Circulatory System

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					Circulatory System
          Circulatory System
• Your Blood!
• Includes fluid
  (plasma), red blood
  cells, white blood
  cells, and fragments
  of cells (platelets)
              Circulatory System
• Red Blood Cells
   – Carry Oxygen, contains hemoglobin (carries
     oxygen), lack a nucleus
• White Blood Cells
   – Large, several different types, all have nuclei, defend
     body from disease
• Platelets
   – Cell fragments needed for clotting
• Plasma
   – Liquid, besides blood cells it also transports proteins,
     nutrients, enzymes, hormones, gases, and inorganic
Circulatory System

       Unknown source
          Circulatory System
• ABO Blood Groups
  – Identifies what type of antigens are on the
    surface of the blood cell
  – Antibodies correspond with the different blood
    surface antigens
     • Found free-floating in the plasma
     • Attaches to the corresponding antigens
• Rh Factor ( + and - )
  – Rhesus Factor
     • Another antigen
Circulatory System
            Circulatory System
• The Heart: A Vital Pump
  – All Mammalian hearts have 4 chambers
     • The upper two: Atria
         – Thinner and less muscular
         – Right atrium receives oxygen-poor blood from the body via the
           venae cavae
         – Left atrium receives oxygen-rich blood from the lungs via the 4
           pulmonary veins
         – Atria pumps blood to the ventricles
     • The lower two: Ventricles (lop-sided)
         – The left ventricle pumps blood to the entire body (larger)
         – The right ventricle pumps blood to the lungs (smaller)
     • Arteries go away from the heart (red) via the Aorta
     • Veins go to the heart (blue)
     • Heartbeats
           Circulatory System

Arteries                        Veins
            Urinary System
• Two kidneys, a pair of ureters, the
  urinary bladder, and the uretha
  – Kidneys filter the blood removing waste
  – A kidney is connected to a tube called the
    ureter leading to the urinary bladder
  – Urinary bladder is a smooth muscle bag for
    storing waste
                Urinary System
• Nephrons
  – Each kidney is made up of about 1 million nephrons,
    the filtering units
  – Blood enters the nephron under very high pressure
    into a bed of capillaries called the glomerulus
     • High Pressure strips the blood of the wastes (proteins, water,
       glucose, vitamins, amino acids, and urea) into the
       Bowman’s capsule
     • From the bowman’s capsule the liquid is forced through a
       narrow U-shaped tubule (loop of henle) where most of the
       water, glucose, and amino acids are reabsorbed into the
       blood stream concentrating the urine
     • Urine flows into the urinary bladder for storage, it leaves the
       body via the urethra
Urinary System
              Urinary System
• Kidneys also control the level of sodium
  and therefore the osmotic balance
  – Diuretics and Antidiuretics
     • Diuretics increase the rate of urination increasing
       loss of water
     • Antidiuretics reduce the rate of urination reducing
       loss of water
• The kidneys also regulate the pH of the
  blood by filtering out hydrogen ions and
  allowing bicarbonate back into the blood

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