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					Name:______________________

                                 Mycotoxin Assessment-Biology Section

Using the notes you took during the PowerPoint presentation on Mycotoxins: a Biological Perspective,
please, answer the following questions as completely as possible. You may write your answers directly
on the quiz sheet. If you have questions, please, raise your hand. (Total points: 50).



Section 1: Write an individual (1) answer for each blank, although more than one answer will be correct.
(1 pt each).

    Mycotoxin           Fungal Genus          Food Involved        Animal Affected           Symptom




Section 2: Fill in the missing word from each sentence using the following words within the word bank.
(1 pt each).

Mycotoxicoses           Hyphae                   Fungus                   Toxin            Metabolite

    1. A ______________ has no chlorophyll, reproduces by sexual or asexual spores and not by
       fission, and, generally, has a mycelium with well-marked nuclei.

    2. A tubular, threadlike filament of fungal mycelium is called ________________?

    3. Fungus poisonings; current usage limited to poisoning of people and animals by various food
       and feed products contaminated by toxin-producing fungi are referred to
       as___________________?

    4. A ________________ is a poisonous substance, having a protein structure that is secreted by
       certain organisms and is capable of causing toxicosis when introduced into the body tissue.

    5. A product of the chemical changes in living cells by which energy is provided for vital activities
       and processes and new material is assimilated is called a__________________?
Section 3: True or False. (1 pt each).

    1. The term “cytotoxic” means to kill or disrupt the properties of a cell. _______

    2. If you cannot see the fungus on the plant, it does not contain any toxins. ________

    3. Fungi reproduce using spores. ________

    4. One method of fungal dispersal is through contaminated farm machinery. _______

    5. A fungus can only infect a plant, grain, or fruit while it is growing in the field. ________



Section 4: Short Answer. (2 pts each).

    1. Give two examples of conditions that encourage fungal growth.



    2. Where are mycotoxins found geographically?



    3. List two examples of how the severity of toxicity is affected in humans.



    4. Briefly describe St. Anthony’s Fire.



    5. What is Alimentary Toxic Aleukia?



    6. Name two ways scientists hope to fight against mycotoxicosis.



Section 5: Diagram a life cycle or flow chart, in the space below, showing how mycotoxins infect
foodstuffs and then affect animals. (3pts).
Name:______________________

                         Mycotoxin Assessment-Biology Section (Teacher’s Key)

Using the notes you took during the PowerPoint presentation on Mycotoxins: a Biological Perspective,
please, answer the following questions as completely as possible. You may write your answers directly
on the quiz sheet. If you have questions, please, raise your hand. (Total points: 50).



Section 1: Write an individual (1) answer for each blank, although more than one answer will be correct.
(1 pt each). (Accept any variation of answers from PPT.)

    Mycotoxin           Fungal Genus           Food Involved        Animal Affected           Symptom

Cyclopiazonic acid        Penicillium               corn                chicken             Liver damage

     aflatoxin            Aspergillus          Peanut meal              turkeys                death

   ergotamine              Claviceps                rye                 humans                gangrene

    fumonisin              Fusarium                 corn                humans           Esophageal cancer

   vomitotoxin             Fusarium                wheat                poultry              Beak lesion




Section 2: Fill in the missing word from each sentence using the following words within the word bank.
(1 pt each).

Mycotoxicoses           Hyphae                    Fungus                   Toxin            Metabolite

    6. A fungus has no chlorophyll, reproduces by sexual or asexual spores and not by fission, and,
       generally, has a mycelium with well-marked nuclei.

    7. A tubular, threadlike filament of fungal mycelium is called a hyphae.

    8. Fungus poisonings; current usage limited to poisoning of people and animals by various food
       and feed products contaminated by toxin-producing fungi are referred to as mycotoxicoses.

    9. A toxin is a poisonous substance, having a protein structure that is secreted by certain
       organisms and is capable of causing toxicosis when introduced into the body tissue.

    10. A product of the chemical changes in living cells by which energy is provided for vital activities
        and processes and new material is assimilated is called a metabolite.
Section 3: True or False. (1 pt each).

    6. The term “cytotoxic” means to kill or disrupt the properties of a cell. _______True

    7. If you cannot see the fungus on the plant, it does not contain any toxins. ________False

    8. Fungi reproduce using spores. ________True

    9. One method of fungal dispersal is through contaminated farm machinery. _______True

    10. A fungus can only infect a plant, grain, or fruit while it is growing in the field. ________False



Section 4: Short Answer. (2 pts each).

    7. Give two examples of conditions that encourage fungal growth.

        Any: Relative humidity over 70%, temperatures over 30 degrees Celsius, stress to the plant, high
        moisture content of plant.

    8. Where are mycotoxins found geographically?

        North America, Canada, Asia, Pacific Islands, Europe, Middle East, India, Africa

    9. List two examples of how the severity of toxicity is affected in humans.

        Persons very young or very old; more females than males.

    10. Briefly describe St. Anthony’s Fire.

        Name for ergot poisoning that caused severe burning and tingling sensations in extremities,
        convulsions, etc…

    11. What is Alimentary Toxic Aleukia?

        Corn left to overwinter in WWII Soviet Union caused severe disease from T-2 toxicosis.

    12. Name two ways scientists hope to fight against mycotoxicosis.

        Farmers select crop strains resistant to fungal infection; scientists engineer new plants resistant
        to infection; and use feed additives that sequester the toxins.



Section 5: Diagram a life cycle or flow chart, in the space below, showing how mycotoxins infect
foodstuffs and then affect animals. (3pts).

        Accept any reasonable drawing or sketch.

				
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