–THE KING FLOWER HAS APPEARED
AND SPREAD ABROAD –
–THE KING FLOWER HAS APPEARED
AND SPREAD ABROAD –
FOREIGN LANGUAGES PUBLISHING HOUSE
JUCHE 87 (1998)
THE KING FLOWER
• Flower Blooming in the Highlands (6)
• My Tuberous Begonia (13)
• Qualities of the King Flower (16)
• The Letter Sent to His
Excellency Kim Jong Il (20)
HE LOVES FLOWERS
• Home of Flower of “Beautiful Mind” (24)
• The Flowers He Loved (27)
• Looking Up to the Peerless Great Men (31)
• Kimjongilia Has Appeared
in the World (46)
• Spread across the Country
as the Flower of Loyalty (48)
• Across Continents and Oceans (55)
• Awarded Gold Medal (57)
• Flower Show Held Every Year (62)
• Korean Kimjongilia Federation (70)
• Unchanged Habits (72)
• Growing Flower in Greenhouse
and at Home (75)
• Different Ways of Propagation (85)
• Kimilsungia (8)
• National Flower of
Korea–Magnolia Sieboldii (10)
• “Azalea of the Motherland” (16)
• Flower of Filial Piety (24)
• Varieties of Iris Ensata (26)
• Varieties of Amur Adonis (27)
• Varieties of Narrow Dwarf Daylily (28)
• Varieties of Hosta Longipes (29)
• Varieties of Primula Sieboldii (33)
• Campanula Punctata (34)
• Magnolia Kobus (36)
• Varieties of Lily (44)
• History of Flowers (32)
• Forms of Flower (39)
• The Structure of Flower (50)
• The Colour of Flower (61)
• Inflorescence (64)
• Flowering Medicinal Plants (67)
• Flower Vegetables (73)
THE KING FLOWER
– THE TREATISE AND LETTERS OF
DR. KAMO MOTOTERU WHO BRED A NEW FLOWER –
FLOWER BLOOMING IN
The Kimjongilia is a very large flower and sometimes exceeds 25
centimetres in diameter. It is a new variety of the tuberous begonia
which puts forth glossy and crimson polypetalous flowers of lion-
shaped flowering. I bred it in my flower garden in 1988, named it
Kimjongilia and presented it to the dear General Kim Jong Il as a gift.
The tuberous begonia is a flowering plant which has been evolved
through protracted and complicated crossbreeding of several pure
breeds whose original home is the highlands of the Andes in South
America like Bolivia and Peru. So, if it is grown in the places cool in
summer and not very cold in winter and where the sun shines for more
than 12 hours a day like on the highlands of the tropical regions, good
flowers can be bloomed all the year round.
The original plants which were crossbred for Kimjongilia are B.
boliviensis, B. pearcei, B. cinnabarina, B. veitchii, B. rosaeflora and
B. davisii growing wild on the highlands of the Andes Mountains
which are the stock breeds of the tuberous begonia.
Research into the growing, propagation and breeding of
Kimjongilia is now conducted by the Kimjongilia research room of
the Central Botanical Garden at the foot of Mt. Taesong in the suburbs
of Pyongyang. As many as several hundred thousand plants are
propagated by tissue culture every year there. At present it is probably
in the highest level in the world. Mass propagation of the tuberous
begonia by tissue culture is not yet done in the United States nor in
At the International Flower Show held in Czechoslovakia in 1991
the Kimjongilia from Pyongyang won great admiration as never
before and was awarded the gold medal for vivid colour, distinguished
magnificence and unique style of display.
Korea first took part in the international flower show but her
successful contribution to the promotion of international friendship
and exchange was highly appreciated.
Kimjongilia plays a big role in the friendly foreign activity of Korea.
Dear General Kim Jong Il has already sent the flowers as a gift to 47
countries in the world, which is evoking great admiration in these countries.
Exchange between me and the Central Botanical Garden of Pyongyang
began when many plants were presented to President Kim Il Sung from
Japan on the occasion of his 70th birthday.
Beginning with the International Flower Show held in Hamburg in 1963 I
took part in the international flower shows held in Vienna, Paris and
Montreal and each time I presented many plants to different countries. Therefore,
Characteristics of the Andes Species
place of type of height size of leaf
origin tuberous of plant cm note
date of root cm its shape
name of size shape colour
B. cinnabarina Bolivia flat and 20-30 length 15 5 round brownish original
1847 round width 19 red species
length 10 drooping Basic
B. boliviensis Bolivia ″ 50-60 width 2-2.5 3-5 bell- scarlet original
1857 spindle- shaped species
Peru length 15 round with
B. pearcei Bolivia domed 30-50 roundish 3 elong- yellow breeding of
1864 pointed ated multiple
Used as the
Peru almost brownish parent plant
B. veitchii Bolivia void of round 2.5-5 round red for multiple
1865 stalks flower
roundish Used for
B. rosaeflora Peru 1866 ″ leaf with 5-6 round White- breeding
serrated pink-red white
B. clarkei Peru about length 20 5-6 round pink-red
almost brown- breeding
B. davisii Peru 1876 void of <1.5 round light red the species
stalks of multiple
the flowers I sent are now growing in the RHS flower gardens in
Wisray, the Yunnan Botanical Institute of China, the Moscow Central
Botanical Garden of Russia and the Leningrad Botanical Garden. But
no one puts great effort into growing the plants sent by Japan and
makes efforts to disseminate them to other botanical gardens as the
Central Botanical Garden in Pyongyang does.
In the course of th is the ex chang e n a tura lly d ee pen ed. L a te r
250 species of Campanula punctata, 100 species of lily and
In April Juche 54 (1965) when the The great leader Comrade Kim Jong Il
great leader President Kim Il Sung sent the flower to the Central Botanical
visited Indonesia, President Sukarno of Garden and instructed that it should be widely
Indonesia named the flower after the propagated.
august name of President Kim Il Sung . Kimilsungia is an ever-green perennial
Growing this flower with great care, plant belonging to the Orchidaceae family.
the Indonesian botanists completed its It has hairy roots and several stalks come
culture technique and presented the out from the neck of the root and grow to be
30-70 centimetres high. Its leaves are shaped
flower to President Kim Il Sung in Juche
like elongated willow leaves and adhere to the
nodes alternately. One or two flower stalks
come out from the tip of new shoots and bear
3-15 flowers which come out in succession
and droop in the shape of a half moon. The
flower has three petals and three calyxes and
measures 6-8 centimetres. It is shaped like a
butterfly. Its colour is deep pink. It is in
bloom for 60-90 days.
Kimilsungia is a tropical plant and grows
well when temperature stands at 25-30°C in
the daytime and at 18-23°C at night, humidity
is 70-80% and 15,000-30,000 luxes of
sunshine is needed. Its roots grow spreading
into moss and tree barks, not in soil.
lotuses were added and at last Kimjongilia came into being.
When I visited the Central Botanical Garden in Pyongyang over
ten years ago, I saw Kimilsungia placed in front of a greenhouse
there. This is the flower President Sukarno of Indonesia presented
to President Kim Il Sung as a gift.
I asked the guide.
“As there is Kimilsungia, there must be Kimjongilia, too. Is that
“Don’t you think it must be?”
Since then I was seized with the thought of what would be the
flower worthy of being called Kimjongilia.
In my flower garden I bred Iris ensata, the tuberous begonia,
Iris, lily and others but there was no new flower of independent
high level which was worthy of being called Kimjongilia. I thought,
it could be bred from the tuberous begonia.
The tuberous begonia deriving from pure breeds occurring
on the highlands of the Andes has reached a high level in the
course of being crossbred for one hundred and scores of
Dr. Kamo Mototeru
years as it is today, spreading over Europe, America and Japan.
It was thirty years ago when I first obtained the tuberous begonia
from Reynolds, a Hungarian American, and Yoshie Seiro, a Japanese.
The excellent flower I did not see so far aroused my admiration. But it
did not endure the heat and withered in one or two years.
Disappointed, I stopped growing the flower for a while. Later when I
came to be acquainted with Rangdon of England, Hagman of Belgium
and Anternery brothers of the United States, the world authorities of
the tuberous begonia, I again made a fresh start.
I thought that Kimjongilia must be a very large flower of vigorous
lion-form flowering before anything else. From olden times the
Japanese people liked polypetalous flowers. Among them the flower
of lion-form flowering which is unique to Japan was very much
NATIONAL FLOWER OF KOREA—MAGNOLIA SIEBOLDII
The great leader P r e s i d e n t ful like a peony, aromatic and its leaves are
Kim Il Sung said that magnolia is beauti- good to look at. So it is worth being
Magnolia sieboldii boasted of in the world. He named this
flower mokran in the sense that it is the
flower coming out on the tree.
Magnolia sieboldii is the national
flower of Korea.
It is a deciduous plant belonging to the
family Magnoliaceae. The flowering plant
is about 6-9 metres high and puts forth one
white aromatic flower from the tip of the
one-year old branch.
The flower measures 5-6 centimetres
and has 6-9 petals and three calyxes.
It can stand cold and grows well even
in the shade. It grows well in humid soil.
The lion-form flowering is evocative of the brave lion
appearing in the masque dance Stone Bridge, a Japanese
folk dance. The flower whose many distinct petals came
out in many folds was to be mannish, magnificent and
Forms of flowers of the Andes species
1.B.boliviensis 3.B.rosaeflora 5.B.pearcei
2. B. veitchii 4.B. cinnabarina 6.B. davisii
I began to obtain the variety of lion-form flowering and at last
reverentially presented the flower worthy of being called
Kimjongilia to His Excellency General Kim Jong Il .
From then till spring this year I visited Korea nine times in all
and the members of the Central Botanical Garden of Pyongyang
stayed in my flower garden for six months in all, visiting it on
three occasions as members of the delegation for exchange of
horticultural technique and deepened technical exchange. The
flower of the tuberous begonia is very large and excellent and
requires sincere scientific study so much for its cultivation,
dissemination and breeding, I suppose. It is only Japan and Korea
which bring begonias into bloom in such a big scale every year in the world.
I intend to broaden the ties of friendship by further promoting exchange
and always leading in the van of the world.
January 30, 1995
B. boliviensis B. davisii
B. veitchii B. pearcei
MY TUBEROUS BEGONIA
One of the pioneers who taught me floriculture is Mr. Yoshie
Seiro who first studied and bred the tuberous begonia in Japan. Over
20 years ago he gave me the tuberous begonia and advised me to
study and breed it. This served as the point of start of the study of
the tuberous begonia for me.
Around that time I came to be acquainted with Mr. Frank
Reynolds of Capitera in California and obtained the tuberous
begonia from him on the introduction of Mr. Jack Graig, a designer
and Iris ensata fancier of the United States. But the tuberous
begonia withered in three or four years because it was sultry in
summer in Kakegawa city where I lived and because my breeding
technique was immature.
At that time the Sankei newspaper company requested me to grow
flowers in the skiing ground 1,000 metres above the sea level called
Biwakobare which it ran. So I recommended to plant the tuberous
begonia, assigned Mr. Yoshie to lead the technical work and
suggested to obtain the tuberous begonia from Mr. Reynolds. My
suggestion was accepted and the glasshouse for the tuberous begonia
first came into being in Japan. With success of this undertaking the
Sankei newspaper company built the Amaki Plateau Begonia Flower
Garden on Mt. Amaki in Izu. This great success at once aroused
interest in the tuberous begonia in Japan.
At that time I refrained from growing the tuberous begonia
independently and preferred to help my mentor Mr. Yoshie to succeed.
However, continuing research, I deepened exchange with the
specialists in the tuberous begonia in different countries.
Several years ago Mr. Yoshie could not continue growing the
tuberous begonia on account of his old age and poor health. So he
advised me to do it myself.
So I made up my mind and anew began research into the
tuberous begonia and improvement of its species, introducing all
the achievement in the world, to say nothing of those of the
Yoshie school. My research work rapidly progressed with the
cooperation of Mr. Rangdon of Bristol in England, Mr. Anternery
of Santa Cruz in the United States, Mr. Joba of Capitera and Mr.
Rokerich of Belgium and could say with pride that I reached the
level unexcelled in Japan.
This year I have built the tuberous begonia exhibition on an
area of about 400 square metres in my head flower garden in
Kakegawa city and placed 2,000 potted begonia plants on display
there, which won great popularity. At present I am growing
several thousand plants in the central flower garden and in the
branch flower garden whose total area amounts to 1,500 square
metres. Next year I intend to grow it on a large scale, building a
glasshouse with an area of 8,000 square metres.
Modern varieties of begonias
Forms of flowers of the species of primary crossbreeding
1. B. Sedenii (1869) 3. B. Intermedia (1871)
2. B. Chelsonii (1870) 4. B. cv. Queen of the whites (1878)
QUALITIES OF THE
I first visited the Democratic People’s Republic of Korea in 1985. Seeing
Kimilsungia in the Central Botanical Garden at that time, I thought why there
was no Kimjongilia.
During my stay in Korea I gave a lecture in the Central Botanical Garden.
Then I suggested that Amur adonis would be good as the flower which would
bloom on February 16.
I sent the flower as a gift in January the next year. But when I thought it
over, the flower of Amur adonis was low in height and was no good to see and
was not red. So I came to think whether there was any better flower. Thus I
came to think of the tuberous begonia. I began to crossbreed flowers to obtain
a new flower which is scarlet and magnificent and has noble quality.
Ichie who took charge of breeding at once took the first Kimjongilia
(Kimjongilia-1987) as the parent flower for crossbreeding and set to artificial
pollination for the next generation and collected seeds. He sowed the seeds to
make them sprout. He chose the best of them and named them “Kimjongilia-
1988”. I intended to take it with me when I would visit Korea in February
The following points had to be taken into account in crossbreeding and
- The flower must be glossy and red,
- It must be magnificent and polypetalous flower,
- It must have dignified and harmonious form,
- It must put forth many sturdy flowers,
- It must have unique characteristics.
The colour and form of “Kimjongilia-1987” were good but it was not
sturdy and gradually became weak in the course of crossbreeding and seed
selection for the next generation and could not pass summer. So the species
was maintained for cutting.
It is not easy to breed a new flower which is large, sturdy,
"AZALEA OF THE MOTHERLAND"
When spring comes every year the it heralds spring first. Associated with
flowers come out everywhere on the the story of the days of the bloody
hills and fields of Korea. From olden sacred war for national liberation,
times people love this flower because azalea is the favourite flower of the
Azalea In May Juche 28 (1939) one unit of
the Korean People’s Revolutionary
Army led by Commander Comrade
Kim Il Sung advanced into the
motherland. It was full-blown azaleas
that gladly welcomed first the fighters
who set foot on the land of the
motherland. Women-guerrillas were in
deep emotion burying their faces in
azaleas. Immediately Kim Jong Suk, an
anti-Japanese heroine, broke an armful
of azalea and gave it to the
The Commander said with warmth,
looking around at his men:
“The azalea of the motherland looks beautiful all the more as we look at it.”
Burning always with the love of the motherland, inspired by the Commander,
the fighters crossed countless dangerous lines and finally met the new spring of
The azalea is the brush belonging to the azalea family. It grows two or three
metres high and puts forth many branches. Its bark is greyish maroon. Young
branches have fine hair. The leaves adhere to the stem alternately and leafstalk is
short. In autumn the leaves turn red or copper colour. The body of leaf is shaped
like the broad willow leaf.
The flower comes out by one from one flower bud before leaves come out in
April or May. One or five flower buds come out from the tip of the branch of the
last year. The flower is three or five centimetres across and is light purplish red.
The corolla of the flower is funnel-shaped and divides itself into five at the tip. The
petals have green markings. It has ten stamens and one pistil. The fruit is dehiscent
and matures in September or October.
polypetalous and well-balanced in form and red. It requires time
and energy. But I am convinced that “Kimjongilia-1988” would
be by far better than “Kimjongilia-1987”.
September 17, 1987
The Characteristics of Kimjongilia
1. Its colour is glossy and enthusiastic crimson which is an
ideal pure colour.
2. It has the quality of the king flower as the well-balanced
polypetalous flower of lion-form flowering.
Process of Breeding of Kimjongilia
♀ Scarlet L-4
♂ Orange 2-1
♀ Yellow 1-2
(Red Queen's origin) Crimson M-6
Table of the Size, Mass and Thickness of Flower and Number of Petals
According to the Grades of the Flower Size
Index number of petals (unity)
diameter of thickness of mass of the
the flower the flower flower
grade of the cm cm g/unity
flower size coloured colourless
10~12.0 11.1 6.5 14.6 24.0 5.4 5.4
12.1~14.0 13.7 7.4 20.9 28.4 9.9 8.3
14.1~16.0 15.1 7.5 23.2 31.6 8.3 6.0
16.1~18.0 16.6 9.0 35.0 33.6 9.6 7.5
18.1~20.0 19.6 10.5 47.4 39.4 10.4 7.0
20.1~22.0 20.6 12.0 48.7 40.5 13.0 8.5
22.1~24.0 23.3 14.1 52.8 42.7 12.7 8.4
3. The flower is 20 centimetres in diameter when well
grown and is vigorous.
4. Its stem and flower stalk are all thick, sturdy and
5. It can be widely propagated because it resists blights
and harmful insects and it is easy to grow.
The scientific name of this new flower is Begonia X
tuberhybrida Voss ‘Kimjongilhwa.’
Ma y 1 7 , 1 9 8 7
THE LETTER SENT TO HIS
EXCELLENCY KIM JONG IL
I send this letter with the feeling of respect and admiration for the great
leader Your Excellency Kim Jong Il.
I send you the tuberous begonia I bred with sincerity, congratulating
Your Excellency on your 46th birthday and hoping for better friendship
between Japan and Korea.
I am very sorry that although I wanted to carry it myself to Pyongyang I
had to hand it over to Beijing due to the unjustifiable ban on exchange
decided by the Japanese government and the United States and south Korea,
I scrupled to name my immature plant after Your Excellency’s august
name, but I dared to name it Kimjongilia, wishing you a long life in good
health and the bright future of prosperity and development.
If you allow me to present this plant to Your Excellency, I will take it as
honour more than I deserve.
I sincerely wish Your Excellency a long life in good health.
February 13, 1988
The interior of Kimjongilia Hothouse in the Central Botanical Garden
Kimjongilia sent by Dr. Kamo Mototeru
Male flower Female flower
Flower bud Fruit
HE LOVES FLOWERS
– STORY OF MRS. KAMO HYO GYONG
SISTER OF THE FLOWER DOCTOR –
HOME OF FLOWER OF
Our home was in Harasato considered us twins.
village some distance away from Th e hou se was bu ilt with
Kakegawa city in Shizuoka axe and adz ov er 300 year s
Prefecture. It was an old-style a go. It w as r ar e to se e o ld
house where several generations hou ses even in Shizuoka
P ref e c ture . In th e f low er ing
of Kamo family lived from the
s e aso n the Iris en sa ta p l a n ted
time of my ancestors.
in the yard thr iv ed and ma n y
After my aunt had got
p eop le u sed to g ath er th ere to
married, my grandmother,
lo o k a t th e m.
mother, my sister and brother Th e Iris ensa ta in th e ya rd
and I lived in the house. I was a r e sa id to h av e b een p l a n ted
one year older than Mototeru b y my g rand mo th er. The loc a l
who was born in 1930, so some people called them “cuckoo
FLOWER OF FILIAL PIETY
The flower of filial piety which was Comrade Kim Jong Il is the flower blooming
named personally by the great leader in early spring which belongs to the family
Primulaceae. 20-40 flowers come out in one
Flower of filial piety plant, arranged in umbel on the flower stalk
which comes forth from the flower bud. The
colour of the flower is mainly red, pink, white,
yellow, cream or violet according to the series.
Besides, there are flowers of intermediate
colours. The flower usually measures five or
seven centimetres and has five to eight petals.
One flower is in bloom for 15-20 days.
The flower of filial piety is the flowering
plant liking low temperature and grows well at
the temperature of 10-15°C. It is propagated by
seed and by separating the roots.
flower” or “rice transplanting- to Sho ya’s house. Sho ya
associated flower” as they gave shouted to th em to climb up
strong impression of the season. th e h ill fo r refug e till th e last
Many people including peasants ma n in th e v illage went up th e
loved the Iris ensata because the h i l l .
flower which is in full bloom in Sho ya’ s hou se burn ed down
the sultry rainy season is out bu t the v illa ge p eople w er e
beautifully keeping constancy s a v e d .
even in rain. That is why the A t tha t t ime I r i s en sata
flower was also called “beautiful gr ew in h is ya rd. Sho ya w as
no t seen and the hou se burn ed
mind”–another flower word.
down but the f low ers
Once my mother told me
w e l c o me d t h e v i l l a g e p e o p le .
about Shoya. Shoya’s house
Th e I r is ensa ta of
was at the foot of a hill in the
“ be au tifu l min d ” w as tog e ther
rural village at the seaside. It
w ith the p ea s an ts and b loo me d
overlooked the field and sea.
rather more b eau tifully in th e
One summer day Shoya who
r a in y season. Th is f low er w as
was mending farm implements
th e f irst f low er we saw wh en
in his yard looking in the
we were born and came to love.
direction of the sea,
My mo th er, too, loved Ir i s
straightened his back. He was en sa ta ver y mu ch. Sh e tend ed
surprised to see the tidal wave carefu lly th e I r is en sa ta
surging on from the horizon. p lan ted b y my gr and mo th er
He had to inform the village and bred sev eral n ew var ieties
people in the field quickly, but o f i t. V i l la g e p eo p le mu c h
had no time. Shoya set fire to ma r v e l led at t h e n ew v a r ie t i e s
the eaves of his house. The fire of th e Iris en sa ta my mo ther
flared up in no time and the br ed . Th e y t r an sp lan te d th e
village people who were at f l o w e r .
w o r k in th e f ie ld c a me r u n n in g Name was given to the unique
VARIETIES OF IRIS ENSATA
Dr. Kamo Mototeru presented to the November 6, Juche 74 (1985).
great leader Kim Il Sung 14 varieties of Iris ensata is the perennial plant
Iris ensata on March 30, Juche 71 belonging to the family Iridaceae.
(1982) and 71 varieties of Iris ensata on Leaves collectively form a cluster
and it grows 60-80 centimetres high, and
some, 110 centimetres high. Flowers are
reddish violet. They are in bloom for
about 20 days from late May to mid-June
or from early June to late June according
to varieties. It is planted in flower
gardens or widely used as cut flowers
because the flowers are beautiful and the
leaves are long and vivid.
new varieties of Iris ensata. One flower” to guard Kamo family.
variety of it was named “Kamo My mother took an active part in
Manri” as my mother wished. She public welfare service in the period
named it so, wishing that the after the Pacific War. She took 3,000
intention of the Kamo family plants of Iris ensata with her to the
which loved the “beautiful mind” Japanese Mothers Conference. At that
was made known far and wide. time the local newspapers which
Thus in our home it became reported the event showed the
custom to give name to the new participants with the flower in their
varieties of the Iris ensata when hands.
they were bred and each time it Probably because of this, people
was an august event for us. My called our home the “home of Iris
grandmother always used to point ensata” where the flower of
out the need to breed the “patron “beautiful mind” blooms beautifully.
THE FLOWERS HE LOVED
Mototeru had many bold ideas US army radio broadcasting and
and varied tastes when young. He heard before anyone else the news
often did kite flying and then took to that Japan was defeated in the
making and flying a model plane. He Pacific War.
once came in first or second in the Once he went to his aunt’s house
to play on the piano and stayed there
model plane competition held in
for several days without returning
Kakegawa city. Once he littered the
home. On another occasion he used
room with the radio parts he had
to chin the bar with the intention of
bought saying that he was going to
becoming a heavy gymnastics
assemble a receiver and did not allow
player. I often saw that he was
anyone to enter the room. So the chosen as a heavy gymnastics player
room was not cleaned for several in his university days. He once
days. By the receiver he assembled “invented” the mouse-catching
our village people listened to the device and tried to catch 40 mice one
VARIETIES OF AMUR ADONIS
Dr. Kamo Mototeru presented to the branches end in one flower which is
great leader Comrade Kim Jong Il six glossy yellow.
varieties of Amur adonis on January 20,
Juche 75 (1986).
Amur adonis is the perennial plant
belonging to the family Ranunculaceae.
The stalk erects straight and grows 5-15
centimetres high in the beginning of
flowering and later up to 30-40
centimetres high. The stalk branches
and is covered with short hair.
Leav es are twice f eath ered doub le
leaves with pointed tip. The stalk or
VARIETIES OF NARROW
Dr. Kamo Mototeru presented to the and end in reddish brown or yellow
great leader Comrade Kim Jong Il 125 flowers.
varieties of narrow dwarf daylily on
November 25, Juche 75 (1986). Narrow dwarf daylily
Narrow dwarf daylily is the
perennial plant which belongs to the lily
It naturally grows on all hills and in
the fields of Korea. It is also planted
and tended by people.
Its other name is nomnamul. Daylily
includes large daylily, bride daylily,
baby daylily, large-leaved daylily and
Several branches come out at the
tip of thick and long flower stalks
night by electric shock. But he But his love of flowers was the
admitted that it was a waste of time strongest of all.
because there were not so many to be
caught. Morning Glory
Any way his taste was varied. The flower he saw first was
Iris ensata, whereas the flower he
loved next was morning glory. It
was after he had heard a poem
about morning glory his mother
recited. It told of the feelings of a
woman who, going to the well
early in the morning, saw the
morning glory winding around
the rope fastened to the bucket.
She did not dare to pull up the
bucket for fear that it might harm
the flower. She went to her neigh-
bour for water, instead.
Briar months had passed. One day a
beautiful briar came out in bloom
Briar is the flower Mototeru has and put forth aroma on the
loved very much ever since his frontier line running between the
primary school days. It was after he two soldiers. Each of the two
soldiers looked at the briar and
had read a novel about briar. smiled. Since then, they smiled at
The frontier guards of the two each other and exchanged words.
hostile countries stood facing each
other with a rifle in their hands on the Mototeru has loved very much
frontier between them. They only the forget-me-not ever since his
looked at each other without a word. middle-school days. It has a story
They only looked at each other in the A boy who was going to
face without a word, with a rifle in pluck a forget-me-not which
their hands, even though days and bloomed beautifully on the
VARIETIES OF HOSTA LONGIPES
Dr. Kamo Mototeru presented to the flower stalks come forth from the bract of
great leader Comrade Kim Jong Il 70 leaves and bears 10-20 funnel-like and light
varieties of Hosta longipes on February reddish violet flowers in July or August,
12, Juche 76 (1987). which come into bloom successively going
upward from the bottom.
Hosta longipes is the perennial plant
which belongs to the lily family. Hosta longipes
Several leaves come out at the same
time from the neck of the root. The form
of leaves is elongated elliptical and they
are round at the bottom and have very
pointed tip. When leaves come forth
they look like being rubbed and twisted.
Hence its name bibichu. Thin and long
for the N.H.K. radio
broadcasting station once
praised Hosta longipes, telling
the listeners about flowers.
Turning to me, he said that
if he was told to name the
flower symbolic of the world,
he would point to Hosta
longipes. He saw Hosta
longipes in front of Lenin's
mausoleum in Moscow and in
the garden in front of the
queen’s palace in London in
England. “This time I saw
Hosta longipes blooming
beautifully on the shore of the
Taedong River in Pyongyang,”
In addition, there were many
flowers he loved. But the flowers
precipitous shore to please his he most loved were the flowers
beloved girl fell into the river, he presented to the great men he
exhausted. The poor country boy respected and adored, I suppose.
threw the flower toward her and
plunged into the river, leaving
behind the remark, “Forget me not.”
The girl sobbed on the shore, calling
her lover anxiously with the blue
flowers in her hand....
I often saw Mototeru playing the
famous music about such story of the
forget-me-not on the piano.
Mototeru who is the lecturer
LOOKING UP TO THE
Mototeru returned home shared experience with world-
after graduating in economics famous horticulturists. In this course
from the Rikkyo University in Mototeru became the leading
1953. His hoary old home
specialist in Iris ensata in Japan.
where he passed his childhood
The world-famous horticulturists
remained as it was. The Iris
sent letters to him seeking his
ensata which bloomed in the
yard gladly greeted Mototeru advice concerning Iris ensata and
as in those days. If there was hoped to meet him. His works and
any change, it was that treatises were published, evoking
visitors to his old home and to great interest of horticulturists. The
the Iris ensata increased by representative of them are Collection of
Mototeru thought that he Rhododendron aureum on Mt. Paektu
could start an enterprise with
his old home and Iris ensata.
At his instance the Kamo Iris
ensata garden was built in
1957 and he took charge of it.
Since then breeding of Iris
ensata proceeded in real
earnest. He worked devotedly
for the Iris ensata garden.
Mototeru thought that he
should breed the best Iris
ensata in the world. So he
visited China, which was
considered to be the home of
Iris ensata, England, West
Germany, the United States,
Russia and other countries and
HISTORY OF FLOWERS
3.5 milliard years have elapsed since the to beautify their form and colour and the
birth of the earth in the universe. One hundred other was to diffuse aroma.
million years have passed since appearance of As insects began to carry pollens,
the flowering plants on the globe. Man existed flowers began to develop rapidly in such a
on the earth two million years ago, whereas the way as to make the carriage of pollens easy.
history of flowers began by far earlier. Soft and thin petals came to have bright
Flowers were not beautiful then. They were colours and be more attractive due to their
not good to look at either, having no petals nor gloss and the effect of reflection.
sepals. It was flower organ rather than a flower. The insect-pollinating flowers evolved
Namely, it was the flower organ of from the shape of flower in which calyxes are
gymnosperms. deep and petals are arranged spirally as can
The flower in the true sense of the word be seen in the large-flowered Magnolia kobus
came into being in angiosperms. However, at to the shape of flower in which many petals
first even angiosperms had only pistils and are arranged in one plane and the difference
stamens without petals and sepals. Such flowers between sepal and petal is not distinct as in
are found even now in abundance. Maize and the flower of Ranunculus japonicus and then
other wind-pollinating flowers can be cited as an developed to the shape of flower in which the
example. differentiation of petal and calyx is distinct
Petals, sepals and beautiful colours and stamens and pistils are arranged nearly in
developed from the insect-pollinating flowers the same plane and which can be considered
which began the action of reproduction with the to be the standard of modern flowers.
help of insects. Three-dimensional flowers again arose
In rose, orchid and many other flowering from the plane-shaped ones and evolved and
plants pollens are deposited on the anthers of gave rise to many flowers which are
pistils from stamens with the help of insects. In symmetrical in regard to both sides with the
these flowers beautiful petals and sepals came flower axial plane as the centre like Aconitum
into being to protect stamens and pistils and sibiricum and garden balsam.
allure insects. They gradually began to diffuse Most of pure breeds of the tuberous
aroma and secrete nectar. begonias which are the pure breeds of
Generally speaking, large, beautiful and Kimjongilia are such symmetrical flowers.
deep-coloured flowers have no aroma, whereas Viewed in this light, the tuberous begonia
small, light-coloured or white flowers diffuse belongs to the most developed modern
aroma. It is because flowers evolved in two flowers from among the insect-pollinating
directions in order to allure insects: one was flowers.
VARIETIES OF PRIMULA SIEBOLDII
Dr. Kamo Mototeru presented to the great of flowers and is in bloom for a long time. It is
leader Comrade Kim Jong Il 32 varieties of very good for adorning window sill, table or
Primula sieboldii on February 12, Juche76 (1987). interiors.
Primula sieboldii is a perennial plant which Primula sieboldii
belongs to the family Primulaceae.
Primula sieboldii grows naturally in humid
shade beneath trees or on the sunny places in the
forest in the temperate zone including Korea.
It grows well in half shade. So it may be
planted mixed with field flowers in parks, pleasure
grounds, house gardens and flower gardens or in
flowerpots at home.
It puts forth pretty white, light pink, deep pink,
yellow or violet flowers which form collectively a large cluster
Famou s Pictures of I r is w an ted to n a me th e f low er
En sa ta in s ix vo lu me s and a f te r lov e, z e a l, f u tur e,
Th e La test Handboo k o f I r is justice, tru th and the lik e. Fo r
En sa ta. H e w as inv i t ed as th e h im th e n ew variety of the
le c tur er in hor ticu lture b y th e f low er w as a lre ad y no t th e
N.H .K. rad io bro adcasting “patron ” f low er for th e K a mo
s ta tio n . f a mily h is gr and mo the r had
Mototeru could have wanted.
amassed a big fortune if he had
started an enterprise with Mother had always respected
flowers as he had thought at President Kim Il Sung . When
first. But he did not want to do she told of the story of the
business with flowers. He great men of the present age,
made up his mind to breed new she always spoke about
varieties of flowers. He General Kim Il Sung .
thought the flower must be She was a girl when the
symbolical of our time. He Great Earthquakes of 1923 in
Kanto happened. At that time a Later, Mother was included in a
blood-curdling event took place delegation representing the Japanese
when innocent Korean people were mothers to visit some socialist
murdered mercilessly. Then Mother countries. She was busy preparing for
very much sympathized with the the trip when she suddenly fell ill and
Korean people. After the war Mother passed away. At that time Mototeru
told us that the hero of the anti- picked up quite a few flowers of Iris
Japanese war General Kim Il Sung ensata and covered her coffin with
returned home in triumph. When the them.
Korean War broke out in 1950 When she tended the plants of Iris
Mother delivered an address ensata she used to say that she would
opposing the war and the United like to present the flower to President
States at the Japanese Mothers Kim Il Sung. Mototeru could
Conference. At that time Mother reverentially present Iris ensata to
gave Iris ensata to the peace-loving President Kim Il Sung on April 15,
Japanese mothers and appealed to 1982, his 70th birthday as Mother
them to fight for peace. had wished. The gift flowers were
Dr. Kamo Mototeru presented to the shrub which belongs to the family Onagraceae.
great leader Comrade Kim Jong Il 187 The shrub is 50-70 centimetres high and
varieties of Campanula punctata on branches are thin and long and droop when
February 12, Juche 76 (1987). flowers come into bloom.
Campanula punctata is a deciduous The flowers come into bloom in June-
August when it is usually warm and sun shines
long. They bloom even in February or March
when nutrition is good. Flowers are generally
reddish violet. Red, white or white and red
flowers, too, come out according to varieties.
There are simple and multiple flowers in
Campanula punctata. It is called chorong
(lantern) flower because lantern-like flowers
th e 14 improv ed var ietie s of
I r is ensa ta in clud ing “K amo
Man r i” and “Sp ring Moon”
Mo ther n ewly bred d evo ting
h er lif e to th e m and “Th e
Ev en ing Sun over th e O ld
City” Mo to teru n ewly
On Nov e mb er 6, 1985
Mo to te ru ag a in pr es ente d to
P re s iden t Kim Il Sung 71
v arieties of Iris ensa ta h e
n e w ly b r e d .
Mo to te ru re ad ma n y of
P r e s iden t Kim Il Sung ’s
wr iting s. He came to know
G ener a l Kim Jo ng Il on ly nation and tended them in their
r ead ing Mod ern Korea and gardens and that they saw that they
Kim Jong I l, the book b y were in full bloom all over the
Inou e Shuhach i who ta ugh t country.
a t the Rikk yo Un ive rs ity Mototeru devoted himself to
fro m which he had preparing the flowers to be
g r a d u a te d . presented to General Kim Jong Il.
Since then he avidly read Six varieties of Amur adonis, 125
different works of General varieties of narrow dwarf daylily, 70
Kim Jong Il. In this course varieties of Hosta longipes, 32
he came to know that varieties of Primula sieboldii, 187
President Kim Il Sung and varieties of Campanula punctata, 14
General Kim Jong Il very varieties of Magnolia kobus....
much love flowers. He came With the flowers, he sent the
to learn that they valued following letters to the General
Magnolia sieboldii and Bureau for Management of Mt.
other flowers which Taesong:
symbolize people’s love
of the country and the November 7, 1986
I send tuberous begonias, of President Kim Il Sung and
Campanula punctata and His Excellency Kim Jong Il .
several hundred other plants W e hav e stud ied th ese
selected from the plants I f low ers for long and are
intend to send in celebration of c o n v inc ed th a t the y are the
General Kim Jong Il ’s 45th b e s t in J a p a n .
birthday. If they are bred in
glasshouses, they will come December 19, 1987
out in bloom by February 16. I will make p ersisten t
If they are grown with effor ts fo r fr iendsh ip and
devotion, they will amount to e xch ang e in th e wor ld und er
3,000 plants. th e gu idanc e of Pr es id en t
Kim Il Sung and General
January 1, 1987 Kim Jong Il.
I congratulate you on the I send 54 p lan ts of 14
New Year. v arieties of Magno lia kobu s
I intend to send about 350 although they are mo dest and
varieties of different flowers 1.5- ton class truck wh ich is
in celebration of the birthdays h u mb le .
Dr. Kamo Mototeru presented to the varieties of Magnolia kobus on December 27
great leader Comrade Kim Jong Il 14 Juche 76 (1987).
Magnolia kobus is a high tree which
Magnolia kobus belongs to the magnolia family.
It is usually 10 metres high and the stem
is straight and is much branched.
Their leaves are broad and shaped like
an inverted egg. Their bottom is shaped like
a wedge and their tip is pointed.
Flowers come in bloom by one on the
ends of small twigs in April-May before new
leaves come forth. Their colour is light
It grows wildly in the forest in the
middle of slope of mountains in Jeju Island
in south Korea.
When Mototeru harboured shops with popularity never seen
great ambition to breed the most before at that time. However,
beautiful flowers in the world, Mototeru could not calculate it in
he looked back on the flowers terms of money.
one by one which he loved from Tagetes patula can be cited as
his childhood. He also the flower whose new variety cost
considered the flowers he newly horticulturists the largest amount of
bred. Thus he chose the money in the world for breeding.
tuberous begonia. It was in the One horticultural company
early 1960s. Research into which appreciated the value
breeding new varieties of the
flower bore some fruit in
the ’70s and tuberous begonias
were acclimatized to the climate
of Japan. Of course, this was
achieved in the course of
repetition of failure, distress,
research, efforts and new
But when I saw Kimilsungia
in the Central Botanical Garden
on a visit to Korea in October
1985, I thought that there had to
be Kimjongilia as well and Common camellia
pictured the ideal flower to be of th e f lower as the garden
named after the great man. The f low er for its strong
new flower on such a high level r es i s tan c e t o sun l igh t and
was not in the world yet, but I long f lorescence reso lved to
do aw ay w ith its drawb acks–
thought it could be bred from
its repu ls iv e smell and
the tuberous begonia if any. s imp le co lour. Th is ma d e
The new variety of begonia th e co mp an y condu ct
he bred with devotion so far r es e arch in to th e f lowe r in
could already be sold at flower real earnest. But it did not
succeed although it defr ayed n ew v ar iety of f lower
r es e arch exp ens es for ov er 20 b eco me s a per fe c t fla w le ss
ye ar s. The co mp any wa s f a mou s f lower can it be n a me d
ob lig ed to off er a pr ize o f a f te r th e g r e a t ma n . Bre ed in g
50,000 do llars for breed ing a of an id eal new v ar iety fro m
n ew v ar ie ty of Tag e te s pa tu la. th e tub erou s begon ia co st
S ix ye ars p as sed b efor e Mo to te ru 26 years. I t mu st
s u c ce ss w as a ch iev ed. Thu s a h ave b een qu ite a new v ar iety
n ew v ar ie ty of Tag e te s pa tu la of f low er on th e high est lev e l
c os t th e la rge s t a moun t of wh ich d id no t r esemb le rose,
mo n e y in th e wor ld for its
n o r c a r n a t i o n n o r c a me l l i a .
b r e e d in g .
W h e n K imj o n g i l i a c a me
in to being in the wor ld,
Mo to te ru tog e ther w ith th e
journ a lis ts a sked h im w ha t
staff set a h igh go al of
t y p e o f f lo w e r i t w a s . A t th i s
br eed ing a p erf ec t n ew v ar iety
of the tub erou s b egonia. He he replied, “It is the Kimjongilia-
declared that only when the type flower.”
Gladiolus Portulaca grandiflora
FORMS OF FLOWER
Flower is metamorphosis of leaf at the bloom in different individuals and
point where the receptacle is found, which monoecious plants for which male
is concerned with reproduction. flowers and female flowers bloom in the
Generally, a flower is composed of same plant. Humulus japonica is the
peduncle, receptacle, sepal, petals, stamens dioecious plant for which the plant with
and pistil. male flowers exists separately from the
To summarize the forms of flower, plant with female flowers.
indeterminate flowers now do not exist and Kimjongilia is a monoecious plant.
there are radial (star-like) flowers and left- In other words, Kimjongilia is a
right symmetrical flowers like orchid monoecious plant with unisexual
flowers. Generally speaking, it is flowers.
considered that the flowers whose different The flower stalk of Kimjongilia
parts make an integral whole are more comes forth from each bract of leaf
evolved than the flowers whose parts are going upward beginning with the 4-6th
detached from each other and that left-right nodes of the stem of the flower and bears
symmetrical flowers are more evolved than flowers.
the radial flowers. The position of the node from which
The flower of sunflower is aggregation the first flower comes out depends on the
of many flowers. In its centre there are methods of propagation and growing.
tubular flowers which are surrounded by The first flower comes out from the
petals, which resemble the sun and look 5th or 6th node in the plants grown from
like one flower. Such flowers are called seed and from the 4th or 5th node in the
capitate flowers. plants grown from the tuber or by tissue
The flower of Kimjongilia has culture. The flower stalk is 8-15
distinguished characteristics as an centimetres long and 0.8-1.2 centimetres
ornamental flower. thick. The flower stalks are round and
Generally speaking, there are the light green or light purple and sparsely
plants with monoclinous flowers which covered with short hair. They end in a
have both androecium and gynoecium and pair of floral envelopes.
the plants with unisexual flowers which The floral envelopes are round or
have only androecium or gynoecium. heart-shaped and are constricted inward.
Azalea and daylily are plants with They are purple at the rim.
monoclinous flowers which have both a Within the floral envelope there are
pistil and stamens. Kimjongilia is the the peduncles of the male and female
unisexual flower in which all the stamens flowers separately. The peduncle of the
became petals. male flower is 2-3.5 centimetres long
There are dioecious plants for and 0.5-0.8 centimetre thick.
which female flowers and male flowers The female flower of Kimjongilia is
scarlet and measures about 10-12 centimetres. It by figure. The clearness of the colour of
has five petals which are simple. The female Kimjongilia is within 10-14.
flower has three styles of pistil which are 0.8-1 According to the subdivided designation
centimetre long. The style of pistil gradually of colour the colour of Kimjongilia can be
broadens going upward and is much furrowed. written (2.5-10)R, (4-7)N/10-14. Namely,
It has several ovules. The anther of the style the colour is red within the extent of 2.5-10,
of pistil is crowned with velvety protuberances. its brightness is in the order of 4-7 and the
clearness is about 10-14.
The female flower has three winged
The flower measures 10-25 centimetres
ovaries. They are light green. The tip of the
and some are bigger than these. Generally
wing of the ovary sometimes is purple.
speaking, there are large-shaped flowers and
The male flower of Kimjongilia is valuable
small-shaped flowers among the tuberous
as an ornamental flower. The male flower is
begonias. The flower of Kimjongilia is the
generally called flower.
very large one even from among the largest
The colour of the flower is scarlet. flowers. The flower size of other flowering
Generally speaking, colour is characterized plants is rather even, but the size of the
by three factors–hue, brightness and clearness. flowers of the large-flowered tuberous
They are called the three attributes (three begonia varies in a large measure.
factors) of colour. Tuberous begonias including
Colour is arranged in the order of red, Kimjongilia grow ceaselessly and the
orange, yellow, green, blue and violet. Colour is diameter of the flower varies more than two
divided into 40 kinds, including the intermediate times depending on different factors. The
colours of the seven colours. These divisions of flower size changes depending on the
colour are called the shades of colour. conditions and method of growing and the
The red colour has 13 shades. The colour of order of the node. When Kimjongilia is
grown in a greenhouse which is much
Kimjongilia is bright red which is near 2.5-10th
affected by environment the flowers
blooming in summer in the temperate zone
The brightness of colour is graded into 0-
are smaller than those in bloom in winter.
10. It is designated by figure with letter N
As for the average size of flowers
attached after it. The brightness of the flower of
according to the nodes in case the flowers
Kimjongilia is (4-7)N.
are grown from the saplings bred by tissue
The clearness of colour shows the degree of culture, the second flower is the largest and
vividness of colour. For example, red colour the size of flowers decreases in order of the
includes pure red and dark red mixed with black first, the third and the fourth.
colour with its pureness weakened. The latter is But when Kimjongilia is grown in the
not bright. fully automated greenhouse in which
The clearness of colour, too, is designated temp erature, humidity and ventilation
Forms of flowers of modern varieties of
the tuberous begonia
Camellia form Rose form
China pink form Kimjongilia
are well regulated and good nutrition is plants. Only when the number of petals is in
provided to it, very large flowers of about 20 harmony with the size and thickness of
centimetres come out from each node till the flower, has the flower value as an
sixth or seventh node beginning with the node ornamental plant.
from which the first flower comes out. Kimjongilia has petals commensurate
The flower is 5-10 centimetres thick. with the size and thickness of the flower.
When the flower is more than 14-15 Petals arose by transformation of pistils
centimetres across, it is thicker than seven and stamens. The size and shape of petals
centimetres. vary according to the position of
Generally speaking, the thickness of the arrangement. Petals can be divided into
flowers of the flowering plants is considered coloured and expanded ones, coloured and
to be an important ornamental index. It is unexpanded ones which form the centre of
because when the flower is not considerably the flower in the central part of the flower,
thick, however large it may be, it looks like and uncoloured and unexpanded ones. The
a dish and is not good to look at. outer petals from among expanded petals
Only when the rate of the size (d) to the are 7.5-8 centimetres long and 7.5
thickness (D) of the flower of tuberous centimetres wide and round. The petals in
begonias d/D is smaller than two or about the middle are 9.5-10.5 centimetres long
two, becomes it a dignified flower. and 7-7.5 centimetres wide and shaped like
The rate of the size to the thickness of an inverted egg. The inner petals are 5.5-7
the flower of Kimjongilia d/D is 1.8-1.9 at centimetres long, 3.5-4.5 centimetres wide
the usual temperature in our country when and elliptical.
grown in winter and 2.1-2.4 when grown in The shape of the flower is Kimjongilia-
summer. Therefore, when Kimjongilia is form or lion-type.
grown in winter, its ornamental index is The basic characteristic feature of
fully satisfactory. When it is grown in the Kimjongilia distinct from those of other
automated greenhouse in our country in tuberous begonias is the shape of the flower.
summer, the rate of size to the thickness of The shape of flower is characterized by
flower becomes 1.8-1.9 as in case of its the size and thickness of flower, the size
being grown in winter. and shape of petals, their number and
The flower has 25-45 petals and some arrangement in space.
have even 50-55 petals. As was seen in the wild original pure
The aggregation and multiplicity of breeds of tuberous begonias, Begonia
petals are one of the main ornamental cinnabarina and Begonia pearcei have four
indices of tuberous begonias. The petals, two of which are large and the others
polypetalous flowers with 500 petals are small. The flower of the Begonia
were produced from tuberous begonias boliviensis is shaped like an elongated tube
but they have no value as ornamental and measures about 3-5 centimetres.
Taking these flowers as the original rather regularly. The petals of the camellia-
species, efforts were made for more than one form flower are round like those of camellia
hundred years to obtain better flowers, which and in plenty.
resulted in breeding of the polypetalous flower The flower of Kimjongilia is not shaped
species of the modern tuberous begonias. The like camellia-form, rose-form, or China
species of early polypetalous flowers lacked pink-form flowers but has original shape.
harmony between the size and shape of petals. The contour of the flower is roundish
Their modern species were more like the rose-form flowers and the petals are
completed in the shape of flower and there elongated and elliptical and flat and wave-
appeared the rose-form and the China pink- like. The flower is graceful and smart to
form flowers and they have been admitted as look at as it has harmoniously arranged
the flowers of high ornamental value in the spatial structure within the contour of the
world so far. flower.
In the rose-form flower the form of the Dr. Kamo Mototeru called this type of
whole flower is nearly round and its petals are shape Kimjongilia-form or lion-type. Many
somewhat flat and often overlap like roof tiles large-flowered tuberous begonias were
or fish scales. The China pink-form flower is known so far but there was none deserving
characterized by serration of different sizes at of being called lion-type. Kimjongilia alone
the rim in the upper part of petals and the can be called lion-type for its beauty,
petals are flat and somewhat concave and magnificence, originality and well-knit
less overlap each other and are arranged spatial structure.
Position of Kimjongilia in the Begonia Series
∨ ∨ ∨
all-season begonia leafy begonia bush begonia winter begonia tuberous begonia
straight line type drooping type
big flower small flower
simple flower semi-polypetalous flower polypetalous flower
red colour pink colour yellow colour white colour
camellia-form rose-form China pink Kimjongilia
• With care a flower can come to bloom
on a rock.
• A big flower-bud brings forth a big
RELATING • No flower comes into bloom without
TO FLOWERS being exposed to wind and rain.
• Butterflies flock to good flowers.
• A flower must be kept in bloom.
VARIETIES OF LILY
Dr. Kamo Mototeru respectfully grow straight or obliquely upward and
presented lily to the great leader are covered with purplish maroon
Comrade Kim Jong Il on February 13, markings and white hair. Lily puts forth
Juche 83 (1994). alternate or verticillate leaves. They
It is a perennial bulbous plant. nearly have not petiole or rarely have it.
The bulbs are egg-shaped or round The leaf is shaped like willow's leaf,
and flat and white or yellow. Its stalks line or heart and has parallel veins.
Some put forth heart-shaped cormels in
Lily the bracts of leaves. Orange, reddish
orange or white flowers bloom drooping
downward, or turning sideway or
upward in indeterminate inflorescence
at the tips of the branches.
Lily has six sepals in all–three outer
sepals and three inner sepals. It has six
stamens and one pistil which is longer
than the stamens.
The colour of flowers is crimson, red,
light pink, light purple of the anthocyan
series, red, yellow and orange of the
carotenoid series and white, yellow and orange
of the flavone series.
When flowers are in full bloom, they
diffuse aroma. Its fruit is elongated and
round and dehiscent.
– STORY OF THAK YANG WON, VICE-CHAIRMAN
OF THE KOREAN KIMJONGILIA FEDERATION –
APPEARED IN THE
The Korean Central News come out separately in the
Agency reported on February same plant. Male flowers are
20,Juche 77 (1988): bigger and more splendid than
Kimjongilia, the immortal the female ones. Female
flower named after the august flowers have ovary at their
name of the dear Comrade bottom.
Kim Jong Il , has appeared in The first flower of
the world. Kimjongilia comes out from
Kimjongilia is a rare the fifth or sixth node and
beautiful flower which Kamo then 10-15 more flowers come
Mototeru, in charge of the into bloom successively going
Kamo Iris Ensata Garden in upward at each node for
Kakegawa city in Shizuoka several months. The male
Prefecture in Japan, has newly flowers measure 10-20
bred through protracted centimetres across and 25
energetic research with the centimetres across at most.
feeling of intense respect and Presenting the flowers and
adoration. sending the congratulatory
The lovely large flowers of letter to Comrade Kim Jong Il ,
Kimjongilia come into bloom Kamo Mototeru who has
successively in order of devoted his whole life to
arrangement for over 120 horticulture said that it was
days. The beautiful flowers his lifelong desire to breed the
dazzle onlookers. It rapidly most beautiful and rare flower
propagates and is easy to tend. and name it after the august
Kimjongilia is a perennial name of the peerless great man
flowering plant which belongs respected and adored by all to
to the begonia family. Its stalk convey it to posterity for ever.
grows straight and is 30-70 He said that he deems it the
centimetres high. Its leaves greatest honour and pleasure
a r e a s y m me t r i ca l and elongated. that on the occasion of the
Male and female flowers 16th of February he conveys
the Kimjongilia he has peace, and wished him a long
newly bred through over 20 life in good health.
years of his energetic efforts Kimjongilia together with
to the dear leader His Kimilsungia which came
Excellency Kim Jong Il who across continents and oceans
is leading the Korean people will be in full bloom for ever
with great leadership ability across the country, taking
and contributes to friendship roots in the land of the
and solidarity between the prosperous Juche Korea
Korean and Japanese peoples amidst the intense love of our
and the cause of the world people.
The interior of Kimjongilia Hothouse
SPREAD ACROSS THE COUNTRY AS THE
FLOWER OF LOYALTY
The news that Kimjongilia has telling of their desire came.
appeared in the world inspired great The Kimjongilia Hothouse
excitement and pleasure in our began to be built in the Central
people. This made them feel the Botanical Garden as desired by
national pride that they live with
all the people of the country.
great Comrade Kim Jong Il at the
helm. At the news many people
Many people from different came rushing to the place from
parts of the country visited the the different parts of the country.
botanical museum of the Central Among them were housewives,
Botanical Garden to see youth and students.
Kimjongilia. Needed equipment, materials,
Many writers and artists began tools, humus soil, peat and
to sing the flower in poems, songs flowerpots were sent there.
and works of art.
The People’s Army men, too,
The visitors expressed their
earnest desire to grow the flower in sent there the cases of good
their work place and home. humus mold together with
Numerous telegrams and letters letters.
Likewise the Kimjongilia
Hothouse with an area of over
1,000 square metres was built at
the foot of Mt. Taesong in the
suburbs of Pyongyang amidst the
great concern of all the people of
the country and opened to the
public on April 10, Juche 77
The glasshouse became a
breeding farm to propagate the
newly bred Kimjongilia in the
The Central Botanical
Garden formed the Kimjongilia
Korean painting Kimjongilia
study group and energetically and sent them reference books.
pushed ahead with research As a result, the study group
work to solve the scientific and has established the method of
technical problems arising in growing and propagation of
propagating and growing the Kimjongilia commensurate with
flower. the climate of Korea in a little
The Party and government over one year and settled a
provided the garden with number of scientific and technical
necessary equipment including problems.
up-to-date experimental The scientific and technical
facilities and reagents. symposium of botanists of the
J ap an e s e h o r t icul t u r i s t country was held with a view to
K a mo Mo toteru gav e lectur e growing more beautiful
a nd sh ar ed e xper ien ce in its Kimjongilia in May Juche 78
grow ing w ith p eop le in th e (1989).
Kimjong ilia Ho thou se of the The gathering was attended by
Cen tra l Bo tan ic a l Ga rden , many noted scientists and
visiting it on several occasions technicians of the country and
Research into Growing and Korea surpassed the world standard.
Propagation of Kimjongilia, When the Central Botanical
Research into the Tissue Culture of Garden bred Kimjongilia on a mass
Kimjongilia and other valuable scale all the people of the country
research data were made public. wished to grow it.
With rapid growth of public The Kimjongilia hothouses
interest and demand for Kimjongilia began to be built in the botanical
the important task facing scientists gardens of all provinces and
was how to propagate Kimjongilia counties. In a few years the
on a mass scale in a short time. Kimjongilia hothouses have been
In order to solve this problem built at the dear leader's native
scientists put a great effort into the home in the Secret Camp on Mt.
study of the method of propagation Paektu and in all the counties of
by tissue culture, the up-to-date Ryanggang Province.
method of breeding. The unknown efforts of labour
Propagation of orchid, China hero Kim Kyong Bok of the
pink and other flowering plants by Kim Jong Suk County Management
tissue culture was in the stage of Office and his brothers did much to
industrialization in those days but bring Kimjongilia into full bloom
the case with begonias was in the garden in front of the dear
different. leader’s native home in the Secret
Moreover, there were almost no Camp on Mt. Paektu.
published research data concerning After being discharged as chief
the tissue culture of tuberous sergeant from the People’s Army in
begonias. May Juche 79 (1990) Kim Kyong
Our scientists stubbornly pushed Bok obtained six plants of
ahead with research work and Kimjongilia in the Central
succeeded in settling the problem of Botanical Garden and headed for
its mass propagation by tissue Mt. Paektu. He experimented with
culture. growing it for two years in
As a result, tens of thousands of Rimyongsu at the foot of Mt.
saplings came to be produced in one Paektu and transplanted it to the
year. glasshouse in the Secret Camp on
Visiting the tissue culture room Mt. Paektu.
of the Central Botanical Garden, The climate on Mt. Paektu was
Kamo Mototeru said that the level extremely rigorous.
of tissue culture of Kimjongilia in
THE STRUCTURE OF FLOWER
The flower is a special reproductive Th e o v a r y c o n ta i n s o v u l e s w h i c h
organ of angiosperms which produce seeds develop into seeds after fertilization.
and fruit at maturity. Morphologically the Th e f l o we r which has both
flower arose by transformation of bud at the a n d ro ec i u m a n d g yn o e c i u m i s c a l l e d
point of the internode which is not branched mo n o c l i n o u s f l o w e r a n d t h e f l o w e r
and is very much contracted. w h i c h h as o n l y s t a me n s o r p i s t i l i s
The flower consists of receptacle, sepals, cal led u n isex u al f lo we r . Th e f lo w e r
petals, stamens and pistil. The receptacle is whi ch ha s on ly a p ist il i s c all ed
the expansion of the tip of peduncle to which f e ma l e f lo we r wh il e th e f lo w er wh i ch
other elements of flower adhere. Sepals are h a s o n l y s ta me n s i s c a l l e d mal e
arranged at the outside of the flower and flowe r . The pl ant in whi ch b o th ma le
usually consist of several calyxes and protect f l o we rs an d f e ma l e f l o we rs b l o o m i n
the inner parts of it. Petals collectively form o n e p l a n t i s c a l l e d mo n o e c i o u s p la n t .
the corolla. Calyxes and corolla form a Th e p l an t f o r wh i ch f e ma l e f l o w e r s
perianth. Stamens are arranged inside corolla a n d ma l e f l o w e rs b l o o m i n d i f f e r e n t
and the pistil is in the central part. The individuals is called dioecious plant.
stamen consists of pollen-sac and filament.
The pistil is composed of stigma, style and
pollen on the stigma stigma
Component parts of flower The structure of flower
Dance Song of Wish
Th e snow wh ich f e ll one n igh t p iled up to the eav es of the
g lasshouse and th e r ag ing snow stor m ev en broke off the
K im K yong Bok and h is bro th ers con tinu ed growing
Kimjong ilia on a tr ial b asis for sev eral ye ars to bring it in to
b loo m in th e yard of th e d ea r le ad er’ s n a tiv e ho me in th e
S e cre t Ca mp on Mt. Pa ek tu . The y hard en ed th e p lan t a t lo w
temp eratur e and in th e unf avour able conditions at the time of
sap ling. A t last, in the su mme r of Ju che 82 (1993) th ey brough t
1 6 p la n t s o f K i mj o n g i l i a i n t o b lo o m.
Th e gr ea t le ad er Pr e s id en t Kim Il Sung , who v is ited th e
S e cre t Ca mp on Mt. Pa ek tu in the su mme r th a t ye ar , s aw th e
f u l l - b lo w n f l o w e r s o f K i mj o n g i l i a i n t h e y a r d o f t h e o ld h o me .
Th e y se e me d to h av e app ea l ed to h i m a t f ir s t sig h t . H e sa i d
th at th e Kimj ong ilia in b loo m look ed more b eau tifu l at th e
n a tive ho me of Co mr ad e Kim Jo ng Il . Th e fa ther le ad er who
me t K i m K yong Hu i and K i m K yong W ol in the se cr e t c amp a t
th at time po sed for honor ab le souv en ir pho togr aph together
w i t h t h e m i n w o r k c l o th e s .
Th ey w er e ord in ar y sold ier s and work er s who d id no t
r eceiv e prof essional train ing and h ad no exper ien ce in flow er
grow ing but brough t K imjong ilia into b loom in th e Secret
Camp on Mt. Paek tu . Th ere goes a saying, “W ith care a f low er
can co me to b loo m ev en on a ro ck”. The in tense lo yalty of our
p e o p le b r o u g h t th e f lo w e r s in to b lo o m o n Mt. P a e k tu .
Spring on Moran Hill
ACROSS CONTINENTS AND OCEANS
Kimjongilia, which was born The Kimjongilia tubers which I
with the blessing of all people, brought with me at that time is
has spread over more than 60 blooming beautifully in the United
countries in a rather short period. States.
The rapid propagation of “All my family and
Kimjongilia is not only because compatriots looked at the flower
of its unique beauty. It with mouth agape and amazed at
symbolizes the high reverence its brilliant red colour. In
and respect of the people of the commemoration of the day when
wor ld for th e g re a t le ader Kimjongilia has bloomed for the
Kim Jong Il . first time in America, they were
An overseas Korean, who had posed for a photograph, the
come from Los Angeles to flowers in the centre, and held a
participate in the World Festival banquet.
of Youth and Students held in “A few days ago an American
Pyongyang in Juche 78 (1989), who lives in the coastal area
visited the Kimjongilia visited me and asked me to help
Hothouse. him to grow the flower. As days
Completely charmed with the go by more and more people
beautiful Kimjongilia, he became fond of this flower.”
expressed his wish to bring it A photo of Kimjongilia he
into bloom in the United States brought into bloom was enclosed.
and returned taking some tubers Ramid Mertzi of Ecuador also
with him. One year later a letter grows Kimjongilia at home. He
came from him addressed to the visited Pyongyang through long
Central Botanical Garden. journey as his father and all his
In his letter he said: “… family wished.
Robert de Belder, president of In an article titled “Kimjongilia in
the International Arboricultural Full Bloom” the Indonesian newspaper
Society, visited Pyongyang Jakarta said:
accompanied by his son, a botanist, “Red flower symbolic of fervent
and all his family and studied the ardor, flower bud seeming a flaming
method of growing Kimjongilia in torchlight and green, heart-shaped
detail. leaves supporting flowers all agree
Singapore newspaper Straits with the sentiment and aspiration of the
Times, Indonesian newspaper Korean people.
Compass and Jakarta, Norwegian “Kimjongilia is really an immortal
newspaper Aftenposten, Peruvian flower representing the boundless
newspaper La Tercera, Congolese loyalty of the Korean people to His
newspaper Mweti, Pakistani Excellency Kim Jong Il.”
newspaper Leader, Thai newspaper Today Kimjongilia hothouses are
The Nation, Bangladesh newspapers built in many countries. The Yanji
Bangla Bani and Deizo Zonota and Korea-China Friendship Flower
many other foreign newspapers Garden Co. Ltd. in China has opened
carried reports and featured the Kimjongilia Hothouse on a 800
Kimjongilia under different square metres plot. In the Mongolian
headings like “Charming Flower”, capital of Ulan Bator too, a
“The Most Beautiful Flower in the Kimjongilia Hothouse was opened.
World”, “Kimjongilia in Full It is said that the Uknit Flower
Bloom”, “Red Flower Newly-bred Garden in California, the United States,
in Reverence of His Excellency cultivates hundreds of Kimjongilias.
Kim Jong Il”; all in praise of the With the passage of time the
beautifulness and rareness of number of people loving this flower
Kimjongilia. is increasing.
AWARDED GOLD MEDAL
During May 1-11, Juche 80 Netherlands, Belgium and
(1991) the 12th International Austria.
Flower Show was grandly held at The Kimjongilia, exhibited by
Bratislava, a city located on the
the Central Botanical Garden of
shore of the River Danube in
the General Bureau for the
The examination of flowering Management of Mt. Taesong of
plants started at 5 a.m. until 3 p.m. of Korea, was No. 674.
April 30. The jury which consisted of 50
There exhibited were over 820 members began its work at dawn,
items sent by 103 flower-producing but it was in the afternoon when
companies, organizations and research they reached the show stand of
institutes of 13 countries including the
Conspicuously large flower in
full bloom, fascinating petals,
Platycodon grandiflorus evenly dyed with red colour,
giving out fervent liveliness,
heart-shaped green leaves giving
freshness and sturdiness ... such
was the very Kimjongilia
attracting people’s hearts.
That day at the general
examination the jury decided to
award the special prize and gold
medal to Kimjongilia.
The show was opened on May
Day. That evening the jury, in
consideration of all views of
spectators, conferred the special
prize, the highest prize of the
show, and the gold medal on
At 8:30 p.m. the TV reported the the flowers had to be given to them at
news of the 12th International Flower 5 p.m., three hours ahead of schedule.
Show, and out of the 15 minutes' During August 8-18, Juche 86
report time, 7 minutes was dedicated (1997) a flower fair was held in a
to Kimjongilia. The following day grand way in Jilin city, China.
Kimjongilia hit the headlines of the On display were over 12,000
major newspapers in Czechoslovakia. flowering plants and visual aids by
Austria, Germany, Italy and other Changchun, Jilin, Yanji, Tonghua and
neighbouring countries also covered other cities and counties of Jilin
the news that Kimjongilia was Province.
awarded the special prize and gold Yanbian Koreans’ Self-governing
medal. Province exhibited as the main flower
The exhibition hall of Kimjongilia Kimjongilia grown in the Kimjongilia
was visited by more than 50,000 Hothouse of the Yanji Korea-China
people every day. The show had to be Friendship Flower Garden Co. Ltd.
extended for a day as a result. A lot of Chinese people, Korean
The organizing committee of the compatriots, foreigners and tourists
show decided to give away the flowers visited the flower fair. All admired
on display at 8 p.m. of the last day. Kimjongilia. A researcher of the
The exhibition hall was crowded with Beijing Phytophysiology Institute
people who came a few hours earlier and said after going round the flower fair:
The showroom of the Korean Kimjongilia at
the 12th International Flower Show
The special prize and gold medal awarded to Kimjongilia
at the 12th International Flower Show
“Kimjongilia is a flawless flower for and boundless faith of all the
in a botanical view. It is the flower people in General Kim Jong Il, I
which is easily understandable to think.”
Af ter ma k ing insp ection o f
everybody even without
th e fair, Mr. Ri who liv es in
explanation.” K yodong Sub- Coun ty,
An official of a trading company K anghwa Coun ty, Kyongg i
in Changchun city remarked: “The Provin ce of sou th Kor ea said,
recommendation of conferring the “Nor th Kor ea shows better
highest prize on Kimjongilia is not thousand time s th e me ttle o f
Kogur yo wh ich had rema in ed
only high reputation to its profound
a power ful state for a
meaning and beauty but also an thousand ye ar s. Th e d a y o f
expression of respect and expectation unification is not long when
Kimjong ilia show will be h e ld
in S e o u l, to o , I th in k . ”
Th e organ izing co mmi ttee
of th e f low er show award ed
Ki mjong i l i a t he b e st p r iz e
accord ing to th e unanimo u s
will of examin ers and v isito rs
and th e numb e r of d iplo ma is
The diploma of the first
prize awarded to
Kimjongilia at the
Flower Show in China
THE COLOUR OF FLOWER
It is the colour given to corolla or sepal The red colour caused by anthocyan
by the plant pigment. The flower colour turns blue or bluish purple by alkali.
depends on the kind, quantity and chemical The yellow flower becomes deep
reaction of anthocyan dissolved in the cell chestnut or purplish red by alkali. The
sap. The colour of flower is also manifested yellow colour of flower caused by
by chromosome in cytoplasm. For example, chromosome does not change by alkali.
the blue, red and dark purple colour of blue Production of anthocyan depends on
cornflower is caused by cyanin, the red temperature, light, nitrogen, phosphor
colour of fish geranium by pelargonin, the and others and its kind and quantity
red colour of rose, mainly by cyanin and produced in the same plant change. It
pelargonin. also depends on the pH of the cell sap.
FLOWER SHOW HELD EVERY YEAR
February is not a thawing the Ministry of the People’s
season. There is no precedent of Armed Forces left deep impression
holding a grand flower show in on visitors. It was characterized by
such cold winter, but since Juche numerous plants of Kimjongilia
86 (1997) the Kimjongilia show encircling the supreme commander
has been held in a grand way. flag with a Marshal star in the
On the occasion of the 55th centre. Kimjongilias which the
anniversary of the birth of officers and men of the People's
General Kim Jong Il the first Army of sentry posts on the
Kimjongilia show was held at the Demarcation Line and remote
Pyongyang International House islets bloomed with their sincere
of Culture. heart, a decoration stand
More than 800 Kimjongilia describing a turtle and sunflowers,
pots presented by many units of a granite pedestal with a white
the capital and local areas and bear engraved on its surface which
army and working people were supports the Kimjongilia pot, a
exhibited showing boundless black serpentine flowerpot,
adoration for and loyalty to elaborate gemcraft works which
respected Kim Jong Il . represents Kimjongilia and other
In the exhibition hall of the graceful decorations... those are
Central Botanical Garden a permeated with the unanimous
figure “55” was made with 216 heart and steady faith of the
Kimjongilia pots in celebration People’s Army men ready to
of the 55th birthday of the defend the command of revolution
General; in the exhibition hall of at the cost of their lives and wish
Ryanggang Province were in full the respected General long life in
bloom Kimjongilias which were good health.
cultivated by twelve counties of The exhibition organized
the province. by the Ministry of Public
T h e e x h ib itio n a r r a n g e d b y S e c u r i ty i s o f p e c u l i a r i ty w i t h
flowerpots made of famous Om Sun, workteam leader of
Korean celadon and white granite the Rangnim Forestry Station in
and ceramic flowerpots on which Jagang Province, managed to have
slogan-bearing trees are drawn. ten Kimjongilias in his native
The arrangement of two-faced place 1,300 metres above sea level
mirrors surrounding Kimjongilia where winter temperature is 30-
gives the impression of a garden 40°C below zero, and presented
stretching far beyond; a display them to the show; Kim Thaek
that attracted the visitors’ Yong, teacher at the Ryongho
attention. Senior Middle School in
Through painstaking efforts and Kimchaek city, along with his
research, Han Sun Chol, officer of wife, grew a large flower of 25
the Korean People’s Security centimetres in diameter and sent it
Forces, who has grown Kimjongilia to the show.
for six years at the greenhouse built Jong Won Yong, sub-workteam
by himself, invented a device leader of the Songjong Cooperative
making it possible to grow Farm of Tanchon city, built a
Kimjongilia in all parts of our greenhouse with a plot of 30
country. square metres near his house and
Bills advertising Kimjongilia
The arrangement of flowers on the axis is raceme (radish, cabbage, sheperd’s purse and
called inflorescence. others), spike (plantain, wheat, barley and
Some plants bear single flowers but many others), spadix (Arisaema japonicum, maize and
plants have branched flower stalks or lateral others), catkin (willow, chestnut tree, Actinidia
branched stalks on which many flowers bloom arguta and others), corymb (cherry tree, pear
congregated. tree and others), umbel (Acanthopanax
Flowers adhere to the flower stalks directly or sessiliflorus, ginseng and others) and capitulum
by peduncles. The mode of adherence of flower (sunflower and dandelion), according to its
stalks to the stem differs according to plants. The form.
peduncle of flower corresponds to a branch and Compound indeterminate inflorescence is
comes forth from the bract of leaf. divided into spike (rice, grape and others),
Inflorescence is divided into the compound umbel (carrot and others) and others.
indeterminate inflorescence and the determinate 2) The determinate inflorescence: As the
inflorescence. primary axis ends in a flower, the axis grows no
1) The indeterminate inflorescence: As the more. As in the determinate inflorescence lateral
tip of the flower stalk continues to grow, the axes arise, the primary axis ends in a flower and
flower which came out first is in the lower part. one or several lateral branches which shoot out
The flowers bloom consecutively going upward or below the primary axis all end in a flower. The
centripetally. As the primary floral axis branches in flower grows downwards or centrifugally.
the indeterminate inflorescence, flowers continue to The determinate inflorescence is divided
come forth with the elongation of floral axes. into uniparous cyme (helicoid cyme and
The indeterminate inflorescence is divided scorpioid cyme), dichasium (China pink and
into simple inflorescence in which flowers come others) and polychasium (Euphorbia pekinensis
forth along the primary floral axis and compound and others).
inflorescence in which flowers bloom along the Inflorescence evolved from raceme to
primary, secondary and other branches of the spadix and then to capitulum through spike. On
floral axis. the other hand, raceme is considered to have
Simple inflorescence is divided into evolved to corymb and umbel respectively.
Types of Inflorescences
1. spike 2. raceme 3. corymb 4. capitulum
5. umbel 6. compound raceme 7. compound umbel
8. uniparous inflorescence 9. biparous
inflorescence 10. scorpioid cyme
11. helicoid cyme 12. compound capitulum
13. raceme of spike 14.spadix
together with his mother, wife, son and An anti-Japanese revolutionary
daughter cultivated more than 5,000 fighter visiting the show said, “Seeing
Kimjongilias and supplied them to Kimjongilia, I can picture the
others. Seventy-six-year-old Ko Sa appearance of our General vividly in
Gyun who lives in Yonhap-ri, Unsan my mind's eye. I come to have
County and pupils of Pulgungori confidence. I think that our General
Primary School in Pyongyang though must live long without fail. The first
coming from different parts of the anti-Japanese generation, though old,
country were successful in obtaining will help him in work sincerely, staying
blooming Kimjongilias defying bitter near him.” A delegate of the National
Democratic Front of South Korea said:
cold and heavy snow, with loyalty to
“This Kimjongilia exhibition hall is
the respected General. They exhibited
overbrimming with sincerity, loyalty
them on the show, too.
and filial piety of the brothers and
Visitors were greatly interested in sisters of north Korea to the respected
Kimjongilias sent to the show from General.”
abroad crossing oceans and continents. Returning to his unit after seeing
The Kimjongilia pots which were the show, an officer of the Korean
sent by the Kimjongilia Hothouse in People’s Army expressed his
Yanji city of China, Kamo Mototeru, resolution: “We, lifeguards, will grow
director of the Fuji International Kimjongilia, the immortal flower, with
Flower Garden in Japan, Ri Thae great care so that Kimjongilia, which is
Ryong, a Korean compatriot who lives our conscience and symbol of loyalty,
in Shizuoka Prefecture are permeated would bloom more beautifully in all
with the boundless adoration of all sentry posts where our soldiers serve.”
people for the great man of the century. The response of overseas Koreans
During the show, functionaries of and foreigners to the show is also
the Party and government, anti- wonderful.
Japanese revolutionary fighters, key Overseas Koreans, visiting-groups
officials of the Party and government, and foreigners staying in Korea as well
administrative organs, public as members of foreign diplomatic
organizations, central and secondary missions in Korea visited the show.
organs, officers and men of the They said that they were impressed by
People’s Army, public security the show describing it as expressive of
the mettle of the Korean people, single-
workers, workers, farmers,
heartedly united around General
intellectuals, youth and students,
Kim Jong Il.
children and other broad sections of
Hong Ryong Wol, head of the
people, expatriates and foreigners Kumgangsan Opera Troupe, said:
visited the show. Their number was “Really wonderful show. Having heard
the news about the opening of a this splendid exhibition was held.”
flower show, I supposed a few Yurikov, a delegate of the
flowerpots would be displayed. Fisheries Commission of Russia,
“I think it is by all means remarked: “Generally, a flower
necessary to hold such exhibition show is held in spring or summer
in Japan, too. I also will do my or autumn. It is common
best.” knowledge. At the sight of the
Ri Su Ja, Yun I Sang’s wife, winter flower show I can see how
who is resident in Germany said: fervent the loyalty of the people to
“I travelled a lot in the world, their leader is.”
but it is for the first time I see A great many visitors wrote
such a wonderful show. I think their impressions in the visitors’
that, thanks to having General book.
Kim Jong Il in high esteem, –“Kimjongilia, one and
FLOWERING MEDICINAL PLANTS
Flowering medicinal plants are plants corolla (Carthamus tinctorius) or pistils (or
whose flowers are used as Koryo medicine. maize hair) alone are picked for medicine.
The flowers of Typha orientalis, peach, wild Flowers for medicine are to be picked in
pansy, safflower, Chrysanthemum fine days and dried, spread in a well-
cinerariaefolium, Daphne genkwa, Dianthus ventilated place.
chinensis, Tilia amurensis, Rosa rugosa,
Sophora japonica, acacia, Convallaria keiskei, Peach blossoms
Lonicera japonica, maize hair and flower buds
of Magnolia kobus are used as medicine.
The nectary which is often found in ovary,
at the bottom of petal or on the protuberances
of sepal secretes nectar or essence.
When a flower is used as medicine, it is
picked when it is in full bloom
(Chrysanthemum cinerariaefolium and
Carthamus tinctorius) or in the stage of flower
bud (Viscum coloratum, Artemisia maritima,
Sophora japonica and others). Petals
(Matricaria chamomilla, Chrysanthemum
cinerariaefolium, Inula japonica and others),
only flower in the world, is like a of the embassy of the Arab
spring day to be everlasting and Republic of Egypt
immortal.” –“Each flower exhibited in the
Yun Jae Suk, a Korean from hall is the crystallization of the
China spirit of the Korean people to
–“This is the most beautiful build up a prosperous and happy
flower, unprecedented on the globe country, win ultimate victory in
and is symbolic of the sun.” the socialist construction and thus
Ahumad Huadmadui, a realize national reunification.
Palestinian student studying in “The great leader Comrade
Korea Kim Jong Il is the guiding sun
–“Through my visit to the whom the Korean people and all
show, I knew well how sincerely the people of the world look up to.
the Korean people respect their “We, therefore, are sure of
leader. That the Korean people victory in accomplishing the
extend so warm congratulations to cause of the Korean people.”
their leader on the occasion of his Oscar Gender Pernandes,
birthday is the expression of their attache at the embassy of the
whole-hearted belief in his devoted Republic of Cuba in Korea
efforts for the country’s prosperity –Be in full bloom forever,
and progress, I think.” Kimjongilia!
Ahumad El Sayed, a diplomat Flower shedding a light on
Artistes of different countries singing Let Kimjongilia
Be in Full Bloom over the World
the Korean people ambassador of the Republic of
Flower making millions of Bulgaria in Korea
Flower, splendidly arranged by In response to the unanimous
the strength of love, beauty and will of all visitors the Kimjongilia
ardor of the Korean people... show will be held in February
Jordan Mupachiyev, every year as a flower festival.
The First International Kimjongilia Show
In June of Juche 84 (1995) the The federation sends Kimjongilia
Korean Kimjongilia Federation was to foreign gardeners and lovers of
organized in Pyongyang. flower, conducts exchanges with them
The federation encourages the and has close cooperation with
propagation, supply and distribution regional association such as the North
of Kimjongilia through establishing European Kimjongilia Association and
contacts with all organs, enterprises, the Mongolian Kimjongilia
cooperative farms and other units Association.
which cultivate the flower. It promotes the building of
Its main efforts are directed to Kimjongilia hothouses in different
the successful organization of countries and the organization of
Kimjongilia shows every year. It Kimjongilia shows and conducts
also establishes contacts with foreign exchange in connection with
institutions wishing to participate in this.
the show, gives them technical aid The Korean Kimjongilia
to grow Kimjongilia and takes Federation has an Exhibition and
measure to provide them with Technique-Propagating Section and
seedlings. At the same time the Foreign Affairs Section. The chairman
federation deals with practical of the federation is Jang Chol, Vice-
problems related to the preparation Premier of the Administration Council.
of flower shows. The federation office is located in
With a view to popularizing the the Pyongyang International House of
knowledge of culturing Kimjongilia, Culture in Ryonhwa-second Dong,
the federation publishes technical Central District, Pyongyang City.
books on its cultivation and
organizes meetings to exchange
information on its cultivation and
– TEXT OF A LECTURE GIVEN BY DR. KIM IN GI ON
GROWING AND PROPAGATING THE FLOWER –
The Andes species of tuberous Temperature Condition:
begonia, the original pure breeds of Temperature is the main ecological
Kimjongilia, have grown in condition for plant living.
highland of 2,000-3,000 metres Therefore the sphere of
above sea level. geographical distribution of plants
The climate of such tropical or depends mainly on temperature
subtropical mountainous regions is conditions. Generally, flowering plants
not so hot nor so cold: temperature are classified into three categories
in the daytime is less than 25°C and according to the temperature condition
night temperature does not fall suitable to their growing. The
below 7°C. flowering plants proper to 25-30°C are
Of these mountainous regions, called high-temperature flower plants,
the tuberous begonia grew in places, those suitable to 15-25°C, moderate-
not too long exposed to direct temperature flower plants and those
sunlight and with comparatively agreeable to 10-15°C, low-temperature
high percentage of atmospheric flower plants.
humidity. Kimjongilia belongs to the
Therefore the Andes species are moderate-temperature flower plants.
adapted to such climatic conditions. So it grows well in the area of 15-25°C
For one hundred and scores of or in a greenhouse with this
years since the latter half of the 19th temperature condition.
century, floriculturists carried these But it grows poorly in the
wild species to Europe and tried condition of higher or lower
crossbreeding to develop them into temperature than this. The
larger and more beautiful flowers. continuation of over 20°C at night and
As a result, today’s modern species over 30°C in the daytime hinders
of tuberous begonia, incomparatively growing. In the condition of this high
larger and more beautiful than wild temperature the growing point spoils,
pure breeds were born. leaves are curled back and flower buds
Kimjongilia is an outstanding, fall down. If temperature of less than
modern species among such 10°C at night lasts, the plant does not
tuberous begonias. However, its grow; if the 5-6°C temperature at night
ecological environment such as stands long, plant tissue is spoiled, and
temperature, moisture, light and soil at the temperature of below zero it is
conditions is almost the same as frozen. However, during cultivation
those of the Andes species. temporary drop of temperature
to 7°C does not harm the plant. It Proper Temperature
retains the habit of the Andes pure According to the Stages
breeds. of Growth
The proper temperature conditions
of Kimjongilia differ little by little Proper Temperature (°C)
according to its growing steps. Growth Temperature Temperature
At the time of growing-up and in the Daytime at Night
blooming, it is good to keep a Period of
Young 20~22 16~18
difference in temperature between day Seedling
and night of over 10°C. In case of Period of
Moderate 20~22 15~16
comparatively high, summer daytime Seedling
temperature if night temperature is Period of
low, there is no great damage to the Blooming
plant. Preparation 18~20 7~10
Humidity Condition:Mois- for Rest
ture is an important ecological Period of
Calyxes, flowers, flower stalks and flower only when they are picked in right time.
buds serve as edible vegetables. Cauliflower, Method of their cultivation differs
rape, wall flower, Zingiber mioga, Cirsium according to their use.
maackii, Abelmoschus esculentus, gynmigit,
edible lily and others serve as flower vegetables.
As for cauliflower, its constricted
calyxes which store plenty of nutrients and
are light milkish white are edible. As for
Cirsium maackii, Zingiber mioga and edible
lily, their well developed tubers are edible.
As for rape, wall flower and gynmigit, their
soft flower stalks coming out from the upper
part of the stem and flowers are edible.
Since olden times the Korean people
have the custom of eating griddle cakes
made of the flowers of azalea.
Unlike usual vegetables, flower
vegetables are serviceable as vegetables
condition for the growth of a plant. In plants. Generally speaking, the
the period of sprouting of seed plants which bloom in the long-
saturated humidity is needed; in the daytime condition are called long-
period of nutrition-growth–the time of daytime plants, and those which are
young seedling and the time of in bloom in the short-daytime
moderate seedling–humidity of 70- condition, short-daytime plants.
80% is proper, at the time of blooming Kimjongilia is one of the long-
and of preparation for rest, 60-70% daytime plants. Therefore its
and in the period of rest for tubers, growth and blooming require about
40% respectively. 14 hours of daytime. In the season
Kimjongilia requires comparatively or region where the span of daytime
high percentage of atmospheric is shorter than this, additional light
humidity, and moderate soil must be supplied at night to secure
moisture condition where solid, the required length of daytime.
liquid and gaseous elements are Supplementary light may be set on
even. When soil moisture is too high for about 2-4 hours after sunset or
or when soil is too dry, a flower for 1-2 hours at night. Six hundred
plant grows poorly and might wither. watt sodium electric lamps or 40
Light Condition: Generally, watt fluorescent lamps are usable
plants are divided into sunny plants for additional light. Fluorescent
and shady plants. Kimjongilia belongs lamps can be installed 1.5 metres
to the latter. Therefore, it grows well above the flower stand in intervals
in shade away from strong direct of 2-3 metres.
sunlight. Requirement for light differs Soil Condition: Soil condition
a bit according to the stages of is one of ecological conditions
growth. In the period of the sprouting which greatly affect the growth of
of seed, very dim light is required; at plants.
the time of young seedling, the light Kimjongilia grows well in
of 5,000-8,000 luxes and in the period coarse humus soil. In the woods of
of moderate seedling and blooming, tropic and subtropic high
9,000-10,000 luxes. mountains humus layer is laid thick
To secure such light intensity in and it often rains, so moisture is
the season of intensive sunlight it is enough. The ecological habit of the
necessary to hang shades or reed- tuberous begonia bred from the
made blinds behind the glass walls Andes pure breeds which had been
exposed to sunlight. adapted to such conditions is nearly
The length of daytime is vital the same as that of the pure breeds.
for the growth and bloom of
GROWING FLOWER IN
GREENHOUSE AND AT HOME
Cultivation in Greenhouse important to build a greenhouse
properly, because the conditions
Of tuberous begonias there of greenhouse are fundamental to
are flower plants which grow at the arrangement of good
the flower bed outdoors. But cultivation conditions. Therefore,
Kimjongilia is usually cultivated floriculturists must know well
in a greenhouse. To bloom about the characteristic features
Kimjongilia beautifully it is very of various types of greenhouses and
The Kimjongilias which are brought in bloom in the hothouse
efficaciously use the micro-climate of The principal components of
their own greenhouse. Meanwhile, it is culture soil are leaf mold, peat, sand,
also advisable to arrange proper bermanite and perlite, which have
flowerpots and good culture soil, water properties of good drainage,
and fertilize plants in a rational way. preservation of moisture and passage
Arrangement for Flowerpots of air. Coarse broad leaves which fell
and Culture Soil: As for flowerpots on the ground and got rotten for 2-3
for cultivating Kimjongilia, ordinary years are used as leaf mold. Peat
pots can be used. must be fragile, too. Coarse sand is
fit. Leaf mold must be disinfected
with heat of about 60-80°C. To do
this the moist leaf mold is spread 5
centimetres thick on a heated iron
sheet, and turned over 2-3 times with
a spade. When vapor rises from the
leaf mold it is piled up in one place,
covered with a vinyl sheet and then
kept under 50-60°C for 5-6 hours. If
a small quantity of leaf mold is to be
sterilized, it can be placed in a high-
pressure steam sterilizer for about 15
Earthenware pots are favourable It is good to mix the elements of
for the growth of plants because culture soil just before using it. The
earthenware is porous, so water is mixed culture soil must be preserved
fully absorbed and air passes through. clean, preventing it from hardening
Therefore earthen pots are widely and being mixed with filth. Culture
used as flowerpots for moderate soil should not be blended with
seedlings and blooming flower. various organic substances such as
Plastic pots are used in growing young
domestic animals’ excrements and
seedlings since they are light and
convenient to handle. Ceramic pots bean cakes which were not
are mainly used for exhibiting flowers completely rotten. In the culture soil
because their surface is glossy and mixed with such foreign matters
clean. Pots of various size are needed: plant's root might decay as those
7-8, 12, 16, 19 and 25 centimetres in matters are putrefied during its
diameter. Pots must be washed well growth.
and then dried in the sun. They must In case of making culture soil
be dipped in water first so that they with leaf mold, peat, and sand, they
could fully absorb water. are in the ratio 1:1:1 in volume.
Transplanting of Seedlings and little large-hole nozzle. The former is
Replacing of Flowerpots: It is for watering young seedlings and the
essential to replace Kimjongilia pots latter is for watering a little taller
several times according to the stages plants.
of its growth from young seedling till To change flowerpots, it is
before blooming. The root of advisable to spray water over culture
Kimjongilia is typically a forked one soil until it is damp. If exceedingly
which is laid in small depth and moist culture soil or dry one is used,
aerobic. So, only when the seedling is roots may be damaged or water may
moved to other pots befitting to the not penetrate into the soil evenly
extent of its growth, can it grow after planting seedlings.
healthy and come into bloom. As a seedling grows up in a box
Before changing pots it is as large as its leaves lie one upon
necessary to have various kinds of another, first it must be transplanted
garden tools ready at hand. For the in a pot of 7-9 centimetres across.
universally usable tools there are a When the seedling is transplanted in
seedling box, water vessel, water a small pot, its leaves must cover the
sprayer, sieve, garden trowel, pincette, pot by 60 percent and if the pot is too
bamboo chopsticks, stand, strings and large in comparison with the
so on. seedling, the seedling grows up
A seedling box is used when tissue poorly. It is desirable to plant the
culture seedlings are to be seedling in the centre of the pot, the
acclimatized or seedlings grown up end of leaf projected a little outside
from seeds are first to be transplanted, the rim of the pot.
when tubers are sprouted or cuttings At this time the lower part of
are planted. A box size of 60x40x10 leafstalk must not be buried in the
cm is convenient to handle. A water culture soil, and, in particular, care
vessel is useful to put a flowerpot or a should be taken lest growing point
young seedling box in it so that they should be buried in culture soil. On
can take in water from the bottom. the other hand if a seedling is planted
The vessel can be made of an in too shallow soil, its roots may be
alluminium sheet or a galvanized iron broken as it moves.
plate or concrete, large enough to When the seedling grows up
accommodate 2-6 seedling boxes at about one month after the first
one time. transplantation the leaves spread out
Sieves of two or five millimetres of the pot. Then it must be
wide eyes are mainly used. It is transplanted to the other pot of 13-16
desirable to have both a sprayer with a centimetres across. In such a way
minute-hole nozzle and another with a pots are changed several times until
blooming: in case of propagation by shallow layer of culture soil, attention
seed, 4-5 times; tissue culture seedling, must be paid lest the culture soil be
3-4 times; the seedling propagated by dug by water.
cuttings and seedlings grown from The following watering must be
tubers, 2-3 times. done after the culture soil dries one
When replacing a pot one pushes centimetre deep. If not, the root can
upward its bottom hole with one’s hardly breathe and rot because of
finger, pulling out the plant. A piece of a increased moisture in culture soil and
broken pot or gravel or slag is placed on lack of air. On cloudy or raining days
the bottom of the new pot to be watering must be avoided. In
changed, some culture soil spread above particular, in rainy season only dry
it devoid of the seedling as it is and then flowerpots must be watered.
the space between the pot and culture Fertilization: Kimjongilia is
soil block filled up with culture soil up keenly sensitive to fertilizing.
to one centimetre beneath the pot rim. Proper fertilizing is helpful to
The surface of culture soil must be blooming large and fine flower, and
the applying of excessive quantity of
levelled with that of the former culture
fertilizer hinders the growth of flower.
soil block. It is advisable to water the
When fertilizing the culture soil of a
plant half a day after changing the pot.
flowerpot, many kinds of fertilizers of
Watering: It is important to
different density must be mixed
preserve the state of solid, liquid and gas
according to the steps of growth of
in the culture soil of flowerpot to be in
seedlings. Prescription for mixed
the ratio 1:1:1. Only then can the root
solution of inorganic fertilizers made
take in water sufficiently, breathing in consideration of the absorption
freely. quota of nutritious elements by the
To do this a modern greenhouse is periods of growth of Kimjongilia is as
furnished with automatic watering follows:
devices, laid with vinyl pipes leading to To manufacture culture solution
each flowerpot and installed regulator- one must first make individual
valves to drop water, so that the proper fertilizer solutions separately by the
moisture is kept. In the greenhouse kinds of fertilizer, mix them and add
which is not equipped with such devices water to them until total volume of
watering cans are used. When the solution comes to 10 litres. In this
culture soil dries one centimetre deep culture solution the density of
enough water must be sprayed on the inorganic salt comes to about 0.2
pot at 10 a. m. till it starts dripping from percent. Fertilizer solution may be
the bottom hole of the flowerpot. Since spread once every 7-10 days or two
the Kimjongilia’s roots are struck in the or three times a week by reducing
Prescription for Mixed which enhance resistance of the plant
Solution of Three Major to heat.
Fertilizers g/10 ℓ
Kinds of fertilizer Growing the Flower at Home
Ammonium Superphosp Potassium
sulphate hate of lime chloride
Period of growth To grow Kimjongilia at home it is
imperative to know how to use
growth by 13.0 3.3 3.3 effectively the seasonal conditions of
nutriment one's local area and the microclimatic
state of one’s room. In the temperate
reproductive 10.3 7.2 2.5 regions where four seasons are distinct
from each other, in the season when
atmospheric temperature is 15-25°C
its density with water to 1/2 or 1/4 Kimjongilia can be cultivated at the
simultaneously with watering. verandah or outdoors and in the season
As for organic manure, one where atmospheric temperature is
dissolves two spoonfuls of completely higher than 25°C or below 15°C, be
rotten chicken droppings in a bucketful grown in the room furnished with an
of water and spreads it on the air-conditioner. To grow it in the
flowerpots once every 7-10 days. v e r a n d a h i n t h e s u mme r , t h e
Manuring can be first applied once in
the interval of seven days and then of
Kimjongilia in full bloom at home
ten days alternatively or manure of
reduced density be given.
It is also advisable to fertilize a
week after changing a flowerpot when
root’s absorption ability becomes
In the period of young seedlings it
is desirable to spread 0.1% ammonium
sulphate solution on the leaves as
additional fertilizer 3-4 times in the
interval of 7 days. This helps the leaves
to become large, stems to thicken and
seedlings to grow quickly, so that large
flowers can come into bloom. Boric
acid solution of 0.025% and copper
sulphate solution of 0.05% are
effective leaf-additional fertilizers,
suitable place is where in the regions when daytime is short.
morning the sun shines for 3-5 hours Therefore, additional light is needed to
and afterwards diffused sunrays are fill up the 14 day-hours. A living room
shed on. So a verandah facing east or is usually provided with supplementary
southeast or northeast is proper. In light because one watches TV in the
case of growing it in a verandah evening and has the lights on, but an
facing south or west, it is desirable to office room needs supplementary light
lay the Kimjongilia pot beneath the for 2-5 hours because it is vacant after
tall ornamental plant such as a rubber 8-hour work. The supplementary light
tree or some grown-up tree. A north can be set on by a time-limit relay or
verandah, not exposed to direct instruction can be given to a guard to
sunlight, does not need to have turn on the lights at the desired time.
shading plants. The flower can be Thirdly, room moisture may be
grown at the north verandah, too, but considerably less than that of a
it does not grow tall because of less greenhouse. So, it is advisable to widen
sunlight. In a verandah where the surface of evaporation of water by
Kimjongilia is grown it is necessary growing many ornamental plants such
to create a microclimatic state so that as a rubber tree and grown-up tree and
the place is not so exceedingly dry by placing a fish globe and spreading
growing various ornamental plants gravel or sphagna on a broad tray full
together and putting fish globes. Also of water.
it is advisable to put sphagna near the As mentioned above, steps
flowerpots and water them. to increase moisture are helpful
In winter when growing to the growth of Kimjongilia. In
Kimjongilia in the room attention a room with a south window, its
must be given to the following: They are tending the flowers
First, since the difference in room with all sincerity
temperature between day and night is
not as significant as outdoors one
must see to it that temperature of the
room should not rise too high and
that difference in temperature
between day and night becomes 5-
6°C at least. For this purpose, the
flowerpot can be moved at night to
the toilet where temperature is low.
Secondly, the season of
growing Kimjongilia in the room
is as a whole winter in the temperate
temperature may rise up while early days and keep them in a
moisture may be reduced because of refrigerator and that as weather gets
strong sunlight entering through the cool one should sprout them to
window, so it is favorable to draw a cultivate.
thin curtain on the window. As aforesaid, if seasonal conditions
It is also important to strengthen are taken into consideration according
the plant body so that it becomes to local regions, Kimjongilia can bloom
adapted to the home environment. at home, too.
If a flowerpot brought directly
from a greenhouse is placed in the Preparation of Flowers for the Show
room, the flower droops within a
short period of time, because of Flower shows are opened on
sudden change of environment. To various scales in many countries and
bloom the flower at home, one must regions of the world. Through the show
cultivate the seedling, devoid of information on success and experience
bud, at home while gradually obtained in breeding and growing the
adapting it to the home conditions. flower plant is presented, exchanged
This is one of the secrets of and disseminated. Therefore, flower
blooming flowers at home. shows are always held when
Watering must be done in a proper floriculturists and flower-lovers make
way. Particularly, the flowerpot painstaking efforts to put the best
must not remain wet all the time by flowers on display.
frequent watering. It is also To exhibit beautiful Kimjongilia it
advisable to use tap water which is is essential, first of all, to synchronize its
kept overnight rather than using full blooming with the date of the show.
fresh tap water. If in the summer There are some differences in
when the temperature rises up zinc blooming time according to the state
sulfate solution of 0.5% or rare- of seedlings, cultivation conditions,
earth element manure solution of and the method of administration.
0.03% is sprayed on the leaves once Generally, seedlings bred from seeds
or twice a month, the plant's bloom in about 170 days, tissue
resistance to heat increases. culture seedlings, in about 150 days
In the summer when and seedlings propagated by the
temperature is over 30°C in the method of planting cutting, in about
daytime and over 20°C at night, it 130 days. Therefore, one must
is difficult to grow the flower in a prepare seedlings in consideration of
room without an air-conditioner. In these spans of time till blooming.
such case it is recommended that It is advisable to plant flowers
one should make tubers form in by stages about one month ahead
of the scheduled date of blooming applied to anywhere as they are in
because all flowers are not in full accordance with the state of plant,
bloom altogether due to different conditions of greenhouse and seasons.
factors even though they were That is why it is necessary to know
planted, timing the period of the expected date of blooming,
blooming. Only then, can one bloom suitable to the conditions of the
more flowers during the show. greenhouse.
Besides, one can anticipate the To have a large flower it is
period from the time of bearing a imperative to cut out all the lateral
bud to its full bloom by the help of sprouts coming out of the bottom of
the following table: stem or from the bracts of leaves. Two
Using the table, one can see that months ahead of the flower show, one
in order to make flower come out in cuts all the flower buds born at first,
full bloom on January 1, the flower because flower buds bloom in 40-50
bud must be as large as about two days after their birth and those which
centimetres across in late came into bloom two months prior to
November. Of course it cannot be the show opening may bloom ahead
said that the figures on the table can be of the scheduled date of the show.
Size of Flower Bud Size of
4.5 4 3 2 1 0.5
and Mean Days till bud (cm)
the Full Bloom of Number of
Flower 18 20 25 30 35 40
One month before the show opening investigating cultivation methods.
all flower buds, big or small, are all cut To participate in the show flower
off but one which is 2-3 centimetres must be transported to the show place
across, because the buds smaller than safely. For the purpose of this, flower-
this do not bloom during the show and petals, which are apt to touch leaves,
bigger ones bloom far before the show. must be wrapped with sanitary cotton.
If necessary, one more flower bud It is also advisable to arrange other
which is a little smaller than the auxiliary flowers as well as
original may be left on the plant. Kimjongilia. The auxiliary flowers can
Observing the flower buds add more grace to Kimjongilia and
growing, if one of them is wanted to promote formative effects of the show.
grow up bigger, the gardener plucks As for auxiliary flowers, flowers of
the other; if both buds are needed to be lineage of lighter colour than
exhibited, he leaves them as they are. Kimjongilia–white colour in main–can
When it is expected that flowers be chosen. It is also good to add
would come into bloom much later various kinds of ornamental plants to
than the show period, the gardener cuts the show. As a Korean proverb “With
all flower buds, leaving the first one care a flower can come to bloom on a
and, if necessary, plucks the female rock” goes, if everyone puts his whole
flower which was kept in reserve, too. mind to growing Kimjongilia, he can
Thanks to such measures all bloom fine flowers to be presented at
nutriments are concentrated on one the show.
bud only, whereas the period of
blooming may be brought forward by Blights Must Be Prevented in Advance
The period to prepare flowers and Clumsy watering and nutritive
the method of plucking buds must be administration and bad cultivation
decided by floriculturists themselves conditions can make plants weak
taking into consideration their own and possibly sick. Kimjongilia may
situation. That is because wither by various harmful insects
meteorological and climatic conditions when moisture at night increases by
vary from region to region. So do over 95 percent, when agricultural
greenhouse conditions and seedling chemicals are not applied in time,
state. when agricultural chemicals of the
For this reason it is necessary same kind are overused and when
for a floriculturist to cultivate the gardening tools are not sterilized in
flowers in his own greenhouse the course of planting cuttings and
during one cycle of flower-growing, growing flowers.
a c c u mu l a t i n g e x p e r i e n c e s a n d Mosaic disease: When the flower
plant is attacked by this disease, its The solution of mixture of
leaves get light green and gradually Botrychium ternatum, tobacco and
dark maroon and roll back. The pyrethrum is also efficacious against
disease is caused by a virus. If the the blight.
disease is to be prevented, it is Slips: This insect often appears at
imperative to cultivate a healthy plant high temperatures in summer. It is a
and dispose of the affected ones in small yellowish insect, one
time. millimetre in length. The damaged
Stem-rot disease: This disease is leaves, on which white mottles are
caused by poor ventilation due to seen, turn maroon and curl up. On the
close location of flowerpots or by flower appear a lot of gray mottles,
high atmospheric moisture during so it is poor-looking. Nicotine
rainy seasons. At first maroon mottles sulphate, 1/800-1/1,000 diazinon,
are seen on the stem and then compound solution of Botrychium
gradually diffused, while stem rots. A ternatum, pyrethrum and tobacco
gardener cuts out the rotten part and mixed with potash chloride of 0.1%,
sprays sulphur powder on it. In the are sprayed 3-4 times for an interval
early stage of disease 0.4% Bordeaux of 4-5 days.
mixture and 1/400 zineb solution are Nematode: This insect holes into
sprayed 2-3 times for an interval of a tissue to do harm to the plant and is
week. If serious, that plant must be characteristic of making knobs in that
removed and the flowerpot and part. There are about ten nematodes
culture soil be disinfected with heat. in one knob.
Dust louse: This is an invisible The damaged plant withers and
harmful insect. It sticks fast to the dries gradually because many pabulas
third leaf from the shoot and flower arise in roots and hair roots do not
bud and sucks sap. The flower and drive in soil. To prevent damage it is
bud, which are infested by this insect, necessary to disinfect culture soil
turn gray-white or gray-chestnut and, thoroughly. At the same time 1-3
in the long run, are lignified. In many grammes of DBCP oil is applied to
cases the blighted bud does not each flowerpot. For the purpose of
bloom. In the early days of disinfection the blighted small tubers
appearance of insects the 0.2-0.4 are soaked in water of 25-30°C and
degree compound solution of lime the temperature of the water is
and sulphur, compound of 1/400- brought up slowly to 48°C and then
1/800 sulphur and hydrate solution, kept in the water for five minutes. As
1/800 nubaclon solution and 1/1,500 regards blighted large tubers, they are
neoron solution are sprinkled 3-4 dipped in the water of 45°C for 40
times for an interval of 3-4 days. minutes.
DIFFERENT WAYS OF
All plants on the globe propagate
in different ways for their posterity. A Small Seed Blooms
Some propagate by seeds, some, by A Large Flower
planting bud sticks and others, by
tubers. The Kimjongilia’s seed is very
Kimjongilia increases through small, but the flower born from it is
these methods and by tissue culture, particularly large. Generally, when the
too. There are few plants which are flower plants, which are reproduced by
propagated by all these methods. vegetative organs, are propagated by
Now that Kimjongilia can be seeds, the features of species
propagated through various concerned are hardly maintained as
methods, it can spread fast. they are. As regards Kimjongilia,
the vegetative reproduction method is solution of half-reduced density or do
applied to it while species can be not at all.
preserved the way the individual Under this administration, the
plants showing the characteristic plant which blooms early does not
features of the species are selected bear pollen, but the one which blooms
after the plants which were lately can do so.
reproduced by seeds came into If in the blooming time one cuts
bloom. This is also the main ways the stem half and cultivates lateral
and means to preserve the species. branches coming out of the lower part
Selection of Seeds: In order to of the stem and leaf bract, the flower
select seeds one must choose good may bloom and bear pollen.
male and female plants and As a female plant one must select
crossbreed them. For a male plant, the matrix of Kimjongilia or a plant
one must choose a plant of reproduced with the vegetative part of
polypetalous quality, preserving the the matrix. After the parental plants
prototype of the round shape and use were chosen in this way the gardener
the pollen produced from it. In this coats a soft brush with pollen as pollen
case few seeds are gathered, but one blows from the pollen sac of a stamen,
can obtain polypetalous plants of over carries it closely to the head of a pistil
80 % which have such form and and flicks it off the brush to pollinate
quality as those of the female plant. the flower. Thirty to forty days after
However, if the pollen of pollination seeds are born. After
gamopetalous male flower is used gathering seeds the gardener puts them
simply because it is easy to obtain, in the room until full ripeness and then
such plants as those of the original flips them before assorting. He puts
form can hardly be bred. However, a the seeds in an envelop and keeps
polypetalous flower seldom bears them in a refrigerator under 4-5°C.
pollen. Therefore, it is imperative to The seeds have the sprouting ability
create such unfavourable even after two and half years.
circumstances and malnutrition Sowing of Seeds: It is proper
conditions that stamens can be born to sow seeds in a flowerpot of 13
from the polypetalous flower which
Collection of flower pollen grains
was selected as a male plant. Owing
to its original nature to leave its
offspring behind a plant makes pollen
if a bad condition was created for it.
To do so it is advisable to
lower temperature a little, spray
less water and apply fertilizer
centimetres across. One sifts humus After sowing a sheet of glass
mold, peat and sand separately to get is placed over the pot and it is
granules of 2-5 millimetres in
diameter and less than 2 millimetres Sowing
in diameter, and sterilizes them in a
steam boiler for 15 minutes. And then
one mixes them in the ratio of 1:1:1.
At the time one must mingle coarse
and fine granules separately. As
flowerpots and culture soil are
arranged to sow seeds, first of all, the
bottom hole of the pot must be
blocked, the pot filled with fragments
of broken pot or wet sphagna up to
the third of the height of the flowerpot
and coarse culture soil put at first and
then fine one. And the pot is shaken
so that the surface of culture soil is
lowered about one centimetre beneath
the pot rim and then levelled. Next,
the flowerpot is soaked in a water covered with a sheet of paper so as to
vessel as deep as two thirds of its secure half dark condition (about 100
height so that the culture soil absorbs
water from the bottom. After the
The pot must be provided with
seeds are put on a sheet of thick slick
paper the corner of the sheet is lightly constant temperature of 20°C. Three to
tapped to let the seeds roll down four days after sowing the depth of water
evenly to the culture soil. is controlled so that the pot is immersed
Fifteen to sixteen seeds are sown in water as deep as 2-4 centimetres.
per one square centimetre. A flowerpot When seedlings grow 3-4 millimetres
of 13 centimetres across accommodates high and bud leaves become green the pot
300-400 seeds. should be taken out of the water vessel
The method of immersing the recently
sown flowerpots in a water box
flowerpots sown with seeds first level of
and soaked in the water vessel every immerse the seedling box in a larger
several days for the purpose of having water container so that water
it absorb water. permeates the box. One transplants
Ten to twelve days later the shading seedlings when the upper layer of
paper on the flowerpot should be culture soil is fully wet. The seedlings
removed. grown in a flowerpot, too, must be
From 18-20 days since the sowing pulled out after water is fully absorbed
the air must often be ventilated. As in culture soil by submerging the pot
leaves grow one centimetre large and in the water container.
become green, the glass lid is opened Prior to transplanting seedlings in
half way. A week before transplanting the box, a hole is made on the humus
seedlings the glass lid must be mold in the intervals of 2.5
removed. centimetres, a seedling taken from the
Transplanting of Seedlings: flowerpot with chopsticks put on one
Seedlings grown in the seedling bed side of the hole and then the
must be transplanted in a box culture soil on the other side of the
temporarily. Temporary transplantation
must be done at the time of bud leaf
before original leaves come out. If
transplanting of seedlings is carried on
after leaves appeared, seedlings may
get damaged when they are pulled out
because their roots branch into three or
four parts. A box of 60 x 40 x 10
centimetres is suitable. A layer of fine
gravel or pieces of the broken pot and The flower seedlings after
coarse culture soil are put on it and then
0.5 centimetre thick fine culture soil is The flower seedlings after
spread. The culture soil must be filled tertiary transplanting
up to 1.5 centimetres beneath the
height of box. It is necessary to
Flower seedlings after
hole pressed on it so that its root is Materials to plant cuttings are lateral
buried in culture soil. bud sticks coming out from the lower
As transplanting is over, the box is part of a stem and from the bracts of the
soaked again in the water container so lst-4th leaves, the upper part of main
as to let it draw in water from its stem, sprouts germinating from a tuber
bottom. And then the box is placed in and a leaf with a leafstalk. In case of
the shade where temperature is 18- using the lateral bud sticks coming out
25°C and atmospheric moisture is 70- of the lower part of a stem and the bract
80 percent. A week later it is placed in of leaf, a lateral bud stick with two
a half-shady place under 5,000 luxes. leaves and one-centimetre-long stem
At first the seedling box is watered by has high vitality. In order to obtain
submerging it in the water container many lateral bud sticks it is necessary to
and then a sprayer is used as original cut the upper part of stem, leaving two
leaves grow one centimetre broad. lower leaves of a plant. When one cuts
After 30-40 days, the seedlings in off a lateral sprout from the lower part
the box grow large enough for their of stem or from a bract of leaf if all
leaves to touch each other. Then the lateral bud leaves except two are cut
flowerpot must be replaced with away, two bud leaves come out of the
another one of 7-9 centimetres across. bracts of the remaining leaves, so a lot
of lateral sprouts can be obtained. In
Planting of Cuttings case of using a leaf of the main
Generally, a plant has reviving The method of cutting offshoots
ability, by virtue of its nature. When a
certain part is separated from it, that
part grows up to be a whole plant.
Vegetative reproduction means a
method of multiplying a plant with
vegetative organs such as stems, bud
sticks, leaves and roots, relying on the
In case of vegetative reproduction,
like the planting of bud stick, the
offsprings, which are hereditarily the
same as their mother plants, are
multiplied. stem as material, it is advisable to
Preparation for Materials use a leaf of 7-9 centimetres in
and Culture Media of the diameter grafted on the leafstalk of
Flowerpot to Plant Cuttings: two centimetres long.
For culture media, coarse sand, and then remove one of them in order
pumice, sphagna and humus mold to secure the strength of light of about
must be prepared. A gardener puts in 5,000 luxes. Daytime of about 10
the wooden box pieces of broken pot, hours must be provided for 20 days
slag and gravel in the thickness of 2- after planting cuttings and afterwards
3 centimetres and spreads coarse more than 14 hours. After planting, a
humus mold on them in the same sprayer is used to sprinkle enough
thickness and then coarse sand above water for the planted cuttings to be
it in the thickness of 3-4 centimetres. glued to sand. From then onwards no
How to Plant Cuttings: It is excessive water is needed and it is
favourable to plant cuttings when good to sprinkle water over leaves
mean atmospheric temperature is 18- frequently. After 20 days water is
20°C and moisture is 60-70 percent. needed only whenever the surface
In the temperate regions spring and layer of culture medium is a little dry.
autumn are proper seasons. At the time of planting cuttings
At the time of planting flower buds which were born in the
cuttings one first fully waters the period of seedling in the box must be
cut off. Forty days later the planted
cuttings must be transplanted in
Transplanting of the Seedling
Grown from the Planted Cuttings:
As a planted bud stick begins to strike
root, leaves get dark-green and lateral
eyes begin to grow. Meanwhile the
main root strikes in the soil about 1.5-
2 centimetres deep and 2-3 lateral
roots come into being. This is the best
Planted leaf cuttings time to transplant seedlings from the
planted bud stick in flowerpots. If a
culture media and then plants cuttings
seedling is transplanted when its root
in the intervals of 5-7 centimetres
just begins to strike or when it grows
though some differ according to the
materials for cuttings. (photo) too long turning maroon, the seedling
In case of a 3-4-centimetre-long grows poorly later.
leaf of a cutting, it is good to plant it At the time of transplanting
1.5 centimetres deep. After planting seedlings it is important to handle
cuttings one must provide it with the them carefully lest their roots should
light of 2,000-3,000 luxes by lowering be hurt.
double reed-blinds for about 10 days The size of a flowerpot must
be fixed properly according to the size zome, tuber and bulb according to the
of the planted bud stick and the extent of part of the plant in which they are formed
rooting. The plant grown from the bud and to their form. Generally speaking,
stick such as small leaf body, lateral taro, European cyclamen and the like
sprout and so on must be transplanted in have corm. Dahlia and sweet potato have
the flowerpot of 7-9 centimetres across; tubers, whereas lily, narcissus and the like
tall plant be replaced in the pot of 13-16 have bulbs. Kimjongilia has a tuber
centimetres across. After transplantation which is the thickening of the stem like in
of seedlings the flowerpots must be yam and potato. Unlike potato which has
placed in the shade for a week and then several tubers, Kimjongilia has one tuber
gradually be shifted to a place with which is the thickening of the stem on the
proper light condition. With the passage neck of the root.
of about ten days after the Even in case of propagation by tuber,
transplantation of seedlings, fertilizer is there are the plants like gladiolus which
applied. As the flowers of a plant, which propagate by multiplying tubers and the
is reproduced through the method of Narcissus
planting a bud stick, are somewhat
small, it is advisable to bring the third
flower bud into bloom, while cutting off
the first and second buds.
Over 15 Years with
Quite a few flowering plants
propagate by rounded thick roots.
They mean the rounded roots
which are formed underground.
They are divided into corm, rhi-
European cyclamen I.ilium lancifolium
plants which do not multiply them. Generally speaking, the tubers
Kimjongilia does not multiply the grown in the first year of culture
tuber. Every year its tuber grows and measure 6-8 centimetres across and
bears new eyes. It is propagated by weigh 80-100 grams although they
planting eye cuttings. The tuber of vary according to the state of the plant
Kimjongilia has a long life. The tuber and the conditions of culture. At this
of gladiolus degenerates and loses the time three or four eyes are formed.
characteristics of the species in 3-4 The culture soil is removed and the
years, whereas the tuber of tubers are dug up when the culture soil
Kimjongilia continues to grow and dries up in about one week after the
retains its characteristics for more stem has fallen off the tuber.
than 15 years and sometimes up to 30 According to the conditions of the
years. hothouse the tubers may not be dug up
Preparation of the Tuber and and preserved in flowerpots.
Keeping It in Dormant Condition: Hairy roots are removed from the
After flowers fall the plant enters a dug-up tubers and the thick roots are
rest period. At this time the tuber left as long as one centimetre. If the
becomes large storing nutrients there thick root is cut out unreasonably, it
and apical eye and lateral eyes are may be spoiled when storing. It is
formed. In this period one should not desirable to secure high temperature
neglect the tending of the plants, and moisture by preserving the dug-up
putting them beneath the flowerpot tubers at the temperature of 20-30°C
stand on the assumption that the after covering them with paper and
flowers have already fallen. Even watering them a little rather than
after the flowers have fallen the plant keeping them as they are. At the same
should be tended, having it exposed to time the tubers are to be turned over
weak light (about 5,000 luxes) for 8- two or three times a day.
10 hours in the daytime and If the tubers are treated in this way,
maintaining temperature at 7-10°C at a corky tissue layer is formed on the
night, the lowest temperature being tubers and spoilage during storage will
18-20°C and watering it so that the be prevented.
flowerpot does not dry. It is desirable As for other tuberous flowering
not to apply fertilizer in this period. plants, large tubers generally give
Generally speaking, the tuber is better flowers. As for Kimjongilia,
formed in 40-50 days. When leaves the tubers which are one or two
turn yellow and fall, the stem is cut centimetres across, give rise to
leaving about 10 centimetres of it. large flowers too. Therefore, the
Then an absciss layer is formed small tubers formed in the young
between the tuber and the stem and plant and the small tubers formed in
the stem abscises. the branch cuttings planted, too, are
fully capable of giving good flowers in pot or sand are placed at the bottom of
the next year. the box and then above it peat or leaf
The dug-up tubers are kept buried mold is spread in the layer of 3-4
in sphagnum moss or sand or covered centimetres. Then tubers are planted at
with paper several times for about two the intervals of 5-10 centimetres. Then
months at the temperature of 1- 4°C. In they are covered with leaf mold to such
this period the content of abscisic acid an extent that they are buried in it. The
and other growth-suppressing agents in box is watered sufficiently before it is
the eyes of the tubers decreases, covered with packing paper lest
enabling them to come out of moisture evaporates. Water is sprayed
dormancy. Storage of tubers at low with a water sprayer when the leaf
temperature for 5-6 months does not mold dries. The eyes begin to
greatly interfere with further growth. germinate in 5-7 days at the mean
Temporary Planting of Tubers: temperature of 18-20°C and in relative
In order to propagate by tubers they are humidity of 70-80 %. Then the paper is
planted temporarily four or five months removed. New sprouts grow three or
earlier than the flowering period. The four centimetres in 6-7 days after the
tubers in storage are dug up and sprouts have appeared when the
disinfected by immersing them in 0.05 intensity of light is gradually increased
% solution of potassium permanganate and they are placed under normal care.
or dipped in water for about two or Transplanting of Tuber
three hours before they are planted in Seedlings: Three or four leaves
the box of about 60 x 40 x 10 centime- come out and the root grows two
tres. Fragments of broken flower- or three centimetres in about one
The flowers which began to come into bloom
in four months after planting the tubers
month after temporary planting of Secret of Tissue Culture
tubers when the plants are
transplanted in flowerpots. The great leader Comrade
Tuber seedlings are transplanted Kim Il Sung said:
as a whole or divided into 2-4 “Long-term research should be
pieces including eyes. When tuber conducted with a view to opening up
cuttings are planted, the cut surface new scientific fields and introducing the
is spread with sulphur powder to latest developments in science and
prevent spoilage. Tuber seedlings technology widely in the national
are generally planted in the economy.”
flowerpots which are 13-16 A new fast-developing field of
centimetres across. When the root gardening is the technique of mass
grows well and the tuber is large, it propagation by tissue culture. This
is sometimes transplanted in the technique developed with the progress
flowerpot which is 19-20 in the research work, started in Juche
centimetres across. 49(1960), to obtain a plant free of virus
The culture soil is filled to a from the growing point of the plants
moderate depth according to the belonging to the orchid family. Over ten
size of tuber and the central part is years later the technique began to be
made somewhat convex and the widely followed to massproduce orchid,
tuber is placed on it. The roots are China pink, Transvaal daisy and other
evenly spread and the culture soil is garden flowers.
again filled to such depth that the At present an “orchid industry”,
tuber is somewhat buried. propagating several ten species of the
It is desirable to fill the culture orchid family by this method, has been
soil till it comes up to about one created and is run as an enterprise in
centimetre beneath the rim of the different countries and the same
flowerpot. The tubers are watered technique is used to produce not only
sufficiently one or two hours after flowering plants but also tree seedlings.
their planting. The flowerpots Recently production of seedlings by
planted with tubers are kept in tissue culture has been automated.
shade for several days before they What then is the tissue culture of
are gradually moved to the place plants and what is its secret?
under moderate sunlight. Fertilizer The tissue culture of a plant means
is applied about ten days after the technique by which the definite
transplanting. tissue or organ of a plant is removed
Props are set when the tuber and a new tissue or plant is reproduced
seedling grows and begins to put by cultivating the removed tissue or
forth flower buds. Care must be organ in a germ-free condition in the
taken not to harm the tuber. test tube.
The technique is based on the the growing point, stem and
potentiality of the plant cell. Briefly flower stalk can be used as the
speaking, the potentiality of the plant tissue for culture.
cell means the ability of a plant cell to The tissue for culture should
produce a whole plant. In each plant b e ta k e n f r o m th e p la n t w h ic h
cell the heredity information to be
developed on to a whole plant is
preserved in the chromosome in the
form of DNA. A whole plant is
produced with the heredity information
realized at the different stages of the
growth of the plant. Therefore, any
tissue or organ taken from a plant can
be reproduced as a whole plant when
the heredity information kept in them is
realized. The secret of tissue culture
precisely lies in the DNA.
When plants are propagated by the
method of tissue culture, healthy Tissue culture room
seedlings can be obtained several preserves the qualities of the prototype
hundred or several thousand times and is in good vegetative condition. The
quicker than the usual method of tissue for culture can be taken in any
vegetative reproduction. Therefore, this season except summer. It is desirable
method is widely used to reproduce the not to take the tissue for culture in
plants of good strain on a mass scale. summer because it may be affected by
Like in the tissue culture of other various diseases and blights. But the
plants, reproduction of Kimjongilia by tissue for culture can be taken even in
tissue culture undergoes the following summer in the automated hothouse
four stages of culture. where seedlings are tended with
Primary Culture: Primary culture agricultural chemicals applied
means the culture of the first regularly. In case of use of leaves as the
generation. In other words, it is the first tissue for culture the material can be
process of culture in which a definite chosen according to the permeability of
tissue or organ is removed from a plant alcohol into the leaf tissue. When the
and cultivated in a germ-free condition leaves affected by diseases and blights
to obtain a new sprout. are immersed in a 70% alcohol
The plant tissue which is taken solution, it penetrates the cut surface 4-
away and planted for primary culture is 5 centimetres deep and the colour of the
called tissue for culture. leaves changes. The removed leaves are
Leaves are mainly used as the well washed in running tap water and
tissue for culture in the tissue immersed in a 70% ethyl alcohol
culture of Kimjongilia. In addition, solution for 2-3 seconds and then
in the upper layer of a 2% solution of medium are placed on the culture
chloride of lime for 30-40 minutes for stand. In the culture room temperature
disinfection. For culture of plants they is maintained at 23-25°C in the
are generally dipped in a 7% solution of daytime and at 18-20°C at night and it
chloride of lime for 15-20 minutes for is exposed to the light of 1,500-2,000
disinfection. In case of use of leaves as luxes for 12 hours. In normal
the tissue for culture they are well cultivation the outer epidermal layer
disinfected when the concentration of swells, split into 3-4 layers in 7-10
chloride of lime is decreased and the days and the signs of sprout appear in
disinfection is prolonged. the lesioned part of tissues, leaf vein
If they are much affected in the and outer epidermal layer on the cut
process of disinfection, it means that surface in 20-30 days and sprouts grow
germs have penetrated deep into the leaf to be 0.5-2 millimeters in 30-40 days.
tissue. In that case other material must Therefore, primary culture is
be chosen. Old bleaching powder free considered to last 30-40 days. But it
of active chlorine must not be used. sometimes lasts 40-50 days according
After disinfection the tissue for culture to the materials.
is placed in a beaker filled with Multiplying Culture: Multiplying
sterilized water to wash away the culture means the process of culture in
residue of chloride of lime 3-4 times. which the buds obtained in primary
Leaves then are placed on the sterilized culture are multiplied. In the process of
filter and cut to be about 7x7 multiplying culture buds-leaves are
millimetres and put on the culture multiplied to be several ten or several
medium in the test tube in such a way hundred pieces. For multiplying
that its front surface contacts the culture culture the tissues with differentiated
medium. When petiole or flower stalk is buds are removed from the test tubes
used as the tissue for culture, they are to a spatula and are cut by sharp knife
disinfected in the above mentioned to be as large as a rice grain.
manner and cut to be 7-10 millimeters. Then the culture medium for
When thick materials are used, they are multiplication of sprout and the culture
cut into 2-4 pieces lengthwise and the medium for growth of sprouts are
cut surface is contacted with the culture brought into the sterilized room
medium. together. The sprouts measuring less
When the growing point is used as than two millimeters are placed on the
the tissue for culture, it is cut to be 0.1- culture medium for multiplication of
0.2 millimeters under stereomicroscope sprout and the sprouts larger than two
and is contacted with the culture millimeters with some additional
medium. tissues attached beneath them are
The test tubes with the tissue placed on the culture medium for
for culture contacted with culture growth of sprout.
Solid or liquid culture medium may the plants strike root.
be used as the culture medium for At this stage, the bud-leaves which
multiplication of sprout. In case of use are obtained in the process of
of solid culture medium it is replaced multiplication and have the petiole
every 25-35 days. In case a liquid longer than two millimetres and the
culture medium is used it is desirable to leaves as large as five millimeters are
replace it every 7-15 days. At the stage used as materials for culture. In the
of multiplication the solid culture process of replacement these bud-leaves
medium and the liquid culture medium are chosen and transplanted in the
is laid five millimeters thick. This culture medium for growth. It is
ensures respiration of the leaf tissue of desirable to plant them in the intervals
the sprout. of about 1-1.5 centimeters. The
It is good to replace culture medium temperature for culture is kept to be the
about ten times. When culture medium same as in the case of primary
is replaced more than ten times, cultivation and they are exposed to the
deformed leaves may appear. light of 2,500-3,000 luxes for 12 hours a
Temperature and intensity of light day. When they are grown in these
are kept to be the same as in primary conditions for 50-60 days, the leaves
culture. It is desirable to prolong the grow 1-1.5 centimetres, the petiole, to
time of exposure to light to 16 hours. two centimetres and the roots, several
Culture for the Growth of Sprout: millimetres. The plants in the living
Culture for the growth of sprout is the state weigh about 300-500 milligrams.
process of culture by which the whole Then the plants are dug up and put to
plants are reproduced by transplanting acclimatization.
the bud-leaves obtained in the stage of Acclimatization: Acclimatization,
multiplication in the culture medium for the last process of tissue culture, is the
the growth of sprouts. It is called the hardening process in which the young
process of culture for differentiation of plants, grown in the culture medium of
roots because in this process of culture the culture bottle, are acclimatized to the
Budding culture open climatic conditions for a definite
The young plants taken out of the
culture bottle have their stomas open
because they were in the saturated
humidity. Therefore, the stomas fail to
perform their function of opening and
closing properly and when the young
plants are placed abruptly in the open
with low humidity they may wither
because the balance between absorption
of moisture and evaporation is lost. tumble over, buried in the culture
Therefore, they must be acclimatized medium up to the neck of the roots.
to the climate, gradually decreasing Care must be taken so that the
humidity. The roots which grew in growing point does not be buried in
the culture bottle fail to function the culture medium.
properly in the culture medium in the After planting, water is sprayed on
open air. Only when they strike root the seedlings with a water sprayer so
anew, adapted to the new culture that pores between the roots of the
medium, do they properly absorb seedlings and sand can be filled.
moisture and nutrients. They acquire Then the seedling boxes are
this function through acclimatization. covered with glass or plastic plate to
Sand, pumice, sphagnum, peat ensure saturated humidity as in the
and others are used as the culture culture bottle. The water drops formed
medium for acclimatization. on the inner side of glass or plastic
Sand is more commonly used. It plate must be wiped out lest they drop
is desirable to use coarse sand. on the seedlings. Humidity must be
Sand is washed with water gradually decreased through
several times to remove impurities. ventilation by placing pebbles
Coarse sand is spread in the between glass or plastic cover and the
acclimatization box and then above it box. The seedlings are tended for
the fine sand as deep as five about 10-15 days while controlling
millimeters. When culture medium is humidity in this way before the cover
prepared, the seedlings are taken out is entirely removed.
of the culture bottle with a pincette During acclimatization it is
with long legs and the residue of desirable to keep temperature at 20-
culture medium is washed away well 22°C in the daytime and at 18-20°C at
in tap water. Then the lesioned tissue night, the intensity of light at 3,000-
adhering to the neck of the roots are 4,000 luxes and the time of exposure
carefully removed with the tip of to light to be more than 14 hours.
knife. Acclimatization in the seedling
Then the seedlings are spread on box lasts 30-35 days. In this period
the packing paper so that moisture is new roots grow to be 1-2 centimetres,
absorbed and then planted in the new bud-leaves come forth and leaves
seedling box. grow. The seedlings acclimatized in
It is desirable to plant them in the this way are transplanted in the
intervals of 1.5-2.5 centimetres. They flowerpots which are 7-10 centimetres
are planted as shallow as they do not across.
Words by Kim Thaek Yong
( ＝92 ) Music by Om Ha Jin
so damhan kkotsong-i gibbumul angyoju go
yu jonghan guhyang-gi gasume hul lodu– ne
thaeyanghwaro noraeha–nun arumdaun kim jongil hwa
ja– juui sae segye e bulgunnoulpyol chyoga– ne
1. The lovely flowers give pleasure, 2. It is in full bloom across the country
The sweet aroma fills people's breast.
as the Korean flower.
The beautiful Kimjongilia sung as the It dyes the whole world as the flower
sun flower. for all.
Brings glow over the new world of (Refrain)
Edition: Pang Hwan Ju, An Chol Gang
Photo: Kim Kwang Jin
Picture: Ri Song Jin
Technical layout: Ryu Chang Hun
Translated: Choe Ki Ju, An Jong Ho