four way switching
Low voltage, remote control lighting
Receptacle ratings
Special circuits – Dryers, Ranges & 1 or 3 Phase Receptacles
Purchasing




                                                               Page 31
AC Switch Wiring




          Page 32
AC Switch Wiring




          Page 33
AC Switch Wiring




          Page 34
AC Switch Wiring




          Page 35
AC Switch Wiring




          Page 36
AC Switch Wiring




          Page 37
AC Switch Wiring




          Page 38
                     Single Pole Switches




   A single pole switch operates one electrical
device (example- a light or fan) from one location.

                                                      Page 39
                                        Parts of a Switch

120/277 Volt 20 amp Switch S1

Part No. 1221-1
                                Auto Ground        Ground Screw

Incorrect installation is a
code violation
Switch should be in the
upward position when “on”.
                                                   Yoke
Switch should be in the
downward position when
“off”.




                                                  Page 40
                                  Three-Way Switches




A 3-way switch is used to control an electrical device from two or
more locations. (Example- a light may be turned on or off from two
different switch locations.)

                                                                Page 41
                                  Three-Way Switches

Here is a typical 3-way circuit
in its four possible positions:




                                              Page 42
                                   Three-Way Switches

SPECIFICATIONS:

  Single pole and 3 way switch 15A-
  125V AC
  Screw terminals with ground screw
  Break off tabs for splitting circuits
  Single pole switch operation for one
  location
  3-way switch for two locations
  Meets UL 20 and UL 498 requirements




                                               Page 43
Three-Way Switches




            Page 44
Four-Way Switch Connections




                     Page 45
                               GFCI Outlets
Ground Fault Circuit Interrupter




                                     Page 46
                               GFCI Outlets
Ground Fault Circuit Interrupter Wiring




                                          Page 47
                               GFCI Outlets
 Ground Fault Circuit Interrupter Wiring
When Single GFCI Feeds Multiple Outlets




                                           Page 48
Low Voltage Switches




              Page 49
Low Voltage Control Wiring




                    Page 50
Special Circuits




         Page 51
Special Circuits




         Page 52
Special Circuits




         Page 53
Special Circuits




         Page 54
Special Circuits




         Page 55
Special Circuits




         Page 56
Special Circuits




         Page 57
Special Circuits




         Page 58
Special Circuits




         Page 59
Special Circuits




         Page 60
Special Circuits




         Page 61
Special Circuits




         Page 62
Special Circuits




         Page 63
                    Back of 20 Amp Receptacle

Use stranded or solid wire




                                       Page 64
                15 and 20 Amp Receptacles

  Example




                                                       20 Amp
   15 Amp
                                                    T-Shape Plug
Straight Plug




                Part No. 5252-I   Part No. 5252-I


                                                    Page 65
                         Purchasing Protocols

The AASD has an open
purchase account with:


  Contract Pricing
  Use Purchase Order #
  Free Delivery
  Crescent Electric




                                       Page 66
Special Equipment

         Section Contents

  Variable Frequency Drives
             Hub Equipment
              UPS Systems
         Fiber Optic System




                 Page 67
                       Variable Frequency Drives

Exterior Cleaning Procedure:


   Use vacuum or compressed air on the
   exterior only
   Contact AASD Electrical Department
   for interior cleaning procedures
   No lubricants
   No liquid cleaners
   No water!




                                          Page 68
                  Hub Equipment

Morgan Building

Smaller hub
versions are at
each school




                         Page 69
                            UPS Systems

An uninterruptible power
supply, or UPS, provides
sufficient voltage to
continue essential
functions during a power
outage or power shortage.

This system has 4 KVA
with Automatic Shutdown.




                                  Page 70
                       Fiber Optic Systems


 Fiber Optic System




System Service Point
    Into Building


                                    Page 71
Lamps and Light Bulbs

          Section Contents

                Lamp Types
          Performance Data
          Cost Comparisons
                     Ballasts
                 Controllers
            Motion Sensors
            Exterior Lighting
            Changing Bulbs


                  Page 72
                                   Lamp Types

   Incandescent (Halogen)
   Fluorescent
   HID* Mercury
   HID* Metal Halide
   HID* High Pressure Sodium
   Purchasing Specifications

* HID = High Intensity Discharge




                                       Page 73
Incandescent Bulbs




            Page 74
Halogen Bulbs




       Page 75
Compact Fluorescent Bulbs




                   Page 76
Linear Fluorescent Bulbs




                  Page 77
High Intensity Discharge Bulbs




                        Page 78
                          Lamp Performance

                 175 Watt Bulb Example

Lamp Type              Lumens    w/ Ballast   Lumens/Watt

Incandescent             3,910         200           19.6
HID Mercury              5,700         205           27.8
Metal Halide            12,000         210           57.1
High Pressure Sodium    14,400         195           73.8
T8 Fluorescent           2,800           30          93.3
Low Pressure Sodium     28,710         230          124.8



                                                    Page 79
              Lamp Types & Efficiencies


                           Life Range        Efficacy Rang
Lamp Type
                             (Hours)         (lumens/watt)
Incandescent
                               750 – 4,000          15 – 25
Conventional Tungsten
Incandescent
                             1,000 – 6,000          15 – 25
Tungsten Halogen
Fluorescent                 5,000 – 20,000          55 – 80

HID Mercury                16,000 – 24,000          50 – 60

HID Metal Halide           10,000 – 20,000         80 – 125

HID High Pressure Sodium   16,000 – 24,000         70 – 140




                                                      Page 80
                    Light Cost Comparisons


Lamp Group                 Energy         Maintenance   Installation    Weighted
                             Use            (2 pts.)       (1 pt.)     Cost Factor
                           (3 pts.)

Incandescent
                                      6            6              1            31
Conventional Tungsten
Incandescent
                                      5            5              2            27
Tungsten Halogen
Fluorescent                           3            4              3            20
HID Mercury                           4            2              4            20
HID Metal Halide                      2            3              5            17
HID High Pressure Sodium              1            1              6            11




                                                                             Page 81
                                                Lamp Efficacy

                            Incandescent/Halogen 10 - 23 LPW
                                            Fluorescent 60 - 100 LPW

                                   Mercury 40 - 60 LPW

         Metal Halide 60-110 LPW

High Pressure Sodium 60-140 LPW

Low Pressure Sodium 100 - 150 LPW

                  0    20    40   60   80 100 120 140 160 180 200

                      Lumens Per Watt - Including Ballast


                                                               Page 82
                                     Fluorescent Lighting

   277 Volts versus 120 Volts
   Types
   Colors
   Controls
   Ballast Wiring


Benefits of Fluorescent Lighting:

   More lights per circuit
   May locate lights a longer distance from
   the electrical source
   Lower installation costs




                                                   Page 83
             Fluorescent Colors



   AASD CCT
Standard: 4100K


   AASD CCI
Standard: 74 – 85




                         Page 84
                                    Fluorescent Ballasts

To start a fluorescent light, a high voltage (several
hundred volts) is needed initially. However, once lit, a
much lower voltage is typically needed to maintain it.
(Under 100 Volts for 30 watts, 100 - 175 volts for 30
watts or more)

For this reason, ballasts are used to provide the
necessary voltage and heat to start fluorescent tubes.




                                                           Page 85
                                              Ballast Safety

Remember to unplug all fixtures before working on
them. Iron ballasts are mostly inert when unplugged.

Electronic ballasts can have capacitors which remain
charged after the fixture is unplugged.

Chemical Phosphors on the inside of fluorescent tubes
are not particularly poisonous. Metallic mercury can be
Toxic and contact should be avoided. If a tube breaks,
clean up the mess and dispose of it properly and
promptly.

Cuts Be careful with broken glass. Also take care
around sharp sheet metal.




                                                          Page 86
Ballast Wiring




       Page 87
                    Results of Incorrect Wiring

Melted Connectors
Shock Hazard
Fire Hazard
Damaged Equipment




                                        Page 88
            Types of Controllers




 Timers            Motion Sensors




Photo Eye           Apogee Panel


                                Page 89
                            Motion Sensors

Power Packs Required

                       Power Pack Required




                              Line Voltage Sensor



                                               Page 90
                       Motion Sensors

Blue Control Wire              Line Voltage
controls output –
24volt DC

Black Control Wire
common

Red Control Wire
24 volts positive DC




                               Page 91
Motion Sensor Wiring




              Page 92
Motion Sensor Wiring




              Page 93
Motion Sensor Wiring




              Page 94
Motion Sensor Wiring




              Page 95
           Dual Technology Sensor

Detector




                           Page 96
                               Motion Sensors

Rated for Range and Distance




                                       Page 97
                        Gym/Multi Purpose Room

Typical Examples

  Voltage – 120, 277
  Type – Metal Halide (Being Replaced w High Output Fluorescent)
  Bases – Horizontal, Base up, Base down, Universal
  Size – 175, 250, 400
  Controls
  Installation Tips




                                                                   Page 98
                                   Lighting Plans

Computer designed lighting
plans deliver bright, even
lighting to all areas of a room.




                                           Page 99
                                  Bulb Installation Tips

Use De-OX grease when installing
new bulbs.

De-Ox makes it easier to remove
and replace bulbs.

Wear Cotton Gloves.

Wear Safety Glasses.




                                                 Page 100
                                  Exterior Lighting

Wall Pack and Pole Lighting

How will it be used?

   To light close to a building

   OR

   To cast light away from a
   building




                                            Page 101
                                        Exterior Lighting

When selecting a lamp size, consider:

  Height of pole
  Width of area to be lit
  Application




                                                  Page 102
  Exterior Lighting Controls


        Photo Eye
  Lights go on at dark or
        with motion




                      Time Clock
              Lights go on and off at a set
                          time




       Apogee Panel
Building Automation Systems



                                              Page 103
                                              Changing Bulbs

Fixture Cleaning on Summer Schedule

  Spray carefully
  Avoid socket and bulb ends
  Remove all moisture



Group Replacement

  All bulbs will be scheduled for replacement each five years
  Replace 1/5 of bulbs per year
  Saves time
  Saves Money


                                                                Page 104
                                              Changing Bulbs

Date Marking

  Manufacturer warranties

  Group replacement schedule

  Each Building Engineer is required to have a color coded floor plan
  identifying which 1/5 of bulbs are to be changed out in any given
  year. All fixtures will be on a five year replacement cycle.

  Lamp Lumen Output




                                                                   Page 105
Interior Lighting

     Section Contents

          Day Lighting
       Natural Lighting
              Retrofits




            Page 106
                                     Day Lighting

Benefits of Natural Lighting

   Easy on the eyes
   No Cost
   Energy saving
   Better attention and attendance
   Better learning environment




                                          Page 107
               Foster Before Sky Lights

Shadows
Uneven
Distribution




                                Page 108
                   Foster After Sky Lights

No Shadows
Uniform Lighting
Natural
Environment




                                   Page 109
                Richmond Classroom

Natural Light




                            Page 110
                                           Lighting Retrofits

“Retrofit” means a lighting upgrade.


A retrofit may result in replacing existing light fixtures, improved
recycling options for spent bulbs, decreased use of electricity, or
installation of automatic switches to turn of lights in unused space.


Lighting retrofits result in energy savings, improved lighting and/or
reduced costs.




                                                                    Page 111
                  Horizons Multipurpose Room

Before Retrofitting
   Dark
   Uninviting
   Lumens Too Low




                                      Page 112
                      Houdini Gym Before Retrofit

Before Retrofitting
   Dark
   Uninviting
   Lumens Too Low




                                          Page 113
                     Houdini Gym After Retrofit

After Retrofitting
   Bright
   Inviting




                                        Page 114
Energy Management

       Section Contents

           Energy Costs
      Reducing Expenses




              Page 115
                                 Energy Management

Various Factors Add Up To Total Cost

  District energy use
  District energy budget
  KWH costs
  Demand service charge
  On Peak/Off Peak usage
  Control systems
  Local
  Off Site




                                            Page 116
                   Utility Expense Example


                                          % of    (Over) / Under
     Cluster    Budgeted      Actual
                                          Total      Budget

EAST CLUSTER     $809,068     $812,562     31%             $3,494

NORTH CLUSTER    $936,045     $914,159     35%         ($21,886)

WEST CLUSTER     $882,455     $864,391     33%         ($18,063)

OTHER                          $46,112      2%          $46,112

Totals          $2,627,568   $2,637,225   100%             $9,657




                                                      Page 117
                                                                                       Natural Gas Use
                                                          East High School
                                              Energy - Therms Monthly & 12 Month Trend
         45,000                                                                                                                        250000


         40,000

                                                                                                                                       200000
         35,000




                                                                                                                                                12 mo Therm Trend
         30,000

                                                                                                                                       150000
Therms




         25,000


         20,000
                                                                                                                                       100000

         15,000


         10,000
                                                                                                                                       50000

          5,000


             0                                                                                                                         0
              1999 - 2000 - 2000 - 2001 - 2001 - 2002 - 2002 - 2003 - 2003 - 2004 - 2004 - 2005 - 2005 - 2006 - 2006 - 2007 - 2007 -
                07     01     07     01     07     01     07     01     07     01     07     01     07     01     07     01     07

                                                   Therm                              12 Mo Trend



                                                                                                                          Page 118
Gas Bills – A Large Expense




                    Page 119
Electric Costs




       Page 120
                       Utility Expenses

Utility Cost Contribution Per Cluster




                                        Page 121
                                     Questions


                                     Section Contents

 If you have questions about the proper maintenance of
electrical equipment, please talk to your supervisor. You
                                        may also contact
                                      Robert Zuehlsdorf




                                            Page 122

				
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