NS Vocabulary Section II Student Nurse Laura

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NS Vocabulary Section II Student Nurse Laura Powered By Docstoc
					                       NURSING SCIENCE 111 VOCABULARLY – SECTION II

ACID              Substance containing a hydrogen ion that can be liberated or released

ACIDOSIS          Condition characterized by a proportionate excess of hydrogen ions in the extracellular fluid, in which the pH falls
                  below 7.35
AEROBIC           Requires oxygen to live and grow

AGGLUTININ        An antibody that causes a clumping of specific antigens

ALKALOSIS         Condition, characterized by a proportionate lack of hydrogen ions in the extracellular fluid concentration, in which the
                  pH exceeds 7.45
ANAEROBIC         Live without oxygen

ANION             Negative charged ion

ANTIBODY          Immunoglobin produced by the body in response to a specific antigen

ANTIGEN           Foreign material capable of inducing a specific immune response

ASEPSIS           Absence of disease-producing microorganisms; using methods to prevent infection

BACTERIOCIDAL     The destruction or dessolution of bacteria

BACTERIOSTATIC    Inhibiting the growth of bacteria

BASE              An alkali, a substance that can accept or trap H+ ions.

BUFFER            Substance that prevents body fluid from becoming overly acid or alkaline

CARMINATIVE       A agent that helps to prevent gas formation in the gastrointestinal tract

CATHARTICS        Medications that strongly increases gastrointestinal motility and promotes defecation

CATHETERIZATION   Use or passage of a catheter.

CATIONS           Positive charged ions

CHOLECYSTECTOMY   Surgical removal of the gallbladder
COLLOID OSMOTIC PRESSURE   Pressure exerted by plasma proteins on permeable membranes in the body; synonym for oncotic pressure

COLOSTOMY                  An opening into the colon that permits feces to exit through the stoma

CONSTIPATION               Passage of dry, hard, fecal material

DEFECATION                 Emptying of the intestinal tract; synonym for bowel movement

DEHISCENCE                 Separation of the layers of a surgical wound; may be partial, superficial, or complete disruption of the surgical wound

DEHYDRATION                Decreased water volume in body tissue

DIFFUSION                  Tendency of solutes to move freely throughout a solvent from an area of higher concentration to an area of lower
                           concentration until equilibrium is established
DISINFECTION               Process used to destroy microorganisms; destroys all pathogenic organisms except spores

DIURESIS                   The secretion and passage of large amounts of urine

DYSURIA                    Difficulty in voiding; may or may not be associated with pain

EDEMA                      Accumulation of fluid in extracellular spaces

ELECTROLYTES               Substance capable of breaking into ions and developing an electric charge when dissolved in solution

ENDOGENOUS                 Produced or originating from within a cell or organism.

ENEMA                      Accumulation of fluid in extracellular spaces

ERYTHROPOIETIN             A cytokine made by the kidneys that stimulates the proliferation of red blood cells.

EVISCERATION               Protrusion of viscera through an incision

EXOGENOUS                  Originating outside an organ or part

EXTRACELLULAR FLUIDS       Fluid outside the cells; includes intravascular and interstitial fluids

FECAL IMPACTION            Collection in the rectum of hardened feces that cannot be passed

FILTRATION                 Passage of a fluid through a permeable membrane whose spaces do not allow certain solutes to pass; passage is from
                           an area of higher pressure to one of lower pressure
FLATULENCE                 Excessive formation of gases in the gastrointestinal tract – the condition of
FLATUS                 Intestinal gas – the passing (fart)

FUNGICIDE              An agent that kills fungi and their spores

GRANULATION TISSUE     New tissue that is pink/red in color and composed of fibroblasts and small blood vessels that fill an open wound when
                       it starts to heal
HEMORRHOIDS            Abnormally distended rectal veins

HOMEOSTASIS            Various physiologic and psychological mechanisms respond to changes in the internal and external environment to
                       maintain a balanced state
HYDROSTATIC PRESSURE   Force exerted by a fluid against the container wall

HYPERCALCEMIA          Excess of calcium in the extracellular fluid

HYPERKALEMIA           Excess of potassium in the extracellular fluid

HYPERMAGNESEMIA        Excess of magnesium in the extracellular fluid

HYPERNATREMIA          Excess of sodium in the extracellular fluid

HYPERTONIC             Having a greater concentration than the solution with which it is being compared

HYPOCALCEMIA           Insufficient amount of calcium in the extracellular fluid

HYPOKALEMIA            Insufficient amount of potassium min the extracellular fluid

HYPOMAGNESEMIA         Insufficient amount of magnesium in the extracellular fluid

HYPONATREMIA           Insufficient amount of sodium in the extra cellular fluid

HYPOTONIC              Having a lesser concentration than the solution with which it is being compared

HYPOVOLEMIC SHOCK      Shock due to a decrease in blood volume

IATROGENIC             Infection that occurs as a result of a treatment or diagnostic procedure

ILEOSTOMY              Opening into the small intestine allows fecal content from the ileum to be eliminated through the stoma

IMMUNOCOMPROMIZED      Having an immune system that is incapable for a normal, full reaction to pathogens or tissue damage, as the result of a
                       disease or drug therapy with agents that inhibit components of the immune system.
INSENSIBLE WATER LOSS          Non-measureable water loss. Lungs breathing. Normal sweat/evaporation.

ISOTONIC                       Having about the same concentration as the solution with which it is being compared

LAPAROSCOPIC                   Pertaining to a bariatric surgical treatment

LOCAL ANESTHESIA               The pharmacological inhibition of nerve impulses in a body part. Works by decreasing the flow of sodium into nerve
                               cells. Small lesions or minor surgery.
MALIGNANT HYPERTHERMIA         disease that causes a rapid rise in body temperature (fever) and severe muscle contractions when the affected person
                               receives general anesthesia.

MASTICATE                      To chew

MEDICAL ASEPSIS                Practices designed to reduce the number and transfer of pathogens; synonym for clean technique

METABOLIC ACIDOSIS             Proportionate deficiency of bicarbonate ions in the extracellular fluid

METABOLIC ALKALOSIS            Proportionate excess of bicarbonate ions in the extracellular fluid

NOSOCOMIAL                     Something originating or taking place in the hospital (i.e. Infection)

OLIGURIA                       Scanty or greatly diminished amount of urine voided in a given time; 24 hour urine output is 100 to 400 mL
                               30 mL and hour!!
ONCOTIC PRESSURE               Pressure exerted by plasma proteins on permeable membranes in the body; synonym for colloid osmotic pressure

OSMOLARITY                     Concentration of particles in a solution, or a solutions pulling power

OSMOSIS                        Passage of a solvent through a semipermeable membrane from an area of lesser concentration to an area of greater
                               concentration until equilibrium is established
PARALYTIC ILLEUS               Paralysis of intestinal peristalsis

PATHOGENS                      Disease-producing microorganisms

PATIENT-CONTROLLED ANALGESIA   Method of controlling pain that involves an infusion pump that holds a vial of an IV analgesic that the patient controls
                               and self-administers n small doses
PERCEPTION                     Conscious process of organizing and interpreting data from the senses into meaningful information

PERI-OPERATIVE                 Wide variety of nursing activities carried out before, during, and after surgery
PYELONEPHRITIS          Inflammation of the kidney and renal pelvis, usually as a result of a bacterial infection that has ascended from the
                        urinary bladder.
RESPIRATORY ACIDOSIS    Proportionate excess of carbonic acid in the extracellular fluid

RESPIRATORY ALKALOSIS   Proportionate deficiency of carbonic acid in the extracellular fluid

SENSIBLE WATER LOSS     Capable of being perceived. Measureable water loss – Foley, emesis

SEPSIS                  A systemic inflammatory response to infection, in which there is fever or hypothermia, tachy-cardia/pnea, inadequate
                        blood flow to organs.
SEQUENTIAL PNEUMATIC    Compression devices used on calves for VTE prophylaxis

SEROSANGUINEOUS         Containing or the nature of serum and blood

SEROUS                  Resembling blood serum clear and watery in appearance

STANDARD PRECAUTIONS    CDC precautions used in the care of all patients regardless of their diagnosis or possible infection status; this category
                        combines universal and body substance precautions
STERILIZATION           The process by which all microorganisms, including spores, are destroyed

STOMA                   Artificial opening for waste excretion located on the body surface

SURGICAL ASEPSIS        Practices that render and keep objects and areas free from microorganisms; synonym for sterile technique

SYSTEMIC                Throughout the entire body

VALSALVA MANEUVER       Forcible exhalation against a closed glottis, resulting in increased intrathoracic pressure

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