Docstoc

2010 Sunflower Survey

Document Sample
2010 Sunflower Survey Powered By Docstoc
					                                          2010 Sunflower Survey
                                      • Approximately one field stop per 10,000 Acres
                    2010 National
                                      •   Fields in 2005 - 146
                      Sunflower
                                      •   Fields in 2006 - 162
                     Association
                                      •   Fields in 2007 - 158
                       Survey
                                      •   Fields in 2008 - 162
                                      •   Fields in 2009 - 177
           Project Leader:            •   Fields in 2010 - 207*
   Hans Kandel Extension Agronomist       * Highest # Surveyed
    NDSU Crop Science Department




2010 Sunflower                                 2010 Sunflower Crop
Survey- # Fields                                  Survey Teams
     • North Dakota-96                • North Dakota  9 teams
       • Minnesota-15                 • South Dakota  6 teams
     • South Dakota-36                • Kansas        1 team
                                      • Colorado      2 teams
          • Kansas-9
                                      • Minnesota     2 teams
        • Colorado-13                 • Nebraska      1 team
         • Nebraska-7                 • Texas         1 team
        • Manitoba-11                 • Manitoba      1 team
        • Oklahoma-2                  • Vermont       1 team
           • Texas-8                  • Oklahoma      1 team
                                      • Texas         1 team
        • Vermont-10
                                      __________________________
        • T0TAL- 207                    Total of      26 teams




                                                                                        1
                          % Confection and Oilseed
                           Sunflower-2010 Survey




       2010 Sunflower Yield and Management Practices
Team #             County              Field #       Oil (1)           Conf (2)       .



GPS North                   GPS West                 Dryland (1)           Irrigated (2)       .
                                                                                                                                              Counting plants per acre
                                                                                                      %         Center        Previous Crop

                                 Plants /              Head                       Seed               Good
Yield Data:                      Pop.                Diameter                     Size               Seed     Seed Set

1st count



2nd count

Average

Calculation:



      2450     X            X                    X                 X                      X               X              =

                     Plant          Head                                     % Good                Center     Bird
                   Population      Diameter          Seed Size                Seed                 Seed       Damage Est. Yield
                    multiplier     multiplier        multiplier                                     Set       Multiplier

                                             Row Spacing                    20" or less - 1 ______            21" or Greater - 2______


            Management
             Practices:




                                                                                                                                                                         2
                                       Head fill and
Measuring Head Diameter
                                       seed size




                          Sunflower Yield and Plant
                              Population: 2010




                                                       3
Sunflower Yield and Plant       Sunflower Yield : lb/a
    Population: 2010            2008, 2009 and 2010




                             NSA estimate vs Ag Statistic
Yield vs. Plant Population
                                       2010




                                                            4
           2010# 1 Yield Limiting Factors     Yield Limiting factor and Yield
                    (207 Fields)                     2010 Oil hybrids
•   Disease 20.7%
•   Plant spacing within row 18.4%
•   Lodging 8.7%
•   Weeds 9.7%
•   Birds 6.8%
•   Insects 6.3%
•   Drought 4.8%
•   Drown out 3.4%
•   Hail 1%
•   Other 8.7% (many mentioned population)
•   No Problem 11.6%




       Yield Limiting factor and Yield 2010




                                                                                5
           2010# 2 Yield Limiting Factors                          2010 # 2
                    (202 Fields)                  Yield Limiting Factors- N. Dak. (91 Fields)
•   Plant spacing within row 14.9%
•   Weeds 11.4%                              •   Insect 14
•   Insects 10.4%                            •   Plant spacing 11
•   Disease 8.4%                             •   Disease 10
•   Birds 5.4%                               •   Weeds 8
•   Lodging 4.5%
                                             •   Birds 7
•   Birds 5.4%
•   Drown out 2.5%
                                             •   Lodging 7
•   Drought 1.5%                             •   Hail 1
•   Hail 1%                                  •   Drown out
•   Other 4.9%                               •   No Problem 32
•   No Problem 35.1%




           2010# 1 Yield Limiting Factors-
                   North Dakota
                     (96 Fields)                                    2010 # 1 and #2
                                                        Yield Limiting Factors- MN. (15 Fields)
• Plant spacing 17
• Disease 15
                                                  #1 factors:            # 2 factors:
• Lodging 12
• Birds 10                                        •   Disease 11         •   Plant spacing 3
• Weeds 6                                         •   Lodging 1          •   Disease 3
• Insects 5                                       •   Plant spacing 1    •   Insect 3
• Drown out 4
                                                  •   Weeds 1            •   Birds 1
• Hail 2
• Other 12 (many
                                                  •   No Problem 1       •   Drown out 1
  mentioned population)                                                  •   No Problem 4
• No Problem 13




                                                                                                  6
                                    2010 # 1 and #2
                         Yield Limiting Factors- South Dakota
                                       (36 Fields)                                                     Tillage: 2010 Sunflower Survey
# 1 Factor                                           # 2 Factor
                                                                                                                        no till    min till   conv till
• Plant Spacing 14                                   • Plant spacing 11
• Lodging 4                                          • Weeds 5                                         100
• Insects 4                                          • Disease 1                                        90
                                                                                                        80




                                                                                   % Fields Surveyed
• Weeds 3                                            • Drown out 1
• Disease 3                                          • Lodging 2                                        70
• Drought 2                                          • Other 8                                         60
• Drown out 1                                        • No Problem 8                                    50
• Birds 1                                                                                              40
• Other 2                                                                                              30
• No problem 2                                                                                         20
                                                                                                       10
                                                                                                        0
                                                                                                             CO    KS   MN        ND   SD     NE    TX    VT   OK   MB




          Row Spacing Sunflower-2010                                                                              Rust in Sunflower
                                        -20 inches    +20 inches

                        100
 % of Fields Surveyed




                        80

                        60

                        40

                        20

                         0
                              CO   KS   MN   ND      SD   NE   TX   VT   OK   MB




                                                                                                                                                                         7
                                                                                                         Red Rust Incidence in Sunflower
                                                                                                               100
                                                                                                               90




                                                                                 % fields reported with Rust
                                                                                                               80
                                                                                                               70
                                                                                                               60                                                            2007
                                                                                                               50                                                            2008
                                                                                                               40                                                            2009
                                                                                                                                                                             2010
                                                                                                               30
                                                                                                               20
                                                                                                               10
                                                                                                                0
                                                                                                                     CO   KS   MN    ND   SD    NE   TX    MB   OK    VT

                                                                                                               Rust Reported




Instructions were:
examine upper 4 leaves on 5 consecutive plants and determine illustration that
                                                                                       Red Rust Severity in Sunflower
best fits average of all plants.




                                                                                                               Rust Severity Estimated for Fields Where Incidence Reported




                                                                                                                                                                                    8
                                                  Sclerotinia Head
                                                                                                             Sclerotinia Head Rot Severity
                                                  Rot                                                          in Sunflower 2008 -2010

                                                                                                                      2008   2009    2010

                                                                                                            25




                                                                                        % Plants Infected
                                                                                                            20

                                                                                                            15

                                                                                                            10

                                                                                                             5

                                                                                                             0
                                                                                                                 MN   ND        SD          VT   MB




       Sclerotinia Head Rot Incidence in                                                                    Sclerotina stalk rot Incidence
                Sunflower 2010                                                                                  and Severity in 2010
                         80

                         70
% fields reported with
 Sclerotinia head rot




                         60

                         50
                         40
                                                                                 2010
                         30

                         20
                         10

                         0
                              MN   MB   ND   SD   NE   TX   CO   KS   VT   All




                                                                                                                                                      9
                                               Phomopsis Severity in Sunflower
                                                           2010
                                                                    60




                                   % Plants within the field with
                                                                    50

                                                                    40




                                            Phomopsis
                                                                    30
                                                                                                                           2010

                                                                    20

                                                                    10

                                                                    0
                                                                         MN   MB   ND   SD   NE   TX   CO   KS   OK   VT




Phomopsis Incidence and Severity                                            Phomopsis Severity
      in Sunflower 2010                                                  in Sunflower 2008 -2010




                                                                                                                                  10
Phoma Incidence and Severity                                       Verticilium Incidence in Sunflower
          in 2010                                                                  2010
                                                                                       90
                 % Incidence   Plants infected                                         80




                                                              % fields reported with
 100                                                                                   70
                                                                                       60




                                                                    Verticilium
  80
                                                                                       50
  60                                                                                   40                                                                 2010

                                                                                       30
  40
                                                                                       20
  20                                                                                   10
  0                                                                                    0
       KS   CO   SD ND MN MB TX        NE   VT   OK   All                                   MN MB ND       SD   NE   TX   CO    OK     KS   VT      All




                                                                                        Verticilium Incidence and
                                                                                             Severity in 2010

                                                                                                      % Incidence    Plants infected

                                                                                   90
                                                                                   80
                                                                                   70
                                                                                   60
                                                                                   50
                                                                                   40
                                                                                   30
                   Interveinal yellowing (chorosis) leading                        20
                   to interveinal necrosis, starting on the                        10
                                                                                    0
                   lower leaves of a Verticillium infected                                  KS   CO   SD ND MN MB TX           NE   OK   VT   All
                   sunflower plant.




                                                                                                                                                                 11
                                                                                 Dectes




 Rhizopus




     Rhizopus Incidence and                               Long Horned Beetle Incidence
        Severity in 2010                                      and Severity in 2010

               % Incidence   Plants infected                              % Incidence   Plants infected

50                                                         80
                                                           70
40
                                                           60
30                                                         50
                                                           40
20                                                         30
                                                           20
10
                                                           10
0                                                          0
     KS   CO   SD ND MN MB TX        NE   OK   VT   All         KS   CO   SD ND MN MB TX        NE   OK   VT   All




                                                                                                                     12
                    Insect: Long Horned Beetle                                     Banded Sunflower Moth
                        Severity 2008-2010                                     Incidence and Severity in 2010
                                       2008   2009      2010
                                                                                               % Incidence    % Seeds
                    60
                                                                                70
                    50
% Plants Infested




                                                                                60
                    40                                                          50
                                                                                40
                    30
                                                                                30
                    20
                                                                                20
                    10                                                          10

                     0                                                           0
                          CO          KS           ND          SD         TX         KS   CO   SD   ND   MN   MB   VT   NE   All




                    Seed Weevil Incidence and                                  Sunflower Moth Incidence and
                        Severity in 2010                                             Severity in 2010

                                    % Incidence      % Seeds                                   % Incidence    % Seeds

                    40                                                          35
                    35                                                          30
                    30                                                          25
                    25
                                                                                20
                    20
                                                                                15
                    15
                    10                                                          10
                    5                                                            5
                    0                                                            0
                         KS    CO      SD     ND        MN     MB   All              KS   CO   SD   ND   MN   MB   VT   NE   All




                                                                                                                                   13
  Brown Spot Incidence and                                         Insect Seed Damage-2009 -
Severity in 2010 (confectionary)                                              2010

                   % Incidence        % Seeds
                                                                       7
  80
                                                                       6
  70
  60                                                                   5
  50                                                                                                      Weevil 09
                                                                % Seed 4
  40                                                                                                      Weevil 10
                                                                Damage 3
  30                                                                                                      Brown spot 09
  20                                                                   2                                  Brown Spot 10
  10                                                                   1
  0
       KS   CO     SD    ND    MN       MB    VT     NE   All          0
                                                                           CO   KS   SD   ND MN MB   NE




Heads with Webbing Incidence
    and Severity in 2010                                                   Recording observations
                 % Incidence       Plants infected

  90
  80
  70
  60
  50
  40
  30
  20
  10
   0
       KS   CO    SD    ND    MN   MB    NE    VT    TX   All




                                                                                                                          14
Bird Incidence and Severity in
            2010                                                            Top Weeds Observed: 2010
                                                                     • North Dakota          • Minnesota
                  % Fields       % damage                            •   Canada Thistle      • Wormwood
100                                                                  •   RR Pigweed          • Wild Mustard
 80                                                                  •   Volunteer grain     • Redroot pigweed
                                                                     •   Green Foxtail
 60
                                                                     •   Kochia
 40
                                                                     •   Wild Buckwheat
 20                                                                  •   Yellow Foxtail
  0                                                                  •   Lambsquarter
      KS   CO   SD     ND   MN    MB    TX    NE    VT    All
                                                                     •   Biennial wormwood




%Bird Damage in fields with                                                  ND Top Weeds Observed:
     birds 2006-2010                                                               2009-2010
                                                                     • North Dakota          •   North Dakota
                2010   2009      2008   2007       2006
                                                                       2009                  •   2010
14
                                                                     •   Canada Thistle      •   Canada Thistle
12
                                                                     •   Kochia              •   RR Pigweed
10
                                                                     •   RR Pigweed          •   Volunteer grain
 8
                                                                     •   Volunteer grain     •   Green Foxtail
 6
                                                                     •   Wild Buckwheat      •   Kochia
 4
                                                                     •   Green foxtail       •   Wild Buckwheat
 2
                                                                     •   Biennial wormwood   •   Yellow Foxtail
 0
      CO   KS     MN        ND    SD     NE        TX     VT    MB                           •   Lambsquarter
                                                                                             •   Biennial wormwood




                                                                                                                     15
  Incidence of Broadleaf Weeds                               Top Five Weeds in South Dakota
   ND/MN 2007, 2008 & 2009                                             2009 -2010
  40                                                                2009                       2010
  35
                                                         •   Redroot pigweed        •   Green foxtail
  30
  25                                                     •   Kochia                 •   Kochia
  20                                                     •   Cocklebur              •   Redroot pigweed
  15                                              2007   •   Russian thistle        •   Russian thistle
  10                                              2008
                                                         •   Green foxtail          •   Cocklebur
   5                                              2009
   0                                              2010
         Ko Ca R B M W Co
           ch n R P Wo ars ild ck
             ia Th gw rm ld B le
                  is     w r   kw b u
                    tl d  oo     ht r
                      e
                             d




Incidence of Weeds Observed in                                Incidence of Broadleaf Weeds
      Manitoba 2008-2010                                        South Dakota 2007 -2010
                                                               60
         90
         80                                                    50
         70
         60                                                    40
% Fields 50
 Found 40                                  2010                30
         30                                                                                               2007
                                           2009                20
         20                                2008                                                           2008
         10                                                    10
          0                                                                                               2009
              C.      K  B   R W W G                            0
                   Th och iWo RP . B .M . Fo                                                              2010
                     is ia   rm W uc us x.                           RR Ko R     W Co Ca La
                                                                               T
                       .             k  t.
                                                                       Pi ch hi ild ckl n. mb
                                                                         gw ia st Su eb Th qu
                                                                                  le nf ur is
                                                                           ee          lo     tle art
                                                                             d            w          er
                                                                                           er




                                                                                                                 16
       Incidence of Grassy Weeds
        South Dakota 2007 - 2010                                                   Incidence of Weeds in Kansas
     50
     45                                                                                    100                                                                           2007
     40                                                                                     90
                                                                                                                                                                         2008
     35                                                                                     80
                                                                                            70                                                                           2009
     30
     25                                                                            % Fields 60                                                                           2010
                                                                                            50
     20                                                                     2007    found   40
     15                                                                     2008            30
                                                                                            20
     10                                                                     2009            10
      5                                                                                      0
      0                                                                     2010




                                                                                                     Pa



                                                                                                               Pu




                                                                                                                                                                Co
                                                                                                               Vo



                                                                                                                                       Ko



                                                                                                                                                   De
              G                      Vo               Y.




                                                                                                       lm



                                                                                                                 nc




                                                                                                                                                                  ck
                                                                                                                 lG



                                                                                                                                         ch



                                                                                                                                                     vil
                  re




                                                                                                                                                                    leb
                                                                                                                   tu
                                                                                                         er




                                                                                                                                           ia



                                                                                                                                                        sC
                                                                                                                    ra
                                       lG                  Fo




                                                                                                                      re
                     e




                                                                                                                       in
                                                                                                         Am




                                                                                                                                                                       ur
                                                                                                                                                          law
                         n                                    x




                                                                                                                          Vi




                                                                                                                                                                         r
                                            ra




                                                                                                           ar
                                                                  ta




                                                                                                                            ne
                             Fo




                                                                                                             an
                                                 in                    il




                                                                                                               th
                               xt
                                    ai
                                      l




                                                                                    Incidence of Weeds in Colorado
      Top Weeds Observed: 2010                                                                2007-2010
• Colorado                                • Kansas                                                                                                       2007
  weeds                                     Weeds                                              70                                                        2008
                                                                                               60                                                        2009
•   Russian Thistle                       •   Palmer Amaranth                                  50                                                        2010
•   Kochia                                                                            % Fields 40
                                          •   Puncture vine                            Found 30
•   Volunteer Grain
                                          •   Volunteer grain                                  20
•   Lance leaf sage                                                                            10
                                          •   Kochia                                            0
                                                                                                         Ru




                                                                                                                                           RR
                                                                                                    Pu




                                                                                                    Ko

                                                                                                                          De

                                                                                                                                 Vo




                                                                                                                                                  G.
                                                                                                      nt

                                                                                                      ss

                                                                                                      ch




                                                                                                                                  lg
                                                                                                                          vil




                                                                                                                                                     F
                                                                                                                                            Pig

                                                                                                                                                ox
                                                                                                         ian
                                                                                                         ur




                                                                                                          ia




                                                                                                                                      ra
                                                                                                                           sC




                                                                                                                                                  ta
                                                                                                                                                   we
                                                                                                             eV




                                                                                                                                      in
                                                                                                                               la w
                                                                                                              Th




                                                                                                                                                    il
                                                                                                                                                      ed
                                                                                                                in e


                                                                                                                 ist
                                                                                                                     le




                                                                                                                                                                                17
                                                                    Conclusions and Summary of
           Incidence of Weeds in Texas                              2010 National Sunflower Survey
% Fields




            90
            80
            70
            60                                                    • Plant spacing, drought and weeds were
            50                                                      holding back yields Kansas and CO.
            40
            30                                             2009   • Drought and weeds were holding back
            20                                             2010
            10                                                      yields in Colorado.
             0                                                    • ND had the most sunflower planted in
                 Pa




                                               RR
                     Ru


                     Vo


                     Ko


                                           W




                                           Ni
                                             gh
                   lm




                                                                    narrow row spacings while SD led all
                       lG


                       ch


                                              Su
                        ss




                                               Pig


                                                ts
                          ian
                     er




                           ia
                           ra




                                                 nf


                                                  we


                                                   ha
                                                   low
                              in
                              Am


                               Th




                                                                    states with No-till plantings.
                                                     de
                                                      ed
                                 ar


                                 ist




                                                       .
                                   an


                                    le
                                      th




            Conclusions and Summary of                               Conclusions and Summary of
           2010 National Sunflower Survey                           2010 National Sunflower Survey
• Yield limiting factors in ND were plant                         • Rust incidence was higher in both SD and
  spacing (within the row), diseases,                               Manitoba than in 2009.
  lodging, birds and weeds.
                                                                  • ND rust incidence was lower than the past
• Yields limiting factors in SD were plant                          2 years whereas, SD and MN incidence
  spacing, lodging, and variety of other
  problems.                                                         was higher in 2010.
• Minnesota also had issues with                                  • Sclerotinia Head rot was higher in ND and
  diseases.                                                         Lower in MN and Manitoba compared with
                                                                    2009.




                                                                                                                18
   Conclusions and Summary of                       Conclusions and Summary of
  2010 National Sunflower Survey                   2010 National Sunflower Survey
• Phomopsis was high in Minnesota,               • Long horned beetle damage appeared to
  Manitoba, North and South Dakota.                be much greater in 2010 with highest
• Phoma incidence ranged from 0% in                severity in TX, SD, CO, KS and ND.
  Kansas to over 90% in Manitoba.                • Bird Damage reported was higher than the
• Verticilium was high in Nebraska,                previous year and was around 5% in fields
  Manitoba and South Dakota.                       where birds were doing damage in NE,
                                                   ND, SD and VT and CO.




   Conclusions and Summary of                       Conclusions and Summary of
  2010 National Sunflower Survey                   2010 National Sunflower Survey
• Banded moth incidence was highest in MN        • Broadleaf weeds continue to be more of a
  followed by ND, Manitoba and SD.
                                                   problem than most grassy weed species.
• Sunflower moth incidence was high in Kansas.
• Seed weevil incidence was highest in SD        • Palmer Amaranth is a major problem weed
  followed by CO.                                  in Kansas and Texas
• Brown spot damage in Conf. Sunflower was
  most severe in MN followed by ND and
  Manitoba.




                                                                                               19
 2010 Sunflower Survey
Sponsored by the National
  Sunflower Association




                            20

				
DOCUMENT INFO
Shared By:
Categories:
Tags:
Stats:
views:56
posted:8/21/2011
language:English
pages:20