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									Listening in IPC
Sub topics

•   Stages of Listening

•   Styles of Listening

•   Culture, Gender and Listening
 Listening is a fundamental part
  of comm process.
 While hearing is a passive
  process that occurs without one
  paying any attention, listening
  is the act of hearing
 Lederman (1977), adults = 42%
  children = 58% .
 Some communication researchers
  as a more difficult activity
  than speaking.
Why do we Listen? (Purposes)
   To Learn
    To acquire knowledge of others,
    the world, and yourself, so as
    to avoid problems and make more
    reasonable decisions.
    E.g. listening to the
    difficulties your sales staff
    has may help you improve sales
   To Relate
    Form and maintain friendships
    and love relationships on the
    basis of social acceptance
    and popularity because people
    come to like those who are
    attentive and supportive.
    E.g. others will increase
    their liking for you once
    they feel you have genuine
    concern for them.
   To Influence
    Have an effect on the attitudes
    and behaviors of others because
    people are more likely to
    respect and follow those they
    feel have listened to and
    understood them.
    E.g. workers are more likely to
    follow your advice once they
    feel you have truly listened to
    and heard their points of view,
    concerns and insights.
To Play
Know when to suspend critical
and evaluative thinking & when
to simply engage in passive and
accepting listening.
E.g. listening to the stories
of coworkers will allow you to
gain a more comfortable balance
between the corporate world and
the world of play and perhaps
to see humor in a world of
To Help
Be able to assist other people
because you hear more,
emphasize more, and come to
understand others more deeply.
E.g. listening to your child‟s
complaints about her teacher
(instead of responding “What
did you do wrong?”) will put
you in a better position to
help your child cope with
school and with her teacher.
Stages of Listening
Listening involves a series of
Five (5) Steps, namely:-
 Receiving
 Understanding
 Remembering
 Evaluating
 Responding
5 Stage Model of Listening

 Receiving   Understanding    Remembering

       Evaluating       Responding
Stage 1 – Receiving
 Listening begins with
  receiving the messages. The
  messages received are both
  verbal and nonverbal-gestures,
  facial expressions…
 Notes what is said & what is
  left out.
 Avoid distractions
 Focus attention on the speaker
 Maintains role as listener &
  avoid interruption.
Stage 2 – Understanding
 Understanding is the stage
  which you learn what the
  speaker is talking about.
 Avoid assuming you know what
  the speaker is going to speak.
 Relate the new info with what
  you already have.
 See the message from the
  speaker‟s point of view.
 Ask questions to clarify info.
Stage 3 – Remembering
 For effective listening, you
  need to remember the message.
 Taking notes or taping the
  messages in public speaking or
 What you remember is actually
  not what was said but what you
  think (or remember) was said.
 Memory for speech is not
  reproductive, memory is
Stage 4 – Evaluating
 Evaluating consists of judging
  the message in some way –
  intentions / motives, awareness
 This evaluation process often
  goes on without much conscious
 In other situation, your
  evaluation is more in the
  nature of critical analysis.
 Listening to a proposal in a
  business meeting.
Stage 5 – Responding
 Responding occurs in 2 phases:
  responses you make while the
  speaker     is    talking   and
  responses you make after the
  speaker stops talking.
 These   responses include back
  channeling cues, such as “I
  see”,    “yes”,  “uh-huh”,  and
  similar signals that let the
  speaker know you are listening.
Problem causing Listening responses

Listener Types   Listening          Misinterpreting Thoughts
The Static       Gives no feedback, Why isn’t she reacting;
Listener         remains relatively am I not producing
                 motionless         sound?

The            Seems responsive Am I making sense?
monotonous     but never vary;    Why is he still smiling? I
feedback giver regardless of what am being dead serious.
               you say, the
               response is the
The Overtly         Reacts to just about Why is she so
expressive Listener everything with      expressive? I didn’t
                    extreme responses say anything that is
                                         provocative. She
                                         will have a heart
                                         attack when I get to
                                         the punch line.
The reader/writer Reads or writes        Am I that boring? Is
                    about matters        last week’s student
                    having nothing to    newspaper more
                    do with what the     interesting than
                    speaker is saying,   me?.
                    while listening and
                    only occasionally
The Eye avoider    Looks all around       Why isn’t he
                   the room and at        looking at me? Do I
                   others but never       have spinach on my
                   you.                   teeth?
The pre-occupied   Listens to other       When is she going
listener           things at the same     to shut that music
                   time, often with the   off and really
                   sound so loud that     listen? Am I so
                   it interferes with     boring that my talk
                   your own thinking      needs background

The waiting        Listens for a cue to Is he listening to
Listener           take over the        me or rehearsing
                   speaking turn        his next
The thought-   Listens a little and Am I that
completing     then finishes your predictable? Why
listener       thought              do I bother saying
                                    anything? He
                                    already knows
                                    what I’m going to
So How well do you listen?
Styles of Listening
Empathic and Objective Listening
  If you are to understand what a
  person means and what a person
  feels, you need to listen with
  some degree of empathy – to
  empathize with others is to
  feel with them, to feel what
  they feel…
 Empathic listening helps you
  enhance your relationships.
Guideline for adjustment.
 Punctuate from the speaker‟s
  point of view – see the
  sequence of events as he
 Engage   in equal, two way
 Seek    to  understand    both
  thoughts and feelings.
 Avoid offensive listening
 Strive to be objective.
 Non-judgmental and critical
 Listen non-judgmentally: with
  an open mind with a view toward
 Listen critically: with a view
  toward making some kind of
  evaluation/ judgment.
 Listen first for understanding
  while suspending judgment.
 Evaluate or judge Only after
  you have fully understood the
  relevant messages.
  Guidelines for adjustment
 Keep an open mind. Recognize
  your own biases.
 Avoid filtering out or
  oversimplifying complex
 Be sure to listen critically
  to the entire message when
  you need to make evaluations
  and judgments.
Surface and Depth Listening.
 Listen and understand the
  explicit (literal readings)
  and implicit meanings.
 Ex: Carol asks you how you like
  her new haircut.
 Explicit: Do you like the
 Implicit: Asking you to say
 something positive about her
 The parent who complains about
  working hard at the office may
  be asking for an expression of
 The child who talks about the
  unfairness of the other
  children in the playground may
  be asking for comfort and love.
 If you respond only to the
  surface-level comm.you miss the
  opportunity to make meaningful
  contact with the other person‟s
  feelings and needs.
  Guidelines for adjustment.
 Focus on both verbal and nonverbal
  messages. Listen to what was said and
  what was left out.
 Listen for both content and relational
 Make special note of statements that
  refer back to the speaker.
 Don’t disregard the literal meaning of
  interpersonal messages in trying to
  uncover the hidden meaning.
Active and Inactive Listening.
 Active listening: a process of
  sending back to the speaker
  what you as a listener think
  the speaker meant both in
  content and feelings.

  Functions of active listening:
 Help you as a listener to check
  your understanding of what the
  speaker said or meant.
 Reflecting back perceived
  meanings to the speaker gives
  the speaker an opportunity to
  offer clarification and correct
  any misunderstandings.
 You let the speaker know that
  you acknowledge and accept
  his/her feelings.
 Stimulates the speaker to
  explore feelings and thoughts.
Useful techniques in active

   Paraphrase the speaker’s meaning.

   Express understanding.

   Ask questions.
Culture, gender & listening
   Members of different cultures
    vary on a number of
    communication dimensions that
    influence listening:
    E.g. the thumb and forefinger
    forming a circle means „OK‟
    (US), „money‟ (Japan), „Zero‟
    (Mediterranean), „I‟ll kill
    you‟ (Tunisia)
 Speech and language.
 Nonverbal behavioral
 Preferences for direct and
  indirect styles of comm.
 Men and women may listen
 Women give more specific
  listening cues to show they are
  listening than do men.
  e.g. yeah‟, „em‟, eye contact.

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