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Journals Magazines Sri Krishna Engineering College




                      Ms.K.G.Nithya   lecturer -FT


                     Mr.Nidheesh      IV

                     Ms.Guddi         IV

                     Mr.Ramanathan    IV


                     Ms.janani .P     III B.Tech

                     Ms.kalaivani.R   III B.Tech

                     Mr.Kannan.M      III.B.Tech

                     Ms.Aarthiy.D     II B.Tech

                     Ms.Indumathi.    II B.Tech

Thiru. R. Vivekananthan,

Founder Chairman,

Sri Krishna Engineering College,

Chennai- 601301.

      I’m glad to know that the department of fashion technology of Sri Krishna
Engineering College is going to conduct a symposium FAMA FEST –’11, the way
to develop and implement the talents and ideas of the student.

      I appreciate the efforts and contribution of the HOD, staffs and students
to conduct the event in a grand manner.

      I wish them all the great success in their future endeavor.


Prof. Dr. P.Ananthakrishnan,


Sri Krishna engineering college,


       I am happy that the Fashion Technologists of Sri Krishna Engineering
College is conducting FAMA FEST-’11, a pavement for the students to exhibit their

      The department has shown tremendous improvements in their academic
performance and activities. I wish they show much more remarkable changes in the
coming future.

      All the best to the staffs and my beloved students.


Dr. M.Sivakumar,


Sri Krishna engineering college,

Chennai - 601301.

       I am privileged to know that the Fashion Technologists are organizing a
national level technical symposium. I hope this event will provide an opportunity
for the students to showcase their creativity and ideas will help them gain
knowledge. In this contest, the budding technologists will have useful,
interesting, informative ideas. I extend my warm and sincere greeting to the
faculty and students of the department of Fashion Technology. God Bless!!!

                                                    Dr. Sivakumar


Head Of the department,

Department of fashion technology,

Sri Krishna Engineering college ,

Chennai - 601301.

I’m delighted to be part of the grand event Fama Fest –’11 conducted by
students, which has created an expectation among the Fashion technologists. It
is imperative that these events are properly documented. My sincere thanks to
our chairman & management for their help and support. I look back and
acknowledge our Principal Dr. Sivakumar for his constant encouragement and
unwavering support in things leading up to this event. During these initial
stages, it seemed too big a leap for me but for the efforts and support of our
department staffs made it look small now. My heartiest kudos to them all.
Events such as this will not happen without the student’s active and associative
participation. I take this opportunity to congratulate all these student
coordinators and participants.

            I hope this magazine will be of great use to all who seek


                                                  - Ms.C.Kayalvizhi


                               CHENNAI - 601301.

     Sri Krishna Engineering College was established in 1999 by the far sighted
     vision of its illustrious chairman Thirus R. Vivekananthan. The college is
     affiliated to Anna University and is approved by All India Council for
     Technical Education. The college aims at imparting high quality education in
     Engineering and Technology of all categories of students.

    Well equipped laboratories with state of the art equipment and computers,
    spacious classrooms, well stacked library and a good canteen are some of
    the features of the college.

            Every student in the college is attached to a faculty Advisor who
     advises the students in all academic matters and counsels. Students are
     advised to report to their faculty advisors every day. All academic activities
     of the college begin every day with the recital of the “Confidence Voice” by
     the students.

            This helps the students to build in them a sense of confidence in all
     their activities. The college has well qualified, efficient and dedicated
     teaching staff in all the departments. Weekly seminars are conducted in all
     the classes. Guest lectures are arranged with outside faculty and experts
     from industries. Monthly tests are held in all the classes regularly. The
     progress of students is reported to parents every month. The computer
     laboratory is spacious and fully air conditioned. There are 400 systems and
     all are on LAN. The college is proud of its well qualified, experienced and
     dedicated staff.

       The following four- year courses in Engineering/Technology are offered
    with total annual intake of 516 students
    B.E Degree in

    Electrical & Electronics Engineering
    Electronics & communication Engineering
    Computer science & Engineering

    B.Tech DEGREE in

    Information technology
    Fashion technology


    M.E computer science and engineering

    M.E applied electronics

    MBA Master of Business Administration


    The sports complex houses, apart from the courts available at the hostels,
    athletics track, a football court and a cricket ground. Besides, sports meet is
    held in the college every year and also the students are encouraged to take
    participation in university and state level competitions. The students have
    won number of trophies in sports and games.

The association of all departments has being conducting National level
technical symposiums. The main aim of conducting such programs is to
encourage self-study, to update their minds with the recent technical
advancements so as to tackle the challenging future.



   Dr. M. Sivakumar, Ph.D,


   Ms.C.Kayalvizhi M.TECH, MBA


      Mr.V.Thirumurugan M.Tech
      Mr.S.R.vishwanathan M.Tech
      Ms.K.G.Nithya M.Tech
      Ms.M.Sona M.Sc, M.Phil
      Ms.V.Divyaa M.Sc, M.Phil


 Mr.C.Guna Seelan

STUDENT COORDINATOR:       Mr.V.Thirumurugan

TREASURER:                 Mr.S.R.Vishwanathan

EVENT COORDINATOR:         Ms.K.G.Nithya



STUDENT PRESIDENT:        Mr. Muthukamachi     IV FT

                          Mr. M.Kannan         III FT

                          Mr. T.Mageshkumar II FT

STUDENT SECRETARY:        Mr. Ramanathan       IV FT

                          Ms. Saranya          IV FT

                          Ms. B.Arulmozhi      III FT

                          Ms. J.Bhagyalakshmi III FT

                          Ms. Monalisa         II FT
                                Ms. Surya   II FT




           Mr. V.Thirumurugan

           Ms. K.G.Nithya



Mr. Bala

Mr. Jeyacharkrapaani


Mr. Sriram

Mr. Jayaseelan

Mr. Muthu sami

Ms. Niranjana

Mr. Dhilipkmar


Mr. Manimaran

Ms. Gunasundari


Ms. Saranya
Ms. Sathyapriya

Ms. Janani



Ms. M. Sona

Ms. V. divyaa



Mr. Nidheesh

Ms. Prashoba


Mr. Tholkappiyan


Ms. Jeyamani

Ms. Sangamithra


Ms. Sathya

Ms. Kalpana


Ms. Saranya

Mr. Sivaraman


Mr. S. Vishwanathan


Mr. Dineshkumar



Mr. V.Thirumurugan

Ms. K.G.Nithya





Mr. S.Vishwanathan

Mr. Nidheesh

Ms. Monalisa

  Ms. M. Sona

MS. K.G. Nithya

Mr. Ravanan

Ms. Kiruthiga


Mr. S. Vishwanathan



Mr. S. Vishwanathan

 DJ:

Mr. S. Vishwanathan


Mr. Karthick


Ms. M. Sona

Ms. V. divyaa


Ms. V. divyaa

Ms. Guddi

Ms. Raji






Mr. V.Thirumurugan

Ms. K.G.Nithya

Mr. Ramanathan

Ms. Kalaivani



                          FASHION TECHNOLOGY

                   “Fashion is a language spoken by everyone”

The department of fashion technology was started in 2008, headed by Ms.
C.Kayalvizhi. She is an eminent person in the textile field. Our department is well
governed by excellent faculty members.

In this modern era of colorful fashion trends, the field of fashion technology
grows in popularity and in demand among government and private sectors.

The department has state of the art laboratory and qualified faculty as per the
norms and expectation of the society.
Though the department is emerging in the college, it has been provided with all
the equipment for the laboratories which deal in the areas of Design, Production
and Fabrication of garments.


      Garment construction lab
      Fabric structure lab
      Dyeing and printing lab
      Computer aided garment design and textile cad lab
      Design collection


    Fabric count balance
    GSM cutter
    Water bath
     Electronic balance
    Red wood viscometer
    Say bolt viscometer
    Cleave land flash & fire point apparatus
    Bomb calorimeter
    Orsat apparatus
    Gas calorimeter
    Mannequins various models
    Industrial sewing machines
    Dummy models


                             FAMA FEST-‘11

We are honoured in presenting fama fest –’11, a national level symposium on
march 11th.
This will provide a red carpet for the students to exhibit their creativity and
innovations .

In connection with fama fest-’11 our department brings out a magazine
containing information about the events & activities of the modinifanat

Our symposium consists of new trends creations and available information in the
form of articles. On the other hand our students have exhibited their own creative
work and other non-technical skills like art works, fashion show, sketching etc.,

As we are the only college in Chennai of Anna university affiliated for the
department of fashion technology ,we have conducted symposium for the past
two years successfully.
               Fantasized Fashionable Adventure.

I dreamt of the most interesting dream
in a place where I saw the
most intriguing sights.
I was walking in a very dry, arid
and scorchy land.
when an angel came up and
took me by my hand.

We began to leap energetically towards the sky.
If you would ask me, I still cannot tell you why.
We landed on wispy, feathery fog
in the upper stratosphere.

Another angel came by on the
feathery misty stuff.
He gave me two thousand dollars,
and asked, "Is this enough?"
I took it gladly and said, "Thank
you very much."

Then he just floated up and far away,
Well, I just did not even know what to say.
No angel had ever given me money like that,
So, on my heavenly, misty fog I just sat.

Suddenly, I was soaring backward
and swiftly down.
The air was whipping fast through
my angel gown.
I landed safely with it beneath me,
onto the ground.
I saw large group of buildings, with
letters large and bold.
I read " Fashion Center Court" and
man, I was sold!
I went inside and there were people
looming everywhere.
Spending this money correctly
was my only real care.

First I went and had a facial
and my hair done.
I got such a beautiful dress; it
was the only one!
Then shoes and a hat
and fashionable suits.
Shirts and tops and the
most adorable boots.

Suddenly, I just woke up
with a startled start.
All I could hear was the
beating of my heart.
There were all the clothes
and shoes I had bought...
Right by my dresser, " Well!
Goodness!" I thought.
So, what is your verdict,
Was it a dream or not?

Ist Year (F.T.)
Leather Apparel for the Fashionable Woman
        What we wear on the upper part of our body plays a very important role in sprucing up
our appearance. Having a presentable appearance is of prime importance these days, and
therefore it becomes imperative that we don't just wear something good but also something
unique that would make us stand out in the crowd. Unconventionality is the key word, and what
could be better than leather tops for creating that perfect unconventional look? There are various
fabrics and designs available these days which just provides the contemporary woman with a
variety of options on a platter.

         Leather fabrics have created quite a niche for themselves in the fashion arena, and this
durable fabric is definitely worth trying at least once. Leather apparel looks trendy if you really
want to accentuate those curves, and there could be nothing better than donning proper body-
fitting leather tops. Leather vests have become quite popular lately among fashion conscious

         A red lamb leather halter vest with a tuxedo style cut would look fantastically edgy if you
really want to create a statement.
         For a first date or an informal get-together with friends, this style would definitely make
you look like a million bucks.
         Team up a front zipper closure nickel studded vest with skinny leather pants and swanky
leather boots if you want to attain a gothic look or make a bold style statement.
           If it's a formal occasion and you want to don something decent, try simple sleeveless
patterned sand colored leather top along with an "A-line" cut formal skirt or formal trousers. If
it's a simple yet stylish look that you want to achieve, this combination will definitely work
wonders for your personality.
Even leather jackets are quite a fashion statement and when teamed up with the right clothes,
they can give your appearance quite an edgy look. A few styles you can try when it comes to

Cropped Jackets - They have recently touched a chord with the young crowd. This style imparts
a very trendy look to your persona. These are jackets with a hemline that is waist length or

Trench coats Trench coats are a great utility style statement. They are long coats that protect
you from the harsh weather.

Hooded jackets Jackets with stylish hoods can never go out of vogue. They look supremely
trendy. Fur hooded leather jackets are all the rage among the youth lately.

Double breasted jackets These kinds of jackets fulfill the purpose of attaining both a casual as
well a formal look. It has an overlapping front with parallel column of buttons on both the sides.
Rugged Sporty jackets These kinds of jackets help attain the quintessential biker image. Sport
one of these stylish jackets and get all geared up for a ride.

                FASHION MODELING
                   ( R.SATHISH ,K.BHARATHKUMAR)
If you want to be a top fashion model, it only happens in
New York. Fashion modeling does not take place in small
town America. The designers are not there, the fashion
magazines are not there, and the show rooms are not
there. The really big fashion happens in New York and
they play by their own rules.
     If they find you and you have the look they want for
that season, then they have the photographers, make-up
artists, hair stylists, clothing stylists, art directors, and
budgets to make it work.
      What I am about to say means very little to the
fashion elite. But if you are trying to get into modeling or
you're in a minor fashion market doing catalog work,
character he modeling industry is quite diverse. However,
the part that most people have seen glamorized is the life
of the fashion Supermodel. For some, the idea of a jet-set
life style is very appealing but, let me tell you, you stand a
better chance of winning the power ball lottery then
becoming one of the dozen or so Supermodels. Which
points to a harsh reality of modeling - most people who
try to make a living as a model will fail.
     Fortunately, for many, just trying to make it is
personally rewarding. You will never know if you might
have what it takes if you never try. The following
information may give you some ideas of what it takes to
be a model and how to get started. This information not
only looks at fashion modeling but, also, other types of
modeling. The material covers some of the basics. Only
through proper training and hard work, however, can you
become a professional model.
    I hope you will use this as a starting point to decide if
modeling is right for you and may it give you some
direction towards starting a career
                          INDIAN TOP 10 FASHION DESIGNERS

      Fashion is a huge industry in India. With globalisation Indian Fashion has
got a wider platform to display their talents and introduce the ‘Sari’ to the
world.India has placed itself on the map creating its own unique identity of
FUSION – the beautiful blend and combination od various dressing styles in the


      Ritu Kumar is an Indian fashion designer, based in Delhi.Ritu Kumar has
been designing the wardrobes comprising swimwear, eveningwear, traditional
Indian wear, casual wear, formal evening gowns; of the three winning Miss Indias,
for their participation in International Beauty Pageants.


      RituBeri is a New Delhi based International fashion designer. She is the first
Asian designer to head the French fashion brand, Scherrer. She is the author of the
personal fashion book, 101 Ways to Look Good. She also serves on the board of
Governors at NIFT, and is an honorary patron of the Savera Association.


Rohitbal is a fashion designer from new delhi, India. He designs for men and
women bridal and evening collections in addition to day-wear and ready-to-wear.
He was always passionate about designs. His sophisticated designs integrate both
traditional and modern worlds. His creative gestures are well reflected in this


      Neeta Lulla is an Indian fashion stylist and costumes
designer. She is the winner of three National Film Awards for
Best Costume design. From simplicity to royality , Neeta Lulla
has it all to her credit. Neeta Lulla has been one name which
has been prevalent in the industry since two decades now.


       Rina Dhaka is one of top fashion designers in India. A visual person, for
her images are more important that words. Rina Dhaka has been a part and parcel
of the Indian fashion scene for the past fifteen years. Early in her carrier, one of
her designs for the Miss India events caught the eye of RohitKhosla, the only
fashion designer back then known for his innovativeness.


      JJ Valaya is sometimes referred to as the ‘Monarch of Indian fashion’. His
splendid collection of hand embroideries and exquisite bridal trousseau are a rage
in the fashion world globally. His effort to create timeless attires, with dollops of
contemporary claassicisn clinging onto it, has a fresh look and looks distinct from
all the other designers wears

      TarunTahiliani is a noted Indian fashion designer. TarunTahiliani studied at
the Doon school and then went on to obtain a degree in Business Management
from the Wharton Business School. University of Pennsylvania. On returning to
India, in 1987 he opened the first fashion boutique in India, ‘ Ensemble’.


      Rocky S has made quit a name for himself in the fashion
fraternity of India. Having an artistic mind and a flair for
creativity, he moved against the normal flow of work and chose
to make a name in the fashion world. The young and talented
designer has renewed the way fashion is operated in India.


      Wendell Rodricks is a prominent fashion designer based in the western
Indian region of Goa. He has been listed among one of India’s top 10 designers.
His work as involved a wide range of fashion-from lecturing on world costume
history to fashion journalism and styling for international advertising campaigns.


      Manish Malhotra is considered to be India’s leading and most successful
fashion designer. Manish Malhotra has designed for many leading actresses in
Bollywood. He is known for his different style and his ability to envision a ‘look’
for the character.He is probably one of the most popular designers in Bollywood.s
                     Color Psychology
In 1666, English scientist Sir Isaac Newton discovered that when pure white light passes through a
prism, it separates into all of the visible colors. Newton also found that each color is made up of a
single wavelength and cannot be separated any further into other colors.

Further experiments demonstrated that light could be combined to form other colors. For example, red
light mixed with yellow light creates an orange color. A color resulting from a mix of two other colors
is known as a metamer. Some colors, such as yellow and purple, cancel each other out when mixed
and result in a white light. These competing colors are known as complements.

Color Psychology - The Psychological Effects of Color

While perceptions of color are somewhat subjective, there are some color effects that have universal
meaning. Colors in the red area of the color spectrum are known as warm colors and include red,
orange and yellow. These warm colors evoke emotions ranging from feelings of warmth and comfort
to feelings of anger and hostility.

Colors on the blue side of the spectrum are known as cool colors and include blue, purple and green.
These colors are often described as calm, but can also call to mind feelings of sadness or indifference.

Color Psychology as Therapy

Several ancient cultures, including the Egyptians and Chinese, practiced chromotherapy, or using
colors to heal. Chromotherapy is sometimes referred to as light therapy or colourology and is still used
today as a holistic or alternative treatment.

In this treatment:

       Red was used to stimulate the body and mind and to increase circulation.
       Yellow was thought to stimulate the nerves and purify the body.
       Orange was used to heal the lungs and to increase energy levels.
       Blue was believed to soothe illnesses and treat pain.
       Indigo shades were thought to alleviate skin problems.

Most psychologists view color therapy with skepticism and point out that the supposed effects of color
have been exaggerated. Colors also have different meanings in different cultures. Research has
demonstrated in many cases that the mood-altering effects of color may only be temporary. A blue
room may initially cause feelings of calm, but the effect dissipates after a short period of time.


       Black absorbs all light in the color spectrum.
         Black is often used as a symbol of menace or evil, but it is also popular as an indicator of
     power. It is used to represent treacherous characters such as Dracula and is often associated with
         Black is associated with death and mourning in many cultures. It is also associated with
     unhappiness, sexuality, formality, and sophistication.
         In ancient Egypt, black represented life and rebirth.
         Black is often used in fashion because of its slimming quality.


        White represents purity or innocence.
        White is bright and can create a sense of space or add highlights.
        White is also described as cold, bland, and sterile. Rooms painted completely white can
     seem spacious, but empty and unfriendly. Hospitals and hospital workers use white to create a
     sense of sterility.

         Red is a bright, warm color that evokes strong emotions.
         Red is associated with love, warmth, and comfort.
         Red is also considered an intense, or even angry, color that creates feelings of excitement
     or intensity.

         Blue is described as a favorite color by many people and is the color most preferred by men.
         Blue calls to mind feelings of calmness or serenity. It is often described as peaceful,
     tranquil, secure, and orderly.
         Blue can also create feelings of sadness or aloofness.
         Blue is often used to decorate offices because research has shown that people are more
     productive in blue rooms.
         Blue is one of the most popular colors, but it is one of the least appetizing. Some weight loss
     plans even recommend eating your food off of a blue plate. Blue rarely occurs naturally in food
     aside from blueberries and some plums. Also, humans are geared to avoid foods that are poisonous
     and blue coloring in food is often a sign of spoilage or poison.
         Blue can also lower the pulse rate and body temperature.

          Green is a cool color that symbolizes nature and the natural world.
          Green also represents tranquility, good luck, health, and jealousy.
          Researchers have also found that green can improve reading ability. Some students may
     find that laying a transparent sheet of green paper over reading material increases reading speed
     and comprehension.
          Green has long been a symbol of fertility and was once the preferred color choice for
     wedding gowns in the 15th-century. Even today, green M & M's (an American chocolate candy) are
     said to send a sexual message.
          Green is often used in decorating for its calming effect. For example, guests waiting to
     appear on television programs often wait in a “green room” to relax.
        Green is thought to relieve stress and help heal. Those who have a green work environment
     experience fewer stomachaches.

The Color Psychology of Yellow

         Yellow is a bright that is often described as cheery and warm.
         Yellow is also the most fatiguing to the eye due to the high amount of light that is reflected.
     Using yellow as a background on paper or computer monitors can lead to eyestrain or vision loss in
     extreme cases.
         Yellow can also create feelings of frustration and anger. While it is considered a cheerful
     color, people are more likely to lose their tempers in yellow rooms and babies tend to cry more in
     yellow rooms.
         Yellow can also increase the metabolism.
         Since yellow is the most visible color, it is also the most attention-getting color. Yellow can
     be used in small amount to draw notice, such as on traffic sign or advertisements.

        Orange is a combination of yellow and red and is considered an energetic color.
        Orange calls to mind feelings of excitement, enthusiasm, and warmth.
        Orange is often used to draw attention, such as in traffic signs and advertising

         Pink is essentially a light red and is usually associated with love and romance.
         Pink is thought to have a calming effect. One shade known as "drunk-tank pink" is
     sometimes used in prisons to calm inmates. Sports teams sometimes paint the opposing teams
     locker room pink to keep the players passive and less energetic.
         While pink's calming effect has been demonstrated, researchers of color psychology have
     found that this effect only occurs during the initial exposure to the color. When used in prisons,
     inmates often become even more agitated once they become accustomed to the color.
                        Camouflage fabrics
Do you want to be hidden? Trying to blend in with your surroundings?
Camouflage fabrics are the just the thing.

There are many different types of Camouflage fabrics on the market
today. Some are heavy duty camo material for hunters and fisherman.
There are patterns for the military men and women serving our country at
home and abroad. There are cotton Camouflage fabrics in many different
colors for the sewer and quilter alike.

There is a new Camouflage fabric on the market called Nature-Rised and
it is a special fabric created by adding natural shapes from nature to the
fabric. These special textures refract the light, thus breaking up reflection
and stopping glare and shine, making your camo work for you, not
against you! Unlike many of the slick , smooth, shiny fabrics on the
market, this fabric helps you become a part of the woods, not a large
shiny object. Many other fabrics are made only in one or two steps; the
new Nature-Rised fabric is made of 8 layers and procedure, each having
a special function to create the ultimate hunting fabric.

It is burr proof and won't snag or grab the brush. It is soft and quiet. It is
tough and comfortable, strong and wind-proof, water-repellent. It won't
fade or shine. What this means to the hunter is more successful hunts!
When the folks at Nature-Rised set out to make the ultimate
Camouflage, they quickly realized that there were only so many ways
you could arrange sticks, trees, leaves, trees and limbs. So they decided
that in order to make a better Camouflage, they had to make a better

Through years of working in textiles and personal experiences in the
field, they noticed that there were many problems with fabrics that were
being used in the manufacture of camo clothing. For instance, some
fabrics faded quickly, some attracted debris, such as burrs and beggar
lice. Some grabbed everything it came in contact with and some were
noisy and stiff. In addition, many of the fabrics were not very durable,
some had little if any resistance to weather and if it did, it was very hot
and not breathable. Last, but not least, the problem with most of the
fabrics had a tendency to shine and glare from reflected light. So they
turned their attention to the development of a fabric that would far
surpass anything on the market today. The innovative Camouflage fabric
called Nature-Rised is the next generation of Camouflage.

So if you are looking to be discreet, in the woods, on the battlefield or on
the lake, look for a quality Camouflage fabric. It does make a difference
what you wear. If you are looking for fabrics to decorate with or to wear
for fun, many colors of Camouflage are available, even blues and pinks
for the young at heart. Bandanas are popular in Camouflage patterns for
dress up for young children. Costumes for birthday parties are fun in the
bright faux camo patterns also. Choose your level of Camouflage!
List of Languages of India

      Abor
      Abujmaria
      Agaria
      Ahirani
      Aimol
      Aiton
      Anal
      Andamanese
      Angani
      Angika
      Apatani
      Arabic
      Ashing
      Assamese
      Asuri
      Awadhi
      Badaga
      Baghelkhandi
      Bagri
      Baigani
      Bajania
      Balti
      Bangni
      Banjari
      Basturia
      Bauria
      Bawm
      Bazigar Boli
      Bengali
      Bhanja
      Bantu
      Bharmauri
      Bhairi
      Bhili
      Bhojpuri
      Bhotia
      Bhuiya
      Bhumij
      Bhunjia
      Biate
      Bilaspuri
      Birhor
      Birjia
      Bishnupriya
      Bodo
      Bokar
   Bondo
   Bori
   Braj Bhasha
   Brijlal
   Bugun
   Bundelkhandi
   Burmese
   Bushari
   Chakhesang
   Chakma
   Chambilai
   Chameli
   Chang
   Changpa
   Chattisgarhi
   Chikari
   Chinali
   Chiru
   Chote
   Churasi
   Dalu
   Dakhani
   Deori
   Dhanki
   Dhimal
   Dhodia
   Dhundhari
   Didayi
   Dimasa
   Dingal
   Dogri
   Dommari
   Droskhat/Dokpa
   Duhlian-Twang
   English
   French
   Gadaba
   Gadiali
   Gallong
   Gameti
   Gamit
   Gangte
   Garasia
   Garhwali
   Garo
   Giarahi
   Gondi
   Gujarati
   Gujjari
   Gurumukhi
   Gurung
   Gutob
   Hajong
   Halam
   Halbi
   Harauti
   Haryanavi
   Hebrew Himachali
   Hindi
   Hinduri
   Hindustani
   Hmar
   Ho
   Hrusso
   Hualngo
   Irula
   Jabalpuri
   Jangali
   Jarawa
   Jaunsari
   Juang
   Kabui
   Kachanga
   Kachari
   Kachchi
   Kadar
   Kagati
   Kakbarak
   Kanashi
   Kangri
   Kannada.
   Karbi
   Karen
   Karko
   Kashmiri
   Kathiawari
   Khadiboli
   Khaka
   Khamba
   Khampa
   Khampti
   Khampti-shan
   Kharia
   Khasi
   Khaskura
   Khatri
   Kherwari
   Khiangan
   Khorusti
   Khotta
   Kinnauri
   Kiradi
   Kisan
   Koch
   Kodava
   Koi
   Koireng
   Kokni.
   Kolami
   Kom
   Komkar
   Konda
   Konicha
   Konkani
   Konyak
   Koracha
   Koraga
   Korava
   Korku
   Korwa
   Kota
   Kotwalia
   Kudmali
   Kui
   Kuki
   Kulvi
   Kumaoni
   Kunbi
   Kurukh
   Kutchi
   Kuvi
   Ladakhi
   Lahauli
   Laihawlh
   Lakher (Mara)
   Lalung
   Lambani
   Lamgang
   Laotian
   Laria
   Lepcha
   Limbu
   Lisu
   Lodha
   Lotha
   Lushai
   Mag
   Magahi
   Magarkura
   Mahal
   Maithili
   Majhi
   Makrani
   Malankudi
   Malayalam
   Malhar
   Malto
   Malvani
   Malvi
   Manchat
   Mandiali
   Mangari
   Manipuri
   Mao
   Maram
   Marathi
   Maria
   Maring
   Marwari
   Mavchi
   Meitei
   Memba
   Mewari
   Mewati
   Milang
   Minyong
   Miri
   Mishing
   Mishmi
   Mizo
   Monpa
   Monsang
Rank,                                                                                  Population   3

language             Countries   2
                                                                                       (in millions)

1. Chinese, Mandarin Brunei, Cambodia, China, Indonesia, Malaysia, Mongolia,          1120
                     Philippines, Singapore, S. Africa, Taiwan, Thailand

2. English           Australia, Belize, Botswana, Brunei, Cameroon, Canada,            480
                     Eritrea, Ethiopia, Fiji, The Gambia, Ghana, Guyana, India,
                     Ireland, Israel, Lesotho, Liberia, Malaysia, Micronesia, Namibia,
                     Nauru, New Zealand, Palau, Papua New Guinea, Philippines,
                     Samoa, Seychelles, Sierra Leone, Singapore, Solomon Islands,
                     Somalia, S. Africa, Suriname, Swaziland, Tonga, U.K., U.S.,
                     Vanuatu, Zimbabwe, many Caribbean states, Zambia.

3. Spanish           Algeria, Andorra, Argentina, Belize, Benin, Bolivia, Chad, Chile, 332
                     Colombia, Costa Rica, Cuba, Dominican Rep., Ecuador, El
                     Salvador, Eq. Guinea, Guatemala, Honduras, Ivory Coast,
                     Madagascar, Mali, Mexico, Morocco, Nicaragua, Niger,
                     Panama, Paraguay, Peru, Spain, Togo, Tunisia, United States,
                     Uruguay, Venezuela.

4. Arabic            Egypt, Sudan, ALgeria, Morocco, Tunisia, Lybia, Saudi Arabia, 235
                     Syria, Jordan, Yemen, UAE, Oman, Iraq, Lebanon

5. Bengali           Bangladesh, India, Singapore                                     189

6. Hindi             India, Nepal, Singapore, S. Africa, Uganda                       182

7. Russian           Belarus, China, Estonia, Georgia, Israel, Kazakhstan,            180
                     Kyrgyzstan, Latvia, Lithuania, Moldova, Mongolia, Russia,
                     Turkmenistan, Ukraine, U.S., Uzbekistan

8. Portuguese        Angola, Brazil, Cape Verde, France, Guinea-Bissau,               170
                     Mozambique, Portugal, São Tomé and Príncipe

9. Japanese          Japan, Singapore, Taiwan                                         125

10. German           Austria, Belgium, Bolivia, Czech Rep., Denmark, Germany,         98
                     Hungary, Italy, Kazakhstan, Liechtenstein, Luxembourg,
                     Paraguay, Poland, Romania, Slovakia, Switzerland

11. Chinese, Wu      China                                                            77.2

12. Javanese         Indonesia, Malaysia, Singapore                                   75.5

13. Korean           China, Japan, N. Korea, S. Korea, Singapore, Thailand            75
14. French            Algeria, Andorra, Belgium, Benin, Burkina Faso, Burundi,         72
                      Cambodia, Cameroon, Canada, Chad, Comoros, Congo,
                      Democratic Republic of the Congo, Djibouti, France, Gabon,
                      Guinea, Haiti, Ivory Coast, Laos, Luxembourg, Madagascar,
                      Mali, Mauritania, Monaco, Morocco, Niger, Rwanda, Senegal,
                      Seychelles, Switzerland, Togo, Tunisia, Vanuatu, Vietnam

15. Turkish           Bulgaria, Cyprus, Greece, Macedonia, Romania, Turkey,            69

16. Vietnamese        China, Vietnam                                                   67.7

17. Telugu            India, Singapore                                                 66.4

18. Chinese,          Brunei, China, Costa Rica, Indonesia, Malaysia, Panama,          66
Yue(Cantonese)        Philippines, Singapore, Thailand, Vietnam

19. Marathi           India                                                            64.8

20. Tamil             India, Malaysia, Mauritius, Singapore, S. Africa, Sri Lanka      63.1

21. Italian           Croatia, Eritrea, France, Italy, San Marino, Slovenia,           59

22. Urdu              Afghanistan, India, Mauritius, Pakistan, S. Africa, Thailand     58

23. Chinese, Min Nan Brunei, China, Indonesia, Malaysia, Philippines, Singapore,       49
                     Taiwan, Thailand

24. Chinese, Jinyu    China                                                            45

25. Gujarati          India, Kenya, Pakistan, Singapore, S. Africa, Tanzania, Uganda, 44

26. Polish            Czech Rep., Germany, Israel, Poland, Romania, Slovakia           44

27. Ukrainian         Poland, Slovakia, Ukraine                                        41

28. Persian           Iran, Iraq, Afghanistan, Oman, Qatar, Tajikistan, U A Emirates   37.3

29. Chinese, Xiang    China                                                            36

30. Malayalam         India, Singapore                                                 34

31. Chinese, Hakka    Brunei, China, Indonesia, Malaysia, Panama, Singapore,           34
                      Suriname, Taiwan, Thailand

32. Kannada           India                                                            33.7

33. Oriya             India                                                            31

34. Panjabi, Western India, Pakistan                                                   30
35. Sunda                Indonesia                                                   27

35. Panjabi, Eastern     India, Kenya, Singapore                                     26

36. Romanian             Hungary, Israel, Moldova, Romania, Serbia and Montenegro,   26

37. Bhojpuri             India, Mauritius, Nepal                                     25

38. Azerbaijani, South Afghanistan, Iran, Iraq, Syria, Turkey                        24.4

40. Maithili             India, Nepal                                                24.3

41. Hausa                Benin, Burkina Faso, Cameroon, Ghana, Niger, Nigeria, Sudan, 24.2

43. Burmese              Bangladesh, Myanmar                                         22

44. Serbo-Croatian   4
                         Bosnia and Herzegovina, Croatia, Macedonia, Serbia and      21
                         Montenegro, Slovenia

45. Chinese, Gan         China                                                       20.6

46. Awadhi               India, Nepal                                                20.5

47. Thai                 Singapore, Thailand, Malaysia                               20

48. Dutch                Belgium, France, Netherlands, Suriname                      20

49. Yoruba               Benin, Nigeria                                              20

50. Sindhi               Afghanistan, India, Pakistan, Singapore                     19.7
Organic cotton

Organic cotton is generally understood as cotton, from non genetically modified plants, that is
to be grown without the use of any synthetic agricultural chemicals such as fertilizers or
pesticides Its production also promotes and enhances biodiversity and biological cycles. In the
United States cotton plantations must also meet the requirements enforced by the National
Organic Program (NOP), from the USDA, in order to be considered organic. This institution
determines the allowed practices for pest control, growing, fertilizing, and handling of organic
crops. As of 2007, 265,517 bales of organic cotton were produced in 24 countries and worldwide
production was growing at a rate of more than 50% per year.

Ecological footprint

Cotton covers 2.5% of the world's cultivated land yet uses 16% of the world's insecticides, more
than any other single major crop. Other environmental consequences of the elevated use of
chemicals in the non organic cotton growing methods consist of:

      High levels of agrochemicals are used in the production of non-organic, conventional cotton.
       Cotton production uses more chemicals per unit area than any other crop and accounts in total
       for 16% of the world's pesticides
      Chemicals used in the processing of cotton pollute the air and surface waters.
      Residual chemicals may irritate consumers' skin.
      Decreased biodiversity and shifting equilibrium of ecosystems due to the use of pesticides.


Cotton growers who make the transition to biologically based growing practices expect not only
to offer a healthier and cleaner product, but also to benefit the planet. Some of the contributions
to the different ecosystems include:

      Protecting surface and groundwater quality (eliminating contaminants in surface runoff)
      Reduced risk in insect and disease control by replacing insecticide with the manipulation of
      Long-term prevention of pests through beneficial habitat planting.
      Conservation of biodiversity
      Eliminate the use of toxic chemicals used in cotton
      Organically grown crops also yield soils with higher organic matter content, thicker topsoil
       depth, higher polysaccharide content, and lower modulus of rupture; therefore reducing
       considerably soil erosion.

Organic certification

It is required by the law that any producer wanting to label and sell a product as "organic" must
meet the standards established by the Organic Food Production Act of 1990, enforced by The
State organic program (SOP) This act specifies the procedures and regulations for production
and handling of organic crops.

Organic system plan

Producers must elaborate an organic production or handling system plan which must also be
approved by the state certifying agency or the USDA. This plan must include careful explanation
of every process held in the plantation, as well as the frequency with which they are performed.
A list of substances used on the crops is also necessary, along with a description of their
composition, place where they will be used, and if possible documentation of commercial
availability. This inventory of substances is important for the regulation of allowed and
prohibited material established by the SOP. Organic cotton growers must also provide A
description of the control procedures and physical barriers established to prevent contact of
organic and non organic crops on split operations and to avoid contact of organic production
with prohibited substance during gestation, harvesting, and handling operations . This production
plan can also be transferred to other states as long as it has already been approved by a certifying

Production requirements are specifically the set of changes that must be made to field and
farming practices in order for a crop to be considered organic. To begin with, organic fields must
go through a cleansing period of three years, without the use of any prohibited substances, before
planting the first organic crop. Fields must also be equipped with physical barriers and buzzers in
order to prevent contact of organic crops with any chemical substance product of surface runoff
from crops near by. Producers must also strive to promote soil fertility through cultivation
practices while maintaining or improving the physical, chemical, and biological condition of the
soil and minimizes soil erosion. Organic growers must also implement practices to support
biodiversity. Such practices include integrated pest management (IPM), which consists of the
manipulation of ecosystems that benefit both the crops and the organisms that live around it. In
addition to these practices, producers may only apply crop nutrients and soil amendments
included on the National List of synthetic substances allowed in crop production.


Handling procedures are all the processes related to product packaging, pest control in handling
processing facilities among others. The SOP allows the use of mechanical or biological methods
for the purpose of retarding spoilage of products, but at the same time it prohibits the use of
volatile synthetic solvents in processed products or any ingredient that is labeled as organic.


Since organic cotton is grown without the use of synthetic pesticides, it should contain fewer
pesticides than conventional cotton. Pesticides used in the production of conventional cotton
include orthophosphates such as phorate and methamidophos, endosulfan (highly toxic to
farmers[15], but not very environmentally persistent) and aldicarb.. Other pesticides persisting in
cotton fields in the United States include Trifluralin, Toxaphene and DDT . Although the last
two chemicals are no longer used in the United States their long breakdown period and difficulty
in removal ensures their persistence. Thus even organic cotton fields may contain them since
conventional cotton fields can be transitioned to organic fields in 2–3 years.
Expanding industry

Diverse institutions and campaigns are now educating the community about organic cotton and
supporting growers on the switch to organic farming. The Sustainable Cotton Project is helping
farmers in the transition from chemically dependent crops to more biological sound approaches.
This institution has launched the Cleaner Cotton project, which promises to produce cotton with
73% less use of chemicals. The Community Alliance with Family Farmers (CAFF)also joined
this effort since 2003. Their purpose is to educate farmers and the public about biological
farming techniques and the importance of reducing chemical use in fiber and food production
and supporting local farmers. In 2003, SCP joined the Community Alliance with Family Farmers
(CAFF) to strengthen its operations and reach other farm and consumer audiences. CAFF and
SCP provide growers with information about biological farming techniques and educate the
public about the importance of reducing chemical use in fiber and food production and
supporting local farmers.


Organic cotton is currently being grown successfully in many countries; the largest producers (as
of 2007) are Turkey, India and China.

Organic cotton production in Africa takes place in at least 8 countries. The earliest producer
(1990) was the SEKEM organization in Egypt; the farmers involved later convinced the
Egyptian government to convert 400,000 hectares of conventional cotton production to
integrated methods, achieving a 90% reduction in the use of synthetic pesticides in Egypt and a
30% increase in yields.

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