; Histology of the skin hair and skin
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Histology of the skin hair and skin

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									     Histology of the skin, hair and
                                             Histology of the Skin, Hair and Scalp
Students will examine basic histology and the effects on the hair and skin. Conditions, disorders, diseases of the scalp
and skin will be explored. Students will discriminate between signs of a healthy scalp/ skin and an infection or disease
that may require refusal of a service. Anatomy of the skin will be distinguished and the roles of the layers of skin,
including their functions. Students will demonstrate proper hair analysis and identify hair growth patterns. Disorders of
the hair and scalp will be defined. Various scalp and hair treatments will be analyzed to determine the best application
for each client. Students will be introduced in theory and application to the procedure and products used in a basic facial
service. Students will comprehend how to provide basic skin care services and complete a basic makeup application.
HS-CS-I-9. Students will identify the basic histology of the hair and skin, their diseases and disorders, and
corrective treatments.
a.             Identify and compare the structure of hair.
b.             Investigate and identify samples of hair textures.
c.             Compare the various natural hair growth patterns on live models.
d.             Identify the scientific terms for head and facial hair and differentiate between them.
e.             Demonstrate hair analysis, using density, porosity, and elasticity as scientific indicators.
f.             Identify and compare the physical and chemical actions that damage the hair structure.
g.             Distinguish between the benefits of various hair conditioning products.
h.             Demonstrate the application of basic conditioning products.
i.             Identify the electrical implements used for hair and scalp treatments.
j.             Demonstrate corrective hair and scalp treatments.
k.             Demonstrate safety and infection control procedures used in hair and scalp treatments
l.             Identify the most common diseases and disorders of the skin and hair and explain their origin.
m.             Differentiate between corrective treatments for conditions that may be treated in a salon and those that
must be referred to a physician.
Hair coming from follicle
                  Hair follicle
• Determines the size and curl pattern of the hair
• Determines the growth pattern of the hair
• The follicle secretes the oil used for lubrication of
  the hair and skin
• The follicle secretes the sweat produced by the
• The follicle can become infected to produce
  boils, pimples and blackheads
• Every hair comes from it’s own follicle
             Parts of the follicle
•   Papilla
•   arector pili muscle
•   Sebaceous gland
•   Hair shaft
•   Sweat gland
•   Hair root
•   Hair bulb

• The papilla is the womb of the hair. Blood flows
  through to deposit unused proteins and “waste”
  produced by the bloodstream to form the keratin
  used to produce the hair shaft. Keratinization is
  the process of producing the hair from cells in
  the bloodstream.
• This is the reason a drug screen can be done
  using the hair of the body. All chemicals that
  circulate through the body end up in the hair
  shaft. ANY chemical can be detected during a
  drug test using the hair.
          Erector pili muscle
• This is the small muscle that each hair
  follicle has that when contracted, it causes
  “goose bumps”. Cold, fright, adrenaline
  rushes can cause the muscle to contract.
• Animals can contract the muscle to raise
  the hair for protection purposes. Raised
  hair makes a small animal appear larger.
Erector pili muscle contracted
          Sebaceous gland
• This gland produces and secretes the oil
  “sebum” to lubricate the hair and skin.
• Over production causes oily hair or skin.
• Under production causes dry, brittle hair
  and ashy looking skin.
• Strong products can cause over drying of
  the sebaceous production causing dry
  flakey skin and dull, dry hair.
Infected hair follicle starting from
      the sebaceous gland
                Hair shaft
• This is the part of the hair above the scalp
  line. It is the portion of the hair you can
• Each hair shaft size is controlled by the
  size of the follicle. The follicles can be
  different sizes depending on the area of
  the head it is on.
• Hair shafts control the texture of the hair.
             Sweat gland
• This is part of the exocrine system. Sweat
  or perspiration helps to cool the skin and
  eliminate excessive fluid in the body.
• The main reason for sweating is body
  cooling. Each hair follicle has a sweat
  gland attached as well as some glands
  reaching the outer level of the skin away
  from the hair follicle forming openings on
  their own.
                 Hair root
• The hair root is the portion of the hair
  under the scalp level that can’t be seen. It
  becomes more compact and hard as it
  progresses up the follicle.
• When the hair becomes visible, it is the
  hair shaft.
                 Hair bulb
• The bulb is the “sticky” part of the hair you
  see when the hair is pulled out. The best
  hair to see the bulb on is the eyebrow hair
  as it is removed.
• The sticky part of the bulb help the hair
  stay put in the follicle.
           Growth patterns
• Whorls – pattern that forms a circular
• Cowlicks – grows against natural stream
  and sticks up un naturally.
• Wave patterns – how tight curls or waves
  are in natural hair
• Hair stream – flowing in the same direction
  as follicles direct. Two streams flowing
  opposite create a natural part.
Growth whorls - cowlicks
                  Body hair
• Vellus – soft body hair covering these areas;
  back of ears, eyelids, palms of hands, soles of
  feet. Helps to lift sweat for cooling of the skin
• Lanugo – this hair is short and downy. Found
  on infants and children until puberty. Women
  retain more lanugo hair than men. Excessive
  lanugo hair is evident during sicknesses
  including anorexia. Not pigmented
• Terminal hair – longer soft hair found on the
  scalp, legs, arms and trunk areas. Is coarser
  than vellus and is pigmented. Hormonal
  changes change vellus hair into terminal hair.
Terminal hair
      Most common diseases and
            disorders of the
• Alopecia – baldness
• Canities – grey hair
• Hypertrichosis or hirsuties – overproduction of terminal
• Trichoptilosis – split ends
• Fragilitas crinium – fragile or brittle hair
• Pityriasis – dandruff
• Tinea capitis – ringworm of the scalp
• Scabies – itch mite
• Pediculosis – head lice
• Furuncle and carbuncles – inflammation of the hair
  follicle with staph based bacteria. Commonly known as
• Alopecia – baldness
  – Androgenic alopecia is the result of genetics,
    age or hormonal changes that cause the
    miniaturization of normal terminal hair. The
    hair is converted into vellus hair after the
    changes. This disorder can begin as early as
    the teenage years and is frequent after age
    40. In males, this is also known as male
    pattern baldness
Hypertrichosis - hirsuties
          Fragilitas crinium
• This is the technical term for damaged,
  brittle hair. This hair is not suited for
  chemical processes. Hair appears dull,
  dry and leaves small pieces of hair on
  surfaces when hair is brushed or combed.

• Pityriasis simplex (non medical attention)
• Pityriasis steatodies (medical attention)
Tinea capitis
Hair and scalp treatments

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