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					Ipsos MORI/J30618


                          UK Border Agency public attitudes survey

                                                 July 2007

       Wave 2 results are based on 1,011 face-to-face interviews with adults in Britain aged 16+ years
       between 19 May and 24 June 2007. Wave 1 results are based on 1,001 face-to-face interviews
       between 18 November and 14 December 2006. Results are based on all respondents unless
       otherwise stated.
       Wave 1 and 2 results are weighted to the population profile of Britain
       Where changes in question wording are indicated, trends should be treated with caution
       Where results do not sum to 100, this may be due to multiple responses, computer rounding or the
       exclusion of don’t knows/not stated
       Results are based on all respondents unless otherwise stated
       An asterisk (*) represents a value of less than half of one per cent, but not zero.
       For small base sizes (less than 30) absolute numbers are given rather than percentage answers



   The polling is not part of the Home Office’s research or National Statistics outputs, nor does it
                 represent a statement of Home Office or UK Border Agency policy.
Q1.   What would you say is the single most important issue facing Britain today? SINGLE CODE

Q2.   What would you say are the other important issues facing Britain today? MULTICODE
                                                               Q1               Q1/2 combined
                                                               %                      %
                                                        Wave 1    Wave 2     Wave 1     Wave 2
                         Immigration/immigrants          24        23          45          42
       Crime/law & order/violence/ vandalism/ anti-      12        16          33          39
                              social (yob) behaviour
      National Health Service/Hospitals/Healthcare        6         8          27          29
      Defence/foreign affairs/international terrorism    15         6          28          17
                                   Education/schools      3         5          15          20
                                    Asylum seekers        3         4          12          11
                                               Housing    3         4          12          15
                      Economy/economic situation          2         4          11          10
                              Pollution/environment       3         3           9          12
             Unemployment/factory closure/lack of         3         3           9           9
                                               industry
                                           Drug abuse     1         2           9          10
                                   Poverty/inequality     1         2           5           7
         Government/leadership/politics/politicians       1         2           4           4
                                  (e.g. weak/corrupt)
                                           War in Iraq    -         2           -           3
                       Morality/individual behaviour      1         1          5            5
                Low pay/minimum wage/fair wages           1         1          2            5
                  Pensions/social security/benefits       1         1           7           7
                                      Race relations      *         1           4           3
                                              Taxation    2         1           8           7
                                       Inflation/prices   1         1           4           6
                      Local government/council tax        1         1           5           4
                         Transport/public transport       *         1           2           3
                   Climate change/global warming          1         1          2            2
       Nuclear weapons/nuclear war/disarmament            1         1          3            1
                     Over-population/overcrowding         1         1           2           1
           Overregulation/Big Brother/Nanny State         -         1           -           1
                               Common Market/EU/          *         *           2           2
                        Europe/EURO/Constitution
                                                  AIDS    -         -           *           *
                                       Animal welfare     *         -           1           *
                                Bird flu/pandemic flu     *         *           *           *
                               Breakdown in society       *         -           *           -
                                Countryside/rural life    *         *          1            1
            Foot and mouth outbreak/farming crisis        -         -           *           *
              GM/GM (Genetically modified) foods          *         -           *           *
                                     Northern Ireland     -         -           *           *
                                             Parenting    *         -           *           -
                                    Petrol prices/fuel    1         *          2            2
                                               Policing   -         -           *           *
              Pound/exchange rate/value of pound          -         -           *           *
                                          Privatisation   -         *           *           *
                         Public services in general       *         *          3            3
                                               Religion   *         *           *           1
                           Roads/traffic congestion       *         *           1           *
                         Scottish/Welsh Assembly/         *         *           1           1
                   Devolution/Constitutional reform
                       Social integration/integration     *         *          1            *
                         Tsunami/ South East Asia         -         -           *           -
                                        Identity cards    -         -           -           *
               Lack of provision for children/youths      -         -           -           *
               Alcohol abuse/alcohol related crime        -         -           -           *
                     Child abuse/cruelty/abduction        -         -           -           1
                                    Aging population      -         *           -           1
                            Too much bureaucracy          -         *           -           *
                         Energy/nuclear power             -             *         -        *
                                    Paedophiles           -             *         -       1
                             Care for the elderly         -             *         -        *
                         Keeping Britain British          -             *         -        *
                                         All wars         -             *         -        *
                                   Smoking ban            -             *         -        *
                   Prison system/overcrowding             -             *         -        *
                             Lack of democracy            -             *         -        *
                            Youth culture/gangs           -             *         -       1
                  Lack of respect/ethics/values           -             *         -       1
                                National security         -             *         -       1
                          Media negativity/bias           -             *         -        *
                         General infrastructure           -             -         -        *
                              Family breakdown            -             -         -        *
                                   House prices           -             *         -        *
                               Teenage drinking           -             *         -        *
                          Sexual discrimination           -             *         -        *
                           Trade unions/strikes           -             -         -        *
               2012/cost of the Olympic Games             -             -         -        *
           COMBINED: Race relations/asylum               27            28        50       47
             seekers/immigration/immigrants
                                 No single issue          -             *         -        *
                                           Other          4             3        9        10
                         None/no other issues             *             *         2        -
                                     Don’t know           5             5        12       2

Q3.   SHOWCARD There are different opinions about immigrants from other countries living
      in Britain – by immigrants we mean people who come to live in Britain. How much do
      you agree or disagree with the following statement?

      “Immigration is generally good for Britain”

                                                        Wave 1        Wave 2
                                                          %             %
                                 Strongly agree           6             7
                                  Tend to agree          26            27
                     Neither agree nor disagree          18            20
                               Tend to disagree          26            23
                              Strongly disagree          22            22
                 Don’t know/Refused/No opinion            2             1

Q4.   SHOWCARD Overall how much of a problem, if at all, do you think is immigration in
      Britain at the moment? SINGLE CODE ONLY
      And …
Q5.   How much of a problem, if at all, is it in your local area? SINGLE CODE ONLY
                                                         Q4                 Q5
                                                 Wave 1     Wave 2   Wave 1    Wave 2
                                                    %            %          %     %
                          A very big problem        38           33         7    7
                         A fairly big problem       38           41         11   14
                      Not a very big problem        18           19         39   37
                        Not a problem at all        4            5          36   31
                      Don’t know/No opinion         2            2          7    11
Q6.   You said that immigration in Britain is a very big/ fairly big problem in Britain. Why do
      you say that? OPEN ENDED QUESTION. DO NOT PROMPT.
      Base: All who see it as a very or fairly big problem: Wave 2 (759); Wave 1 (764)
                                                                   Wave 1   Wave 2
                                                                     %         %
      ABUSE OF/BURDEN ON PUBLIC SERVICES                            45         46
        Pressure on housing/taking our housing/not enough           18         20
                housing/pushes prices up/get council houses
         General strain/abuse of the benefits system/rely on        14         18
            benefits/come in and get handouts/things for free
           General strain on our resources/drains resources,         9         10
                  services/not enough for existing population
        General strain/abuse of the National Health Service         10         8
             Tax payers money having to support them/don’t           6         8
                      contribute through taxes/implications for
        taxpayers/contribute nothing/unwilling to work/effect
                                                     on economy
      Pressure on schools/taking school places, not enough           5         5
                                             schools/education
                                The infrastructure cannot cope       -         2
      Immigrants are getting everything while our homeless           -         2
                                             are getting nothing
          General financial burden on government revenues            5          -
       General abuse of the welfare state/take advantage of          2          -
                                                 the welfare state
              We wouldn’t get the same benefits if we lived in       -          *
                                                  another country
        They make money in this country, but don’t spend it          -          *
                                             here/send it home
             Puts more pressure on police/policing in general        -          *
                             Streets paved with gold mentality       -          *
      LACK OF EFFECTIVE CONTROLS/POLICIES                           24         26
        Lack of control over numbers/out of control/allowing        23         20
          too many in/just keep letting them in/opening up to
                              anyone and everyone/too lenient
         Too many getting into Britain illegally/problems with       -         5
                                              illegal immigration
               Government do not know how many are here              -         3
            Lack of health checks/they bring in diseases with        -         1
                                                              them
        Asylum policies are unclear/what constitutes asylum          *          -
                 Ineffective border controls/lack of policing at     *          -
                                                    Ports/Airports
                          Processes should be faster/too slow        *          -
                                 System is badly run/managed         -          *
                       Need to clamp down on illegal workers         *          -
         Those allowed to stay them bring over families and          -          *
                                                           friends
                    Requires more measures to deport illegal         *          -
                                    immigrants/asylum seekers
      COMMUNITY TENSION/LACK OF INTEGRATION                         22         19
        Lack of social integration/refuse to integrate/fit in/do     7         6
                            not mix with indigenous population
                                     General increases in racial     9         5
                                  tension/conflict/discrimination
       Creation of ghetto areas/too many immigrants in one           4         5
                                                   particular area
               General lack of understanding of each other’s         4         5
        cultures/lack of cultural integration/cultural, religious
                                          and value differences
                       Failure to learn English/don’t speak our      3         5
                                    language/language barriers
                                     White youths cause trouble      -          *
               British people are too insular/need to be more        -          *
                                 accepting/give them a chance
                    PRESSURE ON JOBS/EMPLOYMENT                      21   27
                              Pressure on jobs/taking our jobs       19   23
                   Immigrants work for cheaper rates/cheap            5    5
                                   labour/pushes wages down
        Many are unskilled/should only be allowed in if they         -    2
                   have skills/something to offer this country
     GENERAL THREAT TO WAY OF LIFE                                   21   18
                 They are treated better than the indigenous         10   11
      population/they take priority/not fair to British/need to
                                             take care of British
        They are trying to take over/want their own way/our          6    6
                way of life is under threat/losing our national
                                      identity/British way of life
         Government concentrate too much on them/bend                -    2
                                      over backwards for them
            Introducing too varied a mix of cultures into our        2    *
             country/diluting British society/Brits leaving the
                                          country to live abroad
          Don’t respect our rules/laws/don’t follow our rules        2    -
       We are losing our freedom of speech/not allowed to            -    *
                                                say what we like
              General increase in fear/causes fear amongst           2    -
                                         indigenous population
                                 General increase in diseases         1    -
                         General ruining/spoiling our country         1    -
     CRIME/ANTI-SOCIAL BEHAVIOUR/PROBLEMS                            17   10
                                     General increase in crime       12   5
             General increase in problems/trouble/problems            1   3
                      involving immigrants/illegal immigrants
       General increase in violence/fights/they fight among          4    1
                                                     themselves
               General increase in fear of terrorism/threat of       2    1
                                                        terrorism
          General increase in drugs/drug problem, bring in           1    -
                                                            drugs
                       They beg on the streets/beg with their        -    *
                          children/threaten people for money
     TOO MANY IMMIGRANTS/ASYLUM SEEKERS                              9    19
                   Too many immigrants/foreign nationals in          -    14
                                     Britain/allowed into Britain
       We are a small country/small island/are already over          9    6
                    populated/too many people/too crowded
     OTHER REASONS                                                   15   7
        Unfavourable news coverage/what I have heard on               7   5
              the radio/seen on the news/read in the papers
            Situation made worse by the number of Eastern            -    2
                                       Europeans coming here
                           Hear about it a lot/hear bad things       -    1
      Bogus asylum seekers/not genuine cases, mis-use of             5    -
                     the system, here for economic reasons
                       Asylum seekers go missing/disappear           1    -
           Bogus asylum seekers impact on genuine cases              1    -
           Immigrants getting married to stay in the country         *    -
                       Govt. does not listen to public opinion       *    -
                          EU dictates the rules/too dictatorial      *    -
                Govt too political/politically correct/motivated     *    -

                                          Other   11       7
                                     Don’t know    2       1
CODES IN BOLD ARE THEMES AND PERCENTAGES REFER TO ANY ANSWER GIVEN FOR EACH
THEME
CODES FROM WAVE 1 AND 2 HAVE BEEN COMBINED WHERE APPROPRIATE
Q7.        SHOWCARD I am now going to read a list of statements and would like you to tell me to what
           extent, if at all, you agree or disagree with each statement.
                                                                                      Neither
                                                                                       agree     Tend to   Strongly
                                                                Strongly   Tend to    nor dis-   disagre   disagre     Don’t
                                                                 agree      agree      agree        e          e       know
A                     There are too many        Wave 1 %          41         33         11          9         4         2
                     immigrants in Britain      Wave 2 %          39         29         13         11         4         3
B            Immigration is good for the        Wave 1 %           7         29         16         28        17         4
                       British economy          Wave 2 %           6         31         19         23        17         5
C            Britain should accept fewer        Wave 1 %          40         33         11          9         4         3
                         asylum seekers         Wave 2 %          38         30         12         14         4         2
D           It is a good thing that Britain     Wave 1 %          23         40         14         13         8         2
                 is a multi-cultural society    Wave 2 %          22         44         16         10         7         2
E           Immigrants should be made           Wave 1 %          55         34         5           4         1         1
                       to learn English         Wave 2 %          57         30         7           4         1         1
F          We need more immigrants to           Wave 1 %           4         19         17         34        25         2
                do jobs that the British
               people don’t want to do          Wave 2 %           5         19         16         32        25         3
G-1*            We must always protect          Wave 1 %          37         43         11         6          3         1
            genuine refugees who need           Wave 2 %          38         38         12         5          5         1
              a place of safety in Britain
G-2**         We must always protect            Wave 1 %          30         43         13         8          5         1
          genuine asylum seekers who            Wave 2 %          32         42         11         6          6         2
              need a place of safety in
                                Britain
H          Immigration increases crime          Wave 1 %          21         31         20         16         8         5
                         rates in Britain       Wave 2 %          21         26         20         20         7         6
I           Children of parents seeking         Wave 1 %          23         46         12         12         5         2
                asylum should have the          Wave 2 %          23         46         12         12         6         2
            same access to schools as
                         British children
J             Immigrants make Britain           Wave 1 %          12         41         16         18        10         2
           more open to new ideas and           Wave 2 %          14         39         17         17        10         3
                              cultures
K               People who settle in this       Wave 2 %          44         41          7         6          2         1
                    country should have
           citizenship lessons about the
                        British way of life
L            We should do more to help          Wave 2 %          35         44          8         7          4         1
              immigrants learn English
M         People from ethnic minorities         Wave 2 %          51         30         11         5          1         2
           need to demonstrate a real
            commitment to this country
                    before they can be
                     considered British
Q7G was split sampled. * Base: Wave 1, 499; Wave 2, 497. **Base: Wave 1, 502; Wave 2, 514. All others based on 1,001 interviews
in Wave 1 and 1,011 interviews in Wave 2

Q8.      Overall, how satisfied or dissatisfied are you with the way the government is dealing
         with immigration and asylum?

                                                               Wave 1                Wave 2
                                                                 %                     %
                                      Very satisfied             2                     1
                                     Fairly satisfied           12                    13
                  Neither satisfied nor dissatisfied            12                    14
                                  Fairly dissatisfied           27                    27
                                   Very dissatisfied            40                    41
                  Don’t know/Refused/No opinion                  7                     4
Q9.   Why do you say you are dissatisfied with the way the government is dealing with immigration and
      asylum? OPEN ENDED QUESTION. DO NOT PROMPT.
      Base: All who are dissatisfied with the way the government is dealing with immigration and asylum: Wave
      1 (677; Wave 2 (690)
                                                                               %       %
      LACK OF EFFECTIVE CONTROLS/POLICIES                                      50      59
        Lack of control over numbers/allowing too many in/lost control         36      39
                             of situation/system not monitored/regulated
               Don’t know how many of them are actually here/have no            -      10
                                                             accurate figures
         Failure to vet/check /no means testing carried out/need more          9       7
        background info/vetting of candidates/let anyone in regardless
                                    of qualifications/need a points system
          They have lost contact with some of them/don’t know where             -      5
                                               they are/what they are doing
         Requires more measures to deport illegal immigrants/asylum            6       4
                 seekers/should send some home/have tighter laws on
                                                     repatriation/deportation
        Ineffective border controls/no control over borders/too easy to        1       4
                       get into country lack of policing at Ports/ Airports
         Processes should be faster/takes too long to sort cases/leave         3       2
                                                 people in limbo for too long
              Lack of health checks/they are bringing diseases into our         -       *
                                                                      country
                  Asylum policies are unclear/what constitutes asylum           2       -
      CRITICAL OF GOVT./GOVT. NOT DOING ENOUGH                                 36      33
                  Govt is generally inefficient/not doing enough/getting       25      19
      worse/ineffectual/vague/no idea how to deal with it/slow dealing
                                           with it/implementing new plans
         Govt. too lenient/soft/bend to whims of media/Britain seen as         7       5
                                                  the soft option/a soft touch
              The Govt, should stop clamp down on illegal workers/not          1       4
                                 enough done to catch illegal immigrants
       Govt. does not listen to public opinion/government not listening        1       3
          to the people/rising resentment in the indigenous population
                        Govt is too political/politically correct/motivated     2       2
           Govt not trustworthy/do not keep promises/tell lies/not open        2       1
                                                   about what they are doing
         Government not concerned with what is happening in Britain;            -      1
          too concerned with things happening elsewhere in the world
       Government should ensure all people entering the country can             -      1
                                                                speak English
                                       EU dictates the rules/too dictatorial   1        -
                     Government should be doing more to deter racism            -       *
                                         Too much bureaucracy/red tape          *       -
ABUSE OF/BURDEN ON PUBLIC SERVICES                                        17   22
    They get more benefits/care/help than we do/we take second             -   9
                                             place in our own country
         General strain/abuse of the benefits system/claim, rely on       6    7
            benefits/give them money/benefits/handouts too readily
                                                             available
 Pressure on housing/taking our housing/they provide them with            4    6
  housing/give them priority housing/not enough housing/pushes
                                                             prices up
                General strain/abuse of the National Health Service       2    3
        Tax payers money having to support them/don’t contribute          2    2
      through taxes/tax payers money should not be used to fund
                                        extra services for immigrants
    Immigrants should be made to work/not allowed to live off the         -    2
                                                                 state
      They take money off this country, but put nothing back/send         -    1
                                                  their money abroad
             Pressure on schools/taking school places, not enough         1    1
                                                    schools/education
      General strain on our resources/economy/drains resources,           3    *
                                                              services
                General financial burden on Government Revenues           2    -
      General abuse of the Welfare system/take advantage of the           *    -
                                                        Welfare State
IMMIGRATION GENERAL THREAT TO WAY OF LIFE                                 12   4
                  Immigrants are treated better than the indigenous       8    2
        population/it’s one rule for them and another rule for us/we
                         mustn’t offend them, but they can abuse us
            Immigrants don’t respect our rules/laws/don’t follow our      1    1
            rules/they should live by our rules/respect our laws and
                                                              customs
   Immigrants are trying to take over/want their own way/our way          3    *
   of life is under threat/this is no longer Britain/we are losing our
                                                     country’s identity
It is creating problems on a local level everywhere/problems will         -    *
                                                            get worse
         General increase in fear/causes fear amongst indigenous          1    -
                                                            population
                                        General increase in diseases      1    -
            Introducing too varied a mix of cultures into our country     *    -
                         Immigration is generally ruining our country     *    -
CRIME/ANTI-SOCIAL BEHAVIOUR/PROBLEMS                                      6    3
        General increase in crime/high level of crime connected to        3    3
                                                           immigrants
          General increase in racial tension/conflict/ discrimination     2    -
             General increase in drugs/drug problem, bring in drugs       *    -
                                  General increase in violence/flights    1    -
           General increases in fear of terrorism/threat of terrorism     *    *
                              General increases in problems/trouble       *    -
PRESSURE ON JOBS/EMPLOYMENT                                               5    5
                           Pressure on jobs/they are taking our jobs      4    3
   They should only be allowed in if they have a trade profession         -    1
 Immigrants work for cheaper rates/cheap labour/pushes wages              1    1
                                                                 down
     COMMUNITY TENSION/LACK OF INTEGRATION                                  4    6
     Immigrants refuse to integrate, fit in, do not mix with indigenous     1    3
      population/they should be integrated/integration should be both
                                                                    ways
      Need more funding to help immigrants become part of us/settle         -    2
                                                                   down
      Creation of ghetto areas/too many immigrants in one particular        1    1
                                                                    area
        They have been put in areas where the infrastructure cannot         -    *
                                                                    cope
                     Failure to learn English/don’t speak our language      1    -
       General lack of understanding of each other’s cultures/lack of       *    -
                                                     cultural integration
     TOO MANY IMMIGRANTS/ASYLUM SEEKERS                                     2    2
      We are a small country/small island/we are over populated/ too        2    2
                                                                crowded
     OTHER REASONS                                                          11   6
                        Genuine cases treated unfairly/threatened with       -   2
                                             deportation/been deported
        Unfavourable news coverage/problems are highlighted in the          3    2
                                                           media/press
     Situation made worse by number of Eastern Europeans coming             -    1
                                                                    here
       Bogus asylum seekers impact on genuine cases/establish the           1    1
                          genuine cases/asylum seekers from the rest
            Bogus asylum seekers/not genuine cases, mis-use of the          4    -
                                    system, here for economic reasons
                                 Asylum seekers go missing/disappear        2    -
                 It is hard for immigrants to live here/access services     -    *
       Should be equal opportunities/respect/sympathy/ humanity for         1    -
                                                             immigrants

                                                                  Other     9    5
                                                                   None     -    1
                                                             Don’t know     1    -


CODES IN BOLD ARE THEMES AND PERCENTAGES REFER TO ANY ANSWER GIVEN FOR EACH
THEME
CODES FROM WAVE 1 AND 2 HAVE BEEN COMBINED WHERE APPROPRIATE
ATTITUDES TOWARDS THE BORDER AND IMMIGRATION AGENCY

Q10.     SHOWCARD I am now going to read out names of a few organisations. As I read
         out the names, please tell me how much you feel you know about each one? Take
         into account any of the ways you have heard or learnt about them.
                                                         Know       Know a       Know          Know       Never       Cannot
                                                         very         fair       just a       almost     heard of      say
                                                          well      amount        little      nothing
                                                                     about       about         about
A         Her Majesty’s Revenue and       Wave 1 %        18            30        29            16          5             2
                   Customs (HMRC)         Wave 2 %        23            28        32            12          5             1
B                   The Home Office       Wave 1 %        14            26        39            18          1             1
                                          Wave 2 %        18            28        35            17          1             *
C               Your local police force   Wave 1 %        17            42        31             9           *            *
                                          Wave 2 %        21            38        31             8           *            *
D       Identity and passport service*    Wave 1 %        12            26        39            21          1             1
                                          Wave 2 %        9             28        36            22          4             1
E                                   BBC   Wave 1 %        30            42        22             5           *            *
                                          Wave 2 %        37            40        18             5           *            *
F                The Immigration and      Wave 1 %        3              7        14            25          48            4
                Nationality Directorate   Wave 2 %        3              5        14            28          48            1
G               The Probation Service     Wave 1 %        6             20        36            29          5             4
                                          Wave 2 %        9             22        35            29          5             1
H                The Refugee Service      Wave 1 %        2              5        20            36          35            3
                                          Wave 2 %        1              4        19            39          35            1
I           Department of Work and        Wave 1 %        14            31        35            15          4             2
                          Pensions        Wave 2 %        15            30        35            15          4             *
J        The Border and Immigration       Wave 2 %        1              5        12            30          51            1
                           Agency
K              The Refugee Council        Wave 2 %        1             3         14            32          48            2
* Wave 1 wording: Passport Office

Q11.     SHOWCARD And now, for each one, please tell me how satisfied or dissatisfied you are with the
         way it does its job?



       Base: All who know at least a                               Very       Fairly       Neither      Fairly        Very      Don’t
                                                                 satisfied   satisfied     satisfied    dissat-     dissat-    know/
       little about the organisation                                                          nor        isfied      isfied    Cannot
                                                                                            dissat-                              say
                                             Base                                            isfied
A         Her Majesty’s Revenue and       Wave 1 (788)    %         7          49            25          11           3         6
                   Customs (HMRC)         Wave 2 (841)    %         7          49            25          9            3         6
B                   The Home Office       Wave 1 (802)    %         2          30            31          23           8         7
                                          Wave 2 (826)    %         2          28            26          26          10         7
C               Your local police force   Wave 1 (897)    %        11          51            17          12           6         4
                                          Wave 2 (919)    %        10          53            18          11           4         3
D       Identity and Passport Service     Wave 1 (772)    %         9          48            27          6            2         7
                                          Wave 2 (744)    %         7          39            31          11           3         9
E                                   BBC   Wave 1 (947)    %        17          53            17          6            3         4
                                          Wave 2 (951)    %        20          51            14          8            2         4
F                The Immigration and      Wave 1 (237)    %         3          21            33          14          16         14
                Nationality Directorate   Wave 2 (221)    %         2          18            39          15          13         13
G               The Probation Service     Wave 1 (634)    %         2          27            33          16           8         13
                                          Wave 2 (672)    %         2          26            36          16           5         15
H                The Refugee Service      Wave 1 (260)    %         3          21            30          15           7         25
                                          Wave 2 (246)    %         1          18            41          11           5         24
I           Department of Work and        Wave 1 (807)    %         5          47            26          13           4         5
                          Pensions        Wave 2 (828)    %         5          44            28          12           4         6
J        The Border and Immigration       Wave 2 (186)    %         2          14            35          17          12         20
                           Agency
K              The Refugee Council        Wave 2 (185)    %         5          14            45          10           5         21
* Wave 1 wording: Passport Office
Q12.      SHOWCARD The Border and Immigration Agency is a new body that is responsible for
          managing immigration control in the UK. I am now going to show you a list of things
          the Border and Immigration Agency* does. Please tell me which of these do you think
          are the most important for the Border and Immigration Agency? Please choose up to
          three. Just read out the letter or letters that apply.
          MULTICODE (UP TO THREE ALLOWED).
                                                                                    Wave 1               Wave 2
                                                                                        %                  %
          A       Boosting Britain’s economy by bringing the right                     25                 31
                                 skills here from around the world
          B         Denying benefits and NHS care to those here                        37                 41
                                                            illegally
          C                 Ensuring Britain is easy to visit legally                  16                 17
          D             Integrating refugees who need protection                       26                 27
          E        Knowing who leaves the country so that action                       21                 21
                  can be taken against those who break the rules
          F               Removing the most harmful people first                       50                 54
          G            Removing those whose asylum claims fail                         43                 40
          H        Using tough checks abroad so that only those                        43                 49
                             with permission can travel to the UK
                                               Don’t know/Refused                      4                   2
                                                     None of these                     4                   *
* Referred to as the Immigration and Nationality Directorate (IND) in Wave 1

Q13.      SHOWCARD I am going to read out some objectives of the Border and Immigration Agency.*
          Please tell me, how effective or ineffective do you think the Border and Immigration Agency has
          been in meeting these objectives? SINGLE CODE ONLY FOR EACH STATEMENT
                                                                      Very       Fairly      Not very     Not at all   Don’t
                                                                    effective   effective    effective    effective    know
A          Boosting Britain’s economy by           Wave 1 %            4          34           28              13       21
        bringing the right skills here from        Wave 2 %            3          27           31              14       26
                          around the world
B        Denying benefits and NHS care             Wave 1 %            3          10           33              30      24
                     to those here illegally       Wave 2 %            2          9            34              30      26
C         Ensuring Britain is easy to visit        Wave 1 %            11         39           21              11      19
                                      legally      Wave 2 %            11         37           19              11      23
D          Integrating refugees who need           Wave 1 %            3          33           25              11      28
                                  protection       Wave 2 %            3          29           27              7       34
E       Knowing who leaves the country             Wave 1 %            3          10           34              30      23
               so that action can be taken         Wave 2 %            2          11           32              31      25
       against those who break the rules
F             Removing the most harmful            Wave 1 %            3          10           32              35       20
                                people first       Wave 2 %            3          9            33              32       22
G        Removing those whose asylum               Wave 1 %            3          13           34              33       18
                                  claims fail      Wave 2 %            2          12           33              32       21
H          Using tough checks abroad so            Wave 1 %            3          12           31              33       21
          that only those with permission          Wave 2 %            2          11           31              30       25
                       can travel to the UK
* Referred to as the Immigration and Nationality Directorate (IND) in Wave 1
ATTITUDES TO IMMIGRATION AND ASYLUM

Q14.   What three things would you say would most improve how immigration and asylum
       into Britain is managed? SPONTANEOUS. CODE FROM BELOW

Q15.   SHOWCARD And now, looking at this list here, what three things would you say would
       most improve how immigration and asylum into Britain is managed? Just read out the
       letters that apply.

                                                                                Q14           Q15
                                                                          Wave 1   Wave 2   Wave 1    Wave 2
                                                                           %          %           %    %
           Stricter checks on applicants who come into Britain             43         40     44        47
                       Much stronger policing at ports and airports        31         33     38        42
             More measures to deport people who are illegally              20         18     44        43
                                               staying in the country
                 Imposing fines on employers who employ illegal            10         10     29        30
                                                           immigrants
       Introducing identity cards for immigrants to determine               7         9      22        23
                         who is eligible for benefits and NHS care
                   Introducing national identity cards for all British      8         8      23        20
          citizens to determine who is eligible for benefits and
                                                            NHS care
          Introducing visas for immigrants which include their              8         7      25        23
              fingerprints or other forms of robust identification,
                                                such as iris scanning
          Identifying and condemning employers who employ                   7         5      21        21
                                                   illegal immigrants
           Introducing residents’ permits for immigrants which              5         4      18        17
                include their fingerprints or other forms of robust
                                identification, such as iris scanning
         Ensure they have the skills/useful skills we need (+)              2         2      *         -
             Ensure they learn/speak the language/English (+)               2         2      *         -
                   Reduce/limit the number of immigrants/asylum             2         2      -         -
                  seekers/yearly quotas/stop immigration until it’s
                                                     under control (+)
       Stronger checks in country of departure/check before                 -         2      -         -
                                    they come here/other countries
                                         borders/customs/control (+)
           Ensure they have a job/good job prospects/want to                2         1      -         -
                                                              work (+)
            Deny them benefits/make difficult to claim benefits             1         1      -         -
                                                                    (+)
                               Better/more effective/integration (+)        2         1      -         -
                  Ensure they are able to support themselves (+)            1         1      -         -
                                      Introduce a points system (+)         *         1      *         -
                         Faster processing of applicants/speedier           1         1      -         -
                             applications/speed up the process (+)
                        Better tracking of entrants/keeping track of        1         1      -         -
       entrants/know where they are/how many/keep tighter
                                                            control (+)
                                          Increase staffing levels (+)      1         1      -         -
                                           Don’t let them in at all (+)     -         1      -         -
        Independent body to look into it/remove government                  -         1      -         -
                                                            control (+)
                                Educate people/reduce the fear (+)          -         1      -         -
                    Ensure they respect our rules/laws/deport law           1         *      *         -
                  breakers/don’t keep them in our jails costing us
                                                            money (+)
                       Respect their needs/show more respect (+)            1         -      *         -
       Ensure they understand our culture/our way of life (+)               1         -      *         -
             Clear policy guidelines of systems/procedures (+)              *         -      -
                                Better education for immigrants (+)         1         -      -         -
         Improve passports/biometric passports/more secure                  1         -      -         -
                                                        passports (+)
                                      More funding/resources (+)                   -            *    -   -
             Prove they are genuine/have genuine reason to be                      -            *    -   -
                                                           here (+)
                 Restrictions on whole families coming/extended                    -            *    -   -
                                                       families (+)
                  Less incentive to come here/not be too soft (+)                  -            *    -   -
                             Have a sponsorship programme (+)                      -            *    -   -
                       Ensure they are healthy/health checks (+)                   -            *    -   -
          Ensure they are not criminals/have no criminal record                    -            *    -   -
                                                                (+)
                                         Improve paperwork (+)                     -            *    -   -
                               Home Office checks/screening (+)                    -            *    -   -
               Ensuring they are spread around the country/not                     -            *    -   -
                                             creating Ghettos (+)
                Improve/more effective communication between                      1             -    -   -
                                        parties/official bodies (+)
          Offer good protection/secure/safe accommodation (+)                     1              -   -   -
                         Stronger/more effective Government (+)                   1              -   -   -
                                                             Other               7              10   *   1
                                          Don’t know/no answer                   19             19   6   4
(+) These are spontaneous mentions that were not included in the original response categories
Q16.   SHOWCARD Please tell me which one of these statements comes closest to your
       views on laws about immigration in Britain? Just read out the letter that applies.
                                                             Wave 1       Wave 2
                                                               %              %
              Laws on immigration should be much tougher      71             65
                Laws on immigration should remain as they     10             17
                                                         are
                  Immigration should be stopped altogether    10             11
                     Laws on immigration should be relaxed     4              3
              Laws on immigration should be abolished, so      1              1
                   that any one can come and live in Britain
                                                Don’t know     2              2
                                      Refused/ No opinion      1              1


Q17.   Do you think the government should set a strict limit on the number of immigrants
       allowed into Britain each year?

                                                                 Wave 1       Wave 2
                                                                   %            %
                                                        Yes       78           77
                                                         No       17           19
                                                 Don’t know        5            4


Q18.   SHOWCARD What do you think this limit should be?

       Base: All who said there should be a strict limit: Wave 1 (785), Wave 2 (786)

                                                                Wave 1       Wave 2
                                                                     %          %
       A                                                 Zero      12           12
       B                                             1 – 99         6            5
       C                                          100 – 999         9           12
       D                                      1,000 – 9,999        22           23
       E                                    10,000 – 99,999        20           22
       F                                 100,000 – 999,999          6            6
       G                                          1 million +       1            *
                                                 Don’t know        22           18
                                        Refused/ No opinion        2            2
                                            Mean score (n)       61,912       56,702
Q19.     SHOWCARD Now, looking at this list here, which of these groups of people do you
         think should be given priority to come and work in Britain? Just read out the letter(s)
         that apply.

         And …
Q20.     Which of these groups, if any, do you think should not be allowed to come and work in
         Britain at all? Just read out the letter(s) that apply.

                                                                           Q19                      Q20
                                                                      Wave 1 Wave 2            Wave 1 Wave 2
                                                                       %       %                %       %
                  People from the original European Union              35      38                4      4
                                                (e.g. France
                                                   Germany
                                                    Belgium
                                                         Italy
                                                       Spain
                                                Luxembourg
                                                Netherlands)
                   People from Australia, New Zealand and                35          36           4              3
                                                     Canada
                    People from the newer members of the                 15          19          12          15
                               European Union (i.e. Cyprus
                                            Czech Republic
                                                     Estonia
                                                    Hungary
                                                       Latvia
                                                   Lithuania
                                                        Malta
                                                      Poland
                                                    Slovakia
                                                   Slovenia)
                                       People from the USA               16          17           6          6
                  People from Commonwealth countries in                  29          16           7          13
                        the Indian Sub-Continent (i.e. India,
                                Pakistan and Bangladesh)**
                  People from the most recent countries to                8           7          14          10
                       have joined the European Union (i.e.
                                   Bulgaria and Romania) *
                       People from African Commonwealth                 N/A           7         N/A              3
                   countries (e.g. South Africa, Nigeria and
                                                     Ghana)
                             People from Asian countries***               7           6          16          14
                          People from African countries****               8           6          14          11
                          People from Caribbean countries                 6           4          9           3
                    People from South America and Mexico                  5           4          9           9
                       People without skills required for our             -           -           *           -
                                                 economy(+)
                    Criminals/those with criminal records(+)              -           -           *              -
                    People that can earn a living/not rely on             *           -           -              -
                                           benefits/ state(+)
                 People that cannot earn a living/not relying             -           -           *              -
                                        on benefits/ state(+)
                                Should be no preference(+)                1           -           -           -
                    Depends on personal circumstances(+)                  *           -           -           -
                                                Russians(+)               *           -           *           -
                                                  Muslims(+)              -           -           *           -
                    Anyone on merit/considered on merit(+)                *           -           *           -
                                                       Other             3           5           2            4
                                               None of these             22          24          44          45
                                                  Don’t know             11          15          19          16
(+) These are spontaneous mentions that were not included in the original response categories
*Wording in Wave 1: People from the soon-to-be-added members of the European Union (i.e. Bulgaria and Romania)
**Wording in Wave 1: People from the Commonwealth countries (e.g. India, Pakistan, Bangladesh etc)
***Wording in Wave 1: People from other Asian countries
****Wording in Wave 1: People from other African countries
Q21.    SHOWCARD Again, looking at this list now, which of these groups of people, if any, do you
        think should be given priority to come and work in Britain? Please choose up to three. Just
        read out the letter(s) that apply.
        And …
Q22. SHOWCARD Looking at this list again, which of these groups, if any, do you think should not
        be allowed to come and work in Britain at all? Please choose up to three. Just read out the
        letter(s) that apply.
                                                                    Q21               Q22
                                                              Wave 1 Wave 2 Wave 1 Wave 2
                                                                %       %         %         %
          People at risk of torture or persecution by their    59       61        7          8
                                         own governments
                 People who are looking to improve their       17       19       19         20
                   standard of living by working in Britain
          People who want to join their relatives living in    20       20       28         28
         Britain who have already been granted leave to
                                                remain here
         Independent wealthy people who want to retire         15       14       23         26
                                          and live in Britain
              People who have no prospects of a decent         11       12       21         23
                    standard of living in their own country
          Foreign students who want to come and study          38       41        7          8
                                                        here
                People with skills that are needed for our     58       65        3          2
                                                  economy
          People without skills required for our economy        -        -        *           -
                                                          (+)
                 Criminals/those with criminal records(+)       -        -        *           -
         People that can/cannot earn a living/not relying       -        -        *           -
                            on benefits/relying on state(+)
                                                      Other     1        1        *          1
                                             None of these      5        5       26         27
                                                 Don’t know     4        2       13          8
(+) These are spontaneous mentions that were not included in the original response categories

ATTITUDES TOWARDS NATIONAL IDENTITY SCHEME

Q23.      SHOWCARD The government is proposing to introduce a national identity scheme,
          which includes the ID card, for all UK citizens.* Could you please tell me how much
          you know about this scheme?

                                                                       Wave 1                    Wave 2
                                                                           %                      %
                                               A great deal                 8                      8
                                              A fair amount                32                     32
                                                 Just a little             39                     40
                      Heard of it, but know nothing about it               17                     16
                                           Never heard of it                3                      3
                                                Don’t know                  1                      1
* Wave 1 wording: The government is proposing to introduce a national identity card scheme for all UK citizens.

Q24.      SHOWCARD Overall, to what extent do you agree or disagree with the government’s plan to
          introduce a national identity scheme, which includes the ID card?* READ OUT LIST. SINGLE
          CODE ONLY
                                                                                      %
                                                     Agree strongly                  35
                                                      Agree slightly                 26
                                         Neither agree nor disagree                  13
                                                   Disagree slightly                 10
                                                  Disagree strongly                  15
                                                        Don’t know                    2
* Wave 1 findings are not directly comparable, due to differences in wording and scale. Wave 1 wording and results: To what extent, if
at all, are you in favour of or opposed to a national identity card scheme? Strongly in favour 31%, Moderately in favour 30%, Neither in
favour nor opposed 16%, Moderately opposed 9%, Strongly opposed 13%, Don’t know 2%
Q25.      For what reason, if any, are you in favour of a national identity scheme, which
          includes the ID card?*
                                                                     Wave 1       Wave 2
                 Base: All who are in favour of/agree with ID          (611)        (616)
                                                               cards
                                                                         %            %
                          Would be easier to identify people in           41         39
                                 general/to keep track on people
                                   Preventing illegal immigration         32         32
                           Easier to detect and arrest criminals          31         29
                If you have nothing to hide there shouldn’t be            28         29
                                                         a problem
                    Making it easy to prove who you are e.g. if           15         20
                                    registering with a new doctor
                   Stopping people claiming benefits to which             15         19
                                              they are not entitled
                              Good for general security reasons           14         17
                    Having one card to act as ID/passport and             12         13
                                                    driving licence
                                    Stopping people applying for           5          9
                          services/goods/money in your name
                                             Preventing terrorism          6          8
                                    Being able to prove your age           6          6
                   Already works effectively in other countries            4          6
                                                   Prevents fraud          8          6
                                   Prevent black-market working            3          4
                  Would make it easier/better for police/police            6          4
                   checks/cut crime levels/reduce police work
                   Carrying important medical information with             5          3
                                          you in case of accident
                       Reducing the time spent at immigration              2          3
                                      control at airports/ports etc
                  They worked well when used during the war                -          2
                          It will be expensive/concerned about             2          2
                               cost/would* object to paying for it
                       Would stop underage drinking/smoking                -          1
                      It will help reduce numbers/we will have             -          *
                                     better control over numbers
                                           Generally a good idea           3          -
                                Good for general safety reasons           3           -
                                   Would give govt better control         2           -
                            It’s what I am used to/have them at            2          *
                                          work/carry one already
                               Everyone should have an ID card             2          -
                      Would make travel easier/safer to travel             1          -
                                       Open to abuse / misuse**            1          -
                       Concerned about information stored on               1          -
                                                              card**
                       Does not infringe my personal freedom              1           -
                                     Use of fingerprints on cards         1           -
                                                 Generally easier          1          -
                         DNA should be included in ID scheme               -          *
                                                              Other        7          7
                                                        Don’t know         1          1
*Wave 1 wording: For what reason, if any, are you in favour of a national identity card scheme?
** These respondents said they were moderately in favour of ID cards at Q25
     •
Q26.     For what reason, if any, are you opposed to a national identity scheme, which
         includes the ID card?
                                                                      Wave 1   Wave 2
                Base: All who are opposed to/disagree with             (219)     (254)
                                                            ID cards
                                                                        %         %
                                        It would be too expensive       34        36
                                Infringes my personal freedom           30        35
                                                 It would not work       34       34
                                           Open to abuse / misuse       27        30
                   It would be the start of a police state / Big        28        24
                                                             Brother
                 No need/unnecessary/sufficient ID already              17        13
                                      Breaches my human rights          19        12
                   Concerned about my personal data being               13        12
                                     used without my permission
                                   I do not trust the government         9        11
                      Concerned about information stored on              2         9
                                       card/open to forgery/fraud
                                                     It is un-British    5         6
                          It is undemocratic / unconstitutional          3         5
                   It would discriminate unfairly against non-           3         5
                                                             citizens
                                 It is not going to stop terrorism        -        4
             Waste of money/money could be used in better                2         3
                                                                ways
                                            Invasion of my privacy       9         1
                        Will be difficult to organise/implement           -        1
                     Will make no difference to criminals/bad             -        1
                       elements/will only affect decent people
                                                               Other     7         8
                                                         Don’t know       -        1
*Wave 1 wording: For what reason, if any, are you opposed to a national identity card scheme?



Q27.     People who are granted the right to work in the UK for a limited period may not always leave
         when their visa expires. Please could you tell me which one of the following statements best
         describes your view about who should take responsibility in this situation? SINGLE CODE
         ONLY
                                                                Wave 2
                                                                    %
                     Employers should take responsibility for        5
                  ensuring that workers do not overstay their
                                                         visas
               The government should take responsibility for        24
                  ensuring that workers do not overstay their
                                                         visas
                  Responsibility for ensuring that workers do       69
                   not overstay their visas should be shared
                equally between government and employers
                                                   Don’t know        1
Q28.   People who are granted the right to study in the UK for a limited period may not always leave
       when their visa expires. Please could you tell me which one of the following statements best
       describes your view about who should take responsibility in this situation? SINGLE CODE
       ONLY READ OUT
                                                              Wave 2
                                                                  %
                      The college or university should take       7
                 responsibility for ensuring students do not
                                         overstay their visas
             The government should take responsibility for       24
               ensuring that students do not overstay their
                                                        visas
               Responsibility for ensuring that students do      68
                  not overstay their visas should be shared
              equally between government and the college
                                                or university
                                                 Don’t know       1


Q29.   SHOWCARD It has been suggested that Britain should have a National Day to celebrate British
       identity and try to bring people closer together. How strongly, if at all, do you support or
       oppose this idea? SINGLE CODE ONLY
                                                               Wave 2
                                                                  %
                                           Strongly support      25
                                           Tend to support       26
                                Neither support nor oppose       26
                                           Tend to oppose        11
                                           Strongly oppose       10
                                                Don’t know        2
DEMOGRAPHICS
QA   Respondent is SINGLE CODE ONLY

                                  Wave 1     Wave 2
                                    %          %
                          Male      48         48
                        Female      52         52

QB    Could you tell me your age at your last birthday
      SINGLE CODE ONLY

                                  Wave 1     Wave 2
                                    %          %
                          16-24     14        14
                          25-34     16        16
                          35-44     19        20
                          45-54     15        15
                          55-59     8          8
                          60-64     7          7
                          65-74     13        12
                            75+     7          7

QC    Class SINGLE CODE ONLY

                                  Wave 1     Wave 2
                                    %          %
                              A     3          3
                              B    23         23
                             C1    29         29
                             C2    21         21
                              D    13         11
                              E    12         14

QD    Respondent is: SINGLE CODE ONLY

                                  Wave 1    Wave 2
                                    %         %
            Chief Income Earner     59        59
        Not Chief Income Earner     39        39
                        Refused     2         2
                      No answer      *         -

QE     Working Status of Respondent: SINGLE CODE ONLY
                                     Wave 1 Wave 2
                                       %      %
      Working - Full time (30+ hrs)    42     42
              - Part-time (9-29 hrs)   10     11
                       Unemployed       4      5
               Not working - retired   25     24
     - looking after house/children    9      9
                  - invalid/disabled    3      3
                             Student    5      6
                            Refused     *      *
                         No answer      *      -

QF    Are you self employed? SINGLE CODE ONLY
                                Wave 1  Wave 2
                                  %        %
                           Yes    10      12
                            No    79      80
                       Refused    11       9
Internet Access
QG Please tell me if you have got access to: READ OUT.
      MULTICODE OK

                                         Wave 1   Wave 2
                                           %        %
         PC - desktop, laptop or other    67       65
 Internet at home via 'dial up' modem     15       10
    Broadband internet at home via a      51       54
   high-speed, always-on connection
     (e.g. via ADSL or cable modem)
   Internet at work, place of study or     25       26
                                 None      27       27
                             Refused       1        1

Housing Tenure
QH Which of the following best describes the ownership of
     your home? SINGLE CODE ONLY
                                 Wave 1   Wave 2
                                   %        %
            Bought on mortgage    37        40
   Owned outright by household    32        31
    Rented from Local Authority   11        10
           Rented from Housing     6         6
    Rented from private landlord  11         8
                          Other    1         2
            Refused/Don’t know     2         2
                     No answer     *         -

Newspaper Readership
QI  Which, if any, newspaper(s) do you read regularly? By
    regularly, I mean on average at least three out of every
    four issues. MULTICODE OK
                                  Wave 1    Wave 2
                                    %          %
                    The Express     4          4
                       Daily Mail  18          15
                    Daily Record    3          4
           The Daily Telegraph      6          6
                 Financial Times    2          1
                   The Guardian     5          6
          The Herald (Glasgow)      1           *
               The Independent      2          3
                  The Scotsman      1           *
                       Daily Star   2          1
                        The Sun    15          12
                      The Times     6          5
                     Daily Mirror   8          7
                           Metro    4          2
             Evening Standard       2           1
                           Other   10          9
                   None of these   37          42
QJ   Which ethnic group do you consider you belong to?
     SINGLE CODE ONLY

                                        Wave 1   Wave 2
                                           %       %
                        WHITE
A                        British          86       86
B                          Irish          1        1
C               Any other white           3        3
                        MIXED
D              White and Black             *        *
E       White and Black African            *        -
F              White and Asian             *        *
G              Any other mixed             *        *
             ASIAN OR ASIAN
H                        Indian           2        3
I                     Pakistani           2        1
J                 Bangladeshi             1        *
K              Any other Asian            1        1
          BLACK OR BLACK
L                    Caribbean            1        1
M                       African           2        1
N               Any other black           *        -
         CHINESE OR OTHER
O                      Chinese            *        *
         Any other background             *        1
                       Refused            1        1

Nationality
QK SHOWCARD Which one of these best describes you . .
     . ? SINGLE CODE ONLY

                                        Wave 1   Wave 2
                                         %        %
 A                    British citizen     90        91
 B        British citizen and also         2        3
      citizen of another country
             (i.e. dual nationality)
 C     Citizen of any European            2         1
                Union country (i.e.
                 Belgium, France,
        Germany, Luxembourg,
         Netherlands, Denmark,
                  Ireland, Greece,
           Greenland, Portugal,
        Spain, Austria, Finland,
       Sweden, Cyprus, Czech
                Republic, Estonia,
     Hungary, Latvia, Lithuania,
       Malta, Poland, Slovakia,
                           Slovenia)
 D            Citizen of Australia,        *        *
      Canada, or New Zealand
 E            Citizen of any other        1        1
        Commonwealth country
            (e.g. India, Pakistan,
      Bangladesh, Nigeria etc)
 F        Citizen of a Caribbean           *        *
                             country
 G            Citizen of any other        1        1
                             country
                               Other      1        *
              Not stated/Refused          4        2
ASK IF NOT A BRITISH CITIZEN (NOT CODED 1 IN QK)
Length of Time in Britain
QL Could you tell me how long have you been living in
     Britain since you first came to live in Britain
     permanently? SINGLE CODE ONLY

Base: All non British citizens: Wave 1 (59); Wave 2 (61)
                                    Wave 1     Wave 2
                                        %          %
             Less than 3 months          4         -
                     3 – 6 months        1         2
                    6 – 12 months        4         6
                       1 – 3 years      21        11
                       3 – 5 years      11        14
               More than 5 years        48        56
                        Not stated      10        12