VIEWS: 47 PAGES: 47 POSTED ON: 8/21/2011
EDITORIAL DESK STAFF MEMBERS: Ms.K.G.Nithya lecturer -FT STUDENTS INCHARGE: Mr.Nidheesh IV b.tech Ms.Guddi IV b.tech Mr.Ramanathan IV b.tech STUDENT MEMBERS: Ms.janani .P III B.Tech Ms.kalaivani.R III B.Tech Mr.Kannan.M III.B.Tech Ms.Aarthiy.D II B.Tech Ms.Indumathi. II B.Tech MESSAGE FROM CHAIRMAN Thiru. R. Vivekananthan, Founder Chairman, Sri Krishna Engineering College, Chennai- 601301. I’m glad to know that the department of fashion technology of Sri Krishna Engineering College is going to conduct a symposium FAMA FEST –’11, the way to develop and implement the talents and ideas of the student. I appreciate the efforts and contribution of the HOD, staffs and students to conduct the event in a grand manner. I wish them all the great success in their future endeavor. Mr.R.Vivekanandan MESSAGE FROM ADVISOR Prof. Dr. P.Ananthakrishnan, Advisor, Sri Krishna engineering college, Chennai-601301. I am happy that the Fashion Technologists of Sri Krishna Engineering College is conducting FAMA FEST-’11, a pavement for the students to exhibit their talents. The department has shown tremendous improvements in their academic performance and activities. I wish they show much more remarkable changes in the coming future. All the best to the staffs and my beloved students. Dr.P.Ananthakrishnan MESSAGE FROM PRINCIPAL Dr. M.Sivakumar, Principal, Sri Krishna engineering college, Chennai - 601301. I am privileged to know that the Fashion Technologists are organizing a national level technical symposium. I hope this event will provide an opportunity for the students to showcase their creativity and ideas will help them gain knowledge. In this contest, the budding technologists will have useful, interesting, informative ideas. I extend my warm and sincere greeting to the faculty and students of the department of Fashion Technology. God Bless!!! Dr. Sivakumar MESSAGE FROM HOD Ms.C.Kayalvizhi, Head Of the department, Department of fashion technology, Sri Krishna Engineering college , Chennai - 601301. I’m delighted to be part of the grand event Fama Fest –’11 conducted by students, which has created an expectation among the Fashion technologists. It is imperative that these events are properly documented. My sincere thanks to our chairman & management for their help and support. I look back and acknowledge our Principal Dr. Sivakumar for his constant encouragement and unwavering support in things leading up to this event. During these initial stages, it seemed too big a leap for me but for the efforts and support of our department staffs made it look small now. My heartiest kudos to them all. Events such as this will not happen without the student’s active and associative participation. I take this opportunity to congratulate all these student coordinators and participants. I hope this magazine will be of great use to all who seek information. . - Ms.C.Kayalvizhi ABOUT THE COLLEGE: SRI KRISHNA ENGINEERING COLLEGE, CHENNAI - 601301. Sri Krishna Engineering College was established in 1999 by the far sighted vision of its illustrious chairman Thirus R. Vivekananthan. The college is affiliated to Anna University and is approved by All India Council for Technical Education. The college aims at imparting high quality education in Engineering and Technology of all categories of students. Well equipped laboratories with state of the art equipment and computers, spacious classrooms, well stacked library and a good canteen are some of the features of the college. Every student in the college is attached to a faculty Advisor who advises the students in all academic matters and counsels. Students are advised to report to their faculty advisors every day. All academic activities of the college begin every day with the recital of the “Confidence Voice” by the students. This helps the students to build in them a sense of confidence in all their activities. The college has well qualified, efficient and dedicated teaching staff in all the departments. Weekly seminars are conducted in all the classes. Guest lectures are arranged with outside faculty and experts from industries. Monthly tests are held in all the classes regularly. The progress of students is reported to parents every month. The computer laboratory is spacious and fully air conditioned. There are 400 systems and all are on LAN. The college is proud of its well qualified, experienced and dedicated staff. COURSES OFFERED: I.UNDER GRADUATE COURSES: The following four- year courses in Engineering/Technology are offered with total annual intake of 516 students B.E Degree in Electrical & Electronics Engineering Electronics & communication Engineering Computer science & Engineering B.Tech DEGREE in Information technology Fashion technology II .POST GRADUATE PROGRAMS: M.E computer science and engineering M.E applied electronics MBA Master of Business Administration SPORTS AND GAMES: The sports complex houses, apart from the courts available at the hostels, athletics track, a football court and a cricket ground. Besides, sports meet is held in the college every year and also the students are encouraged to take participation in university and state level competitions. The students have won number of trophies in sports and games. STUDENTS SYMPOSIUM: The association of all departments has being conducting National level technical symposiums. The main aim of conducting such programs is to encourage self-study, to update their minds with the recent technical advancements so as to tackle the challenging future. LIST OF FACULTY MEMBERS: PRINCIPAL Dr. M. Sivakumar M.tech, Ph.D, HOD: Ms.C.Kayalvizhi M.TECH, MBA LECTURERS: Mr.V.Thirumurugan M.Tech Mr.S.R.vishwanathan M.Tech Ms.K.G.Nithya M.Tech Ms.M.Sona M.Sc, M.Phil Ms.V.Divyaa M.Sc, M.Phil LAB INCHARGE: Mr.C.Guna Seelan CHAIRPERSON & GOVERNER: Ms.C.Kayalvizhi STUDENT COORDINATOR: Mr.V.Thirumurugan TREASURER: Mr.S.R.Vishwanathan EVENT COORDINATOR: Ms.K.G.Nithya Ms.M.Sona Ms.V.Divyaa STUDENT PRESIDENT: Mr. Muthukamachi IV FT Mr. M.Kannan III FT Mr. T.Mageshkumar II FT STUDENT SECRETARY: Mr. Ramanathan IV FT Ms. Saranya IV FT Ms. B.Arulmozhi III FT Ms. J.Bhagyalakshmi III FT Ms. Monalisa II FT Ms. Surya II FT LIST OF COMMITTEE: TECHNICAL EVENTS: STAFF IN CHARGE: Mr. V.Thirumurugan Ms. K.G.Nithya STUDENT IN CHARGE: PAPER PRESENTATION: Mr. Bala Mr. Jeyacharkrapaani POSTER PRESENTATION: Mr. Sriram Mr. Jayaseelan Mr. Muthu sami Ms. Niranjana Mr. Dhilipkmar PROJECT PRESENTATION: Mr. Manimaran Ms. Gunasundari QUIZ: Ms. Saranya Ms. Sathyapriya Ms. Janani NON TECHNICAL EVENTS: STAFF IN CHARGE: Ms. M. Sona Ms. V. divyaa STUDENT IN CHARGE FASHION SKETCHING: Mr. Nidheesh Ms. Prashoba SPOT PRESENTATION: Mr. Tholkappiyan MEHINDI: Ms. Jeyamani Ms. Sangamithra HAIR DRESSING: Ms. Sathya Ms. Kalpana FASHION SHOW: Ms. Saranya Mr. Sivaraman FOOD COMMITTEE: STAFF IN CHARGE: Mr. S. Vishwanathan STUDENT IN CHARGE: Mr. Dineshkumar DISCIPLINE COMMITTEE: STAFF IN CHARGE: Mr. V.Thirumurugan Ms. K.G.Nithya DECORATION: STAFF IN CHARGE: Ms.M.Sona Ms.V.Divyaa PAMPLETTE, BANNER, CERTIFICATES: STAFF IN CHARGE: Mr. S.Vishwanathan STUDENT IN CHARGE: Mr. Nidheesh Ms. Monalisa RECEPTION: STAFF IN CHARGE: Ms. M. Sona REGISTRATION: STAFF IN CHARGE: MS. K.G. Nithya STUDENT IN CHARGE: Mr. Ravanan Ms. Kiruthiga ACCOUNTS: STAFF IN CHARGE: Mr. S. Vishwanathan ENTERTAINMENT: STAFF IN CHARGE: Mr. S. Vishwanathan DJ: STAFF IN CHARGE: Mr. S. Vishwanathan STUDENT IN CHARGE: Mr. Karthick INVITATION ISSUING: Ms. M. Sona Ms. V. divyaa COMPARING: STAFF IN CHARGE: Ms. V. divyaa STUDENT IN CHARGE: Ms. Guddi Ms. Raji GUEST RECEIVING: STUDENT IN CHARGE: Mr.Ramanathan Mr.Muthukamachi MAGAZINE: STAFF IN CHARGE: Mr. V.Thirumurugan Ms. K.G.Nithya STUDENT IN CHARGE: Mr. Ramanathan Ms. Kalaivani Ms.Aarthiy ABOUT THE DEPARTMENT: FASHION TECHNOLOGY “Fashion is a language spoken by everyone” The department of fashion technology was started in 2008, headed by Ms. C.Kayalvizhi. She is an eminent person in the textile field. Our department is well governed by excellent faculty members. In this modern era of colorful fashion trends, the field of fashion technology grows in popularity and in demand among government and private sectors. The department has state of the art laboratory and qualified faculty as per the norms and expectation of the society. Though the department is emerging in the college, it has been provided with all the equipment for the laboratories which deal in the areas of Design, Production and Fabrication of garments. LABORATORIES: Garment construction lab Fabric structure lab Dyeing and printing lab Computer aided garment design and textile cad lab Design collection MAJOR EQUIPMENTS: Fabric count balance GSM cutter Water bath Electronic balance Red wood viscometer Say bolt viscometer Cleave land flash & fire point apparatus Bomb calorimeter Orsat apparatus Gas calorimeter Mannequins various models Industrial sewing machines Dummy models ABOUT THE SYMPOSIUM: FAMA FEST-‘11 We are honoured in presenting fama fest –’11, a national level symposium on march 11th. This will provide a red carpet for the students to exhibit their creativity and innovations . In connection with fama fest-’11 our department brings out a magazine containing information about the events & activities of the modinifanat association. Our symposium consists of new trends creations and available information in the form of articles. On the other hand our students have exhibited their own creative work and other non-technical skills like art works, fashion show, sketching etc., As we are the only college in Chennai of Anna university affiliated for the department of fashion technology ,we have conducted symposium for the past two years successfully. Fantasized Fashionable Adventure. I dreamt of the most interesting dream in a place where I saw the most intriguing sights. I was walking in a very dry, arid and scorchy land. when an angel came up and took me by my hand. We began to leap energetically towards the sky. If you would ask me, I still cannot tell you why. We landed on wispy, feathery fog in the upper stratosphere. Another angel came by on the feathery misty stuff. He gave me two thousand dollars, and asked, "Is this enough?" I took it gladly and said, "Thank you very much." Then he just floated up and far away, Well, I just did not even know what to say. No angel had ever given me money like that, So, on my heavenly, misty fog I just sat. Suddenly, I was soaring backward and swiftly down. The air was whipping fast through my angel gown. I landed safely with it beneath me, onto the ground. I saw large group of buildings, with letters large and bold. I read " Fashion Center Court" and man, I was sold! I went inside and there were people looming everywhere. Spending this money correctly was my only real care. First I went and had a facial and my hair done. I got such a beautiful dress; it was the only one! Then shoes and a hat and fashionable suits. Shirts and tops and the most adorable boots. Suddenly, I just woke up with a startled start. All I could hear was the beating of my heart. There were all the clothes and shoes I had bought... Right by my dresser, " Well! Goodness!" I thought. So, what is your verdict, Was it a dream or not? K.Vaishnavi Ist Year (F.T.) Leather Apparel for the Fashionable Woman What we wear on the upper part of our body plays a very important role in sprucing up our appearance. Having a presentable appearance is of prime importance these days, and therefore it becomes imperative that we don't just wear something good but also something unique that would make us stand out in the crowd. Unconventionality is the key word, and what could be better than leather tops for creating that perfect unconventional look? There are various fabrics and designs available these days which just provides the contemporary woman with a variety of options on a platter. Leather fabrics have created quite a niche for themselves in the fashion arena, and this durable fabric is definitely worth trying at least once. Leather apparel looks trendy if you really want to accentuate those curves, and there could be nothing better than donning proper body- fitting leather tops. Leather vests have become quite popular lately among fashion conscious women. A red lamb leather halter vest with a tuxedo style cut would look fantastically edgy if you really want to create a statement. For a first date or an informal get-together with friends, this style would definitely make you look like a million bucks. Team up a front zipper closure nickel studded vest with skinny leather pants and swanky leather boots if you want to attain a gothic look or make a bold style statement. If it's a formal occasion and you want to don something decent, try simple sleeveless patterned sand colored leather top along with an "A-line" cut formal skirt or formal trousers. If it's a simple yet stylish look that you want to achieve, this combination will definitely work wonders for your personality. Even leather jackets are quite a fashion statement and when teamed up with the right clothes, they can give your appearance quite an edgy look. A few styles you can try when it comes to jackets: Cropped Jackets - They have recently touched a chord with the young crowd. This style imparts a very trendy look to your persona. These are jackets with a hemline that is waist length or higher. Trench coats Trench coats are a great utility style statement. They are long coats that protect you from the harsh weather. Hooded jackets Jackets with stylish hoods can never go out of vogue. They look supremely trendy. Fur hooded leather jackets are all the rage among the youth lately. Double breasted jackets These kinds of jackets fulfill the purpose of attaining both a casual as well a formal look. It has an overlapping front with parallel column of buttons on both the sides. Rugged Sporty jackets These kinds of jackets help attain the quintessential biker image. Sport one of these stylish jackets and get all geared up for a ride. FASHION MODELING ( R.SATHISH ,K.BHARATHKUMAR) If you want to be a top fashion model, it only happens in New York. Fashion modeling does not take place in small town America. The designers are not there, the fashion magazines are not there, and the show rooms are not there. The really big fashion happens in New York and they play by their own rules. If they find you and you have the look they want for that season, then they have the photographers, make-up artists, hair stylists, clothing stylists, art directors, and budgets to make it work. What I am about to say means very little to the fashion elite. But if you are trying to get into modeling or you're in a minor fashion market doing catalog work, character he modeling industry is quite diverse. However, the part that most people have seen glamorized is the life of the fashion Supermodel. For some, the idea of a jet-set life style is very appealing but, let me tell you, you stand a better chance of winning the power ball lottery then becoming one of the dozen or so Supermodels. Which points to a harsh reality of modeling - most people who try to make a living as a model will fail. Fortunately, for many, just trying to make it is personally rewarding. You will never know if you might have what it takes if you never try. The following information may give you some ideas of what it takes to be a model and how to get started. This information not only looks at fashion modeling but, also, other types of modeling. The material covers some of the basics. Only through proper training and hard work, however, can you become a professional model. I hope you will use this as a starting point to decide if modeling is right for you and may it give you some direction towards starting a career INDIAN TOP 10 FASHION DESIGNERS Fashion is a huge industry in India. With globalisation Indian Fashion has got a wider platform to display their talents and introduce the ‘Sari’ to the world.India has placed itself on the map creating its own unique identity of FUSION – the beautiful blend and combination od various dressing styles in the country. RITU KUMAR: Ritu Kumar is an Indian fashion designer, based in Delhi.Ritu Kumar has been designing the wardrobes comprising swimwear, eveningwear, traditional Indian wear, casual wear, formal evening gowns; of the three winning Miss Indias, for their participation in International Beauty Pageants. RITU BERI: RituBeri is a New Delhi based International fashion designer. She is the first Asian designer to head the French fashion brand, Scherrer. She is the author of the personal fashion book, 101 Ways to Look Good. She also serves on the board of Governors at NIFT, and is an honorary patron of the Savera Association. ROHIT BAL: Rohitbal is a fashion designer from new delhi, India. He designs for men and women bridal and evening collections in addition to day-wear and ready-to-wear. He was always passionate about designs. His sophisticated designs integrate both traditional and modern worlds. His creative gestures are well reflected in this designs. NEETA LULLA: Neeta Lulla is an Indian fashion stylist and costumes designer. She is the winner of three National Film Awards for Best Costume design. From simplicity to royality , Neeta Lulla has it all to her credit. Neeta Lulla has been one name which has been prevalent in the industry since two decades now. RINA DHAKA: Rina Dhaka is one of top fashion designers in India. A visual person, for her images are more important that words. Rina Dhaka has been a part and parcel of the Indian fashion scene for the past fifteen years. Early in her carrier, one of her designs for the Miss India events caught the eye of RohitKhosla, the only fashion designer back then known for his innovativeness. JJ VALAYA: JJ Valaya is sometimes referred to as the ‘Monarch of Indian fashion’. His splendid collection of hand embroideries and exquisite bridal trousseau are a rage in the fashion world globally. His effort to create timeless attires, with dollops of contemporary claassicisn clinging onto it, has a fresh look and looks distinct from all the other designers wears TARUN TAHILIANI: TarunTahiliani is a noted Indian fashion designer. TarunTahiliani studied at the Doon school and then went on to obtain a degree in Business Management from the Wharton Business School. University of Pennsylvania. On returning to India, in 1987 he opened the first fashion boutique in India, ‘ Ensemble’. ROCKY S: Rocky S has made quit a name for himself in the fashion fraternity of India. Having an artistic mind and a flair for creativity, he moved against the normal flow of work and chose to make a name in the fashion world. The young and talented designer has renewed the way fashion is operated in India. WENDELL RODRICKS: Wendell Rodricks is a prominent fashion designer based in the western Indian region of Goa. He has been listed among one of India’s top 10 designers. His work as involved a wide range of fashion-from lecturing on world costume history to fashion journalism and styling for international advertising campaigns. MANISH MALHOTRA: Manish Malhotra is considered to be India’s leading and most successful fashion designer. Manish Malhotra has designed for many leading actresses in Bollywood. He is known for his different style and his ability to envision a ‘look’ for the character.He is probably one of the most popular designers in Bollywood.s Color Psychology In 1666, English scientist Sir Isaac Newton discovered that when pure white light passes through a prism, it separates into all of the visible colors. Newton also found that each color is made up of a single wavelength and cannot be separated any further into other colors. Further experiments demonstrated that light could be combined to form other colors. For example, red light mixed with yellow light creates an orange color. A color resulting from a mix of two other colors is known as a metamer. Some colors, such as yellow and purple, cancel each other out when mixed and result in a white light. These competing colors are known as complements. Color Psychology - The Psychological Effects of Color While perceptions of color are somewhat subjective, there are some color effects that have universal meaning. Colors in the red area of the color spectrum are known as warm colors and include red, orange and yellow. These warm colors evoke emotions ranging from feelings of warmth and comfort to feelings of anger and hostility. Colors on the blue side of the spectrum are known as cool colors and include blue, purple and green. These colors are often described as calm, but can also call to mind feelings of sadness or indifference. Color Psychology as Therapy Several ancient cultures, including the Egyptians and Chinese, practiced chromotherapy, or using colors to heal. Chromotherapy is sometimes referred to as light therapy or colourology and is still used today as a holistic or alternative treatment. In this treatment: Red was used to stimulate the body and mind and to increase circulation. Yellow was thought to stimulate the nerves and purify the body. Orange was used to heal the lungs and to increase energy levels. Blue was believed to soothe illnesses and treat pain. Indigo shades were thought to alleviate skin problems. Most psychologists view color therapy with skepticism and point out that the supposed effects of color have been exaggerated. Colors also have different meanings in different cultures. Research has demonstrated in many cases that the mood-altering effects of color may only be temporary. A blue room may initially cause feelings of calm, but the effect dissipates after a short period of time. Black Black absorbs all light in the color spectrum. Black is often used as a symbol of menace or evil, but it is also popular as an indicator of power. It is used to represent treacherous characters such as Dracula and is often associated with witchcraft. Black is associated with death and mourning in many cultures. It is also associated with unhappiness, sexuality, formality, and sophistication. In ancient Egypt, black represented life and rebirth. Black is often used in fashion because of its slimming quality. White White represents purity or innocence. White is bright and can create a sense of space or add highlights. White is also described as cold, bland, and sterile. Rooms painted completely white can seem spacious, but empty and unfriendly. Hospitals and hospital workers use white to create a sense of sterility. Red Red is a bright, warm color that evokes strong emotions. Red is associated with love, warmth, and comfort. Red is also considered an intense, or even angry, color that creates feelings of excitement or intensity. Blue Blue is described as a favorite color by many people and is the color most preferred by men. Blue calls to mind feelings of calmness or serenity. It is often described as peaceful, tranquil, secure, and orderly. Blue can also create feelings of sadness or aloofness. Blue is often used to decorate offices because research has shown that people are more productive in blue rooms. Blue is one of the most popular colors, but it is one of the least appetizing. Some weight loss plans even recommend eating your food off of a blue plate. Blue rarely occurs naturally in food aside from blueberries and some plums. Also, humans are geared to avoid foods that are poisonous and blue coloring in food is often a sign of spoilage or poison. Blue can also lower the pulse rate and body temperature. Green Green is a cool color that symbolizes nature and the natural world. Green also represents tranquility, good luck, health, and jealousy. Researchers have also found that green can improve reading ability. Some students may find that laying a transparent sheet of green paper over reading material increases reading speed and comprehension. Green has long been a symbol of fertility and was once the preferred color choice for wedding gowns in the 15th-century. Even today, green M & M's (an American chocolate candy) are said to send a sexual message. Green is often used in decorating for its calming effect. For example, guests waiting to appear on television programs often wait in a “green room” to relax. Green is thought to relieve stress and help heal. Those who have a green work environment experience fewer stomachaches. Yellow The Color Psychology of Yellow Yellow is a bright that is often described as cheery and warm. Yellow is also the most fatiguing to the eye due to the high amount of light that is reflected. Using yellow as a background on paper or computer monitors can lead to eyestrain or vision loss in extreme cases. Yellow can also create feelings of frustration and anger. While it is considered a cheerful color, people are more likely to lose their tempers in yellow rooms and babies tend to cry more in yellow rooms. Yellow can also increase the metabolism. Since yellow is the most visible color, it is also the most attention-getting color. Yellow can be used in small amount to draw notice, such as on traffic sign or advertisements. Orange Orange is a combination of yellow and red and is considered an energetic color. Orange calls to mind feelings of excitement, enthusiasm, and warmth. Orange is often used to draw attention, such as in traffic signs and advertising Pink Pink is essentially a light red and is usually associated with love and romance. Pink is thought to have a calming effect. One shade known as "drunk-tank pink" is sometimes used in prisons to calm inmates. Sports teams sometimes paint the opposing teams locker room pink to keep the players passive and less energetic. While pink's calming effect has been demonstrated, researchers of color psychology have found that this effect only occurs during the initial exposure to the color. When used in prisons, inmates often become even more agitated once they become accustomed to the color. Camouflage fabrics Do you want to be hidden? Trying to blend in with your surroundings? Camouflage fabrics are the just the thing. There are many different types of Camouflage fabrics on the market today. Some are heavy duty camo material for hunters and fisherman. There are patterns for the military men and women serving our country at home and abroad. There are cotton Camouflage fabrics in many different colors for the sewer and quilter alike. There is a new Camouflage fabric on the market called Nature-Rised and it is a special fabric created by adding natural shapes from nature to the fabric. These special textures refract the light, thus breaking up reflection and stopping glare and shine, making your camo work for you, not against you! Unlike many of the slick , smooth, shiny fabrics on the market, this fabric helps you become a part of the woods, not a large shiny object. Many other fabrics are made only in one or two steps; the new Nature-Rised fabric is made of 8 layers and procedure, each having a special function to create the ultimate hunting fabric. It is burr proof and won't snag or grab the brush. It is soft and quiet. It is tough and comfortable, strong and wind-proof, water-repellent. It won't fade or shine. What this means to the hunter is more successful hunts! When the folks at Nature-Rised set out to make the ultimate Camouflage, they quickly realized that there were only so many ways you could arrange sticks, trees, leaves, trees and limbs. So they decided that in order to make a better Camouflage, they had to make a better fabric. Through years of working in textiles and personal experiences in the field, they noticed that there were many problems with fabrics that were being used in the manufacture of camo clothing. For instance, some fabrics faded quickly, some attracted debris, such as burrs and beggar lice. Some grabbed everything it came in contact with and some were noisy and stiff. In addition, many of the fabrics were not very durable, some had little if any resistance to weather and if it did, it was very hot and not breathable. Last, but not least, the problem with most of the fabrics had a tendency to shine and glare from reflected light. So they turned their attention to the development of a fabric that would far surpass anything on the market today. The innovative Camouflage fabric called Nature-Rised is the next generation of Camouflage. So if you are looking to be discreet, in the woods, on the battlefield or on the lake, look for a quality Camouflage fabric. It does make a difference what you wear. If you are looking for fabrics to decorate with or to wear for fun, many colors of Camouflage are available, even blues and pinks for the young at heart. Bandanas are popular in Camouflage patterns for dress up for young children. Costumes for birthday parties are fun in the bright faux camo patterns also. Choose your level of Camouflage! List of Languages of India Abor Abujmaria Agaria Ahirani Aimol Aiton Anal Andamanese Angani Angika Apatani Arabic Ashing Assamese Asuri Awadhi Badaga Baghelkhandi Bagri Baigani Bajania Balti Bangni Banjari Basturia Bauria Bawm Bazigar Boli Bengali Bhanja Bantu Bharmauri Bhairi Bhili Bhojpuri Bhotia Bhuiya Bhumij Bhunjia Biate Bilaspuri Birhor Birjia Bishnupriya Bodo Bokar Bondo Bori Braj Bhasha Brijlal Bugun Bundelkhandi Burmese Bushari Chakhesang Chakma Chambilai Chameli Chang Changpa Chattisgarhi Chikari Chinali Chiru Chote Churasi Dalu Dakhani Deori Dhanki Dhimal Dhodia Dhundhari Didayi Dimasa Dingal Dogri Dommari Droskhat/Dokpa Duhlian-Twang English French Gadaba Gadiali Gallong Gameti Gamit Gangte Garasia Garhwali Garo Giarahi Gondi Gujarati Gujjari Gurumukhi Gurung Gutob Hajong Halam Halbi Harauti Haryanavi Hebrew Himachali Hindi Hinduri Hindustani Hmar Ho Hrusso Hualngo Irula Jabalpuri Jangali Jarawa Jaunsari Juang Kabui Kachanga Kachari Kachchi Kadar Kagati Kakbarak Kanashi Kangri Kannada. Karbi Karen Karko Kashmiri Kathiawari Khadiboli Khaka Khamba Khampa Khampti Khampti-shan Kharia Khasi Khaskura Khatri Kherwari Khiangan Khorusti Khotta Kinnauri Kiradi Kisan Koch Kodava Koi Koireng Kokni. Kolami Kom Komkar Konda Konicha Konkani Konyak Koracha Koraga Korava Korku Korwa Kota Kotwalia Kudmali Kui Kuki Kulvi Kumaoni Kunbi Kurukh Kutchi Kuvi Ladakhi Lahauli Laihawlh Lakher (Mara) Lalung Lambani Lamgang Laotian Laria Lepcha Limbu Lisu Lodha Lotha Lushai Mag Magahi Magarkura Mahal Maithili Majhi Makrani Malankudi Malayalam Malhar Malto Malvani Malvi Manchat Mandiali Mangari Manipuri Mao Maram Marathi Maria Maring Marwari Mavchi Meitei Memba Mewari Mewati Milang Minyong Miri Mishing Mishmi Mizo Monpa Monsang Rank, Population 3 language Countries 2 (in millions) 1. Chinese, Mandarin Brunei, Cambodia, China, Indonesia, Malaysia, Mongolia, 1120 Philippines, Singapore, S. Africa, Taiwan, Thailand 2. English Australia, Belize, Botswana, Brunei, Cameroon, Canada, 480 Eritrea, Ethiopia, Fiji, The Gambia, Ghana, Guyana, India, Ireland, Israel, Lesotho, Liberia, Malaysia, Micronesia, Namibia, Nauru, New Zealand, Palau, Papua New Guinea, Philippines, Samoa, Seychelles, Sierra Leone, Singapore, Solomon Islands, Somalia, S. Africa, Suriname, Swaziland, Tonga, U.K., U.S., Vanuatu, Zimbabwe, many Caribbean states, Zambia. 3. Spanish Algeria, Andorra, Argentina, Belize, Benin, Bolivia, Chad, Chile, 332 Colombia, Costa Rica, Cuba, Dominican Rep., Ecuador, El Salvador, Eq. Guinea, Guatemala, Honduras, Ivory Coast, Madagascar, Mali, Mexico, Morocco, Nicaragua, Niger, Panama, Paraguay, Peru, Spain, Togo, Tunisia, United States, Uruguay, Venezuela. 4. Arabic Egypt, Sudan, ALgeria, Morocco, Tunisia, Lybia, Saudi Arabia, 235 Syria, Jordan, Yemen, UAE, Oman, Iraq, Lebanon 5. Bengali Bangladesh, India, Singapore 189 6. Hindi India, Nepal, Singapore, S. Africa, Uganda 182 7. Russian Belarus, China, Estonia, Georgia, Israel, Kazakhstan, 180 Kyrgyzstan, Latvia, Lithuania, Moldova, Mongolia, Russia, Turkmenistan, Ukraine, U.S., Uzbekistan 8. Portuguese Angola, Brazil, Cape Verde, France, Guinea-Bissau, 170 Mozambique, Portugal, São Tomé and Príncipe 9. Japanese Japan, Singapore, Taiwan 125 10. German Austria, Belgium, Bolivia, Czech Rep., Denmark, Germany, 98 Hungary, Italy, Kazakhstan, Liechtenstein, Luxembourg, Paraguay, Poland, Romania, Slovakia, Switzerland 11. Chinese, Wu China 77.2 12. Javanese Indonesia, Malaysia, Singapore 75.5 13. Korean China, Japan, N. Korea, S. Korea, Singapore, Thailand 75 14. French Algeria, Andorra, Belgium, Benin, Burkina Faso, Burundi, 72 Cambodia, Cameroon, Canada, Chad, Comoros, Congo, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Djibouti, France, Gabon, Guinea, Haiti, Ivory Coast, Laos, Luxembourg, Madagascar, Mali, Mauritania, Monaco, Morocco, Niger, Rwanda, Senegal, Seychelles, Switzerland, Togo, Tunisia, Vanuatu, Vietnam 15. Turkish Bulgaria, Cyprus, Greece, Macedonia, Romania, Turkey, 69 Uzbekistan 16. Vietnamese China, Vietnam 67.7 17. Telugu India, Singapore 66.4 18. Chinese, Brunei, China, Costa Rica, Indonesia, Malaysia, Panama, 66 Yue(Cantonese) Philippines, Singapore, Thailand, Vietnam 19. Marathi India 64.8 20. Tamil India, Malaysia, Mauritius, Singapore, S. Africa, Sri Lanka 63.1 21. Italian Croatia, Eritrea, France, Italy, San Marino, Slovenia, 59 Switzerland 22. Urdu Afghanistan, India, Mauritius, Pakistan, S. Africa, Thailand 58 23. Chinese, Min Nan Brunei, China, Indonesia, Malaysia, Philippines, Singapore, 49 Taiwan, Thailand 24. Chinese, Jinyu China 45 25. Gujarati India, Kenya, Pakistan, Singapore, S. Africa, Tanzania, Uganda, 44 Zimbabwe 26. Polish Czech Rep., Germany, Israel, Poland, Romania, Slovakia 44 27. Ukrainian Poland, Slovakia, Ukraine 41 28. Persian Iran, Iraq, Afghanistan, Oman, Qatar, Tajikistan, U A Emirates 37.3 29. Chinese, Xiang China 36 30. Malayalam India, Singapore 34 31. Chinese, Hakka Brunei, China, Indonesia, Malaysia, Panama, Singapore, 34 Suriname, Taiwan, Thailand 32. Kannada India 33.7 33. Oriya India 31 34. Panjabi, Western India, Pakistan 30 35. Sunda Indonesia 27 35. Panjabi, Eastern India, Kenya, Singapore 26 36. Romanian Hungary, Israel, Moldova, Romania, Serbia and Montenegro, 26 Ukraine 37. Bhojpuri India, Mauritius, Nepal 25 38. Azerbaijani, South Afghanistan, Iran, Iraq, Syria, Turkey 24.4 40. Maithili India, Nepal 24.3 41. Hausa Benin, Burkina Faso, Cameroon, Ghana, Niger, Nigeria, Sudan, 24.2 Togo 43. Burmese Bangladesh, Myanmar 22 44. Serbo-Croatian 4 Bosnia and Herzegovina, Croatia, Macedonia, Serbia and 21 Montenegro, Slovenia 45. Chinese, Gan China 20.6 46. Awadhi India, Nepal 20.5 47. Thai Singapore, Thailand, Malaysia 20 48. Dutch Belgium, France, Netherlands, Suriname 20 49. Yoruba Benin, Nigeria 20 50. Sindhi Afghanistan, India, Pakistan, Singapore 19.7 Organic cotton Organic cotton is generally understood as cotton, from non genetically modified plants, that is to be grown without the use of any synthetic agricultural chemicals such as fertilizers or pesticides Its production also promotes and enhances biodiversity and biological cycles. In the United States cotton plantations must also meet the requirements enforced by the National Organic Program (NOP), from the USDA, in order to be considered organic. This institution determines the allowed practices for pest control, growing, fertilizing, and handling of organic crops. As of 2007, 265,517 bales of organic cotton were produced in 24 countries and worldwide production was growing at a rate of more than 50% per year. Ecological footprint Cotton covers 2.5% of the world's cultivated land yet uses 16% of the world's insecticides, more than any other single major crop. Other environmental consequences of the elevated use of chemicals in the non organic cotton growing methods consist of: High levels of agrochemicals are used in the production of non-organic, conventional cotton. Cotton production uses more chemicals per unit area than any other crop and accounts in total for 16% of the world's pesticides Chemicals used in the processing of cotton pollute the air and surface waters. Residual chemicals may irritate consumers' skin. Decreased biodiversity and shifting equilibrium of ecosystems due to the use of pesticides. Advantages Cotton growers who make the transition to biologically based growing practices expect not only to offer a healthier and cleaner product, but also to benefit the planet. Some of the contributions to the different ecosystems include: Protecting surface and groundwater quality (eliminating contaminants in surface runoff) Reduced risk in insect and disease control by replacing insecticide with the manipulation of ecosystems Long-term prevention of pests through beneficial habitat planting. Conservation of biodiversity Eliminate the use of toxic chemicals used in cotton Organically grown crops also yield soils with higher organic matter content, thicker topsoil depth, higher polysaccharide content, and lower modulus of rupture; therefore reducing considerably soil erosion. Organic certification It is required by the law that any producer wanting to label and sell a product as "organic" must meet the standards established by the Organic Food Production Act of 1990, enforced by The State organic program (SOP) This act specifies the procedures and regulations for production and handling of organic crops. Organic system plan Producers must elaborate an organic production or handling system plan which must also be approved by the state certifying agency or the USDA. This plan must include careful explanation of every process held in the plantation, as well as the frequency with which they are performed. A list of substances used on the crops is also necessary, along with a description of their composition, place where they will be used, and if possible documentation of commercial availability. This inventory of substances is important for the regulation of allowed and prohibited material established by the SOP. Organic cotton growers must also provide A description of the control procedures and physical barriers established to prevent contact of organic and non organic crops on split operations and to avoid contact of organic production with prohibited substance during gestation, harvesting, and handling operations . This production plan can also be transferred to other states as long as it has already been approved by a certifying agency. Production Production requirements are specifically the set of changes that must be made to field and farming practices in order for a crop to be considered organic. To begin with, organic fields must go through a cleansing period of three years, without the use of any prohibited substances, before planting the first organic crop. Fields must also be equipped with physical barriers and buzzers in order to prevent contact of organic crops with any chemical substance product of surface runoff from crops near by. Producers must also strive to promote soil fertility through cultivation practices while maintaining or improving the physical, chemical, and biological condition of the soil and minimizes soil erosion. Organic growers must also implement practices to support biodiversity. Such practices include integrated pest management (IPM), which consists of the manipulation of ecosystems that benefit both the crops and the organisms that live around it. In addition to these practices, producers may only apply crop nutrients and soil amendments included on the National List of synthetic substances allowed in crop production. Handling Handling procedures are all the processes related to product packaging, pest control in handling processing facilities among others. The SOP allows the use of mechanical or biological methods for the purpose of retarding spoilage of products, but at the same time it prohibits the use of volatile synthetic solvents in processed products or any ingredient that is labeled as organic. Pesticides Since organic cotton is grown without the use of synthetic pesticides, it should contain fewer pesticides than conventional cotton. Pesticides used in the production of conventional cotton include orthophosphates such as phorate and methamidophos, endosulfan (highly toxic to farmers, but not very environmentally persistent) and aldicarb.. Other pesticides persisting in cotton fields in the United States include Trifluralin, Toxaphene and DDT . Although the last two chemicals are no longer used in the United States their long breakdown period and difficulty in removal ensures their persistence. Thus even organic cotton fields may contain them since conventional cotton fields can be transitioned to organic fields in 2–3 years. Expanding industry Diverse institutions and campaigns are now educating the community about organic cotton and supporting growers on the switch to organic farming. The Sustainable Cotton Project is helping farmers in the transition from chemically dependent crops to more biological sound approaches. This institution has launched the Cleaner Cotton project, which promises to produce cotton with 73% less use of chemicals. The Community Alliance with Family Farmers (CAFF)also joined this effort since 2003. Their purpose is to educate farmers and the public about biological farming techniques and the importance of reducing chemical use in fiber and food production and supporting local farmers. In 2003, SCP joined the Community Alliance with Family Farmers (CAFF) to strengthen its operations and reach other farm and consumer audiences. CAFF and SCP provide growers with information about biological farming techniques and educate the public about the importance of reducing chemical use in fiber and food production and supporting local farmers. Regional Organic cotton is currently being grown successfully in many countries; the largest producers (as of 2007) are Turkey, India and China. Organic cotton production in Africa takes place in at least 8 countries. The earliest producer (1990) was the SEKEM organization in Egypt; the farmers involved later convinced the Egyptian government to convert 400,000 hectares of conventional cotton production to integrated methods, achieving a 90% reduction in the use of synthetic pesticides in Egypt and a 30% increase in yields.
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