Inquiry and Discovery Christine Browning, Ph.D. Brief Review Robert’s Apperception Test for Children – Projecting our “stuff” onto the client’s interpretations The Alligator Story – Is withholding your value judgment an easy task? Why or why not? – Is it even possible? Four Foundations of a Thorough Evaluation Norm Referenced Tests – Intelligence Scales – Achievement Tests – Some Personality Assessments Observation – What you notice, questions that demand further investigation, research Interview – Gathering information • Developmental • Social • Educational Projective Assessments – Child’s drawings – Observations Lesson Goal Integrate all 4 pieces of the puzzle – Norm Referenced Tests – Observation – Interview – Projective Assessments Case Conceptualization – Suspend judgment – Think critically by formulating hypotheses Timmy’s Referral Information Risk Assessment – 9 yr-old third grader – Threatened to Blow up the School – Two prior incidents • Pulled a knife on some children off school property • Brought a knife to school Interview with mother Ethnic Origin of father -- India/Sikh – (last seen 6 years ago in prison in Mexico – assumed dead) Ethnic Origin of mother -- Caucasian Reports normal birth, physical development – No major illnesses, injuries, broken bones or stitches Reports sporadic school attendance – Has lived with different relatives last 2 years • Aunt in California • Aunt in Kansas Victimized at school by peers – Bullying Initial Meeting with Timmy Physical Appearance – Small for age (9) – Dark hair/eyes/skin – Clean hair, nails, clothes appropriate – Glasses (Mother’s old bifocals, tapped in the middle) – Nervous/fidgety. Relaxed after good rapport established Timmy’s Interview/ Norm Testing Demeanor – Very likable, Cooperative – Talkative • “Mother forgot to tell you about when we had a car accident and I hit my head on the windshield. I had 6 stitches.” Showed me the scar just above his left eye. • Extremely concerned about his recent haircut Norm Referenced Tests Full Scale IQ – Verbal IQ • Superior – Performance IQ • Average Achievement Test – Well Below Grade Level Math Reasoning Student’s Data met State criteria for LD in Math – referred for special ed services Projective Assessment Timmy’s Drawings – Warriors with Swords – “School” Observation What do you see? – Small for age? – Verbal skills? – Fine/Gross motor ability? Is the child cared for? – Dirty clothes, hair, skin, fingernails? – Hungry? Observations Do any of your observations either confirm or contradict the client’s responses to your questions? – Child’s head injury – Concern over haircut – Child’s glasses – Parent/Guardian legal document in school file Teacher Interview Likeable boy Cannot remember math concepts Loves to read/draw – Violent drawings • Swords with blood dripping Made fun of/Bullied by others at school – Hyper-vigilant – Suspicious Hypotheses? More than LD in math? Possible PTSD? Legal guardianship question Research Sikh’s Research Sikh history, beliefs, customs Case Conceptualization Norm Referenced Tests Observation Interview Projective Assessments Norm Referenced Tests Full Scale IQ – Verbal IQ • Superior – Performance IQ • Average Achievement Test – Well Below Grade Level Math Reasoning Student’s Data meets State criteria for LD in Math – referred for special ed services School’s Decision Timmy Expelled from School – Home testing to accommodate final grading, school transfer Final Interview with Timmy At his home – Observations – Play • Lego’s – Discovery • Birth date (6 years) Missingchildren.com Formal report Conclusions LD in Math? PTSD? Child with a grand imagination? Missing child?
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