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XI Year Commerce English

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					Question 1 - Reference to Context from
Play
Lines
I wish she wouldn‟t dwell -------------------- That‟s all. Reference

Reference
Professor Corrie is speaking to his widowed sister, Mrs. Meldon.




Explanation
Professor Corrie apologizes to his sister for not having received her at the Station. He
gives his experiment, as the excuse. He says, he was very busy, hence he didn‟t go.
Then he informs Mrs. Meldon, that big experiment is a great success. He has
invented, just what he had in mind. He has invented exactly the thing he wanted to
make.

Professor Corrie is certain that his successful experiment will make him famous,
across the length and breath of the country and bring him fortune as well. He is sure
that he will be rich, but more than that, he is convinced that he would be famous.




Lines
No, that‟s true ------------------- is reticence!

Reference
Professor Corrie is talking to his bereaved sister, Mrs. Meldon about his success.

Explanation
Mrs. Meldon, though pleased that Professor Corrie‟s experiment is a success has no
inkling as to what his experiment is.

Professor Corrie acknowledges the fact that he has not told her anything about his
success. He confesses that he believes in keeping secrets to himself. It is his principle
in life, not to divulge anything unless one is forced to. He says no one knows anything
about his invention, except himself.
In the Professor‟s opinion, utter and complete secrecy is essential for the success of
any invention.




Lines
Of course they will -------------------- And tin hats, too!

Reference
Professor Corrie is having a chat with his sister, Mrs. Meldon. The talk is about
Professor Corrie‟s invention.

Explanation
Since Professor Corrie is so secretive about his invention, Mrs. Meldon hasn‟t the
faintest idea, about his experiment. Professor Corrie is confident that his invention is
so great that, when the British Government listens about his wonderful invention, they
will jump for it. Though he agrees with Mrs. Meldon‟s doubt about it.

He says, it was extremely difficult to make the cavalry generals, use the tanks, during
the First World War. They were not prepared to make use of the tanks, until they were
forced to use them. Only then, did they realize the value of the tank. He condemns
them for not realizing the value of tank and for not accepting it as a weapon of great
value and importance.

Likewise, the inventor of steel hats was not suitably rewarded for his invention.
Although, non cab deny the utility and value of the steel helmets, in protecting the
soldiers heads and also saving their lives. Therefore, in contempt, as well as in anger
he refers to the cavalry generals as slaughterers of horses. That is they are useless
good for nothing generals fit only for slaughtering horses.




Lines
Oh, how women do fuss ! ------------- impersonal devotion.

Reference
Professor Corrie is speaking to his bereaved sister, Mrs. Meldon. He is thoroughly
annoyed with her, for harping on the same string.

Explanation
Professor Corrie was eager and impatient, to tell Mrs. Meldon about his successful
invention, while Mrs. Meldon kept nagging him by telling him :

Come along, Henry! Your tea will get cold.

This upset him very much. So in this context he utters the above speech, in which he
wrongfully condemns all women. He exclaims at the fussiness of women – at their
readiness to get excited about the unimportant things. He condemns the women
generally for breaking off important things for unimportant and trivial things. He feels
that women lack in the desire to work with all devotion with al their heart and soul
and with full concentration etc.

Professor Corrie further adds, you women are not fit for any single task, which
requires complete devotion and energy, nor do you care for the feelings of others.
That‟s is why he feels, women have never been great artists or scientist.


Lines
You don‟t realise ----------------------- butchery of boys.

Reference
In this passage, the speaker is Mrs. Meldon and she is addressing her brother,
Professor Corrie.

Explanation
In this speech, we detect Mrs. Meldon‟s hatred for war. When Professor Corrie
mentions that his invention will create a revolution in the field of warfare. Mrs.
Meldon thought that Professor Corrie had invented something, which would abolish
warfare. On this remark, Professor Corrie chides his sister for being so very childish.

Then Mrs. Meldon says, the abolition of war is a subject after her heart. She tells
Professor Corrie, you cannot imagine how deeply women like me, who have suffered
because of the war feel about warfare which in her view is an organized manner in
which young soldiers are slaughtered and brutally killed.




Lines
Now, charlotte, when I say ------------ made more expedits.

Reference
Professor Corrie is talking to Mrs. Meldon.
Explanation
He declines the offer of Mrs. Meldon to have more tea. Then he prepares to explain
about his invention.

He says, when I say that war should be revolutionized, I mean that it should be made
seedy. That is to say, that it should end quickly. The First World War lasted for a
ridiculous period of five years. It is absolutely nonsense. The war should not have
lasted for more than five weeks.




Lines
Well – yes, I think you ----------------------- succumbs to it.

Reference
Professor Corrie is in deep conversation with Mrs. Meldon about wars and how to end
them speedily.

Explanation
Mrs. Meldon is under the false notion that Professor Corrie has invented something,
which would restrict the duration of wars. While Professor Corrie had something
different in mind. He explains, in future, whenever war beaks out, the combatants
should try their level best, to strike at the enemy, with all the force at their command.
That is to say, the first attack should be so severe and devastating that the enemy
would get crushed at once. In this way, the wars of the future would end very quickly.




Lines
Oh, a mother‟s feelings ----------------- own feelings aside!

Reference
Professor Corrie is talking to his only sister, Mrs. Meldon.

Explanation
Professor Corrie was earlier explaining to Mrs. Meldon, about making the weapons of
war, more horrible and devastating, in order to end the wars quickly in future. Mrs.
Meldon utters a sarcastic remark saying that her son was 19, when he died and that
was a horrible thing for her.

On this Professor Corrie state, you look at your son‟s death, from a mother‟s point of
view. Put your mother‟s feelings aside and look at your son‟s death from a broad-
point of view – the point of view of the Government.




Lines
Yes. I‟ve made tests,------- thousands at once. Thousands!

Reference
Professor Corrie is speaking to Mrs. Meldon, about his discovery.

Explanation
He says, I have made tests and I have succeeded in having discovered a formula,
which is exact and precise. It is a combination of chemical elements and explosives,
which would destroy thousands, so completely, that not a trace shall be left. So
devastating and lethal, is his invention..




Lines
Cheerful view! ------------------- Stupidest man on earth.

Reference
Mrs. Meldon is the speaker and she is talking to her brother, Professor Corrie.

Explanation
Earlier in their talk, Professor Corrie states, his invention would be available to his
people. And if, a war comes along in the future, his government will have only to
drop their bomb on their enemy, before they drop theirs on us and the war will have
been won. On this Mrs. Meldon remarks, rather sarcastically, it was someone like
him, who invented the kind of shell that, completely obliterated her son, Eddie.
Professor Corrie pats Mrs. Meldon on the shoulder and tries to comfort her. He asks
her to take a more cheerful view of life, rather than to keep lamenting on what
happened in the past.
It is in this context that Mrs. Meldon remarks, rather angrily ------------cheerful view!
Meaning how could she have a cheerful view of life, with her only son and husband,
having got killed because of the war. Also, it was her son‟s third death anniversary.
So how could she be cheerful. That is why she says that she sometimes wonders at
him that in spite of his cleverness, Mrs. Meldon regards him as the Stupidest man in
this world.


Lines
Well of course ------------------- for a good many Germans.

Reference
Professor Corrie is speaking to his bereaved sister, Mrs. Meldon. He tries to console
her after she narrates an emotional account about Eddie, of how he was a child and
then grew up to be a handsome young man and how he was mutilated and destroyed.

Mrs. Meldon just could not overcome this tragic news that her son‟s body was
mutilated. That there was no decency in his death. So, she makes her point to Corrie
that she cannot take a broad view of that.

On this Professor Corrie says sympathetically, that he understands and appreciates,
her point of view. He admits that he son‟s death as well as her husband‟s is a grievous
blow to her. It must have shattered her emotionally. Therefore, he comforts and
consoles her and asks her to keep a check over her emotions. He also adds that we
should take some comfort from the thought that, Eddie, by sacrificing his life, did his
duty to his country. That, we should have some comfort from the thought that, Eddie
might have killed a great many Germans before getting killed.




Lines
Yes people with broad --------------------- are a fool, Henry.

Reference
Mrs. Meldon is having a heart to heart chat with her brother, Professor Corrie,
regarding her son, Eddie.

Explanation
She narrates a long account about Eddie, right from the time that he was born till the
time he gets killed in the war. Mrs. Meldon is grievously hurt about the fact that he
son‟s body was mutilated and destroyed and that there was nothing to bury. She just
cannot forget about her son‟s painful death. So she says,
You see, don‟t you Henry, that I can‟t take a broad view of that.

Then Professor Corrie tries to comfort her by saying that, we should take consolation
from the fact that Eddie, must have accounted for a good many Germans. But this
thought does not comfort Mrs. Meldon. In fact she makes it plain to Corrie and tells
him that:

I can‟t get any pleasure put of the thought that some poor German is suffering just as I
am suffering.

She further tells Professor Corrie that her sympathies would be with the suffering
German woman, rather than men like you.

People with broad-view (scientists), because you create weapons, which kill young
soldiers. Therefore she regards all scientists as fools. She confesses that she is not
clever and says, someone like me gives birth to a beautiful thing (Eddie), and you
guys (scientists), with all you intelligence can only annihilate it and destroy it. As
such, she regards henry, her brother as a fool.




Lines
Really, Charlotte, you‟re------------------ can‟t be helped.

Reference
Professor Corrie is addressing his sister, Mrs. Meldon in a thoroughly angry frame of
mind.

Explanation
He blows his top, when Mrs. Meldon tells him, to ask for “thirty pieces of sliver”, as
the price for his invention.

The “thirty pieces of silver” are a reference to the reward paid to Judas Iscariot, for
betraying Jesus Christ. The phrase is often used to describe a bribe, given to a traitor.
Mrs. Meldon, of course is not thinking of her brother, as a traitor to his country but to
humanity in general.

Therefore Professor Corrie is thoroughly annoyed. He tells her, you are really
unbreakable. He says, I bear a lot of your nonsense because, you are in sorrow. But
there is a limit to one‟s patience. He says, you have not even congratulated me, on my
success. You don‟t even have goodness to compliment me, even briefly and
unenthusiastically. You have made yourself miserable by continuously feeling sorry
over your son‟s death over which nothing can be done. You have made even Hannah,
unhappy and sad.
Lines
The fortune of war ------------------------ by a bayonet.

Reference
Professor Corrie is talking to his sister, Mrs. Meldon.

Explanation
Professor Corrie replies to Mrs. Meldon‟s remark, his bomb is horrible, as it will
make the bodies of man, women and little children rot, if it does not blow them to
pieces. He says that it is the luck of my dear charlotte. Death is death. And what
differences does it make, whether a man dies, by getting blown to pieces, by a bomb
or got killed by getting stabled to death, by a bayonet. In fact, the bomb is more
merciful of the two.




Lines
My dear Charlotte --------------- being damned unpatriotic.

Reference
Professor Corrie is speaking to his unhappy sister, Mrs. Meldon.

Explanation
He is replying to Mrs. Meldon‟s suggestion that, he should destroy his formula, as his
invention will destroy precious lives.

He says, if he were to oblige her, most sensible people would think that he had go
mad. Only a few religious fanatics would praise his action. But the majority of the
people would think that I am an idiot. Besides, they would consider my act, as
unpatriotic, because it would deprive my own country from being in a strong position.




Lines
My dear Charlotte----------------- destroy my invention.
Reference
Professor Corrie is in conversation with Mrs. Meldon.

Explanation
He is astounded at her suggestion, that he should destroy his invention. He is
convinced that her grief has loosened the screws of her mind. He feels, her sorrow has
made her mad. How could he destroy his invention for which he has strived so hard –
all his life. So, he regards her suggestion, as nothing short of madness.




Lines
Of course it is --------------------- mess like this!

Reference
Professor Corrie, a little annoyed is talking to Mrs. Meldon.

Explanation
He tells her, the formula of the bomb is in my mind. He made it from his own mind.
He condemns her for making a terribly mess, in his laboratory by smashing the retorts
and test-tubes etc. Mrs. Meldon felt that she had destroyed Professor Corrie‟s
invention.

Therefore, Professor Corrie says, even a foolish woman, would have known that
Professor Corrie had the invention in his mind. He means, you are so stupid, that you
don‟t even know that, the formula of the bomb, must be in my mind.


The Count's Revenge
Lines
"It comes to this, ................. and we are ruined."

Reference
These words are put into the mouth of Albert. He is addressing his mother, the
Countess of Morcerf, in his own home, Rue-du-Helder in Paris.

Explanation
Albert is extremely disturbed at the news, he has read in the newspaper about his
father's disgrace. He tells his mother, it comes to this meaning that things have come
to such a stage that his father is openly and publicly disgraced in the newspaper. He
says our honour and self-respect are badly damaged by this disgrace and we are
destroyed, we are finished.




Lines
"My father's disgrace is mine ................. down into the mire."

Reference
These lines are uttered by Albert. he is deeply upset about his father's disgrace. It is on
this issue that, he is talking to his mother, the Countess of Morcerf.

Explanation
Albert is extremely sensitive. He just could not tolerate his father's disgrace. He
regards his father's disgrace, as his own. He is ashamed, even to go by his father's
name. He sys my father's name has been utterly disgraced. Our disgrace has become
the talk of town.




Lines
"Ah, the crime is .................. whom I shall punish."

Reference
Albert is the speaker of the above lines. He is addressing his mother, the Countess of
Morcerf, regarding the disgrace of his father, the Count of Morcerf.

Explanation
He is obviously in disgust, at his mother's suggestion that if the President of the
Republic is to be blamed for the disgrace of his father, he would kill him for it. He
says, the Deputies are not at fault for condemning my father. They merely performed
their duty. After seeing all the proofs, they pronounced my father guilty. I am not after
the one, who is behind my father's disgrace. The one who published the news of my
father's treachery in the press. He is the one I am after. He is the one I am looking for
and he is the one I shall punish.
Lines
"Why? Indeed! it is no ............. and of our good."

Reference
The above words are spoken by Albert to his mother, the Countess of Morcerf.

Explanation
Albert answers his mother's question, as to why he wishes to punish the man, who
made his villainy public. He is says, it is now, no longer a matter of right or wrong or
of truth or falsehood. Meaning that it is not whether or not his father is guilty of the
crime. It is a question of the family's honour and self-respect. Since the family's
honour, has been tarnished, he is going to punish the person, responsible for it.




Lines
"But, Ah! are the cloud .............. and returned to Paris."

Reference
The speaker in the above lines is Monte Cristo. He is addressing his friend Albert in
his house.

Explanation
Monte Cristo has come, to pay his compliments to the Countess (his former beloved)
and Albert. Monte Cristo, after paying his regards to the Countess, turns to Albert. He
takes him by the hand, but notices the trace of anguish and worry, on his brow. He
says, I see from the wrinkles on your brow, that you are unhappy. That after returning
to Paris, from normally where we were holidaying together, you have doubtless, met
with some form of tragedy or the other. That's why the look of unhappiness on your
face.


Lines
"I need hardly ask you .................. of my father's disgrace."

Reference
Albert is the speaker in the above lines. He is talking to his friend, the Count of Monte
Cristo.

Explanation
Albert tells his friend, on his friend's inquiry about his misfortune. Whole Paris is
talking of it. Meaning that, you would have heard about his father's disgrace.




Lines
"But, when a man has done ................. The rule|follow."

Reference
Monte Cristo is talking to his friend. Albert.

Explanation
He is in fact, replying to Albert's request for his help to be his second in the duel that
he intends to fight against his father's enemy. Monte Cristo says, it would be difficult
for him to be his second.

He says if a man insults you, or hits you, a blow then a duel is the best way of taking
your revenge of him. Then adds slowly and with deliberation that when a man does
you a terrible harm, gives you slow deep and perpetual pain then you should treat him
in the same manner. He says, if a man damage your eye, then you should also damage
his eye. If he breaks your tooth then you too would be justified in breaking his tooth.

In other words, Monte Cristo believes in punishing in the same manner, as his enemy
had harmed him. Monte Cristo, is referring to the torture, Count of Morcerf, Albert's
father inflicted upon him.




Lines
"It is Arab custom ............. of a deadly enemy."

Reference
The Countess of Morcerf is the speaker and she is speaking to her son. Albert.

Explanation
The Countess is referring to an Arab custom. which is that an Arab never eats or
drinks, in the house of his deadly enemy. Albert is astonished at this disclosure that
his dear friend Monte Cristo has never eaten or drunk in his house even though he is
his dearest friend. But Albert cannot understand in what way, can Monte Cristo be
regarded as a deadly enemy.

It is fairly obvious, the Countess is ware that, under the grab of Monte Cristo, it is
Edmond Pantes, her former lover, who regards her house, as the house of his enemy
(her husband).




Lines
"Ah, the mysterious stranger! .............. count want with us."

Reference
The above lines are spoken by the Count of Morcerf. He is speaking to Albert his only
son.

Explanation
Morcerf is speaking in a sarcastic tone, to his son about the frequent visits of the
Count of Monte Cristo to his house. He refers to him, as the mysterious stranger
because Monte Cristo is a stranger for him. Besides his visits to his own house have
always been kept secretive. So Morcerf says, what did the stranger the count who is
foreign to him who has created quite a stir in Paris, whan with them. In a sarcastic
manner, he says that did the noble, the handsome, the ever kind count want with us.




Lines
“I MEAN TO THROW --------------------- PIERCE HIM THROUGH THE
HEART.”

Reference
The speaker is Albert and he is answering his friend Beachamp, on his inquiry that he
was serious about challenging Monte Cristo, his father‟s enemy.

Explanation
He clarifies, I mean to challenge the Count of Monte Cristo. He says, I will give him
choice of weapons and if he chooses swords – being an expert swordsman, I would
pierce the tip of my sword, through his heart, at dawn, to-morrow morning. Albert has
made up his mind about avenging his family honour, despite the fact that Monte
Cristo, is his friend.




Lines
“THE VILLAIN RESOLVED TO--------------------- HATCHED AGAINST
MORTAL MAN.”

Reference
These words are uttered by Monte Cristo. He is addressing the Countess, who has
gone to his house, to request him to spare her son, Albert‟s life.

Explanation
In answer to the Contess‟s question, „why did he disgrace her husband‟? he bids her to
sit down and narrates the story of how her husband, Count of Morcerf formerly Fern
and Mondego, hatched a devilish plot to marry Mercedes. He plotted the plan to
marry Mercedes (as the Countess was formerly known. He was determined to win her
hand. With the help of plotters and schemers, he made a devilish plan to put Monte
Cristo, out of the way. It was the most terrible plot a person could ever plot against a
human being. With the help of false evidence, he got Monte Cristo, improved for 20
years in an underground dungeon.


Lines
“NO, EDMOND. I CANNOT ---------------- 14 YEARS OF WRONGFUL
IMPROSONMENT.”

Reference
The speaker in the above lines is the Countess of Morcerf. She is addressing the
Count of Monte Cristo.

Explanation
The countess had gone to Monte Cristo‟s house, to ask him, why he had brought
about disgrace of her family and to request him to spare the life of her son, Albert.
Monte Cristo then narrated the events of 20 years ago, when he was condemned as a
traitor to his country by the Count of Morcerf then a fisherman. He was sentenced to
20 years of imprisonment. But luckily, after 14 years Monte Cristo escaped from the
prison and pursued Morcerf and finally disgraced him by publishing the news that it
was he who was a traitor. After learning the true facts, the Countess does not blame
Monte Cristo for humiliating her husband. She says even if you take a far more worse
revenge than you have for being wrongfully kept in prison for 14 years I shall not
blame you.




Lines
“I CANNOT EXPECT TO------------------- ADMIRE AND RESPECT YOU?”

Reference
The Countess of Morcerf is making a fervent appeal to the Count of Monte Cristo to
spare the life of her only son, Albert.

Explanation
She says, I cannot expect to have a deep impression upon your heart nor expect to
change you mind. But will you not listen to the request of the one who loved you once
who never willfully did you any wrong and who has never stopped admiring or
respecting you. Would you not spare the life of my son. The Countess begs of Monte
Cristo. This entreaty the Countess makes after Monte Cristo, reveals him to her and
narrates the events of 20 years ago. How he was wrongfully confined to prison for 20
years by her husband Morcerf and how he escaped after 14 years and disgraced her
husband by publishing the news that he had accepted bribes from the Turks and
surrendered to them, the fortress of Yanina in 1823. Thus after listening to Monte
Cristo story she implores him to save the life of her son, Albert.




Lines
“AH, MORREL. WHEN A------------------- THE HEART FROM HIS BREAST.”

Reference
This speech is made by Monte Cristo to his friend, Morrel.

Explanation
Morrel had come to inform Monte Cristo (at night), that all arrangements had been
made about the duel. That it was to take place at 8 O‟clock, in the morning at Bois-de-
Vincenes. Prior to uttering the above words, Monte Cristo, signed his will and asked
Morrel to be a witness. It is then that Monte Cristo utters, the above words. He says to
Morrel, when a man decides to take his revenge, he should first of all remove his heart
from his chest. Monte Cristo is referring to the Countess whom he still admires and
due to whose entreaties, he agrees to spare his (Albert‟s) life.




Lines
“NONETHELESS, I THINK THAT------------------- WISH IT WERE NOT.”

Reference
These words are spoken by the Countess of Morcerf, to her husband the Count of
Morcerf.

Explanation
They are discussing their son, Albert who had gone to fight a duel against Monte
Cristo for disgracing his father Count of Morcerf. The duel was to have taken place at
8 O‟clock. It is past 9 O‟clock, so both are concerned about Albert. Morcerf expresses
his fear that Monte Cristo is an excellent shot and it is he who will fire first. Despite
his apprehensions the Countess says, that it will be Albert, who will be victorious in
the duel. She knows that he will because she had requested Monte Cristo not to kill
her son. And Monte Cristo had promised not to kill Albert. But the countess says, in
some ways, she wished her son was not victorious because his life would be saved but
it would be Monte Cristo who will give his life.




Lines
“DOUBTLESS, THEN, YOU MADE------------------ GAVE SOME
EXPLANATIONS.”

Reference
These are Morcerf‟s words, which he addresses to his son, Albert.

Explanation
He says these words because Albert informs his father that the duel never took place.
That he apologized to Monte Cristo. This he did because the Countess unveiled the
events of 20 years ago and told the whole story of Morcerf‟s crime to her son, Albert.
She had requested Monte Cristo, to spare the life of her son, Albert. Thus it is due to
the efforts of the countess, that Albert‟s life is saved. On this, the count of Morcerf
says the above words. He says, without doubt, you must have apologized to Monte
Cristo or given some explanation that is why you are save.
Lines
“YOU HAVE CAME BACK ---------------- THE TOMB YOU SHALL RETURN.”

Reference
These words are spoken by the count of Morcerf, to Monte Cristo.

Explanation
He is in great anger. He is astonished to find that (Monte Cristo) Edmond Dantes, as
he was known formerly (20 years ago) has re-appeared before him. Count of Morcerf,
through a conspiracy, condemned his friend, Edmond Dantes to 20 years of
imprisonment in an underground dungeon. But after 14 years, Edmond Dantes
escaped and came to Paris. Here he took the title of the count of Monte Cristo. In
order to take his revenge he published the news of Morcerf‟s crimes. That he had
taken bribes from the Turks and surrendered the fortress of Yanina, in 1823. Albert
had challenged Monte Cristo for disgracing his father. But because of the countess,
both Albert and Monte Cristo, don‟t fight. The Countess took her son into confidence
and told him all about his father‟s misdeeds. Likewise she apologized to Monte Cristo
and begged of him to spare her son‟s life. Monte Cristo could not turn down the
request of his former beloved. Thus the duel is averted. Now Monte Cristo and Count
of Morcerf, come face to face. It is then, that Morcerf utters the above remarks. He
says, to Monte Cristo, that you have come back from you grave (underground
dungeon), and to the grave you shall return. Saying these words he pulls out a pistol
and points it towards Monte Cristo meaning to shoot him.


Question 2 - Character Sketch from
Play
Character Sketch from Play - Progress

Mrs. Meldon
Introduction
Mrs. Meldon is a character from a play named Progress written by St. G. Ervine. The
play was sent in 1919, just one year after the first World War. Mrs. Meldon was aged
about forty-three. She is a sensitive looking widow. She was suffering deeply from
her memories. She is not a fretful, complaining women who had suffered bereavement
and when in the course of play, she speaks of her loss, she does so with grace and
beautiful dignity. Her son was killed in the First World War and her husband died
away out of heart failure. So she was the victim of adverse circumstances. She has a
strong sense of tolerance.

Beginning of Her Role
Mrs. Meldon‟s role started from the second scene when she returns from a long
journey and her brother, Professor Henry Corrie, does not receive her at the station. It
was the death anniversary of her only son, Eddie. Beginning of Her Role

Mrs. Meldon‟s role started from the second scene when she returns from a long
journey and her brother, Professor Henry Corrie, does not receive her at the station. It
was the death anniversary of her only son, Eddie.

Qualities and Character
The qualities and the character of Mrs. Meldon as presented in play are:

A Dignitful Lady
Mrs. Meldon has a character full of dignity and grace. She is a lady who has faced the
emotional sufferings of life. A woman having a compassionate, patient, gentle,
sensitive and graceful appearance is what Mrs. Meldon looks like. She is dressed in
black clothes, partly because she is a widow and mainly because it was the third death
anniversary of her son. He dignity becomes apparent when she opines about war.

A Bereaved Widow and Mother
Eddie was her only son, killed in First World War. She had brought up her son with a
great care and love. She wanted him to be great in future. Her son enlisted himself in
war. She could not decide to be happy or sorry but chiefly she was happy. The sight
of the messenger made her heart sink and she remained worry about her son. He came
on his first and second leaves all safe but he did not come for third visit. He was killed
in a moment by the men, who had never seen him. This was the most shocking news.
Her husband could not bear it and died away out of heart failure. She remained all-
alone in this miserable world.

“I some times wonder why I was not granted the mer of death. Why I should be
compelled to live alone.”

The words of the play reflects her loneliness:

“ I had a husband and a son, when the war began, I had neither when it was over. I
am the most lonely woman – cruelly alone.”

Her Hatred for War
She hated wars. She considered them as an organized butchery of the young ones. She
though wars to be the most terrible thing, which was responsible for the destruction of
human peace. She wanted ban on wars. She wanted the scientists to stop making
dangerous weapons. This was the war, which made her widow and which snatches
away her beautiful young son. She said:

“Yes, people with broad views, because you are fools. Some one like me, not clever,
create beautiful things like my son, and you, will all your cleverness can only
destroy it.”

A Brave Woman
Mrs. Meldon was a brave woman. In spite of losing all what she had, she bore the
tragedy patiently. She always suffered from old memories, but never showed her
bereavement. She behaved as a calm and uncomplaining person.

A Friend of Humanity
On knowing that her brother has invented a dreadful bomb, she becomes deeply grief.
She opposed her brother and called him The Most Stupid Man on Earth. She cared for
all the mothers as she had seen the fury of life. She wanted that other boys like Eddie
must not fell prey to horrors of devastating wars. Mrs. Meldon, as a symbol of peace
for all, did not rejoice at the wicked achievement of her brother. She perfectly
reflected her friendship towards humanity.

“Love and Peace can make the world a Heaven.”

War Antagonist
Mrs. Meldon was a true well wisher of human beings. She was totally against war
because she thought that war was an organized butchery of young people. She said
that:

"War is an organized butchery of Boys."

The lady wanted complete abolition of war. She dreamed that peace, love, care and
harmony should prevail in the world and the earth should depict the shades of
Heaven.

A Passionate Woman
Mrs. Meldon was an enthusiastic person. She becomes extremely emotional when her
brother denies destroying his invention. When Professor tell his motives to her, her
limit of patience and endurance gets crossed.

“It will bring me fame and fortune. I shall be rich now, but more than that I shall
be famous.”
She grew extremely emotional and impulsive and in the interest of humanity. She
takes the matter into her own hands. To save the human race from the deadly
invention, she picks a knife and stabbed her cruel brother to death.

“To kill someone is also humanity, but only for the sake of a nation.”

Comments on Mrs. Meldon’s Act
Legally, Mrs. Meldon committed a crime by killing Professor Corrie. She did not
have the right to commit such an act of madness. But on the other hand, her act seems
to be justified for the sake of humanity. Sometimes a drastic and violent action
becomes essential to crush wicked elements. In dismay, she said:

“Eddie, dear! I had to Eddie!

She exalts herself in our eyes and we begin to adore her as a protector of humanity.

Conclusion
She was really shocked to know that her brother has invented a bomb, which will
destroy the whole nation within twinkling of any eye. She requested him that for the
sake of young sons and for the sake of peace, he must destroy his invention. Her
brother did not realize the intensity of her emotions and refused to destroy it for the
sake of mere sentiments. So she killed him. In the end she saw the wreath of son
ruined and out of sudden passion, she killed him and wins the sympathies of the
readers.


Prof. Henry Corrie
Introduction
The author titles the play, The Progress ironically. He laughs at the attitude of war-
mongers and the scientists who believe that they are contributing to the progress of
science by inventing deadly weapons.

In Professor Corrie, the playwright has created a self-centered scientist aged between
fifty and sixty who is a confirmed bachelor. His sole interest in life is his scientific
experiments. He captivates our attention from the beginning till the end of the play.
His wolfish snarls and physical features, speak a lot about his inhuman behaviour.

A Wicked Person
He felt pleasure in destruction. He wanted to make the wars horrible. He invented a
dangerous bomb full of corrosive gas, which could obliterate whole cities within no
time. He wished to make the war so horrible that no nation will engage in one unless
absolutely driven to it. He said:
“With a single bomb, we could wipe out the population of a city as a big as
Manchestar.”

As A Reputed Scientist
There is no doubt that Professor Corrie is a great scientist, who is extremely dedicated
and devoted in his scientific experiments. When the curtain goes up, we find
Professor Corrie engrossed in his experiment. His experiment is a success and he has
succeeded in inventing a lethal and devastating bomb, which is so powerful that
according to him:

“I‟ve discovered a combination of explosives and gases that will obliterate
thousands at once! Thousands.”

The above quoted words show the deep faith Corrie has in the destructive quality of
the bomb and his cruel nature and inhuman behaviour.

As A Self-Willed Person
Professor Corrie is an extremely selfish and self-willed person. He is out and out a
materialist. He has discovered the formula of the bomb to earn fame and fortune. He
is delighted at the thought that his invention would make him famous and well-known
all over the world. He did not care about the feeling of his sister wanted her rejoices
his invention. He wished her to forget her tragedy and suggested taking a broad point
of view. She must imagine herself a statesman. He said:

“Oh, a mother‟s feelings, of course, but look at the matter from a broad point of
view. Put you own feelings aside.”

As An Unpatriotic Person
Professor Corrie is crazy and unpatriotic. He wants to sell the formula of the bomb, to
any government, which would pay him the highest price. As he says:

“I shall offer it first to the British Government, of course, but if they won‟t pay my
price, I shall offer it to somebody else.”

The above lines speak of his unpatriotism and greed for money.

As A Cruel And Heartless Person
Professor Corrie possesses a very cruel disposition. His eyes reflect the coldness and
seriousness of his character. He is a devil in human form. To him human beings are of
no consequence. Even his sister, Mrs. Meldon‟s grief has no effect on him. Although
he is aware that his sister is emotionally shattered by the death of her son, Eddie, yet
he does not comfort or console her, at her tragic loss.
As An Enemy of Women
Professor Corrie is cynical about women and has a poor opinion of them. He thinks
that women lack in concentration and have a fussy and talkative nature. That is why
they are not very often crowned with success. According to him:

“Your sex is most extraordinary, Charlotte. Always willing to break off things, for
other things. No application, no concentration, no capability for complete
impersonal devotion.”

Corrie’s Desire For Immortality
Corrie was mad for immortality. That is why he invented the bomb. He hopes:

“This will bring fame and fortune to me. I shall be rich and now but more than that
I shall be famous. My name will live forever.”

Corrie’s Tragic End
Mrs. Meldon is absolutely horrified, when she learns of his terrible invention. She
repeatedly requested him to destroy the formula of the bomb. She says:

“Henry, I beg you to destroy your invention.”

Professor Corrie pays no attention to her, so Mrs. Meldon, in a state of frenzy, drove a
sharp knife in his back. Corrie falls on his face, dead cold. Thus the curtain draws on
the play, with his tragic end.


Character Sketch from Play - The
Count's Revenge
Monte Cristo
Introduction
The Count of Monte Cristo is the hero of the play, The Count‟s Revenge. He is the
charming, swashbuckling and ever obliging nobleman, splendidly dressed. The
handsome hero, gay, cynical, not very young, with the touch of the devil about him.

As A Young Sailor
As a young man, Monte Cristo was known as Edmond Dantes, a mere sailor of
Marseilles, a port in South of France. He loved a beautiful Catalan girl, Mercedes, to
whom he was engaged. He was to marry her, on his return from a voyage, which he
was to undertake in due course of time.

A Victim Of Conspiracy
But the marriage never took place, as a young fisherman, Fernand Mondego, a friend
of Edmond and a snake under grass has other plans. Fernand Mondego secretely loved
Mercedes and wished to marry her. So the crafty Fernand, hatched the most devilish
of plots against his own friend (Edmond) whereby he got him condemned as a spy of
exiled Buonopart, by giving false evidence in the court.

Convicted As A Spy
Poor Edmond, a victim of hatred and jealousy, is convicted as a spy and condemned
to life imprisonment in an underground dungeon. The evil Fernand then, convinced
Mercedes, through false news in the press that Edmond Dantes had died in prison.
Then he gradually gained her confidence by sympathizing with her. In this way,
Fernand succeeded in marrying Mercedes.

Escapes From Prison
The unfortunate Edmond Dantes, remained in Prison for 14 long years. He is an
innocent victim of blind justice. Then luck favoured him. Six years before the events
of our play, Edmond contrived to escape from prison. After escaping from prison, he
re-establishes himself in life with wonderful speed and success. In six years, he
acquires wealth, a little and a dazzling place in the French Society and settles down in
Paris.

As Count Of Monte Cristo
As Count of Monte Cristo, he is greatly respected and admired. But his main aim in
life is to take revenge from Fernand Mondego, his deadly enemy, now living in Paris
as the Count of Morcerf. Monte Cristo discovers after searching investigations, that
his old enemy the Count of Morcerf committed yet another gross act of villainy
during his service in the French Army. That he accepted bribes from the Turks, with
whom France was at war and surrendered the Fortress of Yanina to them, in 1823.

Count’s Revenge
By keeping in the background, Monte Cristo condemns Count of Morcerf as a traitor
to his country. He thus succeeds in taking sweet revenge from his archenemy. He first
publishes articles in the newspapers and later in the Chamber of Deputies, he backs
his charges by giving convincing proofs. It is at this point, in the play, that Morcerf is,
at least exposed as the Villain that he is.

Monte Cristo’s Challenge
Albert, the son of the Count of Morcerf is much offended on learning that his own
friend is the cause of his family disgrace and disrepute. In a fit of rage, he challenges
Monte Cristo to a duel, which was to be fought at Bois-de-Vincennes at 8 a.m.

Duel Averted
Owing to the intervention of the Countess, his beloved of yester-years, Monte Cristo
consents to spare her son‟s life. Monte Cristo gives his word that Albert would come
to no harm and that he would die, in his place. However, it is the villain who dies and
Monte Cristo is thus avenged.

Conclusion
There is no denying that Monte Cristo is the pivot around whom the whole play
revolves. He is indeed a man of integrity and honour. He has a charming personality.
He is kind and noble who is rewarded in the end for his virtuosity.


The Count of Morcerf
Introduction
The Count of Morcerf is presented as the villain of the play, The Count‟s Revenge.
Prior to becoming a Count, he was a fisherman. He was then known as Fernand
Mondego. At that point of time, he lived in Marseilles. He had a friend, Edmond
Dantes, who was a sailor. Fernand was quite friendly with him. Edmond was engaged
to a beautiful Catalan girl, Mercedes. This fact was known to Fernand. But being an
evil natured man, he secretly yearned to marry Mercedes. Therefore, to make his
dream come true, he hatched a plot – the most diabolic, which any man could have
hatched, against any man.

A Rogue And A Rascal
He is out and out a rogue and a rascal. In order to win the hand of Mercedes, he
framed a false charge against his friend, Edmond in the court. He proved that Edmond
was the spy of the exiled Napoleon Bonapart. He provided false evidences against
Edmond and thus got him imprisoned for 20 years. In this way, he very cleverly
removed the innocent Edmond, out of the way.

A Mean And Degraded Man
Once Edmond Dantes had been taken care of Fernand had little difficulty in trapping
Mercedes into his trap. He first convinced Mercedes, of the death of Edmond by
publishing the false news of his death in the newspapers. Then appearing as a friend
and a sympathizer her first consoled her. And after wining her confidence, he then
proposed to marry her. Being heart-broke and lonely, she accepted his offer. Thus, the
evil monster, succeeded in his devilish plan.
A Traitor To His Country
Having accomplished all his plans successfully, he decided to settle down in Paris. So,
he said good bye to Marseilles. While in Paris, he joined the Army, and after
sometime, became a captain in 1822. The French were at war against the Turks.
Fernand as Captain was defending the Fortress of Yanina. Being a coward and a mean
person, he surrendered the fortress to the Turks on receiving a huge bribe. He
however made it appear as though he got defeated. Having acquired tons of wealth,
Fernand took his discharge from the Army. He then took the title of the Count and
settled in Paris.

As A Liar And A Wicked Person
Having amassed a huge fortune, the count started living like a lord when he is proved
as a traitor in the chamber of Deputies, he still kept denying his charges. Even in the
face of sound evidence, he kept denying his guilt. He is a liar and a rogue.

A Violent Death
After he is proved a traitor, he is still not remorseful. When he is face to face with
Edmond, he pulls out his pistol to shoot him. But Albert, Beauchamp pounce on him,
to snatch the pistol from him. In the struggle the pistol goes off and the Count of
Morcerf, shoots himself. Thus Monte Cristo is avenged.


The Countess of Morcerf
Introduction
The Countess of Morcerf is a beautiful lady, with a bewitching personality. She is lie
a breath of fresh air, in the play The Count‟s Revenge. Twenty years ago, she lived in
Marseilles and was bethroted to Edmond Dantes. She was then known as Mercedes,
an extremely charming lady. She is adored and admired by all. She enchanted every
one, who came into contact with her. So ravishingly beautiful was she.

A Victim Of A Conspiracy
It is her beauty, which resulted in her undoing, so to speak. While it was known to all
and sundry, that she was to be married to Edmond Dantes A fisherman, named
Fernand Mondego, also desired to marry her. Fernand Mondego, though a friend of
Edmond Dantes, hatched a most diabolic plot, whereby he got Edmond condemned as
a traitor and a spy to the exiled Buonaparte. Thus he eliminated Edmond from the
scene and tricked Mercedes into marrying her.

Tricked Into Marrying Fernand Mondego
The cunning Fernand Mondego convinced Mercedes by giving her false evidence that
Edmond Dantes had died in Prison. Then he gradually gains her confidence by
sympathy with her. In this way, Fernand Mondego succeeds in marrying he. Although
fate ill treats Mercedes, it goes to her credit that she remains loyal wife to her
villainous husband, Fernand Mondego.

As A Loving Mother
She dearly loved her son, Albert. When she learns that Albert has challenged Monte
Cristo, to a duel, she is deeply concerned, for the safety of her son. She does what any
mother would have done, under the circumstances. She visits Monte Cristo, under the
cover of darkness and begs of him, to spare the life of her only son. Monte Cristo
yields to her request and promises not to kill Albert.

Mercedes Confides To Her Son
Then Mercedes, now known as the Countess of Morcerf, confides into her son, Albert
and tells him how she had begged of Monte Cristo, to spare his life. She then requests
him not to fight the duel. She then discloses to Albert the villainy of his father, the
Count of Morcerf. How he got Monte Cristo labelled as a spy and got him imprisoned
for twenty years, although he was absolutely innocent. How Morcerf cheated her into
marrying him and how he ill treated and tortured her.

Duel Averted
Albert after learning about the misdeed of his father resolves not to fight the duel. Not
only this he apologizes to Monte Cristo and becomes his friend. Thus, the Countess
plays a very important role in averting the duel and saving Albert‟s life.

A Woman of Great Qualities
The Countess is a woman of great qualities. She is kind and affectionate. She is
devoted mother and loves her son dearly. As a wife too, she is faithful to the evil
Morcerf, till she learns from Monte Cristo that she got cheated by Morcerf, into
marrying him. The only blot on her otherwise chaste and pure character, is her
desertion of her husband, towards the end of the play.


Albert
Introduction
Albert is a young French nobleman. He is the son of the Count and the Countess of
Morcerf. A man of great character, to whom honour and self-respect are of great
value. He possesses a very pleasing personality and is very enthusiastic about life.

Simple And Noble
Albert is very simple by nature. He is unable to discern Monte Cristo‟s intentions in
becoming so thick with him. He has all the noble qualities, which a nobleman values.
To him, his honour and his family‟s good name are more dear to him, than life itself.

Sentimental Young Man
Albert is a very sentimental young man. When the Chamber of Deputies condemns
his father, the Count of Morcerf as a traitor, he is very upset. He narrates to his
mother, the Countess, the circumstances in which his father is disgraced. He felt so
ashamed that he wanted to give up his name and to leave the country. He is so upset
that he makes up his mind to take revenge of his father‟s enemy.

A Man Of Honour
Albert is a man of honour. When he discovers that his own dear friend, Monte Cristo,
is his father‟s enemy, he challenges him, to a duel, for the sake of his family honour.

Wise And Bold
Although Albert is a very emotional young man yet he is wise and sensible t heed his
mother‟s counsel, to desist from fighting the duel. When his own mother convinces
him of his father‟s guilt he not only decides not to fight the duel, but also apologizes
to him, for challenging him to a duel. He is bold and does not feel ashamed, in asking
Monte Cristo‟s forgiveness. He is brave and forth right and tells his father, about his
guilt and that he should face his enemy.

A Dutiful Son
Albert is a dutiful and an affectionate son. He loves his mother and is very respectful
to her. But his only blemish is that, he shows disrespect to his father, when he learns
that his father is the villain of the piece. He refuses to embrace his father and accept
his blessings. This is in very bad taste. As a sensible and dutiful son, he should have
stood by his father. Apart from this, Albert impresses the readers with his strong sense
of justice and honour and love for his country.


Beauchamp
Introduction
Beauchamp is a very good friend of Albert‟s. It is he who discovers the man, who
brought disgraces on Albert‟s father, the Count of Morcerf. He being an editor of a
daily newspaper in Paris, is able to discover Albert‟s father‟s enemy. In fact the news
of Morcerf‟s disgrace is published in his newspaper.

As A Sincere Man
Beauchamp‟s greatest quality is his sincerity to his friend. Albert greatly depended on
him. That is why, he asks Beauchamp to discover the anonymous writer‟s name. We
learn later in the play that Beauchamp succeeds in discovering the name of the man
who brings disgrace to Morcerf.

A Sensible Man
He is a very sensible man. Finding his friend, Albert, very disturbed on account of his
father‟s disgrace he does not disclose his father‟s enemy‟s name (Monte Cristo), at
once. He mentally prepares Albert by telling him that the name would surprise him,
that he would not believe that it could be his friend, Count of Monte Cristo.

A Cool Headed Man
Beauchamp is a cool headed man. He does not flare up or lose his head like Albert
who loses his cool, when he learns that, it is his own dear friend, Monte Cristo, who is
the cause of his family‟s disgrace and dishonour. So in a fit of rage, he challenges him
to fight a duel. He thought that this was the only way, he could wash away the blot on
his honour.

As A Second Albert
Albert points Beauchamp as his second, in the duel to be fought. Albert has so much
faith and reliance on him, that he made Beauchamp to make all the necessary
arrangements for the duel. Tries To Dissuade Albert Beauchamp tries to dissuade
Albert from fighting the duel. In his surprise, he says:

“MY DEAR ALBERT, YOU DO NOT MEAN TO CARRY MATTERS SO FAR.”

He stands by Albert, to the very last When the duel is averted, it is he, who breaks the
news of his safety, to the Countess and Count of Morcerf. He is a real devoted friend
– one on whom a fried could relay and depend.


Question 3 - Reference to the Context
from Prose
Lines - Pakistan Zindabad
Reference
The lines given for explanation are an extract from the lesson, Pakistan Zindabad that
has been taken from Quaid-e-Azam, by John Walton.

Introduction
This essay sheds light upon the struggle of the Muslims of South Asia to achieve a
land of their own. It traces the history of the efforts made by the Muslims during the
period ranging from the adoption of the Pakistan Resolution in March 1940 till the
final freedom and setting up of a sovereign homeland in August 1947. The first
section of the essay describes the arrival of Quaid-e-Azam Mohammad Ali Jinnah at
Karachi on 7th August 1947. When he was accorded a warm enthusiastic welcome by
the people and when he outlined the basic beliefs and principles of the people of
Pakistan, laying stress upon the equality of all Pakistanis irrespective of religion,
casts, colour or creed. Then the essay points out to the main differences between the
Congress and the Muslim League, between the view points of Gandhi and Jinnah, and
their ultimate outcome in the shape of the two-nation theory becoming a reality. The
concluding part of the essay deals with the problems facing the new nation of Pakistan
in its initial years which incidentally proved to be the final year in the life of the father
of nation.




Lines
“THROUGH ALL THE EXCITEMENT OF THOSE FIRST --------------------
REMAINED CALM, SERIOUS AND EVEN SEVERE."

Explanation

In the passage, the author is describing his views, on the excitement generated among
the people of Pakistan on the first few days of their independence. Earlier the Quaid-
e-Azam has landed at the Mauripur Airport on August 7, 1947. He was given a
rousing welcome by the people of Karachi. The people in their millions, welcomed
their Quaid, the first Governor General of Pakistan. While the people were cheering
with excitement and joy, though Quaid remained calm and serious. He gave no sign of
his feelings, though, he too must have been delighted, at the tremendous joy, which
the crowd was expressing on his arrival. Those were the first few days in the life of
the young nation and the people were naturally, over-joyed. But their Quaid, who
made independence possible, looked very calm, serious and even stern from
appearance. He never revealed his feelings. He always kept his feelings to himself.




Lines
“ALL THIS KILLING AND DESTRUCTION--------------------- IS A FRIEND OF
TOMORROW.”

Explanation

In the above passage the author is shedding light on the shock and sense of horror of
the Quaid at the brutal killing of the Muslims, when they were trying to cross over to
their country, Pakistan from India. The author is highlighting Jinnah‟s shock and grief
at the senseless killings and destruction of the Muslims, when they were coming over
to their homeland. Jinnah was a man of peace. He hated violence and cruelty at all
times. He was overcome with grief at the helplessness of the people, who were
massacred by the Indians. With all this killing and violence, Jinnah still begged for
peace and friendship with the Indians. Being neighbours, the Quaid extended a hand
of friendship, in the hope of lasting peace and prosperity. That is why the Quaid
hoped, that an enemy of today would become a friend tomorrow. But alas! This was
not to be.




Lines
“BY THE FORCE OF HIS DETERMINATION ----------------------- NATION IN
THE WORLD.”

Explanation

In the above passage the author is highlighting the leadership qualities of the Quaid-e-
Azam. There are no two opinions about the Quaid‟s leadership as well as his iron
determination. By the force of the Quaid‟s leadership as well as his determination, he
formed the Muslims of India into a nation, who were once a small defeated entity,
with nothing to hope for into a great force. The Quaid united the Muslims into one
forceful unit, in an empire, which was ruled by the British. When the Muslims
emerged as an independent nation, they became the greatest of Muslim states and the
fifth largest nation in the world. This is a great tribute to the Quaid‟s leadership, that
he and the Muslims of India stuck to their guns and carried the day. But for the
Quaid‟s leadership and iron will, this may not have been possible.


Lines - Birkenhead Drill
Reference
The lines given for explanation has been taken from Asok Readers, Book III. The
lines given for explanation are an extract from the lesson, Pakistan Zindabad that has
been taken from Quaid-e-Azam, by John Walton.

Introduction
Birkenhead Drill is a story of extravagant deed of heroism and shvarism shown by the
soldiers of British Army. The Birkenhead Drill was a troop ship, which come across
with sudden accident which has brought a dramatic change in the life of soldiers.
Birkenhead Drill means Women and Children first is the order followed on all ships
that are in danger. Birkenhead Drill means today to stand be still facing certain death
so that the weaker ones may have a chance of life.

“SOME PEOPLE BORN GREAT
SOME PEOPLE HAVE GREATNESS

SOME PEOPLE ACHIEVE GREATNESS

WE SHOULD MAKE OUR LIFES SUBLIME”

Lines
“IT LAY HIDDEN UNDER THE------------------- ALL UNCONSCIOUS OF ITS
FATE.”

Explanation

A troop ship Birkenhead, was heading towards Capetown in South Africa. It was
carrying 630 British soldiers and their families. The Birkenhead was almost at the end
of its uneventful journey. But alas! It was destined to be destroyed in the near future.
Forty miles before Capetown, was a rock, which was hidden under the surface of the
sea. This rock was unknown in 1851. Hence it was not shown in any of the maps of
the sea. The Birkenhead was heading straight for it, all „unconscious of its fate‟. It
was about 2 a.m. in the early hours of morning, when this terrible accident took place.
The author has used a lovely simile, in comparing the hidden rock, to a wild animal of
the sea, who is lying in wait, for its victim. The unfortunate victim (Birkenhead),
being blissfully unaware of its fate, that it was destined to be doomed, soon. Whatever
the staff on board the Birkenhead might be thinking at that moment, no one had the
idea that very soon they were going to meet their end. That the Birkenhead would
collide against the hidden rock and that, most of them would die.




Lines
“ANY PASSENGER WHO COULD NOT --------------------- ONCE WHO MIGHT
FALL INTO THE WAVES.”

Explanation

In the above extract, the author states that after the Birkenhead had been destroyed, by
crushing against the hidden rock most of the life boats were either destroyed
completely or badly damaged. Only three lifeboats were in a useful condition. Each
life boat could carry about 60 passengers, which meant the lives of only 180
passengers could be saved. In the given passage the author states that, one who could
not get a place in one of the life boats fared certain death – death by drowning or
worse. The sea was alive with sharks. Their cruel and fearful jaws awaited the
unfortunate ones, who might fall into the sea. There was no hope of any ones
survived, who might fell into the sea waves.
Lines
“BIRKENHEAD DRILL – WOMEN AND CHILDREN--------------- WEAKER
ONES MAY HAVE A CHANCE OF LIFE."

Explanation

„Birkenhead Drill‟ is an order, which was given by the commander of the troops. It
was given in the face of utter crises. The lives of over 600 passengers were at stake on
he line. It was a crisis of the highest magnitude. The commander wanted to save the
lives of 170 women and children. So he ordered his men, to stand in proper drill
formation, and form queues. The soldiers obeyed the call of their commander and
sacrificed their lives for a noble cause – the 170 precious lives of women and
children. It has now become customary for the captain of the ship to say „Birkenhead
Drill‟ whenever a ship is in danger. This is the signal for the crew of the ship to stand
at attention and save the lives of the weaker ones – the women, children and the sick.


Question 3 - Summary from Prose
Birkenhead Drill
Introduction
Birkenhead Drill is a story of extravagant deed of heroism and shvarism shown by the
soldiers of British 963Army. The Birkenhead Drill was a troop ship, which come
across with sudden accident which has brought a dramatic change in the life of
soldiers.

Birkenhead Drill means Women and Children First is the order followed on all ships
that are in danger. Birkenhead Drill means today to stand be still facing certain death
so that the weaker ones may have a chance of life.

“Some people born great

Some people have greatness

Some people achieve greatness

We should make our lifes sublime”

Summary
Birkenhead Drill was a military ship. In February 1851, it was going to South Africa
with troops and their families. There were a total of six hundred and thirty people on
board out of which one hundred and seventy were women and children. The rest were
inexperienced military men and officers. At 2 a.m. on 25th February, when this ship
was near Cape Town, it strokes a massive rock that was not shown on any of the
maps. This sudden jerk broke the ship into two pieces. The front half soon sank but
the hind half stayed afloat. Most of the people manage to reach the rear part. There
were only 3 lifeboats left undamaged with a capacity of 60 persons per boat. Only 180
people could be saved in this way. The others would draw because the damaged
military ship could not float much longer. This situation should have caused a panic
on the ship. Unlike other happenings, there was no panic or confusion in the boat. The
trained soldiers managed complete discipline and were successful in transferring some
women and children into the lifeboats. The captain and soldiers stood line by line as if
they were on their daily drill. Every one was loyal to his duty and himself. A
commander set an example by giving his life for two young soldiers. When the
commander was hanging on to some piece of wood, he saw two young soldiers
struggling in the water. He allowed them to hold on wreckage. But the commander
realized that the wreckage could not bear the weight of the three persons so he let go
his hold and went into the water for ever. Due to complete management of discipline,
194 people were saved but 436 men drowned forever in the deep waters. Moral The
undiminished order of the soldiers presented in the article reflects the quality of
sacrifice and devotion in mankind. We should stand till facing certain fate so that the
weak ones may have a chance to live. This has been known as Birkenhead Drill since
then.

“DUTY, THAT WHICH STERNLY IMPELS US IN THE DIRECTION OF
PROFIT, ALONG THE LINE OF DESIRE.”

_____________________________________________________________________
__________ Ambrose Bierce


The Hostile Witness
Introduction
The Hostile Witness is a detective story by D.Y. Morgan. In this story he depicts the
character of a person who was not satisfied with the performance of the state Police,
but he changed his views when witnesses the performance of the police in arresting a
dangerous murderer at large.




Summary
Norman Charlton is a robber and a murderer. He lives as a servant in White Hart
Hotel. This hotel is in Kirby, a small Yorkshire town about 32 kilometers south of
Darlington. He robbed the weekly wages of two people at New Castle, who were
going to their factory carrying thousands of pounds. While committing the robbery, he
faces protest from the two persons. In reply he shoots them. One of them, named John
Edward Robson, gets killed while the other becomes seriously wounded. Charlton
escapes in a stolen sports car from the place of robbery. After reaching a safe place,
he leaves the car and asks for a lift at about a hundred yards from that point.
Fortunately, he gets a lift from Mr. Earnest King who was on his way to White Hart
Hotel. When they reach the hotel, Charlton transfers the stolen bag from Mr. King‟s
car into the hotel and places it behind the reception desk. He also puts King‟s luggage
in a room and gets dressed in his white jacket. He leaves the weapon of murder under
the mattress. Mr. King sits in the lounge and orders for cold drink. While enjoying
cold drink, Mr. Abott and two other guests, Mr. Cartor and Johnson enter the room.
They exchange greetings and then Mr. King gets informed about the robbery and the
murder. Mr. Cartor also tells about the checking of his car by the police. While they
were talking about the robbery, three persons, Detective-Sergeant Manning and Police
Constable Stevens and Edwards, enter the hotel. They told the people about the
security and said that their duty was to check all the hotels in the North of England.
Detective-Sergeant Manning asks for the keys of the rooms so that he could check the
luggage of the guests. Everyone gives them the keys except Mr. King, who thinks that
this action was unrespectable. But after some discussion he also gives the keys. the
detective then go up to check the rooms. When they return, one of them holds a pistol
in his hand, which had been fired recently. He tells that this pistol was laid under the
mattress in Mr. King‟s room. He suspects Mr. King for the murder. Charlton takes
advantages of this situation and gives the description of the murderer – medium
height and build, fresh complexion, dark hair, moustache, horn-rimmed glasses, Grey
suit and Grey hat. This description exactly suited the dressing of Mr. King, which
made him more mistrustful and every body stares at him. Charlton also gives the bag
of money having massive locks from behind the reception desk and says that this bag
was carried by Mr. King. Suddenly, Manning turns at Charlton and orders the
constable to arrest him. He suspected him of the spirit gum and fake moustaches that
were left on his upper lip. The lift which he had taken from Mr. King made him more
suspicious. He also asks him of horn-rimmed glasses and receives the answer in
positive. Manning then arrests him and tells the people how Charlton had committed
the crime. He hid the pistol under the mattress in Mr. King‟s room while he as
keeping the luggage and threw away his fake moustache soon after killing the person.
He had then taken lift from Mr. King at a bus stop near Great North Road and gotten
away safely from the police. This entire work carried out by the police really
impressed Mr. King and the killer was caught.


My Bank Account
Introduction
My Bank Account is written by Stephen Leacock. He is one of the most popular
mockers and article writer. His witty articles are the best example of sardonic
Mockery. The most of his stories like Brown Eyes, Freedom Cost, Behind the Table
are written in first person style.

“CONFIDENCE WITH FEAR LEAD TO MOCKERY.”
___________________________________ Stephen




Summary
Our author had a particular kind of fear about banks. Every time he entered a bank, to
do business, he felt awfully frightened. The author was afraid of banks but he had to
go to a bank, as he received a raise in his salary. As he entered the bank his fear
overlook him. In this panic, the author made number of stupid mistakes. He entered
the bank and demanded to see the manager alone. The author was taken to a private
room. The manager was convinced that the author was millionaire who wished to
deposit millions of dollars. But the manager was very upset, when he learn that the
author wanted to deposit, fifty six dollars and that he would deposit fifty dollars every
month. Quite obviously the manager was irritated and directed him to the accountant,
so that his account could be opened, which was duly done. After having deposited
fifty-six dollars. The author wanted to withdraw six dollars for his current use. In his
nervousness, the author made a blunder. Instead of writing a cheque for six dollars he
had written fifty-six dollars. The accountant looked at him in astonishment and asked
if he wanted to withdraw all his money. The author realized his mistake, but wanted
to cover up his stupidness. So he replied he wanted to draw all his money. Author was
feeling miserable and he want to rush out of the bank sooner than he received his
money, he rushed out of the bank as he did so, a loud burst of laughter went up, to the
roof of the bank.


The Wolves of Cernogratz
Introduction
This is an interesting story about supernatural forces and strange happenings written
by Saki H.H. Munro. The author is well known for his tales of mystery and magical
powers. The story is about an old castle and its owners, the Cernogratz family who
had to sell off their family castle, when their fortune turned against them. Thus, they
abondoned their ancestral family castle. As time went by, the castle was purchased by
Gruebel family.




Summary
One of the last days of December, the Baroness, the new owner of the Cernogratz
Castle, was engaged in a friendly conversation with her guests. She was telling them
about a strange legend attached to the castle. She said that whenever someone died in
the castle, all the wild beasts and wolves would appear from nowhere and start
howling all night long. But she quickly brushed this legend aside by saying that, it is
only a gimmick to enhance the value of castle. She also said that she did not believe in
the legend as she had proof that nothing of the sort ever happened. When her old
mother-in-law died in the castle, nothing of the sort happened and no wolves
appeared. According to her it was utter rubbish and that there was no truth in the
legend. That the people had merely invented a story so as to give cheap publicity to
the place. On hearing this account, Amalie von Cernogratz, an old governess
employed in the house, remarked:
“THE STORY IS NOT AS YOU HAVE TOLD IT. IT IS NOT WHEN ANY ONE
DIES IN THE CASTLE, THAT THE HOWLING IS HEARD. IT IS ONLY
HEARD, WHEN A MEMBER OF THE CERNOGRATZ FAMILY, DIES IN HIS
FAMILY CASTLE THAT THE WOLVES APPEAR IN THEIR THOUSANDS
AND START HOWLING.”

The Governess strongly protested and insisted that the legend was quite true. She
knew the family legend very well, as she was the last of the great Cernogratz family.
The old Governess repeated the actual legend in a note of defiance, almost in
contempt. She made it quite clear that no howling was heard if a stranger died in the
castle. But if a cernogratz died in his family castle, not only did the wolves would
howl in chorus, but also a large tree would crash in the park as the soul of the dying
one left its body. Naturally the company showed its disbelief. They thought that the
old lady is pretending to be an important person. She knows that she will be soon past
work and she wants to appeal to our sympathies. That the old Amalie is making a
false claim to be a Cernogratz. When the old Governess left the room, the Baroness
and her guests were convinces that, she is an ordinary woman and had some how
learnt the Cernogratz legend from the peasants living in the vicinity. Later on, some
mysterious happenings proved every word of the old governess. It so happened that
the old governess fell ill and confined herself to her small, cheerless room. Just then
the company heard the howling of wolves. Moved by some impulse, the Baroness
went to the Governess‟s room. To her horror, she found, all the windows open,
despite the biting cold, while the old lady was lying on the couch terribly sick. The
Baroness rushed forward to shut the windows. But the Governess forbade her in a
very stern manner. She asked the Baroness to leave and let the windows be open, as
she wanted to hear the “Death Music” of her family. The Baroness announced to her
guests that the old governess was dying. While the guests were talking, they heard a
loud noise of a tree splitting and then crashing down, with a loud thud. At that
moment, the governess breathed her last. The news of Amalie-von-Cernogratz‟s death
and her affiliation to the Cernogratz family was confirmed in the newspaper, the
following day. Amalie, the valued fried of the Baron and Baroness Gruebel had
passed away in her old family castle.


Question 4 - Reference to the Context
from Poetry
Lines - Under the Green Wood Tree
Reference to the Context
Introduction
The lines given for explanation are an extract from the poem Under the Green Wood
Tree which is the title of a song taken from the play, As You Like It written by
William Shakespeare. The play tells the story of two brothers, the Elder Duke and the
younger brother, Duke Frederick. The younger brother is very greedy, selfish and
ambitious and wishes to usurp the dukedom. He forces the Elder Duke to go into exile
and pass the rest of his life in the forest of Arden. The Elder Duke is accompanied by
some his devoted companions and followers. Among them is Lord Amiens, who is
gifted with a very sweet, melodious voice. The lines given for explanation are an
extract from one of the songs sung by him. In this song, he desribes the pleasant and
carefree life of the forest. He also extends an open invitation to anyone who wishes to
join him in that cheerful surrounding. Such a person should be free from all worldly
wishes, and should feel happy and contented to live in the open, natural environment.
The only problem one has to face there is the harsh unbearable winter weather.




Lines
UNDER THE GREEN WOOD TREE

WHO LOVES TO LIE WITH ME,

AND TURN HIS MERRY NOTE

UNTO THE SWEET BIRD‟S THROAT,

COME HITHER, COME HITHER, COME HITHER:

HERE SHALL HE SEE

NO ENEMY

BUT WINTER AND ROUGH WEATHER

Explanation
In these lines, the singer is giving an open invitation to any one who wishes to join
him in the forest of Arden. The singer desires the newcomer to rest under the shady
trees and sing a song in such a manner that his voice mingles with the sweet notes of
the bird to produce one single harmony. The singer reminds that the life of the forest
is free from all enmity and petty rivalries. The only snag in the life of the forest is the
unpleasant and unbearable winter wind. If one is brave and willing enough to endure
the harshness of the weather, the life of the forest is almost an ideal one.




Lines
WHO DOTH AMBITION SHUN,

AND LOVES TO LIVE I‟ THE SUN,
SEEKING THE FOOD HE EATS,

AND PLEASED WITH WHAT HE GETS-

COME HITHER, COME HITHER, COME HITHER,

HERE SHALL HE SEE

NO ENEMY

BUT WINTER AND ROUGH WEATHER

Explanation
In the lines given for contextual explanation, the singer is laying down certain
conditions to be fulfilled by one who wishes to come and pass his life in the forest of
Arden. In the first place, such a person should have no worldly wishes. He should not
be materialistic in his approach and should never run after fame, wealth, power and
glory. He should be willing to pass his life in the open atmosphere under the bright
sun. He should look for his own sustenance and nourishment and should be contented
with whatever he gets to eat. The singer reiterates that the life of the forest is free
from all anxieties, problems and difficulties except the unpleasantness of the chilly
winter weather.


Lines - The Character of a Happy Life
Reference to the Context
Introduction
The lines given for explanation are an extract from the poem, The Character of a
Happy Life written by Sir Henry Wotton. In this moralizing piece of writing, the poet
points to the sterling qualities of head and heart needed in a person to lead a life of
contentment and bliss. Such a person should enjoy full freedom and should never be
dictated by others. He should remain steadfast and firm on the path of honesty.
Truthfulness should be his most prominent trait. He should exercise complete control
over his passion and should never be swept away by his emotions. He should be brave
enough to face all the challenges in life and should have the courage to encounter
death any moment. He should believe in simplicity and keep away from the evils of
jealousy and flattery. The accumulation of wealth and the acquisition of worldly name
and fame should never be his goal in life. He should be pious and God-fearing and
pass his time in healthy activities. Such a person may bot be playing in riches but he is
gifted with all the noble qualities required by a person to lead a contented life.




Lines
HOW HAPPY IS HE BORN OR TAUGHT

THAT SERVETH NOT ANOTHER‟S WILL:

WHOSE ARMOUR IS HIS HONEST THOUGHT

AND SIMPLE TRUTH HIS UTMOST SKILL!

Explanation
In the lines given for elucidation, the poet is referring to three outstanding
characteristics of a person willing to pass a happy, contented life. Such a person
should be independent in all his actions. He should never be a slave to the will of
others. His honest and humble thoughts prove to be his best protective device and
truthfulness is his most outstanding and remarkable feature.




Lines
WHOSE PASSIONS NOT HIS MASTERS ARE,

WHOSE SOUL IS STILL PREPARED FOR DEATH,

UNTIED UTO THE WORLD BY CARE

OF PUBLIC FAME, OR PRIVATE BREATH;

Explanation
The lines given for explanation bring out some prominent qualities of a person who
wishes to life a cheerful, satisfied life. He should have full control over his feelings
and should never be swayed by his emotions. He should not be afraid of death and
should be bold enough to encounter all the ups and downs in life. He should follow
the path of simplicity and sobriety. He should not care for the individual and
collective opinion form about him. He should never run after earthly name and fame.




Lines
WHO ENVIES NONE THAT CHANCE DOTH RAISE,

NOR VICE; WHO NEVER UNDERSTOOD

HOW DEEPEST WOUNDS ARE GIVEN BY PRAISE;

NOR RULES OF STATE, BUT RULES OF GOOD;
Explanation
In these lines, the poet is referring to the qualities needed in a person desirous of
leading a simple, innocent life. Such a person never fall a victim to the green-eyed
monster by looking at others who acquire wealth and reputation. He never gets
involved in any kind of evil of sight, speech or hearing. He is not interested in politics
and government and is simply aware of the golden principles of a life without
ostentation. He realizes that flattery is harmful for both who is flattered and the one
who is over-praising. Thus he keeps away from false praise at all cost.




Lines
WHO HATH HIS LIFE FROM RUMOURS FREED;

WHOSE CONSCIENCE IS HIS STRONG RETREAT;

WHOSE STATE CAN NEITHER FLATTERERS FEED,

NOR RUIN MAKE OPPRESSORS GREAT;

Explanation
In the lines given for explanation, the poet believes that a person who wants to live a
simple, contented life keeps his life free from rumours by never trying to become a
public figure. Such a person always depends upon his conscience and acts according
to it. He is not so affluent that people may flatter him and take undue advantage of his
wealthy state. Such flatterers often fill their own coffers but when their benefactors
are ruined and deprived of their wealth, they accuse them and find all kinds of faults
in them.




Lines
WHO GOD DOTH LATE AND EARLY PRAY

MORE OF HIS GRACE THAN GIFTS TO LEND;

AND ENTERTAINS THE HARMLESS DAY

WITH A RELIGIOUS BOOK OR FRIEND

Explanation
The lines given for elucidation points to one of the salient features of the character of
a person wishing to live a happy life. Such a person is religious-minded, morally
sound, pious and God-fearing. He prays to Almighty God whenever it is possible. He
asks God for his benevolence and blessings and not for worldly comfort and luxuries.
He passes his time in healthy activities by reading good books or being in the
company of good, virtuous friends.




Lines
-THIS MAN IS FREED FROM SERVILE BANDS

OF HOPE TO RISE, OR FEAR TO FALL:

LORD OF HIMSELF, THOUGH NOT OF LANDS,

AND HAVING NOTHING, YET HATH ALL.

Explanation
The lines given for explanation present in a nutshell all the advantages of having
sterling qualities of head and heart, so necessary to pass a life of joy and satisfaction.
A person who is the master of his won will, follows the path of honesty, truthfulness,
simplicity, piety and self-confidence, and is courageous enough to face all the
challenges, can definitely lead a life of contentment. He is not bound by the chains of
slavery, and has neither the hope of achieving loftier goals nor the fear of suffering a
fall. He is not a feudal lord, possessing big estates but is lord of himself, having all the
noble qualities. Thus he is able to pass his life in ease, joy and comfort.


Lines - The Deserted Village
Reference to the Context
Introduction
The lines given for explanation are an extract from the poem The Deserted Village
written by Oliver Goldsmith. The poem presents two contrasting pictures of an Irish
village which fell a victim to the cruelty and inhuman treatment of the feudal lords.
The simpler, hardworking rustics were forced to leave their native land as a result of
the agricultural revolution when the big land owners switched over from general
farming to sheep farming in order to earn greater profits. On the one hand, this poem
shows the joy and activities of the people before the village was deserted, while on the
other hand, it presents a gloomy picture of the same village after the eviction of the
rural population.
Lines
SWEET AUBURN! LOVELIEST VILLAGE OF THE PLAIN,

WHERE HEALTH AND PLENTY CHEERED THE LABOURING SWAIN,

WHERE SMILING SPRING ITS EARLIEST VISIT PAID,

AND PARTING SUMMER‟S LINGERING BLOOMS DELAYED:

DEAR LOVELY BOWERS OF INNOCENCE AND EASE,

SEATS OF MY YOUTH, WHEN EVERY SPORT COULD PLEASE

HOW OFTEN HAVE I LOITERED O‟ER THY GREEN,

WHERE HUMBLE HAPPINESS ENDEAR‟D EACH SCENE!

HOW OFTEN HAVE I PAUSED ON EVERY CHARM

THE SHELTERED COT, THE CULTIVATED FARM,

THE NEVER FAILING BROOK, THE BUSY MILL,

THE DECENT CHURCH THAT TROPPED THE NEIGHBOURING

THE HAWTHORN BUSH, WITH SEATS BENEATH THE SHADE,

FOR TALKING AGE AND WHISPERING LOVERS MADE !

Explanation
In the lines given for explanation, the poet points out that Auburn was the most
Beautiful village of the area. The rustics enjoyed good health and found all the
necessities of life in abundance. They worked hard and remained happy. The first
signs of the spring were visible and summer lasted the longest. The poet had passed
his childhood and early youth in this village. He had participated in different kinds of
activities. He had observed all the beautiful sights of Nature. He had seen the
beautiful cottages and the picturesque natural surrounding. He had also admired the
flowing stream, the working mill and the ploughed fields. The seats under the trees
were occupied either by the old, fond of talking all the time or the young lovers
whispering to each other.




Lines
HOW OFTEN HAVE I BLEST THE COMING DAY,
WHEN TOIL REMITTING LENT ITS TURN TO PLAY,

AND ALL THE VILLAGE TRAIN, FROM LABOUR FREE,

LED UP THEIR SPORTS BENEATH THE SPREADING TREE;

WILL MANY A PASTIME CIRCLED IN THE SHADE,

THE YOUNG CONTENDING AS THE OLD SURVEYED;

AND MANY A GAMBOL FROLICKED O‟ER THE GROUND,

AND SLEIGHTS OF ART AND FEATS OF STRENGTH WENT ROUND;

AND STILL AS EACH REPEATED PLEASURE TIRED,

SUCCEEDDING SPORTS THE MIRTHFUL BAND INSPIRED;

THE DANCING PAIR THAT SIMPLY SOUGHT RENOWN

BY HOLDING OUT TO TIRE EACH OTHER DOWN;

THE SWAIN MISTRUSTLESS OF HIS SMUTTED FACE,

WHILE SECRET LAUGHTER TITTERED ROUND THE PLACE;

THE BASHFUL VIRGIN‟S SIDE-LONG LOOKS OF LOVE,

THE MATRON‟S GLANCE THAT WOULD THOSE LOOKS REPROVE!

THESE WERE THEY CHARMS, SWEET VILLAGE, SPORTS LIKE THESE,

WITH SWEET SUCCESSION,TAUGHT EVEN TOIL TO PLEASE;

THESE ROUND THY BOWERS THEIR CHEERFUL INFLUENCE SHED

THESE WERE THY CHARMS-BUT ALL THESE CHARMS ARE FLED.

Explanation
In the lines given for elucidation, the poet is describing the leisure activities of the
simple villagers, which have now come to an end as the village wears a deserted look.
The toiling masses worked hard for the whole week and eagerly waited the seventh
day when they could enjoy themselves to their heart‟s content. On a holiday, the
people gathered at different places and took part in various activities. While the young
people competed with one another, the old observed them. When the people were
tired of one game, they began something else. They divided themselves into couples,
each couple trying to dance for the longest time to get renown. They also blackened
the face of some innocent rustic and then laughed at him secretly. Young girls tried to
look secretly at their lovers but such looks were disapproved of by their matron. Once
the laborer rustics were compelled to leave their native land, the village looked barren
and deserted. All the charms of the village were gone with the rustics no more being
there.




Lines
ILL FARES THE LAND, TO HASTENING ILLS A PREY

WHERE WEALTH ACCUMULATES, AND MEN DECAY;

PRINCESS AND LORDS MAY FLOURISH, OR MAY FADE;

A BREATH CAN MAKE THEM, AS A BREATH HAS MADE;

BUT A BOLD PEASANTRY, THEIR COUNTRY‟S PRIDE

WHEN ONCE DESTROYED CAN NEVER BE SUPPLIED.

Explanation
The lines given for explanation present a picture of the village after it was deserted.
The simple abode of the innocent rustics had fell a prey to injustice and cruelty.
Wealth was accumulating in a few hands while the common man suffered from
misery, poverty and deprivation. The bulk of the population consists of hardworking
villagers. The rich may grow richer and get all the honour and titles but that does not
make much difference. The real asset and wealth of the country are the poor, toiling
formers. If they are once destroyed, no one can replace them. The joy and satisfaction
life is lost forever.


Lines - The Lay of the Last Minstrel
Reference to the Context
Introduction
The given lines are an extract from the poem The Lay of the Last Minstrel written by
Sir Walter Scott. The poem deals with the theme of patriotism. The poet believes that
love and loyalty towards one‟s motherland is a natural feeling, and anyone devoid of
it, is nothing but a symbol of greed and selfishness. In the first place, the poet wishes
to know whether there are such people in the world who have no sense of attachment
and allegiance towards their nation, and never feel proud and honoured to speak of the
homeland, where they are born and brought up. Then the poet suggests that we should
be vigilant of such elements and always keep an eye on them. They are worthless and
deserve to be condemned in spite of all their wealth, high rank and authority. Finally
the poet believes that such unpatriotic people face an unceremonious end. They lose,
their reputation during their lifetime, and when they die, it means death for them in
two ways. Firstly they suffer physical death when their body perishes and then their
name is also buried forever. No one shed tears of sorrow at their death, no one pays
homage to them and no one sings songs of appreciation for them. In this way, they get
a well-deserved death.




Lines
BREATHES THERE THE MAN WITH SOUL SO DEAD,

WHO NEVER TO HIMSELF HATH SAID,

THIS IS MY OWN, MY NATIVE LAND!

WHOSE HEART HATH NE‟ER WITHIN HIM BURN‟D,

AS HOME HIS FOOTSTEPS HE HATH TURN‟D,

FROM WANDERING ON A FOREIGN STRAND!

Explanation
In the lines given for contextual explanation, the poet wants to know whether there
are unpatriotic people existing on this earth. He wishes to identify such people who
are absolutely devoid of the love of the nation. Such people never take due pride in
their motherland. If a person remains away from his country for a long time, it is
natural that he should feel delighted and satisfied while re-tracing his steps to his own
soil. However if such sentiments are not aroused in him, it indicates that the noble
feeling of patriotism is not found in him and he has no affiliation with his own land.




Lines
IF SUCH THERE BREATHE, GO MARK HIM WELL;

FOR HIM NO MINSTREL RAPTURES SWELL;

HIGH THOUGH HIS TITLES, PROUD HIS NAME,

BOUNDLESS HIS WEALTH AS WISH CAN CLAIM;

DESPITE THOSE TITLES, POWER AND PELF,

THE WRETCH, CONCENTRED ALL IN SELF
Explanation
In the lines given for elucidation, the poet is sounding a word of caution against those
who have not the slightest trace of patriotism in them. The poet wishes that such
selfish and unscrupulous people should be identified. We should always be watchful
of such people. It is possible that such elements possess high titles and ranks. They
may be exercising great power and authority. They may also be rolling in wealth and
having all the luxuries and amenities of life. However, they prove to be the most
miserable people since they are too self-centered, and always look to their own gains.
They pay no heed to the glory and integrity of the nation but go on filling their own
coffers.




Lines
LIVING, SHALL FORFEIT FAIR RENOWN,

AND, DOUBLY DYING, SHALL GO DOWN

TO THE VILE DUST FROM WHENCE HE SPRUNG,

UNWEPT, UNHONOUR‟D, AND UNSUNG.

Explanation
In the lines given for explanation, the poet is referring to the fate of such a person who
is completely devoid of the spirit of patriotism. People begin recognizing such
elements during their lifetime and they begin losing their name and fame. When such
unpatriotic people die, it means a “double death” for them. In the first place, their
body perishes and they are buried. They go back to the same dust from which they
were created. At the same time their name and fame is also lost forever. When such an
unpatriotic person departs from this world no eyes are filled with tears and no one
mourns over her grief. No homage or tribute is paid to such a person as no one utters a
word of praise or appreciation for him. No songs are sung in his memory and no one
remembers him after his death. Thus, he suffers a death of disgrace and ignominy.


Lines - Sonnet Composed Upon West
Minster Bridge
Reference to the Context
Introduction
The given lines are an extract from the poem Sonnet Composed Upon Westminster
Bridge written by William Words Worth. The poet describes and appreciates the
beauty and tranquil atmosphere of the city of London as he looks at it in the early
hours of morning. He considers it to be the most splendid, wonderful and charming
sight in the world and believes that every one is bound to be impressed by it.




Lines
EARTH HAS NOT ANY THING TO SHOW MORE FAIR:

DULL WOULD HE BE OF SOUL WHO COULD PASS BY

A SIGHT SO TOUCHING IN ITS MAJESTY:

Explanation
As the poet stands upon the Westminster Bridge at dawn, he admires the beauty of the
city of London. According to him, it is the most charming sight in the world. He feels
that no onlooker can remain unimpressed by it. However, if one is not affected by the
beauty and tranquility of the sight, it implies that he has lost all aesthetic sense and is
devoid of all finer emotions.




Lines
THIS CITY NOW DOTH, LIKE A GARMENT WEAR

THE BEAUTY OF THE MORNING; SILENT, BARE,

SHIPS, TOWERS, DOMES, THEATRES AND TEMPLES LIE

OPEN UNTO THE FIELDS, AND TO THE SKY;

ALL BRIGHT AND GLITTERING IN THE SMOKELESS AIR.

Explanation
The poet describes the city as he observes it in the early hours of the day. The city of
London seems to be wearing the dress of beauty and serenity. Everything can be seen
clearly sparkling in the fog less surrounding. While standing on the bridge, the poet
can observe the ships sailing, the towers and domes of buildings, the different places
of worship and amusement. Since the atmosphere is free from smoke and pollution,
everything seems to be dazzling in the rays of the rising sun.
Lines
NEVER DID SUN MORE BEAUTIFULLY STEEP

IN HIS FIRST SPLENDOUR VALLEY, ROCK OR HILL;

NE‟ER SAW I, NEVER FELT, A CALM SO DEEP!

THE RIVER GLIDETH AT HIS OWN SWEET WILL;

DEAR GOD! THE VERY HOUSES SEEM ASLEEP;

AND ALL THAT MIGHTY HEART IS LYING STILL!

Explanation
The city of London appears to be coloured with golden tint of the majestic sun. The
rays of the sun cover even the valleys and hills around the cosmopolitan city. The poet
points out that he has not experienced such a peaceful atmosphere in his life.
Moreover, he has never come across such an appealing and impressive view. He sees
the River Thames flowing gently and smoothly under the bridge. He realizes that the
entire city seems to be sounding asleep. All the places that are full of hustle and bustle
and hectic activity are at this time serene and peaceful. London being the heart of
England is bubbling with life and activity but at dawn, it appears to be at rest and
presents a wonderful picture of unrivalled charm and tranquility.


Lines - Lucy Gray
Reference to the Context
Introduction
William Words Worth is considered to be one of the greatest and the most prominent
figures in the realm of English literature. He was an ardent worshipper of the beauty
of Nature. For him, Nature is a living entity, throbbing with life and intensity. Word
worth believed poetry to be a spontaneous over flow of emotion but while expressing
that spontaneity, he always made use of very simple words which touched the hearts
of the readers. In this narrative poem, which is one in the series of Lucy poems, Lucy,
the innocent child becomes a symbol of charm and naivete. She is full of playfulness
and vivacity but she fall a prey to an unfortunate incident and the span of her life is
cut short due to it. The poem relates the story of the tragic end and sudden death of
the sweet child.




Lines
NO MATE, NO COMRADE LUCY, KNEW;

SHE DWELT ON A WIDE MOOR-

THE SWEETEST THING THAT EVER GREW

BESIDE A HUMAN DOOR!

Explanation
In the lines given for explanation, the poet is referring to the sweet, innocent child,
Lucy. She is presented as a simple, Beautiful creation of Nature. She is passing a life
of serene solitude on a barren land. She has no friends or companions. The poet
compares her to a fragrant flower blossoming in the wildness.




Lines
YOU YET MAY SPY THE FAWN AT PLAY,

THE HARE UPON THE GREEN;

BUT THE SWEET FACE OF LUCY GRAY

WILL NEVER MORE BE SEEN.

Explanation
In these lines, the note of tragedy creeps in. The poet admires all the beautiful
creations of Nature. He appreciates the jocundity of the young deer and the frivolity
of the loping hare on the green grass but he is overcome with gloom and sadness to
realize that he would not be able to see the face of Lucy anymore. Then the poet
begins describing the unfortunate incident which results in the death of Lucy.




Lines
NOT BLITHER IS THE MOUNTAIN ROE:

WITH MANY A WANTON STROKE

HE FEET DISPERSE THE POWDERY SNOW

THAT RISES UP LIKE SMOKE.
Explanation
In the lines given for explanation, the poet describes the playfulness and jolly mood of
the sweet child, Lucy. As Lucy is proceeding to the town to bring her mother back
from there, she seems to be in a very cheerful countenance. She is more active and
agile then a deer. She goes on kicking at the snow. The tender flakes of snow rise in
the form of smoke. It presents an Beautiful sight as Lucy appears to be enraptured in
her world of gaiety and gamboling.




Lines
THE WRETCHED PARENTS ALL THAT NIGHT

WENT SHOUTING FAR AND WIDE;

BUT THERE WAS NEITHER SOUND NOR SIGHT

TO SERVE THEM FOR A GUIDE.

Explanation
In the given lines, the poet points out that after Lucy loses he way in the tempest, she
suffers a tragic death. Thereafter, her parents go on looking for her in every nook or
corner. They are overcome with misery and depression as they fail to find her
whereabouts. They are unable to visualize her charming face, neither is her sweet
voice audible to them. They get no trace of her, and in the end, they are compelled to
accept the tragic fact that Lucy is no more alive.




Lines
- YET SOME MAINTAIN THAT TO THIS DAY

SHE IS A LIVING CHILD;

THAT YOU MAY SEE SWEET LUCY GRAY

UPON THE LONESOME WILD.

Explanation
In this closing stanza of the poem, the poet refers to the wild imagination of those
who are still living in the world of fancy believing Lucy to be a “Living Child.” They
have not yet reconciled to the fact that Lucy has suffered physical death. They not
only think that she is alive but also imagine that she is running and playing all over
the place. They also imagine Lucy singing a sweet song and her voice reverberating
all over the natural surrounding. However, it is nothing more than their imagination
because Lucy has already fallen a prey to tragic end.


Lines - The Toys
Reference to the Context
Introduction
In this narrative poem, the poet points out that God is always kind and merciful to
man but man often fails to follow the commands of his Creator. The poem relates the
story of father and son. The father treats the son harshly but later realizes his mistake
and asks for forgiveness from God for his foolish behaviour. He hopes that as he has
forgiven his son, God would pardon him for his childishness.




Lines
MY LITTLE SON, WHO LOOK‟D FROM THOUGHTFUL EYES

AND MOVED AND SPOKE IN QUIET GROWN-UP WISE,

HAVING MY LAW THE SEVENTH TIME DISOBEY‟D,

I STRUCK HIM, AND DISMISS‟D

WITH HARD WORDS AND UNKISS‟D,

-HIS MOTHER, WHO WAS PATIENT, BEING DEAD.

Explanation
The poem tells the story of a father and his son. The little boy always appeared to be
serious and thoughtful. He behaved like grown-ups but sometime his childish instinct
made him commit follies. When he disobeyed his father for the seventh time, he was
beaten, scolded and turned out without being kissed. There was no one to defend or
console him because his mother was no more in this world.




Lines
THEN FEARING LEST HIS GRIEF SHOULD HINDER SLEEP,
I VISITEDHIS BED,

BUT FOUND HIM SLUMBERING DEEP,

WITH DARKEN‟D EYELIDS, AND THEIR LASHES YET

FROM HIS LATE SOBBING WET.

Explanation
The father realized that he had been too harsh with his son. He feared that the child
might not be able to sleep due to his grief. He visited his son‟s bed and found him
sound asleep. The boy had fallen into a slumber while weeping because his eyes
appeared swollen and his eyelashes were still wet with tears.




Lines
AND I, WITH MOAM,

KISSING AWAY HIS TEARS, LEFT OTHERS OF MY OWN;

FOR, ON A TABLE DRAWN BESIDE HIS HEAD,

HE HAD PUT, WITHIN HIS REACH,

A BOX OF COUNTERS AND A RED-VEIN‟D STONE,

A PIECE OF GLASS ABRADED BY THE BEACH,

AND SIX OR SEVEN SHELLS,

A BOTTLE WITH BLUE BELLS,

AND TWO FRENCH COPPER COINS RANGED THERE WITH CAREFUL
ART,

TO COMFORT HIS SAD HEART.

Explanation
The father felt very repentant and aggrieved. He absorbed the tears of his son in his
lips but left his own tears on his face. He noticed that the boy had sought consolation
in small, ordinary objects. Near his bed, he had pulled a table on which he had
arranged very skillfully things like counters, a red stone, a rough piece of glass, some
flowers and shells and two coins. All these insignificant things provided ease and
comfort to his sad heart.
Lines
SO WHEN THAT NIGHT I PRAY‟D

TO GOD, I WEPT AND SAID:

AH! WHEN AT LAST WE LIE WITH TRANCED BREATH,

NOT VEXING THEE IN DEATH,

AND THOU REMEMBEREST OF WHAT TOYS

WE MADE OUR JOYS,

HOW WEAKLY UNDERSTAND,

THY GREAT COMMANDED GOOD,

THEN, FATHERLY NOT LESS

THAN I WHOM THOU HAST MOULDED FROM THE CLAY,

THOU‟LT LEAVE THY WRATH, AND SAY,

„I WILL BE SORRY FOR THEIR CHILDISHNESS.‟

Explanation
The father was so overawed with shame and grief that when that night he prayed to
God, he could not help shedding tears of sincere regret. He pointed out that man fails
to understand the commands of God, and there are some who do not fear God even on
their death-bed. However, God is the most Beneficent and the most Merciful. He
provides man with all the simple joys of life. The father forgives his son and hopes
that God, being like and guardian and benefactor of the entire human race would
pardon him for his rash and unreasonable behaviour towards his son.


Lines - Incident of the French Camp
Reference to Context
Introduction
These lines have been extracted from the poem Incident of the French Camp written
by Robert Browning. The poem describes an act of chivalry, gallantry, patriotism and
sacrifice on the part of a young French Soldier. The French Army had attacked the
German city of Ratisbon. After they had achieved triumph, the news of the victory
was conveyed to the Emperor Napoleon Bonaparte by that young soldier who was
brimming with pride and glory although he was on the verge of death. Thereafter, the
wounded soldier breathed his last.




Lines
YOU KNOW, WE FRENCH STORMED RATISBON:

A MILE OR SO AWAY,

ON A LITTLE MOUND, NAPOLEON

STOOD ON OUR STORMING DAY;

WITH NECK OUT-THRUST, YOU FANCY HOW,

LEGS WIDE, ARMS LOCKED BEHIND,

AS IF TO BALANCE THE PRONE BROW

OPPRESSIVE WITH ITS MIND.

Explanation
In the lines given for explanation, the poet is describing the scene of the French attack
on the German city of Ratisbon. Marshal Lannes led the French aggression in the year
1783. On that occasion, the French emperor Napoleon stood on a hillock just a mile
away from the scene of the onslaught. He appeared to be in a pensive mood. He had
his neck sticking out and his legs were wide apart. He had his arms joined behind his
bark and a cloud on his brow was quite visible. It seemed that something very
important was weighing upon his mind and he was perhaps working out his future
strategy and line of action.




Lines
JUST AS PERHAPS HE MUSED, MY PLANS

THAT SOAR, TO EARTH MAY FALL,

LET ONCE MY ARMY.LEADER LANNES

WAVER AT YONDER WALL,‟-
OUT ‟TWIST THE BATTERY SMOKES THERE FLEW

A RIDER, BOUND ON BOUND

FULL-GALLOPING; NOR BRIDLE DREW

UNTIL HE REACHED THE MOUND.

Explanation
These lines bring to light the contemplative nature of Napoleon, and the courage and
enthusiasm of the young soldier who was heading towards him to convey the good
news of victory. Napoleon was lost in his thoughts pondering over the events of the
days to come. All his future planning depended upon his success at Ratisbon. He was
eagerly waiting to see the French flag flutter over the German City. As he
concentrated upon his future strategy, he observed a young French soldier rushing
towards him, riding at top speed. The rider pierced through the blanket of smoke. He
came straight to the place where Napoleon was standing and was waiting to receive
the good tidings.




Lines
THEN OFF THERE FLUNG IN SMILING JOY,

AND HELD HIMSELF ERECT

BY JUST HIS HORSE‟S MANE, A BOY:

YOU HARDLY COULD SUSPECT –

(SO TIGHT HE KEPT HIS LIPS COMPRESSED,

SCARCE ANY BLOOD CAME THROUGH)

YOU LOOKED TWICE ERE YOU SAW HIS BREAST

WAS ALL BUT SHOT IN TWO.

Explanation
In the given lines, the poet appreciated the heroic behaviour of the young soldier.
Although he was fatally wounded, he displayed extraordinary courage, confidence
and self-control. He jumped off his horse and stood at attention before his chief. His
mouth was full of blood but he had his lips so tightly sealed that not a drop of blood
oozed out of it. He maintained his cool and composure, and with confidence and
chivalry, conveyed the cheerful news of victory. One could never realize that the
young soldier‟s breast was shot into two unless one has very keen and observant eye
on him.




Lines
„WELL, CRIED HE, „EMPEROR, BY GOD‟S GRACE

WE‟VE GOT YOU RATISBON!

THE MARSHAL‟S IN THE MARKET-PLACE,

AND YOU‟LL BE THERE ANON

TO SEE YOUR FLAG-BIRD FLAP HIS VANS

WHERE I, TO HEART‟S DESIRE,

PERCHED HIM!‟ THE CHIEF‟S EYE FLASHED; HIS PLANS

SOARED UP AGAIN LIKE FIRE.

Explanation
In the lines given for explanation, the poet is describing the way in which the young
soldier informed Napoleon of their success and the reaction of the Emperor to this
good news. Although the young man was in intense pain and suffering, he finally
opened his lips, and with a great sense of pleasure and personal pride, informed
Napoleon of the annexation of the German City. Napoleon was delighted to learn that
Marshall Lannes had reached the heart of the city and the emperor was eagerly
awaited by the triumphant forces. The soldier felt a special kind of joy and pride in
the fact that he, with his own hands, had flown the French flag over Ratisbon. The
flag had the figure of a bird on it. Thus when the flag fluttered in the air, it seemed as
though the bird on it. Thus when the flag fluttered in the air, it seemed as though the
bird was flapping its wings. No sooner did Napoleon get the news of victory, a
sparkle of joy and satisfaction came to his eyes. He once again started thinking about
his future strategy.




Lines
THE CHIEF‟S EYE FLASHED; BUT PRESENTLY

SOFTENED ITSELF, AS SHEATHES

A FILM THE MOTER-EAGLE‟S EYE
WHEN HER BRUISED EAGLET BREATHES:

„YOU‟RE WOUNDED!, „NAY‟, HIS SOLDIER‟S PRIDE

TOUCHED TO THE QUICK, HE SAID:

„I‟M KILLED, SIRE!” AND HIS CHIEF BESIDE,

SMILING, THE BOY FELL DEAD.




Explanation
These lines bring to light Napoleon‟s loving and affectionate behaviour towards the
young soldier who was about to breathe his last. The good news of success had
brought to Napoleon‟s eyes a special kind of glitter which faded away no sooner had
he noticed that the soldier was fatally wounded. The feelings of Napoleon at that
moment were just like those of the mother eagle who gets confused when she finds
her young ones badly bruised and on the verge of death. She fails to understand how
to save their lives. Similarly, that maternal affection surged up in Napoleon‟s heart
and he inquired whether the boy was wounded. The soldier proudly declared that he
felt joy and thrill in giving his life for his country. There was a smile of pride and
satisfaction on the young soldier‟s lips as he fell dead near his emperor‟s feet.


Question 4 - Summary from Poetry
Incident of French Camp
Introduction of the Poet
The poem The Incident of French Camp is composed by great English poet Robert
browning. The browning was extremely religious and because of his religious
opinions, he was excluded from university or public school. He was educated at home
under a private tutor, and spends his modest time in gathering the best literature in
English, French, Latin and Greek.

Introduction of the Poem
This is subjective poem; the incident reported in this dramatic poem happened in
1809. The poem for all its weaknesses is fast moving and exciting, the poem
consisting of 35 lines of regular rhythm.

Summary
In this poem, Browning paints the picture of an incident of the French Camp, in
dramatic version. He describes the heroic action of a wounded soldier, who‟s heroic
devotion to duty and his pride in it and inspiring and worthy of admiration. The poet
has given a poetic amount of incidence that took place during the attack of French
army on German City Ratisbon.

During the attack of French army on Ratisbon, Napoleon was much worried about the
result. Germans were defending Ratisbon with great determination and coverage.
Napoleon‟s future plan depends upon the result. Napoleon was not able to conquer
Germany and neighboring states. He was standing on mound near the battlefield
watching the war.

All of sudden a rider appeared from the closed smoke and dust. Full galloping he
approached near the mound where Napoleon was standing. As the came closer
Napoleon notice that he was a young boy seriously wounded and not far from his
death. As he came near he jumped of the horse and gave happy news of victory. He
exclaimed with joy that French had conquered the Ratisbon and he himself has
hoisted the flag of France on German city with a little touch of pride in lie tone he
informed Napoleon that he has played an important role in the victory at the risk of
his life. Actually he expected some words of appreciation from his Emperor.

“A work of real merit wants favour at last.”

_______________________________________________________A.B. Alcott


Napoleon was very much delighted by the news of victory. He reflected an expression
of joy just for a moment but he quickly connected his feeling. In fact he had noticed
showing concern he asked the young boy about his injuries.

The formula question was misunderstood by the young soldier. He thought that the
Emperor had utterly ignored his remarkable courage.

“A killing tongue but a quite sword.”

_______________________________________________________ Shakespeare

The young soldier had done a great job for his homeland and hand almost bride down
his life for the victory of France. Napoleon‟s question deeply hurt his self respect. He
announced:

“I am killed sire.”

After saying these words he fell before his master and died with a grateful smile on
his face. He was proud that he had done his duty for his homeland at the cost of his
life.


Lucy Gray
Introduction of the Poet
William Word Worth was born in 1770 at Cockermouth in Lake District. He was
educated at Hawkshed Grammar School and then at St. John‟s College, Cambridge.
His early poems reflect his love for natural beauty, which he expressed in a unique
and artificial style. Some of William‟s poems are Lyrical Ballads, Poems in Two
Volumes and An Evening Walk. William Words Worth is also known for his
achievements as a critic.

Introduction of the Poem
Poem entitled Lucy Gray was written in 1799 and published in the second edition of
“Lyrical Ballads.” It tells us the story of a simple tragedy in a cold bleak countryside.
The poem has a steady and regular rhythm as a longer lines rhyme together as well as
the shorter lines rhyme with each other. The language of the ballad is plain and
simple.

Summary
Lucy Gray was a beautiful little girl who lived in a wild moor with her parents. Their
house was located in the countryside far away from the cities. Nobody neighbored
their house and Lucy lived without having any friends and playmates.

In Western countryside, it is said that if the moon is clearly seen during daylight, a
storm appears in that area. One-day Lucy‟s mother went town for shopping in the
noon. After a while, he father realized that the moon can be seen and predicted a
storm in few hours. He quickly told Lucy to take a lantern and go to the town to help
her mother. Lucy obeyed her father and was on her way to the city.

Unfortunately, the storm appeared as soon as Lucy left for the town. It started to snow
thickly that made it difficult for Lucy to see through. As she was wandering in the
snowy atmosphere, she fell in a crevice and died. Her mother somehow returned
home at night.

When the little girl did not come back, her parents went out in the snowy mountains
shouting for their daughter, but they never found Lucy. On their way home, they
found footprints on a wooden bridge in the middle. They concluded that perhaps Lucy
Gray fell down and had died.

When we go through the hills, a solitary song is heard in the wind, which echoes in
the mountains. Some people think that she died that day while some say she lives as a
part of nature.


Abou Ben Adhem
Introduction of the Poet
James Henry Leigh Hunt was born in 1784. He was a religious man educated at Christ
Hospital. He then became the editor and writer of a newspaper called The Examiner.
His early poems are The Story of Remini and Endymion. The earliest poems he wrote
were published when he was in school. In English Literature, Leigh Hunt is known for
his achievements as an editor, a critic and an essayist and not so much as a poet.

Introduction of the Poem
Abou Ben Adhem is a poem with a religious concept. The poet has conveyed the
ideas of happiness, peace and love through easy and flowing rhymed couplets.

“Love is in your heart which is given by God, so give it to others.”

_____________________________________________________________________
John Keats

The poem consists of 2 stanzas, which are composed of 11 lines. It also has some
archaic words.




Summary
Abou Ben Adhem was a religious person. One night when he was sleeping peacefully
in his room, a sparkling light woke him up.

He found out that this bright light was due to the presence of an angel who was
writing something in a golden book. Being a pious man, Abou was not afraid of the
Angel and the silence in the room made him more courageous. He asked the angel
what he was writing in the book. The reply Abou heard was that he was writing the
names of all those people who love God. About asked the angel curiously if his name
was in the list. The angel replied was negative. He then politely requested the angel to
write his name as those people who love God‟s fellow men. The angle wrote and
disappeared.

The other night, it came again with a still glistening light and displayed the names of
people whom God had blessed. Abou Ben Adhem saw that his name was on the top of
the list and it led all the rest.

Moral
This poem conducts the idea that we should love humanity and care for people.

“To get love from God, love the board.”

________________________________ Williams Wordsworth
The Toys
Introduction of the Poet
The Toys in one of the beautiful poems composed by Conventry Patmore. Conventry
Patmore was born in London in 1823. He had a religious bend of mind deeply
associated with the everyday happenings of life. His publications are The Angel in the
House and The Unknown Eros and Other Odes. Patmore died in 1896.

Introduction of the Poem
The poem conveys the idea of mercy of God through an incident in the Poet‟s house.
The verses of this poem are different from other poems. The lines are uneven and are
rhymed in an irregular manner.




Summary
One night, the poet scolded his son for disobeying orders and talking in loud voice.
The child went quietly to his bedroom with a gloomy heart. After some time, the poet
realized that he had made a mistake, as his son was lonely and his mother had died.
No one was there to cheer him up.

The poet, went into his son‟s bedroom thinking that his child must be weeping and
trying to sleep. But when he entered the room, he saw the boy calmly sleeping in bed.
The poet noticed marks of tears on his cheeks. He also saw some toys neatly arranged
on a table besides his son, which were kept to comfort the sad heart. The sight of the
room was very uncomfortable for the poet. He felt sorry for his attitude and learning
the importance of toys for the child.

The poet was inspired by the whole incident. He kissed his son and cleared the tears
in his eyes. He understood that God loves his fellowmen more than a father loves his
son. Then why should not God forgive the people who commit mistakes. He also
realized that as the toys were of no importance to him, this world has no worth before
God. We only console our hearts by the beauty of this world. This thought gave the
poet a New Hope. He prayed all night with the feeling that God is merciful and would
forgive him.

Moral
We should forgive the mistakes of people and live with a friendly atmosphere. God is
merciful on us and he forgives those people who forgive the mistakes of human
beings.

“Let me be a little kindness, let me be a little blinder to the faults of those around
me.”
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________ Edgar A. Guest


The Character of a Happy Life
Introduction of the Poet
The poem The Character of a Happy Life, has been written by Sir Henry Wotton. He
was born in Kent and the son of country gentleman. In this poem Wotton has
described the characteristics of a person who can truly be called a happy man.

Introduction of the Poem
We find Wotton‟s poem is a sharp sense of contrast between the uneasy life of the
ambitious man and the contented life of man satisfied to live an obscure life of
peaceful virtue. Sir Henry Wotton wrote from experience; for he was a distinguished
servant of the crown who had seen for himself the rise and fall of ambitious men. The
poem consisting of six stanzas of regular couplet rhymed.

“Nature is the peace not the Land.”

__________________________________ John Keats




Summary
A person who has freedom of will and thought leads a happy life. He does not act
according to other people‟s wishes. His only weapon is his simplicity and truth.

Such an upright man is not a slave of his desires. He is always prepared for death.
This man is not concerned about being famous or in what people say about him
publicly or privately.

This upright man is not jealous of chance or foul play. He knows that flattery gives
the deepest wounds. He does not abide by the rules of the society which compel a
person to do unwanted deeds. He follows the rules of goodness which will lead him to
the right path.

A happy man‟s life is free from numerous when he is sad he retires in his comfort of
clear conscience. He hasn‟t got a high position. Therefore people don‟t flatter him or
nick him at his down fall. A happy man prays to God regularly. In this prayer he does
not ask for rocks but he asks God to be gracious and merciful on him. His favourite
positive is good book or friend. A man who is truly happy is free from slavery of his
desires. He isn‟t ambitious. He does not expect too much therefore his hopes aren‟t
shattered. He doesn‟t fear a downfall. This man hasn‟t got lands or wealth and yet he
has everything. He has got the greatest wealth of contentment and happiness.
Conclusion
The poet described the characteristics of a noble and happy man, who is honest,
simple, not slave of his desires. He follows the rules of goodness, which will lead him
to the right path.


The Abbot of Canterbury
Introduction
The poem The Abbot of Canterbury, included in our book, is a ballad. Ballads have
crude language because fine writing would not be suitable for the telling of this
straightforward and amusing folk story. King John ruled England from 1199 to 1219,
was a very unpleasant man and a thoroughly bad kind.

Structure of Poem
The Abbot of Canterbury is a ballad of unknown poet telling an ancient story
consisting of 100 lines of regular rhythm.

Summary
There was a king of England whose name was King John. He ruled England very
cruelly and he always did the wrong thing. Once he came to know that there was an
Abbot of Canterbury who was leading life better than the king. He had one hundred
servants and each one there wore fifty gold chains and velvet coat. They where
always ready to serve the Abbot. For very minor things they used to go to the city of
London.

This way of leading life angered the king and his sent for the Abbot to explain his
position before the king. The Abbot said to him that he was spending the money so
luxuriously because he had inherited a lot of money from his fore fathers. The king
disbelieved him and charged him to be a traitor.

The king said to Abbot that his life and properties would be confiscated by the
government if he could not answer his three questions. There was given three weeks
time to answer those questions.

                                                                    The first question
                                                                      was what his
                                                                      worth and value
                                                                      was when he was
                                                                      having such a
                                                                      precious crown
                                                                      on his head.
                                                                     The second
                                                                       question was how
                                                                       soon he could
                                                                       make the journey
                                                                       of the whole
                                                                       world.

                                                                     The third question
                                                                       was that he was
                                                                       thinking at that
                                                                       time when he was
                                                                       talking to the
                                                                       Abbot of
                                                                       Canterbury.

After listening three questions the Abbot was very much confuse. He confessed that
he had no mind to answer those difficult questions. He went to many universities but
no one was able to answer him.

Then the shepherd of the Abbot offered him that he would imposter the Abbot
prodded he was given the relevant dress of the Abbot.

In reply to the first question he said that his value was twenty-nine pence. In response
to the second question he said if he rose with the sun and rode with the same he would
complete the journey of the world in 24 hours. In response to the third question he
said that he thinking that he was talking to the Abbot by he was not the Abbot but the
shepherd. The king was very happy, he rewarded him and pardoned the Abbot.


Question 5 - Letters
1. Letter to the editor of a newspaper expressing your
views on frequent power breakdown in the city.

Examination Hall,

A.B.C Road,

Karachi

9th February 2000

The Editor,

The Daily DAWN,

Karachi.
Dear Sir,

I wish to draw the attention of the concerned authorities, through the columns of your
esteemed newspaper, towards an extremely vital and tormenting problems of the city.

For the last several months, the people of Karachi, in spite of paying all types of taxes
and utility bills, are encountering problems due to frequent power failures. Frequent
breakdowns have become a headache for the residents particularly for students who
have to prepare for their examinations. I regret to point out that it seems as if there is
nobody to take care of the citizens and solve their problems. The authorities have not
paid any attention or given a positive response to the repeated requests of the residents
of Karachi. The situation has now reached at an alarming stage, which may result in
the form of protests and caustic damages of the government buildings.

The concerned authorities are therefore requested to look into this matter without
further delay and take suitable steps to solve the problem.

Thanking you for your cooperation.

Yours truly,

X. Y. Z

A Citizen of Karachi.




2. Letter to the Health Officer complaining of the
unsanitary conditions in your locality.

Examination Hall,

A.B.C Road,

Karachi

9th February 2000

The Health Officer,

District East,

Karachi.



Dear Sir,
I wish to draw your attention towards an extremely vital and tormenting problems of
our locality.

For a long time, the people of our neighborhood, in spite of paying all types of taxes
and utility bills, are encountering problems caused by the unsanitary conditions.
Unclean and dirty lanes with overflowing drains are causing great trouble and tension
among the residents. I regret to point out as if there is if there is nobody to take care of
the citizens and solve their problems. We have been facing the torture of messy
conditions and improper drainage system and the authorities pay no heed to our
complaints.

The situation has now reached at an alarming stage, which may result in the form of
protests and caustic damages of the government buildings. I hope you would look into
this matter without further delay and take suitable steps to solve the problems.

Yours truly,

X. Y. Z

Resident of P. Q. R. Area,

Karachi.




3. Letter to the editor of a newspaper expressing your
views on water shortage in your area.

Examination Hall,

A.B.C Road,

Karachi

9th February 2000

The Editor,

The Daily DAWN,

Karachi.



Dear Sir,

I wish to draw the attention of the concerned authorities, through the columns of your
esteemed newspaper, towards an extremely vital and tormenting problems of our
neighbourhood.
For the last several months, the people of this residency, in spite of paying all types of
taxes and utility bills, are encountering problems due to water shortage. Most of the
time, pressure of the water is low and it takes quite a lot of time to fill a bucket. We
are facing the torture of hot summer without proper water supply. I regret to point out
that it seems as if there is nobody to take care of the citizens and solve their problems.
The authorities have not paid any attention or given a positive response to the
repeated requests of the residents. The situation has now reached at an alarming stage,
which may result in the form of protests and caustic damages of the government
buildings.

The concerned authorities are therefore requested to look into this matter without
further delay and take suitable steps to solve the problem.

Thanking you for your cooperation.

Yours truly,

X. Y. Z

Resident of P. Q. R. Area,

Karachi

4. A letter to the editor of a newspaper making an
appeal to the readers to help the victims of flood.

Examination Hall,

A.B.C Road,

Karachi

9th February 2000

The Editor,

The Daily DAWN,

Karachi.



Dear Sir,

The recent floods have rendered thousands of people homeless. They have lost all
they had. Most of them had no other source of income except the land they cultivated.
They are now lying in camps in a miserable condition. They have no place to go and
no means of livelihood.
Through the columns of you esteemed paper, I request the readers to contribute as
much as they can towards the Relief Fund started by the Government. We must thank
God that we are safe. So we should be helpful to them. If we do not help them in their
misery, who would? Every one of us should send at least a day‟s income to the Relief
Fund. Let them not think for a moment that they are being neglected in their hour of
need. They are brethren and let as give the proof of our brotherhood by helping them.
It is passing phase and they will look after themselves when rehabilitated.

Thanking you for your cooperation.

Yours truly,

X. Y. Z

Resident of P. Q. R. Area,

Karachi




5. A letter to a leading newspaper, about the problem
of beggary in your town.

Examination Hall,

A.B.C Road,

Karachi

9th February 2000

The Editor,

The Daily DAWN,

Karachi.



Dear Sir,

Through the columns of your esteemed paper, I want to invite the attention of the
district authorities to the problem of beggary in our town. Recently, the number of
beggars in our town has increased manifold you. They pursue you like a shadow.
Even hale and hearty people have taken to begging. Small boys and children have
caught the infection. Perhaps they are made to beg by their guardians.

The beggars gather at places frequented by the people. The bus stands, market places,
post offices, railway station and mosques are their favourite haunts. It is impossible to
move about these places peacefully. If you sho generosity and open you purse, you
are surrounded by a host of them.

Some child-lifters, in the guise of beggars, are on the look out for abducting children.
Two or three cases of this kind have occurred recently, and the culprits have been
caught red-handed.

The female beggars enter the houses quietly without calling out for alms at the door.
If they are not noticed by the inmates, they run away with whatever they can lay
hands on. They act as informers to the burglars who break into houses at night.

A prompt action on the part of Government is required to check this social evil.

Yours truly,

X. Y. Z

Resident of P. Q. R. Area,

Karachi




6. Letter to a friend requesting him/her for a loan of
Rs.500 which will be returned a your earliest.

Examination Hall,

A.B.C Road,

Karachi

9th February 2000

My Dear Friend,

Hope this letter finds you in the best of health and satisfaction. As you know that we
have been living in Karachi only for the last four years. We do not have many
relatives or friends in the city. You are the only friend nearest to our city, so you were
the first I thought of. The problem I am facing is that my parents have gone to
Islamabad, being notified about my grand father‟s death and the last date for the
submission of examination forms is near. We have to pay an amount of Rs. 330 along
with the admission forms. I would be very thankful to you if you could deliver me a
sum of Rs. 500 by money order, which would be returned at my earliest.

Pay regards to your parents and love to you brothers. Please try to respond as soon as
possible.

Yours sincerely,
X. Y. Z




7. A letter to your father, requesting an increase in
you monthly allowance.

Examination Hall,

A.B.C Road,

Karachi

9th February 2000

My Dear Father,

I hope you are fine. I am also fine here. I would like to inform you that my exams
have just ended and you will be glad to know that I have done all the papers to my
satisfaction. I hope to get good marks.

For the last few months I have been finding it difficult to meet my expenses out of the
amount you send me very month. After paying my tuition fee and hostel dues, I am
left hardly with any money. I have to cut down my expenses on necessary things.

I have borne this hardship, but now I feel that I can bear it no longer. I, therefore,
request an increase of sixty 200 rupees in my monthly allowance.

Pay regards to Mother and love to youngsters. Please try to respond as soon as
possible.

Your affectionate son,

X. Y. Z




8. Letter to a friend, inviting him to join you on a visit
to a hill station.

Examination Hall,

A.B.C Road,

Karachi

9th February 2000

My Dear Friend,
Hope this letter finds you in the best of health and satisfaction. Perhaps you remember
your promise of accompanying me to Murree in the summer vacation. I am sending
this letter to remind you of the same.

Our college is closing on the 15th of this month. We may start our journey soon after
that. I leave it entirely to you to fix the date and time of our departure. To me, any
date and time will be most welcome.

You can well imagine the pleasure and enjoyment we will have in the cool and health-
giving climate of Murree. It will be a pleasant change for you from the sweltering heat
of Multan to the refreshing atmosphere of Murree. You need not bother about
accommodation. My maternal uncle owns a large house there. We can put up with
him for as long as we wish.

Pay regards to your parents and love to you brothers. I am waiting for your reply
anxiously. Please try to respond as soon as possible. The whole program depends on
your letter.

Yours sincerely,

X. Y. Z

9. A letter to your friend, inviting him to attend the
marriage ceremony of your elder brother.

Examination Hall,

A.B.C Road,

Karachi

9th February 2000

My Dear Friend,

Hope this letter finds you in the best of health and satisfaction. As you know about the
proposed marriage of my elder brother. The date has now been fixed. It is the 28th of
this month. It iss expected that a large number of friends and relatives will participate
in the ceremony. It will indeed be a memorable occasion for all of us.

I should hope that you will join us a couple of days before the marriage day. You will
find many of our old friends here, and we shall have a good time. I am not sending
you any formal invitation, because I think we are above all formalities.

Pay regards to your parents and love to you brothers. Please try to participate in the
ceremony.

Yours sincerely,
X. Y. Z




10. A letter of condolence to your friend on the death
of his mother.

Examination Hall,

A.B.C Road,

Karachi

9th February 2000

My Dear Friend,

I am much grieved to learn from your letter about the sad demise of your dear mother.
May her soul rest in eternal peace! It is indeed an irreparable loss. You have suffered
much at so tender an age. But none can avert the decree of Fate. Therefore, my dear
friend, have patience and learn to bear quietly your misfortunes.

How bitterly you father must be grieving over the loss! I pay to the Almighty that he
may give all of you the strength and patience to bear the loss. I deeply condole with
you upon this loss and bereavement.

Kindly convey my deepest sympathies to your father and other members of your
family. I shall come to see you in a day or two.

Yours sincerely,

X. Y. Z


Question 6 - Grammar
Articles
1. ______ apple ______ day keeps ______ doctor away. (An, a, the)

2. He has gone to ______ hospital for ______ operation. (The, an)

3. He is ______ honourable man. (An)

4. ______ bird can fly very high in ______ sky.(a, the)

5. Space travel has now become ______ reality.(a)

6. John is ______ only student who didn‟t pass ______ test.(The,the)
7. I plan to buy ______ expensive camera.(An)

8. He will leave after ______ day or two.(A)

9. ______ old gardener is watering ______ plants.(An,the)

10. He is always helpful to ______ people.(The)

11. I want ______ glass of milk.(A)

12. Ahmed is ______ tallest boy of the class.(The)

13. There is ______ fly in ______ ointment.(A,the)

14. She is ______ honourable woman.(An)

15. For ______ first time on a trip, we had ______ difference of opinion as to how
______ best, this should be done for ______ better result.(The,the,the)

16. At ______ little distance from ______ college, there is ______ old building in
which ______ honest and hardworking man lives on ______ top
floor.(A,the,an,an,the)

17. He is ______ very brilliant boy.(A)

18. They are ______ best out of the whole lot.(The)

19. There is ______ shop round the corner.(A)

20. I must have ______ extra key for the front door.(An)

21. He broke ______ leg in the skiing accident. It‟s still in the plaster.(A)

22. Quaid-e-Azam was ______ honourable man.(An)

23. ______ independence of United States of America dates from ______ 4th of July,
1776.(The,the)

24. ___the___ sun went down below the horizon.(The)

25. ______ stitch in time saves time.(A)

26. ______man is mortal.(The)

27. Honesty is ______ best policy.(The)

28. I saw Ahmed in ______ hotel. I saw him ______ hour ago.(A,an)

29. The more you work, ______ better will your result.(The
30. They received ______ telegram in the after noon.(A)

31. He worked hard, as he had ______ object to work for.(An)

32. You should eat ______ apple ______ day.(An,a)

33. My hen laid ______ egg Yesterday.(An)

34. ______ few of then manged to touch ______ shore.(A,the)

35. ______ indus has flooded ______ village.(The,a)

36. ______ apple has ______ sweet taste.(An,a)

37. the knife is made of ______ metal.(A)

38. He is ______ M.A in English.(An)

39. Iron is ______ metal.(A)

40. A red and ______ white cow are grazing in the field.(A)

41. ______ sky was dark and it seemed that ______ storm was coming.(The,a)

42. I need ______ umbrella.(An)

43. ______ Ravi is not ______ longest river in Pakistan.(The,the)

44. ______ dust man comes only a week.(The)

45. Karachi is ______ biggest city in Pakistan.(The)

46. ______ Quran is a holy book.(The)

47. ______ Jhelum is a big river.(The)

48. Man is ______ mortal being.(A)

49. The lady was clad in ______ black bruqa.(A)

50. The lion is ______ noble beast.(A)

51. We started late in ______ afternoon.(The)

52. ______ Indus is a great river.(The)

53. Quran is sacred book of ______ Muslims.(The)

54. ______ horse is a useful animal.(The)
55. ______ luggage is on ______ platform.(The,the)

56. He showed ______ courage worthy of ______ old man.(A,an)

57. I cannot forget ______ kindness with which he treated me.(The)

58. I went to ______ hospital to see my uncle.(The)

59. Copper is ______ useful metal.(A)

60. I have ______ black and ______ white dog.(A,a)

61. ______ more I think about the idea ______ less like it.(The,the)

62. I should like ______ house in ______ country.(A,the)

63. ______ rich are happy.(The)

64. Which is ______ longest river in Pakistan?(The)

65. I hae been ill for ______ last two days.(The)

66. ______ honest man is ______ noblest work of God.(An,the)

Prepositions
1. I come to the university ______ bus.(By)

2. He is afraid ______ snakes.(of)

3. The author beings ______ asking four questions.(By)

4. All science beings ______ the knowledge of our ignorance.(With)

5. I complimented him ______ his success.(on)

6. Send this letter ______ this address.(To)

7. He managed to get a seat ______ the bus.(In)

8. He does not devote much time ______ his studies.(To)

9. He is an authority ______ Malaysian history.(on)

10. She had a good reason ______ being angry.(For)

11. I have very little faith ______ his judgement.(In)

12. Do not laugh ______ the old man.(At)
13. He comes ______ a noble family.(of)

14. He did not agree ______ me.(With)

15. I was angry ______ his behaviour.(At)

16. His views are not clear ______ me.(To)

17. She is kind ______ me.(To)

18. My brother is angry ______ me.(With)

19. She felt great joy ______ her success.(In)

20. She is good ______ English.(In)

21. Put ______ the lights.(out)

22. I am pleased ______ your achievement.(With)

23. The man is blind ______ one eye.(With)

24. My sister stays ______ home.(At)

25. Take care ______ your health.(Of)

26. Write ______ the margin of your book.(In)

27. His office is adjacent ______ the mosque.(To)

28. She is very proficient ______ English.(In)

29. I am not ashamed ______ anything I have done.(Of)

30. She has always felt inferior ______ her sister.(To)

31. He is frequently absent ______ school.(From)

32. He is ______ the height of his career.(At)

33. The poor beggar was crushed ______ a car.(By)

34. What the chances ______ your success in the examination?(Of)

35. I got eighty marks ______ of hundred.(Out)

36. What is the table made ______?(Of)

37. They are laughing ______ him.(At)
38. We went ______ the seaside by car.(To)

39. I bought this car ______ Rs. 20/-.(For)

40. He was accused ______ stealing the money.(Of)

41. He stood ______ me in crisis.(By)

42. Do not blame me ______ this.(For)

43. He has promised to look ______ the matter.(Into)

44. He has acceded ______ my request.(To)

45. He told me that he was familiar ______ that subject.(With)

46. Do not cry ______spilt mill.(At)

47. The children have been playing ______ 5O‟clock.(Since)

48. Charity begins ______ home.(At)

49. The revolt was put ______ at the right time.(Out)

50. He is a man ______ iron will.(Of)

51. A man ______ need is a friend indeed.(In)

52. Will you take care ______ this packet and keep it ______ you.(Of,with)

53. Is he an authority ______ this subject.(On

54. I prefer foot ball ______ to baseball.(To)

55. The committee was opposed ______ the proposal.(With)

56. He is very much interested ______ world affairs.(In)

57. She is not afraid ______ death.(Of)

58. Wait ______ me ______ the station.(For,at)

59. They went home ______ foot.(On

60. The house, he lives ______ is very old.(In)

61. Smoking is injurious ______ health.(For)

62. He will tell you ______ his result.About)
63. He is trying to change this wood ______ coal.(Into)

64. Take ______ your hat.(Off)

65. Isn‟t the road ______ construction.(For)

66. I arrived ______ the station ______ the train had left.(At,after)

67. The shop was ______ fire and the people were crying ______ help.(On,for)

68. What a pity! We don‟t adhere ______ our own principles.(To)

69. He stood ______ me.(By)

70. He ran ______ me.(After)

71. She does her work ______ night.(At)

72. There were hills all ______ the way.(Along)

73. I have some pain ______ my chin.(Under)

74. The end is ______ hand.(At)

75. I am tired ______ doing nothing.(Of)

76. He succeeded ______ secuing some votes.(In)

77. That portrait is very much true ______ life.(To)

78. I differ ______ you entirely.(With)

79. I was thinking ______ you.(of)

80. It is of no use ______ me.(To)

81. She was standing ______ the two houses.(Between)

82. A girl ______ blue eyes has just gone ______ the door.(With,off)

83. He complained ______ pain in her back.(of)

84. She is glad ______ my success.(At)

85. Always be good ______ others.(To)

86. They walked ______ the railway line.(Along)

87. Turn left ______ the next intersection.(At)
88. He was wearing a fine shirt ______ his coat.(Underneath)

89. There is a stream ______ the bridge.(Under)

90. He spoke ______ me in English.(To)

91. I have applied ______ the post.(For)

92. He is interested ______ buying my car.(In)

93. He has not replied ______ my letter.(To)

94. He is angry ______ me.(With)

95. Are you sure ______ the facts.(Of)

96. I have great regard ______ my father.(For)

97. The hunt ______ knowledge is a long-life task.(For)

98. He was shot dead ______ his enemy.(By)

99. The house is ______ fire.(On)

100. Please write ______ ink.(With)




Punctuation
1. Androcles who had no arms of any kind now gave himself up for lost what
shall I do said he I have no spear or sword no not so much of a stick to defend
myself with.

A. Androcles, who had no arms of any kind, now gave himself up for lost. “What
shall I do?” aid he, “I have no spear or sword. No, not so much of a stick to defend
myself with?”


2. May I ask the name of this building said the president kindly it is called the
department of justice.

A. “May I ask the name of this building,” said the president kindly. “It is called the
Department of Justice.”


3. Think a hundred times before you take a decision Jinnah told the league at
lahore but once the decision is taken stand by it as one man.
A. “Think a hundred times before you take a decision,” Jinnah told the League at
Lahore, but once the decision is taken, stand by it as one man.”


4. What a lazy boy you are said the teacher to saleem you never pay attention to
your studies I am too weak to pull on with the class replied saleem.

A. “What a lazy boy you are!” said the teacher to Saleem. “You never pay attention to
your studies.” I am too weak to pull on with the class replied Saleem.”


5. You say said the judge that the bag you lost contained one hundred and ten
pounds yes your honour said the miser then as this bag contains one hundred
pounds only it cannot be yours said the judge.

A. “You say,” said the judge, “that the bag you lost contained one hundred and ten
pounds.” “Yes, your Honour,” said the miser. “Then, as this bag contains one hundred
pounds only, it cannot be yours,” said the judge.


6. Why have you come late he asked don’t you know that the school begins at
eight I am very sorry sir replied the body my bus broke down on the way I had
to walk more than a mile to reach here.

A. “Why have you come late?” he asked. “Don‟t you know that the school beings at
eight?” “I am very sorry, sir,” replied the boy. “My bus broke down on the way. I had
to walk more than a mole to reach here.”


7. At the end of the play she turned to me and said quite naturally oh did you get
my letter didn’t you I said well I got an envelope this morning with a ticket in it.

A. At the end of the play, she turned to me and said quite naturally, “Oh! Did you get
my letter, didn‟t you?” I said, “Well I got an envelope this morning, with a ticket in
it.”


8. Are you aware my dear husband that there is an old arab custom never to
break bread in the house of an enemy.

A. “Are you aware, my dear husband, that there is an old Arab custom never to break
bread in the house of an enemy?”


9. I shall give her notice as soon as the new year festivities are over said the
baroness till then I shall be too busy to manage without her.

A. “I shall give her notice as soon as the New Year festivities are over,” said the
Baroness, “till then, I shall be too busy to manage without her.”
10. You are very young my son and games are more suited to your years than
battles but you are as strong as an elephant.

A. “You are very young, my son and games are more suited to your years than battles.
But you are as strong as an elephant.”


Question 7 - Idiomatic Structures
1. AT SIXES AND SEVENS: Home ruler, who were all at sixes and sevens among
themselves agreed only upon the one thing and that was the freedom of India.

2. ALL IN ALL: The Head clerk is all in all in this office.

3. ALL THE SAME: It is all the same to me whether the pull over is home-made or
bazaar-made.

4. AT LARGE: The culprits are still at large.

5. BY FITS AND STARTS: He works by fits and starts and does not apply him
steadily.

6. BLACK SHEEP: We should be aware of the black sheep in our society.

7. A BONE OF CONTENTION: This property is a bone of contention between the
two brothers.

8. TO BREAK THE ICE: We all wanted to talk on this subject by no one willing to
break the ice.

9. A BURNING QUESTION: Kashmir is a burning question of the day.

10. TO BACK OUT: He promised to help me but backed out at the eleventh hour.

11. TO BEAT ABOUT THE BUSH: Stop beating about the bush; say exactly what
you mean.

12. BED OF ROSES: A military life is not bed of roses.

13. IN COLD BLOOD: He murdered the merchant in cold blood.

14. TO FALL TO THE GROUND: The theory has fallen to the ground.

15. GO HAND IN HAND: Diligence and prosperity go hand in hand.

16. LEAVE NO STONE UNTURNED: Shah Faisal left no stone unturned to bring
about unity in the Islamic world.
17. LIVE FROM HAND TO MOUTH: Our middle class people live generally from
hand to mouth.

18. LOOK DOWN UPON: He is so proud of his promotion that he looks down upon
all his former friends.

19. AT A LOSS: He is never at a loss for an appropriate word.

20. TO PAY BACK IN THE SAME COIN: If a person rude towards you, it does
not mean that you should pay him in the same coin.

21. TO KEEP PACE WITH: Agriculture in the states has kept pace with
manufacture, but it has far out stepped commerce. 22. RED TAPE: Florence
Nightingale was a sworn enemy of red tape.

23. TO SPEAK VOLUMES: The murders spoke volumes about political conditions
before Indian elections.

24. UP TO THE MARK: You don‟t look quite up to the mark today.

25. TO GET INTO HOT WATER: Do not quarrel with your officers or you will
soon get into hot water.

26. TIME AND AGAIN: Time and again proverbs come to be true.

27. CUT OFF: The supplies were cut off from the soldier due to snow fall.

28. RUN AGAINST: Zuhair Akram Nadeem was running against Dr. Farooq Sattar
in the elections 89.

29. TO TURN OVER A NEW LEAF: The teacher pardoned the boy on the
condition that he promised to turn over a new leaf in future.

30. TO NIP IN THE BUD: The plot to overthrow the Government was detected and
nipped in the bud.

31. TO FEEL LIKE A FISH OUT OF WATER: Being the only educated person in
that village, I felt like a fish out of water.

32. TO SHED CROCODILE TEARS: Don‟t be deceived by the beggar‟s crying.
They are only crocodile‟s tears.

33. LION SHARE: The stronger person generally gets the lions share of the
property.

34. TO CRY OVER SPILT MILK: The damage has been done but instead of crying
over spilt milk do something to repair it.

35. IT IS HIGH TIME: The exams begin next month so it is high time to study
seriously.
36. TO SAVE SOMETHING FOR THE RAINY DAY: He wasted his savings and
has kept nothing for the rainy day.

37. WITH A HIGH HAND: He is the most unpopular because he decides matters
with a high hand.

38. DAY IN AND DAY OUT: I have been warning you day in and day out.

39. TO MAKE THE MOST OF: He let me use his bicycle for a week and I am
going to make the most of it.

40. TO MAKE THE FUN OF: We should not make fun of handicaps.

41. TO MAKE ROOM FOR: They made room for more guests as all seats were
full.

42. TO GO THROUGH: He went through the whole book within a week.

43. IN ALL: He got 782 marks in all.

44. ALL ALONE: Yesterday night she was all alone in her house.

45. TO PUT INTO PRACTICE: The Holy Prophet (P.B.U.H) put into practice what
he preaches.

46. A WILD GOOSE CHASE: The robbers fled away and the police gave them a
wild goose chase.

47. TO END IN SMOKE: All his efforts ended in smoke because they were not
made sincerely.

48. WITH FLYING COLOURS: If you work hard you will pass your examination
with flying colours.

49. ODDS AND ENDS: The shopkeeper does not sell any particular article, but deals
in odds and ends.

50. UNDER ONE’S NOSE: The police were on the look out for the culprit who was
hiding under their nose.

51. TO POKE ONE’S NOSE INTO: One should not poke one‟s nose into others
affairs.

52. TO KICK UP A ROW: It is useless kicking up a row when the matters can be
decided peacefully.

53. TO WIND UP: He is winding up his business in the city, as he going abroad.

54. IN BLACK AND WHITE: I want your statement in black and white.
55. A RED LETTER DAY: 14th August is a red letter day in the history of Pakistan.

56. TO RUN INTO: Last night my friend ran into a cheat who deprived him of his
brief case by changing it with an empty one.

57. TO BRING TO LIGHT: A number of facts were brought to light by the Prime
Minister in the recent Press Conference.

58. AT THE ELEVENTH HOUR: The president postponed his meeting with the
journalists due to visit of the French delegation at the eleventh hour.

59. TO COME ACROSS: In the wedding party, she come across he two very close
friends of the University life.

60. TO GIVE UP: The doctor has strictly advised him to give up drinking and
smoking for the sake of his life.

61. TO CALL A SPADE, A SPADE: Islam teaches us to call a spade, a spade even
before a cruel ruler.

62. TO LOOK AFTER: All the parents have to look after their children during the
early period of the school life.

63. TO BREAK UP: The two partners have decided to break up the partnership and
divide the assets equally.

64. TO GET RID OF: Pakistan must get rid of that type of foreign aid, which puts
on her, undue political pressure.

65. AT A STRETCH: Saeed Anwer played an aggressive inning and continued to
score runs at a stretch.

66. TO GIVE IN: Imran Khan and Miandad were real fighters and they would never
give in till the last ball.

67. TO LET DOWN: The rich feel proud of their wealth and usually let down the
poor.

68. ONCE IN A BLUE MOON: I am not so fond of movies and watch some fine art
movie once in a blue moon.

69. TO FALL OUT: A short tempered football player fell out with his opponents and
got wounded.

70. TO CALL ON: The winners of 1994 World Cup called on the President, with
their captain.

71. TO CALL OFF: The University students finally decided to call off the strike as
their demands were accepted.
72. TO BRING HOME TO: Rizwan brought home to her all the important aspects
of the matter.

73. TO GET OVER: The Indian Government made all possible efforts to get over
the epidemic of plague.

74. TO GET ACROSS: The news of Mr. Eddhi‟s self-exile got across the country
within no time.

75. TO MAKE UP FOR: The Government and people of Iraq are working day and
night to make up the loss caused by the Gulf war.

76. TO MAKE OFF: The robbers made off through the back door just as the security
guard started firing into air.

77. TO BRING OUT: The telephone Corporation has brought a decent Directory in
three volumes.

78. TO BRING UP: Abraham Lincoln was brought up by his parents in a state of
very limited financial resources.

79. TO TAKE OFF: The Hajj flight will take off every morning during the next
couple of weeks.

80. TO TAKE PLACE: The wedding of my cousin will take place in the first week
of November, next.

81. TO KEEP UP: Our cricket team must go through an extensive training and
practice session to keep up their position in the next world cup.

82. TO STIR UP: The statement given by Mr. Abdul Sattar Eddhi caused great stir
up in the political circles.

83. TO GO OFF: While the police man was cleaning his rifle, it suddenly went off
because it was loaded.

84. TO LET OFF: Finally, the defaulter was let off by the civil authorities in view of
his undertaking to abide by the rules in future.

85. TO BEG FOR: The Quaid-e-Azam begged for peace and friendship with his
former enemies, the Congress leaders.

86. TO FURNISH WITH: The chief justice was furnished with all the documentary
proofs against the accused.

87. TO LOOK FOR: After the panic had subsided, people started looking for their
misplaced baggage.

88. TO RUN AFTER: According to Einstein, ordinary people run after ordinary
objects such as property and luxury.
89. TO TURN DOWN: The secretary was taking down the main points to prepare a
summary of the Seminar on pollution.

90. TO WATCH OVER: Sensible parents make it a point to watch over the outdoor
activities of their growing up children.

91. TO BANK ON: Never bank on a fair weather friend because he will certainly
cheat you.

92. TO BLOW HOT AND COLD: It is part of his nature to blow hot and cold as he
favours this political party today the other party tomorrow.

93. TO BREAK THE NEWS: It was really very hard to break the shocking news of
her husband‟s accidental death to her.

94. TO CALL NAMES: He is such loose tempered man that he often begins to call
names to his neighbours.

95. TO TURN THE TABLES: The pace attack by Wasim Akram and Waqar turned
the tables against India and our cricket team got victory.

96. TO HOLD WATER: The judge will give a favourable verdict only when you
lawyer‟s arguments hold water.

97. TO FACE THE MUSIC: Those who are responsible for terrorism in the city
must face the music and be dealt with.

98. TO BE UNDER THE CLOUD: These days, the opposition leaders are under a
cloud and being tortured by the Government.

99. BY HOOK OR BY CROOK: The corrupt politicians try to win in every general
election by hook or by crook.

100. TO RUN SHORT OF: These days most areas in Karachi are running short of
water supply.

101. TO KEEP AN EYE ON: Wise and responsible parents always keep and eye on
the outdoor activities of their children.

102. TO BUILD CASTLES IN THE AIR: It is a favourite hobby of day dreamers
and idealists to build castles in the air.

103. TO TAKE TO HEELS: Just as the mobile of Rangers approached, the robbers
jumped over the gate and took to their heels.

104. BY LEAPS AND BOUNDS: In the 21st century, Pakistan is expected to make
progress by leaps and bound.

105. TO TURN DEAF EAR TO: He turned a deaf ear to his father‟s advice and as a
result, fell into trouble.
106. AT THE NICK OF TIME: Medical aid was provided to the injured passengers
at the nick of time and it proved effective.

107. TO BELL THE CAT: All the office workers are annoyed with the attitude of
the M.D but no body dares to bell the cat.

108. TO HAVE AN AXE TO GRIND: He certainly had an axe to grind behind his
sympathetic attitude.

109. TO BURRY THE HATCHET: At last the two combatant groups agreed to
bury the hatchet and restore peace.

110. TO BEAR WITH: During our lifetime we have to bear with many sorrows and
sufferings.

111. TO BEAR OUT: As a witness, he bore out in the court that the man was
innocent.

112. TO BEAR IN MIND: Always bear in the advice of your elders.

113. TO BREAK INTO: The Dakotas broke into the bank and took away a large
sum of money.

114. TO BREAK OFF: Pakistan has broken off with Israel since the last two
decades.

115. TO BREAK DOWN: If my car had not broken down on the way, I would have
reached in time.

116. TO BREAK THE HEART: Don‟t break the heart by rejecting the offer.

117. TO BLOW OUT: On the occasion of his birthday, he blow out the candle on
cake.

118. TO BLOW UP: Four bombs blew up at different places simultaneously.

119. TO BLOW ONE’S OWN TRUMPET: I always try to avoid such people who
keep on blowing their own trumpet.

120. TO BRING IN: Imran Khan has brought in a large amount for setting up the
cancer hospital.

121. TO BRING ABOUT: The fight between the two political parties can bring
about another martial law.

122. TO BRING ROUND: By presenting a very logical argument, he was able to
bring round all the members of committee.

123. TO BRING TO BOOK: All those who kidnap people for ransom money should
be brought to book.
124. TO CARRY ON: Let me carry on my work without any disturbance.

125. TO CARRY THROUGH: If we work altogether like a lean, we can easily carry
through our mission with any difficulty.

126. TO CALL ON: I shall call on your brother next week.

127. TO CALL AT: I shall call at your office tomorrow.

128. TO CALL FOR: You careless and rude behavior call for an explanation.

129. TO CALL IT A DAY: As we are tired after a hard day but let it call it a day.

130. TO CALL TO MIND: I can call to mind when I saw you last.

131. TO COME OF: Although she comes of a rich family, she is not proud of her
wealth.

132. TO COME OFF: The annual meeting of the Board of Directors will come off
next month.

133. TO COME BY: It is difficult to understand how did he come by all that money.

134. TO COME ROUND: He comes round after I had presented my views in a
logical way.

135. TO COME TO LIGHT: Once the facts come to light, we will know who is
responsible for creating such a situation.

136. TO COME TO BLOWS: Very often, student belonging to different groups
come to blows on silly matters.

137. TO COME OVER: With faith in God and confidence in your self you can come
over all you problems.

138. TO DO WITHOUT: No living creature can do without air.

139. TO DO AWAY WITH: It is the duty of the young people to do away with all
the evil customs and traditions of the society.

140 TO DIE OFF: In the under developed countries, a large number of people die
off.

141. TO DIE IN HARNESS: Once he had lost all his money at stakes he died in
harness.

142. TO DEAL WITH: He has the knack of dealing with all kinds of people and
situation.
143. TO DEAL IN: As he deals in auto-parts, he has a good knowledge of different
kind of car.

144. TO DEAL OUT: He dealt out the card after shuffling the cards.

145. TO FALL SHORT OF: The performance of Indian Cricket team fell short of
the expectations of the spectators.

146. TO FALL A PREY TO: The poor and the deprived always fall a prey to cruelty
and injustice.

147. TO GIVE AWAY: At the end of the function, the prizes were given way by the
chief guest.

148. TO KEEP IN THE DARK: The patient was kept in the dark about the nature of
his illness.

149. TO KEEP BODY AND SOUL TOGETHER: With the price spiral, it is
becoming difficult for the common man to keep body and soul together.

150. TO LOOK FORWARD TO: We are looking forward to this visit next month.

151. TO MAKE OFF WITH: The robber make off with a large amount from the
super market.

152. TO MAKE FOR: The Birkenhead met with a disaster when it was making for
South Africa.

153. TO MAKE BOTH ENDS MEET: With his limited income, it is really very
difficult to make both ends meet.

154. TO MAKE UP THE MIND: Once you make your mind then stick to your
decision.

155. TO PUT IN A NUT SHELL: At the end of his lecture, he put all his arguments
in a nut shell.

156. TO PUT DOWN: The revolt against the king was put down by the royal forces.

157. TO PUT OFF: The debate, which was put off last week, is scheduled for
tomorrow.

158. TO STAND BY: I shall stand by you whenever you are in trouble.

159. TO TAKE AFTER: Children very often take after their parents

160. TO TAKE UP: He has decided to take up the profession of teaching.


Question 8 – Essays
XI English BIEK Essays The Kashmir
Problem
It was decided during the campaign of Pakistan, that the Provinces having Muslim
majority should be included in Pakistan. The people of Kashmir were willing to join
Pakistan but the Hindu Maharaja Gulab Sigh did against the wishes of the people. The
entire valley of Jammu and Kashmir with its population of 25 Lac was sold by the
British to a Dogra Maharaja for Rs 75 Lac. Pakistan took the matter to U.N.O. The
United Nations appointed commision for a peaceful settlement of the Kashmir
problem. The commission presented two resolutions on August 13, 1948 and January
5, 1949, which were re-accepted by the Indian and Pakistan governments and
approved by the Security Council. The main points agreed upon were:

                                                                  Cease-Fire and the
                                                                    Demarcation of
                                                                    the cease-fire
                                                                    line.
                                                                  A free and
                                                                    impartial
                                                                    plebiscite in
                                                                    Kashmir under
                                                                    U.N.O.
                                                                  Withdrawal of
                                                                    forces of both the
                                                                    countries from
                                                                    Kashmir.

After the cease-fire, the Indian forces refused to withdraw from the Kashmir valley. In
1951, Dr. Graham tried to solve the problem but India rejected in February 1953. The
Security Council appointed Gonar Jerring in 1957 but India did not agree to any
proposal. At last on August8, 1965, a National Revolutionary Council was formed in
occupied Kashmir and the Mujahids stood against Indian forces. India became so
desperate and attacked Pakistan. Pakistan Army pushed back the Indian forces in a
historical way. In 1971 war, Shimla Agreement was written but India did not agree to
liberate Kashmir. Now again the people of Kashmir stood uop against Indian forces
and they are fighting for their freedom, which India has to acord them today or
tomorrow. In the words of Late General Mohammad Ayub Khan, the Ex-President of
Pakistan, Kashmir is a “Time Bomb” which would explode at its proper time and that
time, we are sure, has come now. Kashmir is a part and parcel of Pakistan and we can
never withdraw from this right.


XI English BIEK Essays Duties of
Women
Women play a very vital role in human progress and have a significant place in the
society. They are not at all inferior to men. They are capable of sharing all the
responsibilities of life. Man and woman have been rightly compared to the wheels of
the same carriage. Islam has accorded an equal position to women in the society.
Islam realized the importance of women and granted them a very dignified position
equal to man.

The main responsibility of a woman is to preserve the human race. As a mother, her
position is unique. She brings up the children with extreme care. The first school of a
child is the lap of his mother. It is quite true that great man had great mothers.
Napoleon said:

“Give me good mothers and I will give you a good nation.”

The progress of nation depends upon the way the mothers bring up their children. If
the mothers are educated, the whole society will progress. Women have always
played an important role in the progress of a nation. In the early days of Islam, women
worked side by side with men. In the battlefield, they nursed the injured, kept up the
supplies and in certain cases even fought bravely. Florence Nightingale was the
woman, who led a very successful campaign for the reforms of hospitals and nursing
profession. Women had been great saints, scholars, poets, writers, reformers and
administrators.

Women should be given proper education and training. They should known what life
is and how it should be lived. Educated women can do much to reform the society.
Many disturbances in the society is created by those anti-social persons, who were
brought up by wrong hands. In modern age, women are going very well in all the
fields of progress. They are demonstrating their talents in best. They are serving as
teachers, doctors, Engineers, Administrators and even head of the states. The literacy
rate among the women so in Pakistan is very low. The need is to increase this ratio.
More education among the women means the more progress of the society.


XI English BIEK Essays The
Responsibilities of an Ideal Student
The purpose of education is to produce ideal persons to face the responsibilities of the
future. This aim can be achieved only when the students are sincere and they acquire
the education in the real sense. Just copying a few questions and passing the
examination is not an education. A student can never be educated until and unless he
does not put his heart and should to the cause of education. A student is a person, who
devotes himself to the pursuits of knowledge and learning. It is therefore, the first and
foremost duty of aj ideal student to seek knowledge. The pursuit of knowledge
demands hard work and full devotion. Unfortunately, the students do not realize their
duties. They have confined the education. Their greatest purpose is to get good grade
in the examination by hook or by crook. They adopt all the foul means to get through
the examinations. The ideal student enriches himself with knowledge. In practical life
only those students come out with best colours, who had acquire knowledge.

An ideal student enjoys learning. He goes deep and deep in search of the knowledge.
He is not a bookworm. He knows that a healthy body is necessary for healthy mind.
He takes interest in all the activities that promote his physical health. He goes to the
play ground with the same pleasure and enthusiasm with which he studies in the
library. An ideal student is not unsocial. He loves his fellow students and takes part in
all the collective activities.

The ideal student respects and honours his teachers. He knows the place of teachers,
who are opening the gate of glories for him. He is humble and obedient. The more he
learns from his teachers, the more grateful he is to them. The more knowledge he gets,
the more humble he becomes. An ideal student is not a frog in a well but a person
with greater visions and ideals. He is regular and punctual. He does not participate in
adverse and negative activities. He confines himself to his studies and task. He does
not waste his time in useless deeds. He does not keep association with such elements
whose purpose is to damage the cause of education. He believes in simple and plain
living. He is kind and generous.


XI English BIEK Essays The
Responsibilities of an Ideal Student
The purpose of education is to produce ideal persons to face the responsibilities of the
future. This aim can be achieved only when the students are sincere and they acquire
the education in the real sense. Just copying a few questions and passing the
examination is not an education. A student can never be educated until and unless he
does not put his heart and should to the cause of education. A student is a person, who
devotes himself to the pursuits of knowledge and learning. It is therefore, the first and
foremost duty of aj ideal student to seek knowledge. The pursuit of knowledge
demands hard work and full devotion. Unfortunately, the students do not realize their
duties. They have confined the education. Their greatest purpose is to get good grade
in the examination by hook or by crook. They adopt all the foul means to get through
the examinations. The ideal student enriches himself with knowledge. In practical life
only those students come out with best colours, who had acquire knowledge.

An ideal student enjoys learning. He goes deep and deep in search of the knowledge.
He is not a bookworm. He knows that a healthy body is necessary for healthy mind.
He takes interest in all the activities that promote his physical health. He goes to the
play ground with the same pleasure and enthusiasm with which he studies in the
library. An ideal student is not unsocial. He loves his fellow students and takes part in
all the collective activities.

The ideal student respects and honours his teachers. He knows the place of teachers,
who are opening the gate of glories for him. He is humble and obedient. The more he
learns from his teachers, the more grateful he is to them. The more knowledge he gets,
the more humble he becomes. An ideal student is not a frog in a well but a person
with greater visions and ideals. He is regular and punctual. He does not participate in
adverse and negative activities. He confines himself to his studies and task. He does
not waste his time in useless deeds. He does not keep association with such elements
whose purpose is to damage the cause of education. He believes in simple and plain
living. He is kind and generous.
XI English BIEK Essays A Cricket
Match
Cricket is one of the most popular and exciting out door sports. Some of us get the
opportunity to play first class cricket, but there are millions who enjoy seeing it being
played. It gives us moments of leisure and pleasure and fills us with a competitive
spirit. I witnessed the demonstration of the greatest excitement and determination at
National Stadium, Karachi.

It was a fine day. A large number of people including men, women and children from
all walks of life gathered there to enjoy the match between Pakistan and New
Zealand. To be a good sports team, one has to be aggressive and this was shown in the
final between the tw3o teams. New Zealand won the toss and invited Pakistan to bat
first. This was a big blunder that their captain had made. Shahid Afridi and Saeed
Anwar were sent as openers. It was a right decision by the captain, because Shahid
Afridi slammed the ball over the field. It was due to his hard hitting that Pakistan
achieved a good start. Saeed Anwar was very careful and most of the time simply
obstructed. The bowling was quite strong, due to which Saeed Anwar was not able to
score a single run for the first fifteen minutes. But as time passed, he grasped the
strategy of the bowlers and began to fully support Afridi. He completed his half-
century by playing keen and beautiful shots. When he was at a score of 88, the first
slip caught him smartly. In this way, the first wicket of Pakistan fell at a total of 130.
After him, Shahid Afridi could not steadily face the bowlers and proceeded towards
the pavilion in a short time.

Ejaz Ahmed began his batting when the Pakistani team was playing at 135. Along
with Inzamamum ul Haq, he pulled up the score to 170. The next four men were
dismissed very quickly – two bowled one caught and one out leg before wickets.
However Moin Khan made a stand and was able to increase the score to 218. At this
moment, 10 overs remained un bowled and three wickets in hand. Wasim Akram
played a beautiful inning and Pakistani team snatched a total of 269 for 8.

This terrifying score marked down the morals of the New Zealand Team. They made
a poor start, as their first wicket fell when the score was only ten. However, their
middle order batsmen made a great effort and cheered the Kiwi Team. Inzamam ul
Haq was the person who caught the second middle order batsman at 70. The
following batsmen also played quite well and raised up the score to 220 for 5. This
situation was exciting and pointed out to the defeat if Pakistan. However, when
Wasim Akram came to bowl, the hopes of Pakistanis revived. He bowled
extraordinary well and just after 5 overs, the New Zealand team had reached to 260
for 7. The rival needed barely 10 runs to win in 1 over. The down order batsmen
shook up well. Score kept on increasing gradually and they reached to 266. It was the
last ball; New Zealand requiring 4 runs to win and Waqar Younis was on the other
side of the wicket. As soon as he bowled, the wickets were slammed and Pakistan was
granted another exciting victory over New Zealand. The crowd went in mad uproar,
congratulating their national champions for the great success.
XI English BIEK Essays Life in a Big
City
Karachi is the biggest city in Pakistan and also one of the most thickly populated
cities in the world. Its population has increased rapidly and accordingly has given rise
to many social problems. People of this metropolis are becoming more and more
concerned about solving these serious problems, some of which are discussed below.

The ever-increasing rush of heavy traffic on the roads is resulting in heavy loss of
human life. One day or the other, people suffer form accidents due to reckless driving.
Some lose their vehicles and some go to the police. This is due to lack of civic sense
in the citizens and violation of traffic rules. Traffic jams, road quarrels, untidiness and
damage of public property is also a result of this problem. The government has not
done any planning to control this situation in the past two decades.

In the same manner, the government has never emphasized upon population
distribution. As a result, slum areas are rapidly being built, where poor labour lives.
The disordered development of small houses is spoiling the outlook of the city, as
well as creating problems of illegal electric connections, water supply and pollution.
The authorities have failed to reclaim the locations from these people.

The academic career of children in Karachi is unpredictable due to lack of good
schools and institutions. The need of recreational institutions, parks and play grounds
is also felt at times and most of all joblessness creates problems for poor people.

Another problem faced by the citizens of the city is the frequent power breakdowns.
Every other day, K.E.S.C cuts down the electric supply without notice. This becomes
a great hurdle for industries and professional that use electric machinery for their
work. Disturbance and shortage of water supply is also a cause of discomfort among
the citizens. Sometimes, the dirty and unfiltered water becomes a major factor in food
poisoning, which usually takes place on festive occasions, when demand of water in
the city increases. Any measure to improve the supply of filtered water has also not
been adopted by the government. Problems due to improper drainage system are also
becoming a matter of concern among the people. The alarming in crease in the
disorderliness of drainage lines is posing serious threats for people, especially in poor
areas. Filth and dirt runs down a channel by the footpath and children play over it. We
have malaria, cholera and dysentery still destroying our children because such things
exist.

The attitude of beggars in Karachi is the most irritating problem. They are worthless
idlers robbing good-natural people. It has become their regular practice to crowd
public spots and cheat people. The adverse effects of begging problem are noticeable
in sum areas.

There are too many dirty and ownerless dogs roaming about in the streets of Karachi.
They spread many diseases and sometime become a danger by injuring people.
Lack of environmental care among people and drivers of public service vehicles is
giving rise to pollution problems. Dust fills the air in most of the roads all the time.
Improper turned cars fill the atmosphere with deadly smoke at hours of rush, which
causes disease among the policemen and common public. The blowing of pressure
horns is always there, deafening the ears.

Karachi is also often subjected to terrorist activities. Bomb blasts and firings at public
spots are resulting in great loss of human life. The terrorists deserve no less than
capital punishment. It is the duty of the police to intensify their investigation to stop
such activities.

For the well to do class, life in Karachi may be fascinating, but for other citizens it is a
center of drawbacks. It is only through the concentrated efforts of each and every
person, including the members of law-enforcing and administrative agencies, can we
overcome these serious problems of the metropolis.


XI English BIEK Essays Merits and
Demerits of Science
As we turn over the pages of history, we come across the development made by man
in different walks of life over the centuries. From the primitive Stone Age to the
modern computerized era, every step of man has proved to be the milestone in the
history of civilization. Modern science has evolved over a long period, and has now
reached the peak of success. It has worked wonders in our life, but it cannot be said
that it is altogether a blessing. When we look at the other side of the picture, we are
filled with a sense of horror. The fear of war and destruction hangs over our heads all
the time. In order to understand the creative and destructive aspects of modern
science, we stand in need of an analysis that will help us differentiate between the
good and the bad.

As we look over the brighter side of the achievements of science, we come to realize
that there is hardly any sphere of life that has not been enhanced by the creative
abilities of man. In the field of medical science, knowledge and research has gone to
such an extent that almost all the ailments have found a cure. The threatening clouds
of death no longer haunt the patients who were otherwise filled with despair.
Epidemics have been wiped out, nutritional standards have been improved, drug
therapy has been recognized and hygienic conditions are being created so that the new
generation may enjoy a longer and better life.

In the realm of communication, modern scientific inventions have helped a lot. The
far-flung corners of the world have been linked together with a wide spread air
network. Distances have lost their meaning and thousands of miles can be covered
within hours. Travelling today is not only swift, but also full of pleasure and luxury.

Modern science has opened new vistas of entertainment. All the new electronic
gadgets have filled our lives with recreational variety. From the small pocket sized
transistor to the big screen television and VCR, we are provided entertainment at
home and we owe it all to science. Readers are provided illustrated, colourful books
due to the blessing of modern science in the form of latest printing machines and
techniques. Such means of entertainment have brought about a change in our habits
and hobbies.

The advantages of science are not restricted to the urban population. In the fields of
agriculture, forestry and fishery, science has provided the rural population with the
latest implements and know-how. The new methods of agriculture have boosted the
production of farms and fields. With the use of different kind pesticides, the crops
remain undamaged and the tillers of the soil get better return of the labour. This
increase in output not only improves the condition of the toiling masses, but also
brings about a healthy change in the economy of the country. This keeps on moving
the nations on the path of progress and prosperity.

As we cast our eyes on the other side of the picture, we cannot help coming to the
conclusion that science is also the monster of death and destruction. Man is selfish
and pugnacious by nature. To fulfil his jingoist designs, he stands in need of the most
destructive weapons, which could bring about the annihilation of his rivals. Man has
gained knowledge in the field of science, but due to lack of wisdom, he is misusing
this knowledge. All big nations are thinking of fulfilling the dream of becoming the
super power. The wars of today are not limited to the battlefield. It brings about
epidemic killing of the civilian population. The knowledge of this domain has added
immeasurable danger to war. All the leading powers posses fatal weapons, and it
seems that the weaker countries are their mercy. These big nations talk a lot about
reduction in arms and they hold disarmament conferences. However, their practice is
quite contrary to their preaching.

Science, no doubt provides, new ways of entertainment, but these very means of
amusement are bringing a sharp decline in the moral values of the young generation
and equally sharp increase in the number of crimes. The TV and video provide
entertainment but they quite often become the channels of vulgarity and obscenity.
Moreover, new ways of crime are shown to younger people, who adopt the path of
getting easy money.

Looking at the two aspects of modern science, we conclude that science by itself is
neither good nor bad. It is the will and intentions of man, which makes him, put it to
constructive use or take it to the path of devil.


XI English BIEK Essays Uses and
Abuses of Media
Imagine a city without televisions, radios or Internet connections. All these media
facilities provide people awareness of what is going on around them. Electronic as
well as Print Media is an effective way of communication as it provides link between
ordinary persons and others in the world. It is only due to newspapers that we can
read in the morning about the events that took place on the other side of the world
only the day before. Besides, electronic media can telecast live happenings from
around my corner of the world. Radio, Television and Internet are inventions that
extend across all areas of internet including weather forecasts, entertainment,
educational broadcasts, business and important political and social events. Companies
that want to sell their products by advertising also make use of media. Media is very
important in the fast moving world, because without media the society would be
unaware of the local and foreign affairs.

Now, we come to the drawbacks of media. Electronic media is the most unpredictable
mean of spreading knowledge among people. One gets biased and one-sided views
through this media and nobody can rely on truth. Internet was supposed to be used for
gaining information from throughout the world, but only a fraction uses it for
information. Rests are being morally devaluated through the improper and non-
religious publishing. Print media is also playing its role in this regard. Fashion and
Movie Magazines are the main cause of wastage of money and every amidst the
young generation. If a newspaper can be used, it can be misused much easily by
spreading views of one political party and other rumours. Readers should be careful
and judicious in selecting the type of media so that they may keep away from its
harms.


XI English BIEK Essays Memorable
Day in My Life
It was the 27th day of July and the last day of competition I had participated in the All
Pakistan Software competition. I read the advertisement in the newspaper three
months ago, in which software programmers were invited to send in their software for
the competition. I worked hard for about one month and made the software, which
was then selected by the panel of judges and I was invited to participate in the event.
Now, after three restless days, the event was coming to an end. But, there was a
closing ceremony to come, in which the best programmers were to be awarded prizes.

I had been waiting for the day with anxiety and curiosity. I got up early in the
morning and prayed to God to grant me success. I was rather uneasy and restless. My
mind was swinging between expectation and apprehension. It was an inexplicable
situation of uneasiness and anticipation. I was not sure about what to expect. My
parents and friends had high expectations of me. At one moment, I though that I
would win but again I feared if I do not. I knew that there is always an element of
chance, how good one may be. I was in a very disturbed state of mind.

The closing ceremony was yet to commence. The sand of time was running out. I was
getting more and more restless. At last, I reached the exhibition hall and found my
seat amidst the participants. The ceremony started with the speech of the organizing
committee and then that of the chief guest. They all emphasized on the importance of
software development in the country and measures for its promotions. Finally, the
judges were invited to the dais to announce the best programmers of the competition.
At once, absolute silence covered the audience. At the moment, I still remember that
my legs were trembling and heart throbbing. In less than a minute, the judge
announced the name of the person who had won First Prize in the big event – and that
was me! I was filled with a feeling of greatest joy and excitement. I thanked God and
ran to the stage with every body congratulating me. The chief Guest handed me the
winning shield. I was requested to express a few words about my success. That was a
speechless moment. Filled with emotions and in high spirits, I thanked God, my
parents and all my friends who had helped me in my achievement.

When I reached home, my parents were exhilarated with delight and joy as I gave
them the good news. My siblings rejoiced my remarkable attainment. When I
informed my friends and relatives them came to congratulate me. Tea and sweets
were served to all. Every body was in a jolly and happy mood. My mother prepared
pleasant edibles for lunch and we dined altogether. Never before was I so happy.

In the evening, many other relatives and friends came to congratulate me. My father
welcomed them cordially and thanked them for their kind visits. We passed the whole
day cheerfully. In fact, it was the happiest day of my life, which I shall remember for
many years to come.


XI English BIEK Essays Patriotism
Patriotism means love and regard for the country. It is a natural instinct that men loves
the place where he gets birth and where he is brought up. It is one of the noblest
passions of human nature. The love of country is natural and essential for every one.
Man is a social animal. He cannot live alone. He needs the assistance of other human
beings. So the people belonging to one country are brothers and they work for the
collective interest of the country. They struggle to flourish their country. The man,
who works against the interest of his country, is traitor and he does not deserve any
sympathy.

The only way to serve Pakistan is that we must be sincere with out country. We must
keep our personal interest behind and we must give supreme importance to the
demands of our freedom. Country is not just a piece of land. It is not only the
collection of mountains, rivers and valleys. It is the heritage of our dreams,
aspirations, culture, traditions and our great religion. We love Pakistan because it is
the centre of our hopes and future dreams. It is the land of our following generation.
We must try to make it strong and undefeatable castle of Islam.

Patriotism is an active virtue. The real love urges man to do every thing in his power
for the welfare of his country. It makes him perform his duties honestly and
devotedly. Patriotism makes him a good citizen, who is always ready to serve his
nation with best of his talents. A good citizen is always ready to give sacrifices for his
nation. Patriotism is a sacred passion, which makes the nation really strong and
honorable. It is our duty to keep this passion alive in our hearts.

The great wars of the world were won only because of the extreme sense of
Patriotism. Only those nations in the world survive and distinguish themselves, whose
citizens keep a high and a very positive sense of Patriotism. Pakistan can become a
really strong country, when the people of Pakistan are patriots in the real sense of the
world. Give you love to your country and it will give you all the blessings.


DEMOCRACY IN PAKISTAN
World War II inaugurated the vistas of democracy in the world. The genesis of
Pakistan as an independent state was marked with the same trends. However,
the booming democratic state as envisaged by the Quaid soon fell into the hands
of demagogues, feudals, elitist bureaucracy, under the aegis of the corrupt
interest groups, all sorts of mafia and the invisible foreign hands. Above all the
military and the quasi-military rule strangled any hope of democracy for the
developing Pakistan. The deterioration got further impetus by the foul play in the
elections, stagnation of the political process by coup d` tats followed by the
martial laws, sometimes in the name of Islam and other times in the name of
modernism. The fault lines of democracy widened with the caricature of the
constitution, corruption of the judiciary and violation of the human rights.

The seeds of anti-democratic norms were sown , when on August 1947, Khan
Sahib’s ministry was dismissed along with M.A Khusroo’s dismissal on April
20,1948 in Sindh and Fazal-ul-Haq’s in 1954 in East Pakistan, despite the fact
that each government enjoyed a majority in the assemblies. However, the major
blow to the democratic process was the baffling re-shuffling of the minister ship
thrice in a fortnight. Yet the gravest of all was the abrogation of the constitution
for the first time on October 1958 by Iskander Mirza.

The rough path of pseudo democracy brought a series of catastrophic incidents in
the attire of AyubKhan’s failed federal-provincial policies, Zia’s grappling with the
religion, Bhutto’s demagogic rhetoric, Benazir’s conceited false claims and Nawaz
Sharif’s cowardice. The path was further furnished by the sham democratic claims
in the form of a uniformed unconstitutional president turning the whole nation
topsy turvy to establish an illusionary democracy.

The mockery of democracy could also be observed by the fact that the so called
loyal, jingoistic politicians could not form a constitution for the first nine pivotal
years of independence. The objective resolution of 1949 , the constitution of 1956
and 1962 , that tried to save the sinking political raft of dictatorship and martial
law ended up in the separation of Bangladesh. The gift of Bhutto to Pakistan in
the form of 1973 constitution was a child’s play in the hands of the dictators, the
8th amendment LfO, the seventeenth amendment crumbled down any democratic
signs that were left with country. The successful democratic countries like
England and U.S live with the principle of separation of powers, elucidated in their
constitution and protected by judiciary. On the contrary, Pakistan leaders devour
every thing and any thing that they can lay their hands on and have likewise,
changed the constitution to suit their autocratic, plutocratic whims in such a way
that the constitution has been reduced to a legitimate protective covering for the
illegitimate processes.

Pluralism, is an insignia of democracy. Pakistan has never hesitated to flout such
a pivotal element.Innitiated by Ayub Khan , Zia and in the contemporary world by
the so called Quaid-i-Azam league.in the multi-ethnic and multi-cultural country
like Pakistan a non-party political atmosphere representing the ruling dictators
not the voice of the varied cultural society proved to be only a disaster. Unlike
Pakistan, America India or Canada with bi-partism or multi-partism helps its
different regions and groups to be vocal about their interests , at the same time
strong political institutions bound the people together under the umbrella of a one
democratic country.In Pakistan the very opposite has always occurred. ‘One unit’
formula of Muhammad Bogra usurped the rights of the people giving way to
frustration and disgust. The cynical power politics of the dictators weakened the
political atmosphere, elections fought on non party basis only grew skepticism
among the provinces, specially East and West Pakistan , which ended up in the
dismemberment of Pakistan in 1971.The champions of democracy in the present
are repeating the notions of their predecessors and have created same situation
where Balochistan is voicing independence from the non-democratic dictators

The only thing left in the country as an aftermath of the distorted democracy is
the regional parties that only inflict regional, ethnic and sectarian norms, the out
come of which is terrorism , sectarianism, and violence. Something that has
taken deep roots in the country and has become an incurable cancer.

Rigging elections and tampering results is another menace that has damaged the
legitimate populist governments. Unlike ,foreign democratic countries the
governments in Pakistan are always charged of being corrupt, illegitimate that
gains powers either through the patronization of a foreign hand or some worst
mafia and interest groups.

Moreover, the coup d’etat are a plague for the true democracy and such non-
political moves shrouded in mystery reverse any signs of progress the country
had undergone .The perpetual control of the military regimes for the 31 years and
other 27 under the quasi-military rule are the mockery of the Quaid’s dream who
in the last address to the constituent assembly envisaged a democratic state with
a smooth political process in a tolerant nation.

The sine quanone of an egalitarian country are the rule of the common people ,
provision and safety of the human rights , supremacy of law and a free judiciary .
Unfortunately Pakistan lacks them all .The feudals , elite bureaucrats in the form
of Tiwanas , Daultanas or the Bhuttos reigned with an elitist mindset.The nexus of
the government with mafia, suppression of the human rights and their violations
distorted the fading signs of democracy. Deprived people of all their economic ,
socil, political and now even religious prerogatives add only fanaticism to
country’s life , nothing else. Moreover, law and judiciary that are only the tools in
the hands of the despots provide nihilistic elements to the society.

Albeit a cruel, yet a true picture was shown to the bragging leaders of Pakistan
when Bush visited South Asian countries. Declaring India to be the oldest
democracy Bush had given Pakistan an instance to ponder over its follies and
foibles and to restrain from the errors and mistakes of the predecessors.

The 58 years of the birth of the nation illuminates same dark aspects of the
country’s life . The parties as well as the masses have to realize that Pakistan was
made in the name of Islam , slapping away religion in the name of modernism
just to gain favours from the anti-Islamic elements can never bring true
democracy .The feigned antagonism established between Islam and democracy is
nothing but a sham propaganda as Islam provides all the democratic solutions of
the issues the world is grappling with.

New countries emerging on the world map as well as the nations of the antiquity
with well established norms have proved to be inconsistent with the modern
definition of democracy, thus the need of the hour is that the phenomenon of
democracy should be re defined with the consensus of the world , rather that
preaching and aspiring for the ideals that are measured by a different yard stick
for every country by its proponents. The act of U.S to favour the dictators in
Pakistan and Egypt yet the way it has waged an un visible war against the
democratic and legitimate governments of Iran and Palestine proves that
America’s definition of democracy is not a universal one. .Hence, a sincere effort
is required to overcome this evil of pseudo democracy and dictatorship not only in
Pakistan but globally in the world to make it a better place for the humans to live
peacefully.

				
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posted:8/20/2011
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