Honey Processing

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Production & Processing
   Ag Processing Technology
 Sweet fluid produced by honey bees
 Derived from flower nectar
 According to the US Honey Board and
  various national food regulations Honey
  stipulates a PURE food product
Honey Make-Up
 Sweetness comes from monosachrides
  fructose and glucose
 Has approximately the same sweetness as
  granulated sugar
 Most micro-organisims don’t grow in
  honey due to its low water activity
 However it does frequently contain
  dormant endospores of bacterium
  Clostridium botulinum that can be toxic to
Honey Production
Honey Production
 Bees produce honey as a food source
 In cold weather or when food is scare
  bees use excess honey for energy
 By contriving for bee swarms to nest in
  artificial hives, people have been able to
  semi-domesticate bees and harvest excess
Inside the Hive
 1 Queen bee
 Seasonally variable number of drone male
 20,000-40,000 female worker bees
       They raise the larve and collect the nectar that
        becomes honey in the hive
Honey Production
 After collecting nectar the bees use their
  honey stomachs to ingest and regurgitate
  the nectar a number of times until it is
  partially digested
 It is then stored in honeycomb cells
 After the final reguritation the honeycomb
  is left unsealed
       However at this point the nectar is still high in
        both water and natural yeast which unchecked
        would leave cause the sugars to ferment
Honey Production
 The process continues as bees inside the
  hive fan their wings to create a strong
  draft across the honeycomb
 This enhances evaporation which raises
  the sugar concentration and prevents
Classifying Honey By Its
      Floral Source
Classifying Honey By Its Floral Source
 Classifed by the floral source of the nectar
  from which it was made
 Honeys can be from specific types of
  flower nectars, from indeterminate origins
  or blended after collection
Blended Honey
 Most commercially available honey
 Mix of 2 or more honeys differing in floral
  source, color, flavor, density or geographic
 Wildflower honey
 Derived from the nectar of many types of
 Taste may vary year to year
 Aroma and flavor can be more or less
  intense depending on which bloomings are
   Made primarily from the nectar of one type of
   Produced by beekeepers keeping beehives in
    areas where the bees have acess to only 1 type
    of flower
   Typical North America Monofloral honeys are
       Clover
       Orange blossom
       Sage
       Eucalyptus
       Tupelo
       Manuka
       Buckwheat
       Sourwood
Honeydew Honey
 Made from the sweet secretions of aphids
  or other plant sap-sucking insects
 Dark in color with a rich fragrance
 Not as sweet as nectar honeys
 Popular in some areas (Germany’s Black
  Forest and some portions of Bulgaria)
 Production is much more complicated and
Packaging and Processing
Packaging and Processing Honey
 Generally bottled in its familiar liquid form
 However it is sold in other ways
Comb Honey & Chunk Honey
 Meant to be consumed still in the wax
 Collected by using standard wooden frams
  in honey supers
 The frames are collected and the comb is
  cut out in chunks before packaging
 Chunk honey is honey packed in widmouth
  containers consisting of one or more
  pieces of comb honey immeresed in
  extracted liquid
Comb Honey
Organic Honey
   Produced, processed and packaged in
    accordance with national regulations and
    certified as such by some government
    body or an independent organic farming
    certification organization
Crystallized Honey
 Also called granulated honey
 Some part of the glucose content has
  spontaneously crystallized from solution
  as a monohydrate
Pasteurized Honey
 Reduces mouisture levels, destroys yeast
  cells, liquefies crystals
 Sterlizes the honey and improves shelflife
 Downfalls
       Excessive heat exposure results in product
       Heat also affects appearance, taste and
       Can darken the natural honey color
Raw Honey
 Honey as it exsists in the beehive or as
  obtained by extraction, settling or
  straining without adding heat above 120
  degrees F
 Contains some pollen
 May also contain some small wax particles
 Local raw honey is often sought by allergy
  sufferers as the pollen impurities are
  thought to lessen the sensitivity to hay
Strained Honey
   Honey that has been passed through a
    strain to remove particulate material
    without removing pollen, minerals or
    valuable enzymes
Ultrafiltered Honey
 Honey processed by very fine filtration
  under high pressure
 Removes all extraneous solids and pollen
 Very clean
 Has a longer shelf life
 Preferred by the supermarket trade
 Degrades certain qualities of the honey
  much like the pasteurization process
Ultrasonicated Honey

 Processed by ultrasonication
 Non-thermal alternative for processing
 Destroys most of the yeast cells and those
  that are not destroyed generally lose their
  ability to grow
 Reduces the rate of fermentation
Whipped Honey
 Aka—creamed honey, spun honey,
  churned honey, candied honey, honey
 Processed to control cyrstallization
 Also produces a honey with a smooth
  spreadable consistancy
Storage (start)
   Suitable for long term
   Recommended to be stored for 2 (max. 3) years
   Main goal is to prevent fermentation
   Best honey is that in the comb that has been
    sealed with wax by the bee
   Should not be stored in metal containers, ceramic
    or wood are best
   Dark, dry place to prevent mouisture absorption
   Do not store uncoverd in the frig as it will absorb
    odors and flavors from other items
Honey Grading
Grading Honey
 Voluntary
 Based on USDA standards
 Quality is based on
       Soluble solids
       Water content
       Flavor
       Aroma
       Clarity
       Absence of defects
       color
Honey Grades
 Grade A-Good
 Grade B- Reasonably Good
 Grade C-Fairly Good
 Substandard- Poor, Failing
Indicators of Quality
   Distinquished by fragrance, tase and consistancy
   Ripe, freshly collected high quality honey at 68
    degrees F should flow from a knife in a straight
    stream with out breaking into separate drops.
    After falling it should form a bead
   When poured it should form small, temporary
    layers that disappear quickly, indicating high
   If not it indicated excessive water content (over
Indicators of Quality
   In the jar fresh honey should appear pure,
    consistent fluid and not settle in layers
   Transparent or honey that is reluctant to thicken
    may indicate the bees were fed sugar syrup or
    sugar which is bad for the bees and the honey
    they produce
   Fluffy film on the surface of the honey (like white
    foam) or marble colored or white-spotted
    crystallization on a containers sides is formed by
    air bubbles—this is an indication of high quality
    honey which was filled without pasteurization
Uses (start)
Food and Cooking
 Main uses are cooking, baking and as a
  spread on breads
 Also used as an addition to tea
 Sweetener in commercial beverages
Vegans and Honey
   Vegans do not use honey as it is
    considered an animal product
Honey Producing
Top Producers
   2005
       China
       Turkey
       United States
       Spain is also an important producer
Honey Production In
  South Dakota
Rank & Production
 2nd in the nation (2008)
 ND is #1
 2008 production was 21.38 million pounds
 Approx. 200 SD Bee Keepers, 90 of which
  maintain their bees on a commercial scale
SD Honey
 Highly desirable
 Mild flavored
 Light colored
 Alfalfa/sweetclover blend
Profits from Honey Sales
 2002- $16,065,000
 2001- $10,845,000
 2000- $16, 492,000
 2008-The price paid per pound was $1.34
Not Just Honey
 Bees are also important pollinators of
  agricultural crops in our State!
 In a study by Cornell University it was
  estimated that honey bee pollination adds
  $10.7 billion to the value of the crops they
Not Just Honey
   Many other products are produced from
    bees besides honey
       Beeswax hand creams
       Candles
       Soaps
       Beeswax Skin Creams
       Honey B-B-Q Sauce
 Wikipedia—
 Argus Leader—

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