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					NPNF210. Ambrose: Selected Works and
              Letters
                         by
              Philip Schaff




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About NPNF210. Ambrose: Selected Works and Letters by Philip Schaff
           Title:   NPNF210. Ambrose: Selected Works and Letters
           URL:     http://www.ccel.org/ccel/schaff/npnf210.html
      Author(s):    Schaff, Philip
      Publisher:    Grand Rapids, MI: Christian Classics Ethereal Library
         Rights:    Public Domain
   Date Created:    2004-07-27
  CCEL Subjects:    All; Early Church




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NPNF210. Ambrose: Selected Works and Letters                                                                   Philip Schaff




                                            Table of Contents

              About This Book. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . p. ii
              Title Pages.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . p. 1
              Translator's Preface.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . p. 3
              Prolegomena.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . p. 4
               Section I. Literature.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . p. 4
               Section II. Notes on Secular and Church History During the Latter Part of
               the Fourth Century.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . p. 5
               Section III. Historical Summary and Chronological Tables.. . . . . . . . . . p. 6
               Section IV. On the Doctrine of St. Ambrose.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . p. 9
               Section V. Life of St. Ambrose.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . p. 11
               Section VI. Writings of St. Ambrose.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . p. 14
              Dogmatic Treatises, Ethical Works, and Sermons.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . p. 22
               On the Duties of the Clergy.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . p. 22
                  Introduction.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . p. 22
                  Book I.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . p. 23
                    Chapter I. A Bishop's special office is to teach; St. Ambrose himself,
                    however, has to learn in order that he may teach; or rather has to teach
                    what he has not learnt; at any rate learning and teaching with himself
                    must go on together.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . p. 23
                    Chapter II. Manifold dangers are incurred by speaking; the remedy for
                    which Scripture shows to consist in silence.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . p. 24
                    Chapter III. Silence should not remain unbroken, nor should it arise
                    from idleness. How heart and mouth must be guarded against inordinate
                    affections.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . p. 25
                    Chapter IV. The same care must be taken that our speech proceed not
                    from evil passions, but from good motives; for here it is that the devil is
                    especially on the watch to catch us.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . p. 26
                    Chapter V. We must guard also against a visible enemy when he incites
                    us by silence; by the help of which alone we can escape from those
                    greater than ourselves, and maintain that humility which we must display
                    towards all.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . p. 27
                    Chapter VI. In this matter we must imitate David's silence and humility,
                    so as not even to seem deserving of harm.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . p. 28
                    Chapter VII. How admirably Ps. xxxix. [xxxviii.] takes the place of an
                    introduction. Incited thereto by this psalm the saint determines to writep. 28

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                   on duties. He does this with more reason even than Cicero, who wrote
                   on this subject to his son. How, further, this is so.. . . . . . . . . . . . .
                   Chapter VIII. The word “Duty” has been often used both by philosophers
                   and in the holy Scriptures; from whence it is derived.. . . . . . . . . . . p. 29
                   Chapter IX. A duty is to be chosen from what is virtuous, and from what
                   is useful, and also from the comparison of the two, one with the other;
                   but nothing is recognized by Christians as virtuous or useful which is
                   not helpful to the future life. This treatise on duty, therefore, will not be
                   superfluous.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . p. 30
                   Chapter X. What is seemly is often found in the sacred writings long
                   before it appears in the books of the philosophers. Pythagoras borrowed
                   the law of his silence from David. David's rule, however, is the best, for
                   our first duty is to have due measure in speaking.. . . . . . . . . . . . . p. 31
                   Chapter XI. It is proved by the witness of Scripture that all duty is either
                   “ordinary” or “perfect.” To which is added a word in praise of mercy,
                   and an exhortation to practise it.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . p. 32
                   Chapter XII. To prevent any one from being checked in the exercise of
                   mercy, he shows that God cares for human actions; and proves on the
                   evidence of Job that all wicked men are unhappy in the very abundance
                   of their wealth.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . p. 33
                   Chapter XIII. The ideas of those philosophers are refuted who deny to
                   God the care of the whole world, or of any of its parts.. . . . . . . . . . p. 35
                   Chapter XIV. Nothing escapes God's knowledge. This is proved by the
                   witness of the Scriptures and the analogy of the sun, which, although
                   created, yet by its light or heat enters into all things.. . . . . . . . . . . . p. 36
                   Chapter XV. Those who are dissatisfied with the fact that the good
                   receive evil, and the evil good, are shown by the example of Lazarus,
                   and on the authority of Paul, that punishments and rewards are reserved
                   for a future life.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . p. 37
                   Chapter XVI. To confirm what has been said above about rewards and
                   punishments, he adds that it is not strange if there is no reward reserved
                   for some in the future; for they do not labour here nor struggle. He goes
                   on to say also that for this reason temporal goods are granted to these
                   persons, so that they may have no excuse whatever.. . . . . . . . . . . p. 38
                   Chapter XVII. The duties of youth, and examples suitable to that age,
                   are next put forth.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . p. 39
                   Chapter XVIII. On the different functions of modesty. How it should
                   qualify both speech and silence, accompany chastity, commend our
                   prayers to God, govern our bodily motions; on which last point reference
                   is made to two clerics in language by no means unsuited to its object.p. 40


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                   Further he proceeds to say that one's gait should be in accordance with
                   that same virtue, and how careful one must be that nothing immodest
                   come forth from one's mouth, or be noticed in one's body. All these
                   points are illustrated with very appropriate examples.. . . . . . . . . . .
                   Chapter XIX. How should seemliness be represented by a speaker?
                   Does beauty add anything to virtue, and, if so, how much? Lastly, what
                   care should we take that nothing conceited or effeminate be seen in
                   u s ? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . p. 43
                   Chapter XX. If we are to preserve our modesty we must avoid fellowship
                   with profligate men, also the banquets of strangers, and intercourse
                   with women; our leisure time at home should be spent in pious and
                   virtuous pursuits.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . p. 44
                   Chapter XXI. We must guard against anger, before it arises; if it has
                   already arisen we must check and calm it, and if we cannot do this
                   either, at least we should keep our tongue from abuse, so that our
                   passions may be like boys' quarrels. He relates what Archites said, and
                   shows that David led the way in this matter, both in his actions and in
                   his writings.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . p. 45
                   Chapter XXII. On reflection and passion, and on observing propriety of
                   speech, both in ordinary conversation and in holding discussions.. . . . p. 47
                   Chapter XXIII. Jests, although at times they may be quite proper, should
                   be altogether banished among clerics. The voice should be plain and
                   frank.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . p. 48
                   Chapter XXIV. There are three things to be noticed in the actions of our
                   life. First, our passions are to be controlled by our reason; next, we
                   ought to observe a suitable moderation in our desires; and, lastly,
                   everything ought to be done at the right time and in the proper order.
                   All these qualities shone forth so conspicuously in the holy men of Old
                   Testament time, that it is evident they were well furnished with what
                   men call the cardinal virtues.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . p. 49
                   Chapter XXV. A reason is given why this book did not open with a
                   discussion of the above-mentioned virtues. It is also concisely pointed
                   out that the same virtues existed in the ancient fathers.. . . . . . . . . p. 51
                   Chapter XXVI. In investigating the truth the philosophers have broken
                   through their own rules. Moses, however, showed himself more wise
                   than they. The greater the dignity of wisdom, the more earnestly must
                   we strive to gain it. Nature herself urges us all to do this.. . . . . . . . . p. 53
                   Chapter XXVII. The first source of duty is prudence, from whence spring
                   three other virtues; and they cannot be separated or torn asunder, since
                   they are mutually connected one with the other.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . p. 54


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                   Chapter XXVIII. A community rests upon justice and good-will. Two
                   parts of the former, revenge and private possession, are not recognized
                   by Christians. What the Stoics say about common property and mutual
                   help has been borrowed from the sacred writings. The greatness of the
                   glory of justice, and what hinders access to it.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . p. 55
                   Chapter XXIX. Justice should be observed even in war and with
                   enemies. This is proved by the example of Moses and Elisha. The
                   ancient writers learnt in turn from the Hebrews to call their enemies by
                   a gentler term. Lastly, the foundation of justice rests on faith, and its
                   symmetry is perfect in the Church.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . p. 57
                   Chapter XXX. On kindness and its several parts, namely, good-will and
                   liberality. How they are to be combined. What else is further needed
                   for any one to show liberality in a praiseworthy manner.. . . . . . . . . p. 58
                   Chapter XXXI. A kindness received should be returned with a freer
                   hand. This is shown by the example of the earth. A passage from
                   Solomon about feasting is adduced to prove the same, and is expounded
                   later in a spiritual sense.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . p. 62
                   Chapter XXXII. After saying what return must be made for the service
                   of the above-mentioned feast, various reasons for repaying kindness
                   are enumerated. Then he speaks in praise of good-will, on its results
                   and its order.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . p. 63
                   Chapter XXXIII. Good-will exists especially in the Church, and nourishes
                   kindred virtues.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . p. 65
                   Chapter XXXIV. Some other advantages of goodwill are here
                   enumerated.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . p. 65
                   Chapter XXXV. On fortitude. This is divided into two parts: as it concerns
                   matters of war and matters at home. The first cannot be a virtue unless
                   combined with justice and prudence. The other depends to a large
                   extent upon endurance.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . p. 66
                   Chapter XXXVI. One of the duties of fortitude is to keep the weak from
                   receiving injury; another, to check the wrong motions of our own souls;
                   a third, both to disregard humiliations, and to do what is right with an
                   even mind. All these clearly ought to be fulfilled by all Christians, and
                   especially by the clergy.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . p. 67
                   Chapter XXXVII. An even mind should be preserved in adversity as
                   well as in prosperity. However, evil things must be avoided.. . . . . . . p. 69
                   Chapter XXXVIII. We must strengthen the mind against troubles to
                   come, and build it up by looking out for them beforehand. What
                   difficulties there are in doing this.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . p. 70



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                   Chapter XXXIX. One must show fortitude in fighting against all vices,
                   especially against avarice. Holy Job teaches this lesson.. . . . . . . . p. 71
                   Chapter XL. Courage in war was not wanting in our forefathers, as is
                   shown by the example of the men of old, especially by the glorious deed
                   of Eleazar.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . p. 71
                   Chapter XLI. After praising Judas' and Jonathan's loftiness of mind, the
                   constancy of the martyrs in their endurance of tortures, which is no
                   small part of fortitude, is next brought before us.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . p. 73
                   Chapter XLII. The powers that be are not needlessly to be irritated. One
                   must not lend one's ears to flattery.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . p. 75
                   Chapter XLIII. On temperance and its chief parts, especially tranquillity
                   of mind and moderation, care for what is virtuous, and reflection on
                   what is seemly.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . p. 75
                   Chapter XLIV. Every one ought to apply himself to the duties suited to
                   his character. Many, however, are hindered by following their fathers'
                   pursuits. Clerics act in a different way.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . p. 76
                   Chapter XLV. On what is noble and virtuous, and what the difference
                   between them is, as stated both in the profane and sacred
                   writers.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . p. 76
                   Chapter XLVI. A twofold division of what is seemly is given. Next it is
                   shown that what is according to nature is virtuous, and what is otherwise
                   must be looked on as shameful. This division is explained by
                   examples.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . p. 78
                   Chapter XLVII. What is seemly should always shine forth in our life.
                   What passions, then, ought we to allow to come to a head, and which
                   should we restrain?. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . p. 78
                   Chapter XLVIII. The argument for restraining anger is given again. Then
                   the three classes of those who receive wrongs are set forth; to the most
                   perfect of which the Apostle and David are said to have attained. He
                   takes the opportunity to state the difference between this and the future
                   l i f e . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . p. 80
                   Chapter XLIX. We must reserve the likeness of the virtues in ourselves.
                   The likeness of the devil and of vice must be got rid of, and especially
                   that of avarice; for this deprives us of liberty, and despoils those who
                   are in the midst of vanities of the image of God.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . p. 81
                   Chapter L. The Levites ought to be utterly free from all earthly desires.
                   What their virtues should be on the Apostle's own showing, and how
                   great their purity must be. Also what their dignity and duty is, for the
                   carrying out of which the chief virtues are necessary. He states that
                   these were not unknown to the philosophers, but that they erred in theirp. 82


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                  order. Some are by their nature in accordance with duty, which yet on
                  account of what accompanies them become contrary to duty. From
                  whence he gathers what gifts the office of the Levites demands. To
                  conclude, he adds an exposition of Moses' words when blessing the
                  tribe of Levi.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
                 Book II.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . p. 86
                  Chapter I. Happiness in life is to be gained by living virtuously, inasmuch
                  as thus a Christian, whilst despising glory and the favour of men, desires
                  to please God alone in what he does.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . p. 86
                  Chapter II. The different ideas of philosophers on the subject of
                  happiness. He proves, first, from the Gospel that it rests on the
                  knowledge of God and the pursuit of good works; next, that it may not
                  be thought that this idea was adopted from the philosophers, he adds
                  proofs from the witness of the prophets.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . p. 87
                  Chapter III. The definition of blessedness as drawn from the Scriptures
                  is considered and proved. It cannot be enhanced by external good
                  fortune, nor can it be weakened by misfortune.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . p. 88
                  Chapter IV. The same argument, namely, that blessedness is not
                  lessened or added to by external matters, is illustrated by the example
                  of men of old.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . p. 89
                  Chapter V. Those things which are generally looked on as good are
                  mostly hindrances to a blessed life, and those which are looked on as
                  evil are the materials out of which virtues grow. What belongs to
                  blessedness is shown by other examples.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . p. 90
                  Chapter VI. On what is useful: not that which is advantageous, but that
                  which is just and virtuous. It is to be found in losses, and is divided into
                  what is useful for the body, and what is useful unto godliness.. . . . . p. 92
                  Chapter VII. What is useful is the same as what is virtuous; nothing is
                  more useful than love, which is gained by gentleness, courtesy,
                  kindness, justice, and the other virtues, as we are given to understand
                  from the histories of Moses and David. Lastly, confidence springs from
                  love, and again love from confidence.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . p. 93
                  Chapter VIII. Nothing has greater effect in gaining good-will than giving
                  advice; but none can trust it unless it rests on justice and prudence.
                  How conspicuous these two virtues were in Solomon is shown by his
                  well-known judgment.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . p. 96
                  Chapter IX. Though justice and prudence are inseparable, we must
                  have respect to the ideas of people in general, for they make a distinction
                  between the different cardinal virtues.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . p. 98



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                   Chapter X. Men entrust their safety rather to a just than to a prudent
                   man. But every one is wont to seek out the man who combines in himself
                   the qualities of justice and prudence. Solomon gives us an example of
                   this. (The words which the queen of Sheba spoke of him are explained.)
                   Also Daniel and Joseph.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . p. 98
                   Chapter XI. A third element which tends to gain any one's confidence
                   is shown to have been conspicuous in Moses, Daniel, and
                   Joseph.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . p. 99
                   Chapter XII. No one asks counsel from a man tainted with vice, or from
                   one who is morose or impracticable, but rather from one of whom we
                   have a pattern in the Scriptures.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . p. 100
                   Chapter XIII. The beauty of wisdom is made plain by the divine
                   testimony. From this he goes on to prove its connection with the other
                   virtues.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . p. 101
                   Chapter XIV. Prudence is combined with all the virtues, especially with
                   contempt of riches.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . p. 101
                   Chapter XV. Of liberality. To whom it must chiefly be shown, and how
                   men of slender means may show it by giving their service and
                   counsel.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . p. 102
                   Chapter XVI. Due measure must be observed in liberality, that it may
                   not be expended on worthless persons, when it is needed by worthier
                   ones. However, alms are not to be given in too sparing and hesitating
                   a way. One ought rather to follow the example of the blessed Joseph,
                   whose prudence is commended at great length.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . p. 104
                   Chapter XVII. What virtues ought to exist in him whom we consult. How
                   Joseph and Paul were equipped with them.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . p. 106
                   Chapter XVIII. We learn from the fact of the separation of the ten tribes
                   from King Rehoboam what harm bad counsellors can do.. . . . . . . . p. 108
                   Chapter XIX. Many are won by justice and benevolence and courtesy,
                   but all this must be sincere.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . p. 108
                   Chapter XX. Familiarity with good men is very advantageous to all,
                   especially to the young, as is shown by the example of Joshua and
                   Moses and others. Further, those who are unlike in age are often alike
                   in virtues, as Peter and John prove.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . p. 109
                   Chapter XXI. To defend the weak, or to help strangers, or to perform
                   similar duties, greatly adds to one's worth, especially in the case of tried
                   men. Whilst one gets great blame for love of money; wastefulness, also,
                   in the case of priests is very much condemned.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . p. 110
                   Chapter XXII. We must observe a right standard between too great
                   mildness and excessive harshness. They who endeavour to creep intop. 112


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                  the hearts of others by a false show of mildness gain nothing substantial
                  or lasting. This the example of Absalom plainly enough shows.. . . . .
                  Chapter XXIII. The good faith of those who are easily bought over with
                  money or flattery is a frail thing to trust to.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . p. 113
                  Chapter XXIV. We must strive for preferment only by right means. An
                  office undertaken must be carried out wisely and with moderation. The
                  inferior clergy should not detract from the bishop's reputation by feigned
                  virtues; nor again, should the bishop be jealous of a cleric, but he should
                  be just in all things and especially in giving judgment.. . . . . . . . . . . p. 114
                  Chapter XXV. Benefits should be conferred on the poor rather than on
                  the rich, for these latter either think a return is expected from them, or
                  else they are angry at seeming to be indebted for such an action. But
                  the poor man makes God the debtor in his place, and freely owns to
                  the benefits he has received. To these remarks is added a warning to
                  despise riches.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . p. 115
                  Chapter XXVI. How long standing an evil love of money is, is plain from
                  many examples in the Old Testament. And yet it is plain, too, how idle
                  a thing the possession of money is.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . p. 116
                  Chapter XXVII. In contempt of money there is the pattern of justice,
                  which virtue bishops and clerics ought to aim at together with some
                  others. A few words are added on the duty of not bringing an
                  excommunication too quickly into force.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . p. 117
                  Chapter XXVIII. Mercy must be freely shown even though it brings an
                  odium of its own. With regard to this, reference is made to the
                  well-known story about the sacred vessels which were broken up by
                  Ambrose to pay for the redemption of captives; and very beautiful advice
                  is given about the right use of the gold and silver which the Church
                  possesses. Next, after showing from the action of holy Lawrence what
                  are the true treasures of the Church, certain rules are laid down which
                  ought to be observed in melting down and employing for such uses the
                  consecrated vessels of the Church.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . p. 117
                  Chapter XXIX. The property of widows or of all the faithful, that has
                  been entrusted to the Church, ought to be defended though it brings
                  danger to oneself. This is illustrated by the example of Onias the priest,
                  and of Ambrose, bishop of Ticinum.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . p. 119
                  Chapter XXX. The ending of the book brings an exhortation to avoid
                  ill-will, and to seek prudence, faith, and the other virtues.. . . . . . . . p. 121
                 Book III.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . p. 122
                  Chapter I. We are taught by David and Solomon how to take counsel
                  with our own heart. Scipio is not to be accounted prime author of thep. 122


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                   saying which is ascribed to him. The writer proves what glorious things
                   the holy prophets accomplished in their time of quiet, and shows, by
                   examples of their and others' leisure moments, that a just man is never
                   alone in trouble.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
                   Chapter II. The discussions among philosophers about the comparison
                   between what is virtuous and what is useful have nothing to do with
                   Christians. For with them nothing is useful which is not just. What are
                   the duties of perfection, and what are ordinary duties? The same words
                   often suit different things in different ways. Lastly, a just man never
                   seeks his own advantage at the cost of another's disadvantage, but
                   rather is always on the lookout for what is useful to others.. . . . . . . p. 124
                   Chapter III. The rule given about not seeking one's own gain is
                   established, first by the examples of Christ, next by the meaning of the
                   word, and lastly by the very form and uses of our limbs. Wherefore the
                   writer shows what a crime it is to deprive another of what is useful, since
                   the law of nature as well as the divine law is broken by such wickedness.
                   Further, by its means we also lose that gift which makes us superior to
                   other living creatures; and lastly, through it civil laws are abused and
                   treated with the greatest contempt.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . p. 126
                   Chapter IV. As it has been shown that he who injures another for the
                   sake of his own advantage will undergo terrible punishment at the hand
                   of his own conscience, it is referred that nothing is useful to one which
                   is not in the same way useful to all. Thus there is no place among
                   Christians for the question propounded by the philosophers about two
                   shipwrecked persons, for they must show love and humility to all.. . . . p. 128
                   Chapter V. The upright does nothing that is contrary to duty, even though
                   there is a hope of keeping it secret. To point this out the tale about the
                   ring of Gyges was invented by the philosophers. Exposing this, he brings
                   forward known and true examples from the life of David and John the
                   Baptist.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . p. 129
                   Chapter VI. We ought not to allow the idea of profit to get hold of us.
                   What excuses they make who get their gains by selling corn, and what
                   answer ought to be made to them. In connection with this certain
                   parables from the Gospels and some of the sayings of Solomon are set
                   before our eyes.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . p. 131
                   Chapter VII. Strangers must never be expelled the city in a time of
                   famine. In this matter the noble advice of a Christian sage is adduced,
                   in contrast to which the shameful deed committed at Rome is given. By
                   comparing the two it is shown that the former is combined with what is
                   virtuous and useful, but the latter with neither.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . p. 133


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                   Chapter VIII. That those who put what is virtuous before what is useful
                   are acceptable to God is shown by the example of Joshua, Caleb, and
                   the other spies.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . p. 135
                   Chapter IX. Cheating and dishonest ways of making money are utterly
                   unfit for clerics whose duty is to serve all. They ought never to be
                   involved in a money affair, unless it is one affecting a man's life. For
                   them the example of David is given, that they should injure none, even
                   when provoked; also the death of Naboth, to keep them from preferring
                   life to virtue.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . p. 135
                   Chapter X. We are warned not only in civil law, but also in the holy
                   Scriptures, to avoid fraud in every agreement, as is clear from the
                   example of Joshua and the Gibeonites.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . p. 137
                   Chapter XI. Having adduced examples of certain frauds found in a few
                   passages of the rhetoricians, he shows that these and all others are
                   more fully and plainly condemned in Scripture.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . p. 139
                   Chapter XII. We may make no promise that is wrong, and if we have
                   made an unjust oath, we may not keep it. It is shown that Herod sinned
                   in this respect. The vow taken by Jephtha is condemned, and so are
                   all others which God does not desire to have paid to Him. Lastly, the
                   daughter of Jephtha is compared with the two Pythagoreans and is
                   placed before them.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . p. 140
                   Chapter XIII. Judith, after enduring many dangers for virtue's sake,
                   gained very many and great benefits.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . p. 142
                   Chapter XIV. How virtuous and useful was that which Elisha did. This
                   is compared with that oft-recounted act of the Greeks. John gave up
                   his life for virtue's sake, and Susanna for the same reason exposed
                   herself to the danger of death.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . p. 142
                   Chapter XV. After mentioning a noble action of the Romans, the writer
                   shows from the deeds of Moses that he had the greatest regard for
                   what is virtuous.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . p. 144
                   Chapter XVI. After saying a few words about Tobit he demonstrates
                   that Raguel surpassed the philosophers in virtue.. . . . . . . . . . . . . p. 145
                   Chapter XVII. With what virtuous feelings the fathers of old hid the
                   sacred fires when on the point of going into captivity.. . . . . . . . . . . p. 146
                   Chapter XVIII. In the narration of that event already mentioned, and
                   especially of the sacrifice offered by Nehemiah, is typified the Holy Spirit
                   and Christian baptism. The sacrifice of Moses and Elijah and the history
                   of Noah are also referred to the same.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . p. 147
                   Chapter XIX. The crime committed by the inhabitants of Gibeah against
                   the wife of a certain Levite is related, and from the vengeance taken itp. 149


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                   is inferred how the idea of virtue must have filled the heart of those
                   people of old.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
                   Chapter XX. After the terrible siege of Samaria was ended in accordance
                   with Elisha's prophecy, he relates what regard the four lepers showed
                   for what was virtuous.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . p. 150
                   Chapter XXI. Esther in danger of her life followed the grace of virtue;
                   nay, even a heathen king did so, when death was threatened to a man
                   most friendly to him. For friendship must ever be combined with virtue,
                   as the examples of Jonathan and Ahimelech show.. . . . . . . . . . . . p. 151
                   Chapter XXII. Virtue must never be given up for the sake of a friend. If,
                   however, one has to bear witness against a friend, it must be done with
                   caution. Between friends what candour is needed in opening the heart,
                   what magnanimity in suffering, what freedom in finding fault! Friendship
                   is the guardian of virtues, which are not to be found but in men of like
                   character. It must be mild in rebuking and averse to seeking its own
                   advantage; whence it happens that true friends are scarce among the
                   rich. What is the dignity of friendship? The treachery of a friend, as it is
                   worse, so it is also more hateful than another's, as is recognized from
                   the example of Judas and of Job's friends.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . p. 152
                On the Holy Spirit.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . p. 155
                 Introduction.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . p. 155
                 Book I.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . p. 157
                   Preface.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . p. 157
                   Chapter I. St. Ambrose commences his argument by complimenting
                   the Emperor, both for his faith and for the restitution of the Basilica to
                   the Church; then having urged that his opponents, if they affirm that the
                   Holy Spirit is not a servant, cannot deny Him to be above all, adds that
                   the same Spirit, when He said, “All things serve Thee,” showed plainly
                   that He was distinct from creatures; which point he also establishes by
                   other evidence.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . p. 161
                   Chapter II. The words, “All things were made by Him,” are not a proof
                   that the Holy Spirit is included amongst all things, since He was not
                   made. For otherwise it could be proved by other passages that the Son,
                   and even the Father Himself, must be numbered amongst all things,
                   which would be similar irreverence.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . p. 162
                   Chapter III. The statement of the Apostle, that all things are of the Father
                   by the Son, does not separate the Spirit from Their company, since
                   what is referred to one Person is also attributed to each. So those
                   baptized in the Name of Christ are held to be baptized in the Name of
                   the Father and of the Holy Spirit, if, that is, there is belief in the Threep. 164


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                   Persons, otherwise the baptism will be null. This also applies to baptism
                   in the Name of the Holy Spirit. If because of one passage the Holy Spirit
                   is separated from the Father and the Son, it will necessarily follow from
                   other passages that the Father will be subordinated to the Son. The
                   Son is worshipped by angels, not by the Spirit, for the latter is His
                   witness, not His servant. Where the Son is spoken of as being before
                   all, it is to be understood of creatures. The great dignity of the Holy
                   Spirit is proved by the absence of forgiveness for the sin against Him.
                   How it is that such sin cannot be forgiven, and how the Spirit is
                   one.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
                   Chapter IV. The Holy Spirit is one and the same Who spake in the
                   prophets and apostles, Who is the Spirit of God and of Christ; Whom,
                   further, Scripture designates the Paraclete, and the Spirit of life and
                   truth.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . p. 168
                   Chapter V. The Holy Spirit, since He sanctifies creatures, is neither a
                   creature nor subject to change. He is always good, since He is given
                   by the Father and the Son; neither is He to be numbered amongst such
                   things as are said to fail. He must be acknowledged as the source of
                   goodness. The Spirit of God's mouth, the amender of evils, and Himself
                   good. Lastly, as He is said in Scripture to be good, and is joined to the
                   Father and the Son in baptism, He cannot possibly be denied to be
                   good. He is not, however, said to progress, but to be made perfect in
                   goodness, which distinguishes Him from all creatures.. . . . . . . . . . p. 169
                   Chapter VI. Although we are baptized with water and the Spirit, the
                   latter is much superior to the former, and is not therefore to be separated
                   from the Father and the Son.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . p. 172
                   Chapter VII. The Holy Spirit is not a creature, seeing that He is infinite,
                   and was shed upon the apostles dispersed through all countries, and
                   moreover sanctifies the Angels also, to whom He makes us equal. Mary
                   was full of the same likewise, so too, Christ the Lord, and so far all
                   things high and low. And all benediction has its origin from His operation,
                   as was signified in the moving of the water at Bethesda.. . . . . . . . . p. 173
                   Chapter VIII. The Holy Spirit is given by God alone, yet not wholly to
                   each person, since there is no one besides Christ capable of receiving
                   Him wholly. Charity is shed abroad by the Holy Spirit, Who, prefigured
                   by the mystical ointment, is shown to have nothing common with
                   creatures; and He, inasmuch as He is said to proceed from the mouth
                   of God, must not be classed with creatures, nor with things divisible,
                   seeing He is eternal.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . p. 175



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                  Chapter IX. The Holy Spirit is rightly called the ointment of Christ, and
                  the oil of gladness; and why Christ Himself is not the ointment, since
                  He was anointed with the Holy Spirit. It is not strange that the Spirit
                  should be called Ointment, since the Father and the Son are also called
                  Spirit. And there is no confusion between them, since Christ alone
                  suffered death, Whose saving cross is then spoken of.. . . . . . . . . . p. 177
                  Chapter X. That the Spirit forgives sin is common to Him with the Father
                  and the Son, but not with the Angels.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . p. 179
                  Chapter XI. The Spirit is sent to all, and passes not from place to place,
                  for He is not limited either by time or space. He goes forth from the Son,
                  as the Son from the Father, in Whom He ever abides: and also comes
                  to us when we receive. He comes also after the same manner as the
                  Father Himself, from Whom He can by no means be separated.. . . . . p. 180
                  Chapter XII. The peace and grace of the Father, the Son, and the Holy
                  Spirit are one, so also is Their charity one, which showed itself chiefly
                  in the redemption of man. Their communion with man is also one.. . . p. 182
                  Chapter XIII. St. Ambrose shows from the Scriptures that the Name of
                  the Three Divine Persons is one, and first the unity of the Name of the
                  Son and of the Holy Spirit, inasmuch as each is called Paraclete and
                  Truth.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . p. 183
                  Chapter XIV. Each Person of the Trinity is said in the sacred writings
                  to be Light. The Spirit is designated Fire by Isaiah, a figure of which
                  Fire was seen in the bush by Moses, in the tongues of fire, and in
                  Gideon's pitchers. And the Godhead of the same Spirit cannot be denied,
                  since His operation is the same as that of the Father and of the Son,
                  and He is also called the light and fire of the Lord's countenance.. . . . p. 185
                  Chapter XV. The Holy Spirit is Life equally with the Father and the Son,
                  in truth whether the Father be mentioned, with Whom is the Fount of
                  Life, or the Son, that Fount can be none other than the Holy
                  Spirit.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . p. 186
                  Chapter XVI. The Holy Spirit is that large river by which the mystical
                  Jerusalem is watered. It is equal to its Fount, that is, the Father and the
                  Son, as is signified in holy Scripture. St. Ambrose himself thirsts for that
                  water, and warns us that in order to preserve it within us, we must avoid
                  the devil, lust, and heresy, since our vessels are frail, and that broken
                  cisterns must be forsaken, that after the example of the Samaritan
                  woman and of the patriarchs we may find the water of the Lord.. . . . . p. 187
                 Book II.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . p. 190
                  Introduction.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . p. 190



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                   Chapter I. The Spirit is the Lord and Power; and in this is not inferior to
                   the Father and the Son.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . p. 193
                   Chapter II. The Father, the Son, and the Holy Spirit are One in
                   counsel.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . p. 193
                   Chapter III. As to know the Father and the Son is life, so is it life to know
                   the Holy Spirit; and therefore in the Godhead He is not to be separated
                   from the Father.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . p. 194
                   Chapter IV. The Holy Spirit gives life, not in a different way from the
                   Father and the Son, nor by a different working.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . p. 195
                   Chapter V. The Holy Spirit, as well as the Father and the Son, is pointed
                   out in holy Scripture as Creator, and the same truth was shadowed forth
                   even by heathen writers, but it was shown most plainly in the Mystery
                   of the Incarnation, after touching upon which, the writer maintains his
                   argument from the fact that worship which is due to the Creator alone
                   is paid to the Holy Spirit.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . p. 195
                   Chapter VI. To those who object that according to the words of Amos
                   the Spirit is created, the answer is made that the word is there
                   understood of the wind, which is often created, which cannot be said
                   of the Holy Spirit, since He is eternal, and cannot be dissolved in death,
                   or by an heretical absorption into the Father. But if they pertinaciously
                   contend that this passage was written of the Holy Spirit, St. Ambrose
                   points out that recourse must be had to a spiritual Interpretation, for
                   Christ by His coming established the thunder, that is, the force of the
                   divine utterances, and by Spirit is signified the human soul as also the
                   flesh assumed by Christ. And since this was created by each Person
                   of the Trinity, it is thence argued that the Spirit, Who has before been
                   affirmed to be the Creator of all things, was the Author of the Incarnation
                   of the Lord.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . p. 198
                   Chapter VII. The Holy Spirit is no less the author of spiritual creation or
                   regeneration than the Father and the Son. The excellence of that
                   creation, and wherein it consists. How we are to understand holy
                   Scripture, when it attributes a body or members to God.. . . . . . . . . p. 201
                   Chapter VIII. St. Ambrose examines and refutes the heretical argument
                   that because God is said to be glorified in the Spirit, and not with the
                   Spirit, the Holy Spirit is therefore inferior to the Father. He shows that
                   the particle in can be also used of the Son and even of the Father, and
                   that on the other hand with may be said of creatures without any
                   infringement on the prerogatives of the Godhead; and that in reality
                   these prepositions simply imply the connection of the Three Divine
                   Persons.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . p. 203


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                   Chapter IX. A passage of St. Paul abused by heretics, to prove a
                   distinction between the Divine Persons, is explained, and it is proved
                   that the whole passage can be rightly said of each Person, though it
                   refers specially to the Son. It is then proved that each member of the
                   passage is applicable to each Person, and as to say, of Him are all
                   things is applicable to the Father, so may all things are through Him
                   and in Him also be said of Him.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . p. 206
                   Chapter X. Being about to prove that the will, the calling, and the
                   commandment of the Trinity is one, St. Ambrose shows that the Spirit
                   called the Church exactly as the Father and the Son did, and proves
                   this by the selection of SS. Paul and Barnabas, and especially by the
                   mission of St. Peter to Cornelius. And by the way he points out how in
                   the Apostle's vision the calling of the Gentiles was shadowed forth, who
                   having been before like wild beasts, now by the operation of the Spirit
                   lay aside that wildness. Then having quoted other passages in support
                   of this view, he shows that in the case of Jeremiah cast into a pit by
                   Jews, and rescued by Abdemelech, is a type of the slighting of the Holy
                   Spirit by the Jews, and of His being honoured by the Gentiles.. . . . . p. 209
                   Chapter XI. We shall follow the example of Abdemelech, if we believe
                   that the Son and Holy Spirit know all things. This knowledge is attributed
                   in Scripture to the Spirit, and also to the Son. The Son is glorified by
                   the Spirit, as also the Spirit by the Son. Also, inasmuch as we read that
                   the Father, the Son, and the Spirit say and reveal the same things, we
                   must acknowledge in Them a oneness of nature and knowledge. Lastly,
                   that the Spirit searcheth the deep things of God is not a mark of
                   ignorance, since the Father and the Son are likewise said to search,
                   and Paul, although chosen by Christ, yet was taught by the Spirit.. . . p. 212
                   Chapter XII. After proof that the Spirit is the Giver of revelation equally
                   with the Father and the Son, it is explained how the same Spirit does
                   not speak of Himself; and it is shown that no bodily organs are to be
                   thought of in Him, and that no inferiority is to be supposed from the fact
                   of our reading that He hears, since the same would have to be attributed
                   to the Son, and indeed even to the Father, since He hears the Son. The
                   Spirit then hears and glorifies the Son in the sense that He revealed
                   Him to the prophets and apostles, by which the Unity of operation of
                   the Three Persons is inferred; and, since the Spirit does the same works
                   as the Father, the substance of each is also declared to be the
                   same.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . p. 214
                   Chapter XIII. Prophecy was not only from the Father and the Son but
                   also from the Spirit; the authority and operation of the latter on thep. 217


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                  apostles is signified to be the same as Theirs; and so we are to
                  understand that there is unity in the three points of authority, rule, and
                  bounty; yet need no disadvantage be feared from that participation,
                  since such does not arise in human friendship. Lastly, it is established
                  that this is the inheritance of the apostolic faith from the fact that the
                  apostles are described as having obeyed the Holy Spirit.. . . . . . . .
                 Book III.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . p. 220
                  Chapter I. Not only were the prophets and apostles sent by the Spirit,
                  but also the Son of God. This is proved from Isaiah and the evangelists,
                  and it is explained why St. Luke wrote that the same Spirit descended
                  like a dove upon Christ and abode upon Him. Next, after establishing
                  this mission of Christ, the writer infers that the Son is sent by the Father
                  and the Spirit, as the Spirit is by the Father and the Son.. . . . . . . . . p. 220
                  Chapter II. The Son and the Spirit are alike given; whence not subjection
                  but one Godhead is shown by Its working.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . p. 222
                  Chapter III. The same Unity may also be recognized from the fact that
                  the Spirit is called Finger, and the Son Right Hand; for the understanding
                  of divine things is assisted by the usage of human language. The tables
                  of the law were written by this Finger, and they were afterwards broken,
                  and the reason. Lastly, Christ wrote with the same Finger; yet we must
                  not admit any inferiority in the Spirit from this bodily comparison.. . . . p. 223
                  Chapter IV. To those who contend that the Spirit because He is called
                  the Finger is less than the Father, St. Ambrose replies that this would
                  also tend to the lessening of the Son, Who is called the Right Hand.
                  That these names are to be referred only to the Unity, for which reason
                  Moses proclaimed that the whole Trinity worked in the passage of the
                  Red Sea. And, indeed, it is no wonder that the operation of the Spirit
                  found place there, where there was a figure of baptism, since the
                  Scripture teaches that the Three Persons equally sanctify and are
                  operative in that sacrament.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . p. 225
                  Chapter V. The writer sums up the argument he had commenced, and
                  confirms the statement that unity is signified by the terms finger and
                  right hand, from the fact that the works of God are the same as are the
                  works of hands; and that those of hands are the same as those of
                  fingers; and lastly, that the term hand applies equally to the Son and
                  the Spirit, and that of finger applies to the Spirit and the Son.. . . . . . p. 226
                  Chapter VI. The Spirit rebukes just as do the Father and the Son; and
                  indeed judges could not judge without Him, as is shown by the
                  judgments of Solomon and Daniel, which are explained in a few words,
                  by the way; and no other than the Holy Spirit inspired Daniel.. . . . . . p. 227


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                   Chapter VII. The Son Himself does not judge or punish without the
                   Spirit, so that the same Spirit is called the Sword of the Word. But
                   inasmuch as the Word is in turn called the Sword of the Spirit, the
                   highest unity of power is thereby recognized in each.. . . . . . . . . . . p. 229
                   Chapter VIII. The aforesaid unity is proved hereby, that as the Father
                   is said to be grieved and tempted, so too the Son. The Son was also
                   tempted in the wilderness, where a figure of the cross was set up in the
                   brazen serpent: but the Apostle says that the Spirit also was there
                   tempted. St. Ambrose infers from this that the Israelites were guided
                   into the promised land by the same Spirit, and that His will and power
                   are one with those of the Father and the Son.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . p. 230
                   Chapter IX. That the Holy Spirit is provoked is proved by the words of
                   St. Peter, in which it is shown that the Spirit of God is one and the same
                   as the Spirit of the Lord, both by other passages and by reference to
                   the sentence of the same Apostle on Ananias and Sapphira, whence
                   it is argued that the union of the Holy Spirit with the Father and the Son,
                   as well as His own Godhead, is proved.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . p. 231
                   Chapter X. The Divinity of the Holy Spirit is supported by a passage of
                   St. John. This passage was, indeed, erased by heretics, but it is a vain
                   attempt, since their faithlessness could thereby more easily be convicted.
                   The order of the context is considered in order that this passage may
                   be shown to refer to the Spirit. He is born of the Spirit who is born again
                   of the same Spirit, of Whom Christ Himself is believed to have been
                   born and born again. Again, the Godhead of the Spirit is inferred from
                   two testimonies of St. John; and lastly, it is explained how the Spirit,
                   the water, and the blood are called witnesses.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . p. 233
                   Chapter XI. The objection has been made, that the words of St. John,
                   “The Spirit is God,” are to be referred to God the Father; since Christ
                   afterwards declares that God is to be worshipped in Spirit and in truth.
                   The answer is, first, that by the word Spirit is sometimes meant spiritual
                   grace; next, it is shown that, if they insist that the Person of the Holy
                   Spirit is signified by the words “in Spirit,” and therefore deny that
                   adoration is due to Him, the argument tells equally against the Son; and
                   since numberless passages prove that He is to be worshipped, we
                   understand from this that the same rule is to be laid down as regards
                   the Spirit. Why are we commanded to fall down before His footstool?
                   Because by this is signified the Lord's Body, and as the Spirit was the
                   Maker of this, it follows that He is to be worshipped, and yet it does not
                   accordingly follow that Mary is to be worshipped. Therefore the worship
                   of the Spirit is not done away with, but His union with the Father isp. 235


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                   expressed, when it is said that the Father is to be worshipped in Spirit,
                   and this point is supported by similar expressions.. . . . . . . . . . . . .
                   Chapter XII. From the fact that St. Paul has shown that the light of the
                   Godhead which the three apostles worshipped in Christ is in the Trinity,
                   it is made clear that the Spirit also is to be worshipped. It is shown from
                   the words themselves that the Spirit is intended by the apostles. The
                   Godhead of the same Spirit is proved from the fact that He has a temple
                   wherein He dwells not as a priest, but as God: and is worshipped with
                   the Father and the Son; whence is understood the oneness of nature
                   in Them.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . p. 239
                   Chapter XIII. To those who object that Catholics, when they ascribe
                   Godhead to the Holy Spirit, introduce three Gods, it is answered, that
                   by the same argument they themselves bring in two Gods, unless they
                   deny Godhead to the Son; after which the orthodox doctrine is set
                   forth.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . p. 240
                   Chapter XIV. Besides the evidence adduced above, other passages
                   can be brought to prove the sovereignty of the Three Persons. Two are
                   quoted from the Epistles to the Thessalonians, and by collating other
                   testimonies of the Scriptures it is shown that in them dominion is claimed
                   for the Spirit as for the other Persons. Then, by quotation of another
                   still more express passage in the second Epistle to the Corinthians, it
                   is inferred both that the Spirit is Lord, and that where the Lord is, there
                   is the Spirit.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . p. 241
                   Chapter XV. Though the Spirit be called Lord, three Lords are not
                   thereby implied; inasmuch as two Lords are not implied by the fact that
                   the Son in the same manner as the Father is called Lord in many
                   passages of Scripture; for Lordship exists in the Godhead, and the
                   Godhead in Lordship, and these coincide without division in the Three
                   Persons.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . p. 242
                   Chapter XVI. The Father is holy, and likewise the Son and the Spirit,
                   and so They are honoured in the same Trisagion: nor can we speak
                   more worthily of God than by calling Him Holy; whence it is clear that
                   we must not derogate from the dignity of the Holy Spirit. In Him is all
                   which pertains to God, since in baptism He is named with the Father
                   and the Son, and the Father has given to Him to be greater than all,
                   nor can any one deprive Him of this. And so from the very passage of
                   St. John which heretics used against His dignity, the equality of the
                   Trinity and the Unity of the Godhead is established. Lastly, after
                   explaining how the Son receives from the Father, St. Ambrose shows
                   how various heresies are refuted by the passage cited.. . . . . . . . . p. 244


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                   Chapter XVII. St. Ambrose shows by instances that the places in which
                   those words were spoken help to the understanding of the words of the
                   Lord; he shows that Christ uttered the passage quoted from St. John
                   in Solomon's porch, by which is signified the mind of a wise man, for
                   he says that Christ would not have uttered this saying in the heart of a
                   foolish or contentious man. He goes on to say that Christ is stoned by
                   those who believe not these words, and as the keys of heaven were
                   given to Peter for his confession of them, so Iscariot, because he
                   believed not the same, perished evilly. He takes this opportunity to
                   inveigh against the Jews who bought the Son of God and sold Joseph.
                   He explains the price paid for each mystically; and having in the same
                   manner expounded the murmuring of the traitor concerning Magdalene's
                   ointment, he adds that Christ is bought in one way by heretics in another
                   way by Catholics, and that those in vain take to themselves the name
                   of Christians who sever the Spirit from the Father.. . . . . . . . . . . . . p. 245
                   Chapter XVIII. As he purposes to establish the Godhead of the Holy
                   Spirit by the points already discussed, St. Ambrose touches again on
                   some of them; for instance, that He does not commit but forgives sin;
                   that He is not a creature but the Creator; and lastly, that He does not
                   offer but receives worship.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . p. 248
                   Chapter XIX. Having proved above that the Spirit abides and speaks
                   in the prophets, St. Ambrose infers that He knows all things which are
                   of God, and therefore is One with the Father and the Son. This same
                   point he establishes again from the fact that He possesses all that God
                   possesses, namely, Godhead, knowledge of the heart, truth, a Name
                   above every name, and power to raise the dead, as is proved from
                   Ezekiel, and in this He is equal to the Son.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . p. 251
                   Chapter XX. The river flowing from the Throne of God is a figure of the
                   Holy Spirit, but by the waters spoken of by David the powers of heaven
                   are intended. The kingdom of God is the work of the Spirit; and it is no
                   matter for wonder if He reigns in this together with the Son, since St.
                   Paul promises that we too shall reign with the Son.. . . . . . . . . . . . p. 252
                   Chapter XXI. Isaiah was sent by the Spirit, and accordingly the same
                   Spirit was seen by him. What is meant by the revolving wheels, and the
                   divers wings, and how since the Spirit is proclaimed Lord of Sabaoth
                   by the Seraphim, certainly none but impious men can deny Him this
                   title.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . p. 253
                   Chapter XXII. In proof of the Unity in Trinity the passage of Isaiah which
                   has been cited is considered, and it is shown that there is no difference
                   as to its sense amongst those who expound it of the Father, or of thep. 255


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                   Son, or of the Spirit. If He Who was crucified was Lord of glory, so, too,
                   is the Holy Spirit equal in all things to the Father and the Son, and the
                   Arians will never be able to diminish His glory.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
                On the Decease of His Brother Satyrus.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . p. 256
                 Introduction.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . p. 256
                 Book I.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . p. 257
                 Book II. On the Belief in the Resurrection.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . p. 273
                Exposition of the Christian Faith.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . p. 305
                 Preface.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . p. 305
                 Prefatory Note.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . p. 305
                 Book I.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . p. 306
                   Prologue.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . p. 306
                   Chapter I. The author distinguishes the faith from the errors of Pagans,
                   Jews, and Heretics, and after explaining the significance of the names
                   “God” and “Lord,” shows clearly the difference of Persons in Unity of
                   Essence. In dividing the Essence, the Arians not only bring in the
                   doctrine of three Gods, but even overthrow the dominion of the
                   Trinity.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . p. 308
                   Chapter II. The Emperor is exhorted to display zeal in the Faith. Christ's
                   perfect Godhead is shown from the unity of will and working which He
                   has with the Father. The attributes of Divinity are shown to be proper
                   to Christ, Whose various titles prove His essential unity, with distinction
                   of Person. In no other way can the unity of God be maintained.. . . . . p. 310
                   Chapter III. By evidence gathered from Scripture the unity of Father
                   and Son is proved, and firstly, a passage, taken from the Book of Isaiah,
                   is compared with others and expounded in such sort as to show that in
                   the Son there is no diversity from the Father's nature, save only as
                   regards the flesh; whence it follows that the Godhead of both Persons
                   is One. This conclusion is confirmed by the authority of Baruch.. . . . . p. 311
                   Chapter IV. The Unity of God is necessarily implied in the order of
                   Nature, in the Faith, and in Baptism. The gifts of the Magi declare (1)
                   the Unity of the Godhead; (2) Christ's Godhead and Manhood. The truth
                   of the doctrine of the Trinity in Unity is shown in the Angel walking in
                   the midst of the furnace with Shadrach, Meshach, and Abednego.. . . p. 314
                   Chapter V. The various blasphemies uttered by the Arians against Christ
                   are cited. Before these are replied to, the orthodox are admonished to
                   beware of the captious arguments of philosophers, forasmuch as in
                   these especially did the heretics put their trust.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . p. 315
                   Chapter VI. By way of leading up to his proof that Christ is not different
                   from the Father, St. Ambrose cites the more famous leaders of the Arianp. 317


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                   party, and explains how little their witness agrees, and shows what
                   defence the Scriptures provide against them.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
                   Chapter VII. The likeness of Christ to the Father is asserted on the
                   authority of St. Paul, the prophets, and the Gospel, and especially in
                   reliance upon the creation of man in God's image.. . . . . . . . . . . . . p. 318
                   Chapter VIII. The likeness of the Son to the Father being proved, it is
                   not hard to prove the Son's eternity, though, indeed, this may be
                   established on the authority of the Prophet Isaiah and St. John the
                   Evangelist, by which authority the heretical leaders are shown to be
                   refuted.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . p. 319
                   Chapter IX. St. Ambrose questions the heretics and exhibits their
                   answer, which is, that the Son existed, indeed, before all time, yet was
                   not co-eternal with the Father, whereat the Saint shows that they
                   represent the Godhead as changeable, and further, that each Person
                   must be believed to be eternal.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . p. 322
                   Chapter X. Christ's eternity being proved from the Apostle's teaching,
                   St. Ambrose admonishes us that the Divine Generation is not to be
                   thought of after the fashion of human procreation, nor to be too curiously
                   pried into. With the difficulties thence arising he refuses to deal, saying
                   that whatsoever terms, taken from our knowledge of body, are used in
                   speaking of this Divine Generation, must be understood with a spiritual
                   meaning.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . p. 323
                   Chapter XI. It cannot be proved from Scripture that the Father existed
                   before the Son, nor yet can arguments taken from human reproduction
                   avail to this end, since they bring in absurdities without end. To dare to
                   affirm that Christ began to exist in the course of time is the height of
                   blasphemy.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . p. 325
                   Chapter XII. Further objections to the Godhead of the Son are met by
                   the same answer--to wit, that they may equally be urged against the
                   Father also. The Father, then, being in no way confined by time, place,
                   or anything else created, no such limitation is to be imposed upon the
                   Son, Whose marvellous generation is not only of the Father, but of the
                   Virgin also, and therefore, since in His generation of the Father no
                   distinction of sex, or the like, was involved, neither was it in His
                   generation of the Virgin.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . p. 326
                   Chapter XIII. Discussion of the Divine Generation is continued. St.
                   Ambrose illustrates its method by the same example as that employed
                   by the author of the Epistle to the Hebrews. The duty of believing what
                   is revealed is shown by the example of Nebuchadnezzar and St. Peter.
                   By the vision granted to St. Peter was shown the Son's Eternity andp. 328


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                   Godhead--the Apostle, then, must be believed in preference to the
                   teachers of philosophy, whose authority was everywhere falling into
                   discredit. The Arians, on the other hand, are shown to be like unto the
                   heathen.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
                   Chapter XIV. That the Son of God is not a created being is proved by
                   the following arguments: (1) That He commanded not that the Gospel
                   should be preached to Himself; (2) that a created being is given over
                   unto vanity; (3) that the Son has created all things; (4) that we read of
                   Him as begotten; and (5) that the difference of generation and adoption
                   has always been understood in those places where both natures--the
                   divine and the human--are declared to co-exist in Him. All of which
                   testimony is confirmed by the Apostle's interpretation.. . . . . . . . . . p. 329
                   Chapter XV. An explanation of Acts ii. 36 and Proverbs viii. 22, which
                   are shown to refer properly to Christ's manhood alone.. . . . . . . . . . p. 331
                   Chapter XVI. The Arians blaspheme Christ, if by the words “created”
                   and “begotten” they mean and understand one and the same thing. If,
                   however, they regard the words as distinct in meaning, they must not
                   speak of Him, of Whom they have read that He was begotten, as if He
                   were a created being. This rule is upheld by the witness of St. Paul,
                   who, professing himself a servant of Christ, forbade worship of a created
                   being. God being a substance pure and uncompounded, there is no
                   created nature in Him; furthermore, the Son is not to be degraded to
                   the level of things created, seeing that in Him the Father is well
                   pleased.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . p. 333
                   Chapter XVII. That Christ is very God is proved from the fact that He is
                   God's own Son, also from His having been begotten and having come
                   forth from God, and further, from the unity of will and operation subsisting
                   in Father and Son. The witness of the apostles and of the
                   centurion--which St. Ambrose sets over against the Arian teaching--is
                   adduced, together with that of Isaiah and St. John.. . . . . . . . . . . . p. 334
                   Chapter XVIII. The errors of the Arians are mentioned in the Nicene
                   Definition of the Faith, to prevent their deceiving anybody. These errors
                   are recited, together with the anathema pronounced against them, which
                   is said to have been not only pronounced at Nicæa, but also twice
                   renewed at Ariminum.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . p. 336
                   Chapter XIX. Arius is charged with the first of the above-mentioned
                   errors, and refuted by the testimony of St. John. The miserable death
                   of the Heresiarch is described, and the rest of his blasphemous errors
                   are one by one examined and disproved.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . p. 337



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                  Chapter XX. St. Ambrose declares his desire that some angel would
                  fly to him to purify him, as once the Seraph did to Isaiah--nay more, that
                  Christ Himself would come to him, to the Emperor, and to his readers,
                  and finally prays that Gratian and the rest of the faithful may be exalted
                  by the power and spell of the Lord's Cup, which he describes in mystic
                  language.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . p. 339
                 Book II.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . p. 340
                  Introduction.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . p. 341
                  Chapter I. The Arian argument from S. Mark x. 18, “There is none good
                  but one, that is, God,” refuted by explanation of these words of
                  Christ.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . p. 347
                  Chapter II. The goodness of the Son of God is proved from His works,
                  namely, His benefits that He showed towards the people of Israel under
                  the Old Covenant, and to Christians under the New. It is to one's own
                  interest to believe in the goodness of Him Who is one's Lord and Judge.
                  The Father's testimony to the Son. No small number of the Jewish
                  people bear witness to the Son; the Arians therefore are plainly worse
                  than the Jews. The words of the Bride, declaring the same goodness
                  of Christ.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . p. 347
                  Chapter III. Forasmuch as God is One, the Son of God is God, good
                  and true.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . p. 349
                  Chapter IV. The omnipotence of the Son of God, demonstrated on the
                  authority of the Old and the New Testament.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . p. 350
                  Chapter V. Certain passages from Scripture, urged against the
                  Omnipotence of Christ, are resolved; the writer is also at especial pains
                  to show that Christ not seldom spoke in accordance with the affections
                  of human nature.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . p. 351
                  Chapter VI. The passages of Scripture above cited are taken as an
                  occasion for a digression, wherein our Lord's freedom of action is proved
                  from the ascription to the Spirit of such freedom, and from places where
                  it is attributed to the Son.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . p. 352
                  Chapter VII. The resolution of the difficulty set forth for consideration is
                  again taken in hand. Christ truly and really took upon Him a human will
                  and affections, the source of whatsoever was not in agreement with His
                  Godhead, and which must be therefore referred to the fact that He was
                  at the same time both God and man.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . p. 353
                  Chapter VIII. Christ's saying, “The Father is greater than I,” is explained
                  in accordance with the principle just established. Other like sayings are
                  expounded in like fashion. Our Lord cannot, as touching His Godhead,
                  be called inferior to the Father.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . p. 355


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                   Chapter IX. The objection that the Son, being sent by the Father, is, in
                   that regard at least, inferior, is met by the answer that He was also sent
                   by the Spirit, Who is yet not considered greater than the Son.
                   Furthermore, the Spirit, in His turn, is sent by the Father to the Son, in
                   order that Their unity in action might be shown forth. It is our duty,
                   therefore, carefully to distinguish what utterances are to be fitly ascribed
                   to Christ as God, and what to be ascribed to Him as man.. . . . . . . . p. 358
                   Chapter X. The objection taken on the ground of the Son's obedience
                   is disproved, and the unity of power, Godhead, and operation in the
                   Trinity set forth, Christ's obedience to His mother, to whom He certainly
                   cannot be called inferior, is noticed.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . p. 361
                   Chapter XI. The purpose and healing effects of the Incarnation. The
                   profitableness of faith, whereby we know that Christ bore all infirmities
                   for our sakes,--Christ, Whose Godhead revealed Itself in His Passion;
                   whence we understand that the mission of the Son of God entailed no
                   subservience, which belief we need not fear lest it displease the Father,
                   Who declares Himself to be well pleased in His Son.. . . . . . . . . . . p. 362
                   Chapter XII. Do the Catholics or the Arians take the better course to
                   assure themselves of the favour of Christ as their Judge? An objection
                   grounded on Ps. cx. 1 is disposed of, it being shown that when the Son
                   is invited by the Father to sit at His right hand, no subjection is intended
                   to be signified--nor yet any preferment, in that the Son sits at the Father's
                   right hand. The truth of the Trinity of Persons in God, and of the Unity
                   of their Nature, is shown to be proved by the angelic Trisagion.. . . . . p. 364
                   Chapter XIII. The wicked and dishonourable opinions held by Arians,
                   Sabellians, and Manichæans as concerning their Judge are shortly
                   refuted. Christ's remonstrances regarding the rest of His adversaries
                   being set forth, St. Ambrose expresses a hope of milder judgment for
                   himself.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . p. 366
                   Chapter XIV. The sentence of the Judge is set forth, the counterpleas
                   of the opposers are considered, and the finality of the sentence, from
                   which there is no appeal, proved.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . p. 368
                   Chapter XV. St. Ambrose deprecates any praise of his own merits: in
                   any case, the Faith is sufficiently defended by the authoritative support
                   of holy Scripture, to whose voice the Arians, stubborn as the Jews, are
                   deaf. He prays that they may be moved to love the truth; meanwhile,
                   they are to be avoided, as heretics and enemies of Christ.. . . . . . . p. 369
                   Chapter XVI. St. Ambrose assures Gratian of victory, declaring that it
                   has been foretold in the prophecies of Ezekiel. This hope is further
                   stayed upon the emperor's piety, the former disasters being thep. 370


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                  punishment of Eastern heresy. The book closes with a prayer to God,
                  that He will now show His mercy, and save the army, the land, and the
                  sovereign of the faithful.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
                 Book III.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . p. 372
                  Chapter I. Statement of the reasons wherefore the matters, treated of
                  shortly in the two former, are dealt with more at length in the three later
                  books. Defence of the employment of fables, which is supported by the
                  example of Holy Writ, wherein are found various figures of poetic fable,
                  in particular the Sirens, which are figures of sensual pleasures, and
                  which Christians ought to be taught to avoid, by the words of Paul and
                  the deeds of Christ.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . p. 372
                  Chapter II. The incidents properly affecting the body which Christ for
                  our sake took upon Him are not to be accounted to His Godhead, in
                  respect whereof He is the Most Highest. To deny which is to say that
                  the Father was incarnate. When we read that God is one, and that there
                  is none other beside Him, or that He alone has immortality, this must
                  be understood as true of Christ also, not only to avoid the sinful heresy
                  above-mentioned (Patripassianism), but also because the activity of
                  the Father and the Son is declared to be one and the same.. . . . . . p. 374
                  Chapter III. That the Father and the Son must not be divided is proved
                  by the words of the Apostle, seeing that it is befitting to the Son that He
                  should be blessed, only Potentate, and immortal, by nature, that is, and
                  not by grace, as even the angels themselves are immortal, and that He
                  should dwell in the unapproachable light. How it is that the Father and
                  the Son are alike and equally said to be “alone.”. . . . . . . . . . . . . . p. 376
                  Chapter IV. We are told that Christ was only “made” so far as regards
                  the flesh. For the redemption of mankind He needed no means of aid,
                  even as He needed none in order to His Resurrection, whereas others,
                  in order to raise the dead, had need of recourse to prayer. Even when
                  Christ prayed, the prayer was offered by Him in His capacity as human;
                  whilst He must be accounted divine from the fact that He commanded
                  (that such and such things should be done). On this point the devil's
                  testimony is truer than the Arians' arguments. The discussion concludes
                  with an explanation of the reason why the title of “mighty” is given to
                  the Son of Man.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . p. 378
                  Chapter V. Passages brought forward from Scripture to show that “made”
                  does not always mean the same as “created;” whence it is concluded
                  that the letter of Holy Writ should not be made the ground of captious
                  arguments, after the manner of the Jews, who, however, are shown top. 380



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                   be not so bad as the heretics, and thus the principle already set forth
                   is confirmed anew.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
                   Chapter VI. In order to dispose of an objection grounded on a text in
                   St. John, St. Ambrose first shows that the Arian interpretation lends
                   countenance to the Manichæans; then, after setting forth the different
                   ways of dividing the words in this same passage, he shows plainly that
                   it cannot, without dishonour to the Father, be understood with such
                   reference to the Godhead as the Arians give it, and expounds the true
                   meaning thereon.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . p. 382
                   Chapter VII. Solomon's words, “The Lord created Me,” etc., mean that
                   Christ's Incarnation was done for the redemption of the Father's creation,
                   as is shown by the Son's own words. That He is the “beginning” may
                   be understood from the visible proofs of His virtuousness, and it is
                   shown how the Lord opened the ways of all virtues, and was their true
                   beginning.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . p. 383
                   Chapter VIII. The prophecy of Christ's Godhead and Manhood, contained
                   in the verse of Isaiah just now cited, is unfolded, and its force in refuting
                   various heresies demonstrated.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . p. 385
                   Chapter IX. The preceding quotation from Solomon's Proverbs receives
                   further explanation.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . p. 386
                   Chapter X. Observations on the words of John the Baptist (John i. 30),
                   which may be referred to divine fore-ordinance, but at any rate, as
                   explained by the foregoing considerations, must be understood of the
                   Incarnation. The precedence of Christ is mystically expounded, with
                   reference to the history of Ruth.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . p. 387
                   Chapter XI. St. Ambrose returns to the main question, and shows that
                   whenever Christ is said to have “been made” (or “become”), this must
                   be understood with reference to His Incarnation, or to certain limitations.
                   In this sense several passages of Scripture--especially of St. Paul--are
                   expounded. The eternal Priesthood of Christ, prefigured in Melchizedek.
                   Christ possesses not only likeness, but oneness with the Father.. . . . p. 390
                   Chapter XII. The kingdom of the Father and of the Son is one and
                   undivided, so likewise is the Godhead of each.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . p. 393
                   Chapter XIII. The majesty of the Son is His own, and equal to that of
                   the Father, and the angels are not partakers, but beholders
                   thereof.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . p. 395
                   Chapter XIV. The Son is of one substance with the Father.. . . . . . . p. 396
                   Chapter XV. The Arians, inasmuch as they assert the Son to be “of
                   another substance,” plainly acknowledge substance in God. The only
                   reason why they avoid the use of this term is that they will not, asp. 398


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                  Eusebius of Nicomedia has made it evident, confess Christ to be the
                  true Son of God.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
                  Chapter XVI. In order to forearm the orthodox against the stratagems
                  of the Arians, St. Ambrose discloses some of the deceitful confessions
                  used by the latter, and shows by various arguments, that though they
                  sometimes call the Son “God,” it is not enough, unless they also admit
                  His equality with the Father.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . p. 400
                  Chapter XVII. An objection based on St. Stephen's vision of the Lord
                  standing is disposed of, and from the prayers of the same saint,
                  addressed to the Son of God, the equality of the Son with the Father is
                  shown.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . p. 402
                 Book IV.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . p. 403
                  Chapter I. The marvel is, not that men have failed to know Christ, but
                  that they have not listened to the words of the Scriptures. Christ, indeed,
                  was not known, even of angels, save by revelation, nor again, by His
                  forerunner. Follows a description of Christ's triumphal ascent into
                  heaven, and the excellence of its glory over the assumption of certain
                  prophets. Lastly, from exposition of the conversation with angels upon
                  this occasion, the omnipotence of the Son is proved, as against the
                  Arians.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . p. 403
                  Chapter II. None can ascend to heaven without faith; in any case, he
                  who hath so ascended thither will be cast out wherefore, faith must be
                  zealously preserved. We ourselves each have a heaven within, the
                  gates whereof must be opened and be raised by confession of the
                  Godhead of Christ, which gates are not raised by Arians, nor by those
                  who seek the Son amongst earthly things, and who must therefore, like
                  the Magdalene, be sent back to the apostles, against whom the gates
                  of hell shall not prevail. Scriptures are cited to show that the servant of
                  the Lord must not diminish aught of his Master's honour.. . . . . . . . . p. 405
                  Chapter III. The words, “The head of every man is Christ…and the head
                  of Christ is God” misused by the Arians, are now turned back against
                  them, to their confutation. Next, another passage of Scripture, commonly
                  taken by the same heretics as a ground of objection, is called in to show
                  that God is the Head of Christ, in so far as Christ is human, in regard
                  of His Manhood, and the unwisdom of their opposition upon the text,
                  “He who planteth and He who watereth are one,” is displayed. After
                  which explanations, the meaning of the doctrine that the Father is in
                  the Son, and the Son in the Father, and that the faithful are in Both, is
                  expounded.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . p. 407



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                   Chapter IV. The passage quoted adversely by heretics, namely, “The
                   Son can do nothing of Himself,” is first explained from the words which
                   follow; then, the text being examined, word by word, their acceptation
                   in the Arian sense is shown to be impossible without incurring the charge
                   of impiety or absurdity, the proof resting chiefly on the creation of the
                   world and certain miracles of Christ.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . p. 409
                   Chapter V. Continuing the exposition of the disputed passage, which
                   he had begun, Ambrose brings forward four reasons why we affirm that
                   something cannot be, and shows that the first three fail to apply to Christ,
                   and infers that the only reason why the Son can do nothing of Himself
                   is His Unity in Power with the Father.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . p. 411
                   Chapter VI. The fourth kind of impossibility (§49) is now taken into
                   consideration, and it is shown that the Son does nothing that the Father
                   approves not, there being between Them perfect unity of will and
                   power.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . p. 414
                   Chapter VII. The doctrine had in view for enforcement is corroborated
                   by the truth that the Son is the Word of the Father--the Word, not in the
                   sense in which we understand the term, but a living and active Word.
                   This being so, we cannot deny Him to be of the same Will, Power, and
                   Substance with the Father.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . p. 416
                   Chapter VIII. The heretical objection, that the Son cannot be equal to
                   the Father, because He cannot beget a Son, is turned back upon the
                   authors of it. From the case of human nature it is shown that whether
                   a person begets offspring or not, has nothing to do with his power. Most
                   of all must this be true since, otherwise, the Father Himself would have
                   to be pronounced wanting in power. Whence it follows that we have no
                   right to judge of divine things by human, and must take our stand upon
                   the authority of Holy Writ, otherwise we must deny all power either to
                   the Father or to the Son.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . p. 417
                   Chapter IX. Various quibbling arguments, advanced by the Arians to
                   show that the Son had a beginning of existence, are considered and
                   refuted, on the ground that whilst the Arians plainly prove nothing, or if
                   they prove anything, prove it against themselves, (inasmuch as He Who
                   is the beginning of all cannot Himself have a beginning), their reasonings
                   do not even hold true with regard to facts of human existence. Time
                   could not be before He was, Who is the Author of time--if indeed at
                   some time He was not in existence, then the Father was without His
                   Power and Wisdom. Again, our own human experience shows that a
                   person is said to exist before he is born.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . p. 421



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                  Chapter X. The objection that Christ, on the showing of St. John, lives
                  because of the Father, and therefore is not to be regarded as equal
                  with the Father, is met by the reply that for the Life of the Son, in respect
                  of His Godhead, there has never been a time when it began; and that
                  it is dependent upon none, whilst the passage in question must be
                  understood as referring to His human life, as is shown by His speaking
                  there of His body and blood. Two expositions of the passage are given,
                  the one of which is shown to refer to Christ's Manhood, whilst the second
                  teaches His equality with the Father, as also His likeness with men.
                  Rebuke is administered to the Arians for the insult which they are
                  seeking to inflict upon the Son, and the sense in which the Son can be
                  said to live “because of” the Father is explained, as also the union of
                  life with the divine Life. A further objection, based upon the Son's prayer
                  that He may be glorified by the Father, is briefly refuted.. . . . . . . . . p. 425
                  Chapter XI. The particular distinction which the Arians endeavoured to
                  prove upon the Apostle's teaching that all things are “of” the Father and
                  “through” the Son, is overthrown, it being shown that in the passage
                  cited the same Omnipotence is ascribed both to Father and to Son, as
                  is proved from various texts, especially from the words of St. Paul
                  himself, in which heretics foolishly find a reference to the Father only,
                  though indeed there is no diminution or inferiority of the Son's
                  sovereignty proved, even by such a reference. Finally, the three phrases,
                  “of Whom,” “through Whom,” “in Whom,” are shown to suppose or imply
                  no difference (of power), and each and all to hold true of the Three
                  Persons.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . p. 429
                  Chapter XII. The comparison, found in the Gospel of St. John, of the
                  Son to a Vine and the Father to a husbandman, must be understood
                  with reference to the Incarnation. To understand it with reference to the
                  Divine Generation is to doubly insult the Son, making Him inferior to St.
                  Paul, and bringing Him down to the level of the rest of mankind, as well
                  as in like manner the Father also, by making Him not merely to be on
                  one footing with the same Apostle, but even of no account at all. The
                  Son, indeed, in so far as being God, is also the husbandman, and, as
                  regards His Manhood, a grape-cluster. True statement of the Father's
                  pre-eminence.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . p. 432
                 Book V.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . p. 435
                  Prologue.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . p. 435
                  Chapter I. How impious the Arians are, in attacking that on which human
                  happiness depends. John ever unites the Son with the Father, especially
                  where he says: “That they may know Thee, the only true God, etc.” Inp. 437


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                   that place, then, we must understand the words “true God” also of the
                   Son; for it cannot be denied that He is God, and it cannot be said He
                   is a false god, and least of all that He is God by appellation only. This
                   last point being proved from the Apostle's words, we rightly confess that
                   Christ is true God.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
                   Chapter II. Since it has been proved that the Son is true God, and in
                   that is not inferior to the Father, it is shown that by the word solus (alone)
                   when used of the Father in the Scriptures, the Son is not excluded; nay,
                   that this expression befits Him above all, and Him alone. The Trinity is
                   alone, not amongst all, but above all. The Son alone does what the
                   Father does, and alone has immortality. But we must not for this reason
                   separate Him from the Father in our controversies. We may, however,
                   understand that passage of the Incarnation. Lastly the Father is shut
                   out from a share in the redemption of men by those who would have
                   the Son to be separated from Him.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . p. 440
                   Chapter III. To the objection of the Arians, that two Gods are introduced
                   by a unity of substance, the answer is that a plurality of Gods is more
                   likely to be inferred from diversity of substance. Further, their charge
                   recoils upon themselves. Manifold diversity is the reason why two men
                   cannot be said to be one man, though all men are called individually
                   man, where a unity of nature is referred to. There is one nature alone
                   in them, but there is wholly a unity in the Divine Persons. Therefore the
                   Son is not to be severed from the Father, especially as they dare not
                   deny that worship is due to Him.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . p. 442
                   Chapter IV. It is objected by heretics that Christ offered worship to His
                   Father. But instead it is shown that this must be referred to His humanity,
                   as is clear from an examination of the passage. However, it also offers
                   fresh witness to His Godhead, as we often see it happening in other
                   actions that Christ did.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . p. 444
                   Chapter V. Ambrose answers those who press the words of the Lord
                   to the mother of Zebedee's children, by saying that they were spoken
                   out of kindness, because Christ was unwilling to cause her grief. Ample
                   reason for such tenderness is brought forward. The Lord would rather
                   leave the granting of that request to the Father, than declare it to be
                   impossible. This answer of Christ's, however, is not to His detriment,
                   as is shown both by His very words, and also by comparing them with
                   other passages.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . p. 445
                   Chapter VI. Wishing to answer the above-stated objection somewhat
                   more fully, he maintains that this request, had it not been impossible in
                   itself, would have been possible for Christ to grant; especially as thep. 448


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                   Father has given all judgment to Him; which gift we must understand
                   to have been given without any feature of imperfection. However, he
                   proves that the request must be reckoned amongst the impossibilities.
                   To make it really possible, he teaches that Christ's answer must be
                   taken in accordance with His human nature, and shows this next by an
                   exposition of the passage. Lastly, he once more confirms the reply he
                   has given on the impossibility of Christ's session.. . . . . . . . . . . . .
                   Chapter VII. Objection is taken to the following passage: “Thou hast
                   loved them, as Thou hast loved Me.” To remove it, he shows first the
                   impiety of the Arian explanation; then compares these words with others;
                   and lastly, takes the whole passage into consideration. Hence he gathers
                   that the mission of Christ, although it is to be received according to the
                   flesh, is not to His detriment. When this is proved he shows how the
                   divine mission takes place.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . p. 451
                   Chapter VIII. Christ, so far as He is true Son of God, has no Lord, but
                   only so far as He is Man; as is shown by His words in which He
                   addressed at one time the Father, at another the Lord. How many
                   heresies are silenced by one verse of Scripture! We must distinguish
                   between the things that belong to Christ as Son of God or as Son of
                   David. For under the latter title only must we ascribe it to Him that He
                   was a servant. Lastly, he points out that many passages cannot be
                   taken except as referring to the Incarnation.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . p. 453
                   Chapter IX. The saint meets those who in Jewish wise object to the
                   order of the words: “In the name of the Father and of the Son and of
                   the Holy Ghost,” with the retort that the Son also is often placed before
                   the Father; though he first points out that an answer to this objection
                   has been already given by him.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . p. 457
                   Chapter X. The Arians openly take sides with the heathen in attacking
                   the words: “He that believeth on Me, believeth not on Me,” etc. The true
                   meaning of the passage is unfolded; and to prevent us from believing
                   that the Lord forbade us to have faith in Him, it is shown how He spoke
                   at one time as God, at another as Man. After bringing forward examples
                   of various results of that faith, he shows that certain other passages
                   also must be taken in the same way.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . p. 457
                   Chapter XI. We must refer the fact that Christ is said to speak nothing
                   of Himself, to His human nature. After explaining how it is right to say
                   that He hears and sees the Father as being God, He shows conclusively,
                   by a large number of proofs, that the Son of God is not a
                   creature.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . p. 460



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                   Chapter XII. He confirms what has been already said, by the parable
                   of the rich man who went into a far country to receive for himself a
                   kingdom; and shows that when the Son delivers up the kingdom to the
                   Father, we must not regard the fact that the Father is said to put all
                   things in subjection under Him, in a disparaging way. Here we are the
                   kingdom of Christ, and in Christ's kingdom. Hereafter we shall be in the
                   kingdom of God, where the Trinity will reign together.. . . . . . . . . . . p. 462
                   Chapter XIII. With the desire to learn what subjection to Christ means
                   after putting forward and rejecting various ideas of subjection, he runs
                   through the Apostle's words; and so puts an end to the blasphemous
                   opinions of the heretics on this matter. The subjection, which is shown
                   to be future, cannot concern the Godhead, since there has always been
                   the greatest harmony of wills between the Father and the Son. Also to
                   that same Son in His Godhead all things have indeed been made
                   subject; but they are said to be not yet subject to Him in this sense,
                   because all men do not obey His commands. But after that they have
                   been made subject, then shall Christ also be made subject in them, and
                   the Father's work be perfected.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . p. 463
                   Chapter XIV. He continues the discussion of the difficulty he has entered
                   upon, and teaches that Christ is not subject but only according to the
                   flesh. Christ, however, whilst in subjection in the Flesh, still gave proofs
                   of His Godhead. He combats the idea that Christ is made subject in
                   This. The humanity indeed, which He adopted, has been so far made
                   subject in us, as ours has been raised in that very humanity of His.
                   Lastly, we are taught, when that same subjection of Christ will take
                   place.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . p. 466
                   Chapter XV. He briefly takes up again the same points of dispute, and
                   shrewdly concludes from the unity of the divine power in the Father and
                   the Son, that whatever is said of the subjection of the Son is to be
                   referred to His humanity alone. He further confirms this on proof of the
                   love, which exists alike in either.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . p. 469
                   Chapter XVI. The Arians are condemned by the Holy Spirit through the
                   mouth of David: for they dare to limit Christ's knowledge. The passage
                   cited by them in proof of this is by no means free from suspicion of
                   having been corrupted. But to set this right, we must mark the word
                   “Son.” For knowledge cannot fail Christ as Son of God, since He is
                   Wisdom; nor the recognition of any part, for He created all things. It is
                   not possible that He, who made the ages, cannot know the future, much
                   less the day of judgment. Such knowledge, whether it concerns anything
                   great or small, may not be denied to the Son, nor yet to the Holy Spirit.p. 471


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                   Lastly, various proofs are given from which we can gather that this
                   knowledge exists in Christ.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
                   Chapter XVII. Christ acted for our advantage in being unwilling to reveal
                   the day of judgment. This is made plain by other words of our Lord and
                   by a not dissimilar passage from Paul's writings. Other passages in
                   which the same ignorance seems to be attributed to the Father are
                   brought forward to meet those who are anxious to know why Christ
                   answered His disciples, as though He did not know. From these
                   Ambrose argues against them that if they admit ignorance and inability
                   in the Father, they must admit that the same Substance exists in the
                   Son as in the Father; unless they prefer to accuse the Son of falsehood;
                   since it belongs neither to Him nor to the Father to deceive, but the unity
                   of both is pointed out in the passage named.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . p. 474
                   Chapter XVIII. Wishing to give a reason for the Lord's answer to the
                   apostles, he assigns the one received to Christ's tenderness. Then
                   when another reason is supplied by others he confesses that it is true;
                   for the Lord spoke it by reason of His human feelings. Hence he gathers
                   that the knowledge of the Father and the Son is equal, and that the Son
                   is not inferior to the Father. After having set beside the text, in which
                   He is said to be inferior, another whereby He is declared to be equal,
                   he censures the rashness of the Arians in judging about the Son, and
                   shows that whilst they wickedly make Him to be inferior, He is rightly
                   called a Stone by Himself.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . p. 477
                   Chapter XIX. The Saint having turned to God the Father, explains why
                   he does not deride that the Son is inferior to the Father, then he declares
                   it is not for him to measure the Son of God, since it was given to an
                   angel--nay, perhaps even to Christ as man--to measure merely
                   Jerusalem. Arius, he says, has shown himself to be an imitator of Satan.
                   It is a rash thing to hold discussions on the divine Generation. Since so
                   great a sign of human generation has been given by Isaiah, we ought
                   not to make comparisons in divine things. Lastly he shows how carefully
                   we ought to avoid the pride of Arius, by putting before us various
                   examples of Scriptures.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . p. 479
                On the Mysteries.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . p. 481
                 Introduction.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . p. 481
                 Chapter I. St. Ambrose states that after the explanations he has already
                 given of holy living, he will now explain the Mysteries. Then after giving
                 his reasons for not having done so before, he explains the mystery of the
                 opening of the ears, and shows how this was of old done by Christ
                 Himself.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . p. 481


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                 Chapter II. What those who were to be initiated promised on entering the
                 Church, of the witnesses to these promises, and wherefore they then
                 turned themselves to the East.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . p. 482
                 Chapter III. St. Ambrose points out that we must consider the divine
                 presence and working in the water and the sacred ministers, and then
                 brings forward many Old Testament figures of baptism.. . . . . . . . . . p. 483
                 Chapter IV. That water does not cleanse without the Spirit is shown by
                 the witness of John and by the very form of the administration of the
                 sacrament. And this is also declared to be signified by the pool in the
                 Gospel and the man who was there healed. In the same passage, too,
                 is shown that the Holy Spirit truly descended on Christ at His baptism,
                 and the meaning of this mystery is explained.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . p. 485
                 Chapter V. Christ is Himself present in Baptism, so that we need not
                 consider the person of His ministers. A brief explanation of the confession
                 of the Trinity as usually uttered by those about to be baptized.. . . . . . p. 486
                 Chapter VI. Why they who come forth from the laver of baptism are
                 anointed on the head; why, too, after baptism, their feet are washed, and
                 what sins are remitted in each case.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . p. 487
                 Chapter VII. The washing away of sins is indicated by the white robes of
                 the catechumens, whence the Church speaks of herself as black and
                 comely. Angels marvel at her brightness as at that of the flesh of the Lord.
                 Moreover, Christ Himself commended His beauty to His Spouse under
                 many figures. The mutual affection of the one for the other is
                 described.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . p. 488
                 Chapter VIII. Of the mystical feast of the altar of the Lord. Lest any should
                 think lightly of it, St. Ambrose shows that it is of higher antiquity than the
                 sacred rites of the Jews, since it was foreshadowed in the sacrifice of
                 Melchisedech, and far better than the manna, as being the Body of
                 Christ.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . p. 490
                 Chapter IX. In order that no one through observing the outward part
                 should waver in faith, many instances are brought forward wherein the
                 outward nature has been changed, and so it is proved that bread is made
                 the true body of Christ. The treatise then is brought to a termination with
                 certain remarks as to the effects of the sacrament, the disposition of the
                 recipients, and such like.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . p. 492
                Concerning Repentance.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . p. 494
                 Introduction.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . p. 494
                 Book I.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . p. 495
                   Chapter I. St. Ambrose writes in praise of gentleness, pointing out how
                   needful that grace is for the rulers of the Church, and commended top. 495


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                   them by the meekness of Christ. As the Novatians have fallen away
                   from this, they cannot be considered disciples of Christ. Their pride and
                   harshness are inveighed against.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
                   Chapter II. The assertion of the Novatians that they refuse communion
                   only to the lapsed agrees neither with the teaching of holy Scripture nor
                   with their own. And whereas they allege as a pretext their reverence
                   for the divine power, they really are contemning it, inasmuch as it is a
                   sign of low estimation not to use the whole of a power entrusted to one.
                   But the Church rightly claims the power of binding and loosing, which
                   heretics have not, inasmuch as she has received it from the Holy Spirit,
                   against Whom they act presumptuously.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . p. 496
                   Chapter III. To the argument of the Novatians, that they only deny
                   forgiveness in the case of greater sins, St. Ambrose replies, that this is
                   also an offence against God, Who gave the power to forgive all sins,
                   but that of course a more severe penance must follow in case of graver
                   sins. He points out likewise that this distinction as to the gravity of sins
                   assigns, as it were, severity to God, Whose mercy in the Incarnation is
                   overlooked by the Novatians.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . p. 497
                   Chapter IV. St. Ambrose proceeds with the proof of the divine mercy,
                   and shows by the testimony of the Gospels that it prevails over severity,
                   and he adduces the instance of athletes to show that of those who have
                   denied Christ before men, all are not to be esteemed alike.. . . . . . . p. 499
                   Chapter V. The objection from the unchangeableness of God is
                   answered from several passages of Scripture, wherein God promises
                   forgiveness to sinners on their repentance. St. Ambrose also shows
                   that mercy will be more readily accorded to such as have sinned, as it
                   were, against their will, which he illustrates by the case of prisoners
                   taken in war, and by language put into the mouth of the devil.. . . . . p. 500
                   Chapter VI. The Novatians, by excluding such from the banquet of
                   Christ, imitate not indeed the good Samaritan, but the proud lawyer,
                   the priest, and the Levite who are blamed in the Gospel, and are indeed
                   worse than these.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . p. 502
                   Chapter VII. St. Ambrose, addressing Christ, complains of the Novatians,
                   and shows that they have no part with Christ, Who wishes all men to
                   be saved.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . p. 503
                   Chapter VIII. It was the Lord's will to confer great gifts on His disciples.
                   Further, the Novatians confute themselves by the practices of laying
                   on of hands and of baptism, since it is by the same power that sins are
                   remitted in penance and in baptism. Their conduct is then contrasted
                   with that of our Lord.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . p. 504


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                   Chapter IX. By collating similar passages with 1 Sam. iii. 25, St. Ambrose
                   shows that the meaning is not that no one shall intercede, but that the
                   intercessor must be worthy as were Moses and Jeremiah, at whose
                   prayers we read that God spared Israel.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . p. 505
                   Chapter X. St. John did not absolutely forbid that prayer should be made
                   for those who “sin unto death,” since he knew that Moses, Jeremiah,
                   and Stephen had so prayed, and he himself implies that forgiveness is
                   not to be denied them.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . p. 507
                   Chapter XI. The passage quoted from St. John's Epistle is confirmed
                   by another in which salvation is promised to those who believe in Christ,
                   which refutes the Novatians who try to induce the lapsed to believe,
                   although denying them pardon. Furthermore, many who had lapsed
                   have received the grace of martyrdom, whilst the example of the good
                   Samaritan shows that we must not abandon those in whom even the
                   faintest amount of faith is still alive.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . p. 508
                   Chapter XII. Another passage of St. John is considered. The necessity
                   of keeping the commandments of God may be complied with by those
                   who, having fallen, repent, as well as by those who have not fallen, as
                   is shown in the case of David.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . p. 509
                   Chapter XIII. They who have committed a “sin unto death” are not to
                   be abandoned, but subjected to penance, according to St. Paul.
                   Explanation of the phrase “Deliver unto Satan.” Satan can afflict the
                   body, but these afflictions bring spiritual profit, showing the power of
                   God, Who thus turns Satan's devices against himself.. . . . . . . . . . p. 510
                   Chapter XIV. St. Ambrose explains that the flesh given to Satan for
                   destruction is eaten by the serpent when the soul is set free from carnal
                   desires. He gives, therefore, various rules for guarding the senses,
                   points out the snares laid for us by means of pleasures, and exhorts
                   his hearers not to fear the destruction of the flesh by the serpent.. . . . p. 512
                   Chapter XV. Returning from this digression, St. Ambrose explains what
                   is the meaning of St. Paul where he speaks of coming “with a rod or in
                   the spirit of meekness.”One who has grievously fallen is to be separated,
                   but to be again restored to religious privileges when he has sufficiently
                   repented. The old leaven is purged out when the hardness of the letter
                   is tempered by the meal of a milder interpretation. All should be sprinkled
                   with the Church's meal and fed with the food of charity, lest they become
                   like that envious elder brother, whose example is followed by the
                   Novatians.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . p. 515
                   Chapter XVI. Comparison between the apostles and Novatians. The
                   fitness of the words, “Ye know not what spirit ye are of,” when appliedp. 517


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                  to them. The desire of penance is extinguished by them when they take
                  away its fruit. And thus are sinners deprived of the promises of Christ,
                  though, indeed, they ought not to be too soon admitted to the mysteries.
                  Some examples of repentance.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
                  Chapter XVII. That gentleness must be added to severity, as is shown
                  in the case of St. Paul at Corinth. The man had been baptized, though
                  the Novatians argue against it. And by the word “destruction” is not
                  meant annihilation but severe chastening.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . p. 517
                 Book II.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . p. 519
                  Chapter I. St. Ambrose gives additional rules concerning repentance,
                  and shows that it must not be delayed.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . p. 519
                  Chapter II. A passage quoted by the heretics against repentance is
                  explained in two ways, the first being that Heb. vi. 4 refers to the
                  impossibility of being baptized again; the second, that what is impossible
                  with man is possible with God.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . p. 520
                  Chapter III. Explanation of the parable of the Prodigal Son, in which St.
                  Ambrose applies it to refute the teaching of the Novatians, proving that
                  reconciliation ought not to be refused to the greatest offender upon
                  suitable proof of repentance.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . p. 522
                  Chapter IV. St. Ambrose turns against the Novatians themselves another
                  objection concerning blasphemy against the Holy Spirit, showing that
                  it consists in an erroneous belief, proving this by St. Peter's words
                  against Simon Magus, and other passages, exhorting the Novatians to
                  return to the Church, affirming that such is our Lord's mercy that even
                  Judas would have found forgiveness had he repented.. . . . . . . . . . p. 523
                  Chapter V. As to the words of St. Peter to Simon Magus, from which
                  the Novatians infer that there was no forgiveness for the latter, it is
                  pointed out that St. Peter, knowing his evil heart, might well use words
                  of doubt, and then by some Old Testament instances it is pointed out
                  that “perchance” does not exclude forgiveness. The apostles transmitted
                  to us that penitence, the fruits of which are shown in the case of David.
                  St. Ambrose then adduces the example of the Ephraimites, whose
                  penitence must be followed in order to gain the divine mercy and the
                  sacraments.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . p. 525
                  Chapter VI. St. Ambrose teaches out of the prophet Isaiah what they
                  must do who have fallen. Then referring to our Lord's proverbial
                  expression respecting piping and dancing, he condemns dances. Next
                  by the example of Jeremiah he sets forth the necessary accompaniments
                  of repentance. And lastly, in order to show the efficacy of this medicinep. 527



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                   of penance, he enumerates the names of many who have used it for
                   themselves or for others.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
                   Chapter VII. An exhortation to mourning and confession of sins for Christ
                   is moved by these and the tears of the Church. Illustration from the
                   story of Lazarus. After showing that the Novatians are the successors
                   of those who planned to kill Lazarus, St. Ambrose argues that the full
                   forgiveness of every sin is signified by the odour of the ointment poured
                   by Mary on the feet of Christ; and further, that the Novatian heretics
                   find their likeness in Judas, who grudged and envied when others
                   rejoiced.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . p. 529
                   Chapter VIII. In urging repentance St. Ambrose turns to his own case,
                   expressing the wish that he could wash our Lord's feet like the woman
                   in the Gospel, which is a great pattern of penitence, though such as
                   cannot attain to it find acceptance. He prays for himself, especially that
                   he may sorrow with sinners, who are better than himself. Those for
                   whom Christ died are not to be contemned.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . p. 532
                   Chapter IX. In what way faith is necessary for repentance. Means for
                   paying our debts, in which work, prayer, tears, and fasting are of more
                   value than money. Some instances are adduced, and St. Ambrose
                   declares that generosity is profitable, but only when joined with faith; it
                   is, moreover, liable to certain defects. He goes on to speak of some
                   defects in repentance, such as too great haste in seeking reconciliation,
                   considering abstinence from sacraments all that is needed, of committing
                   sin in hope of repenting later.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . p. 534
                   Chapter X. In order to do away with the feeling of shame which holds
                   back the guilty from public penance, St. Ambrose points out the
                   advantage of prayers offered by the whole Church, and sets forth the
                   example of saints who have sorrowed. Then, after reproving those who
                   imagine that penance may be often repeated, he points out the difficulty
                   of repentance, and how it is to be carried out.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . p. 536
                   Chapter XI. The possibility of repentance is a reason why baptism should
                   not be deferred to old age, a practice which is against the will of God
                   in holy Scripture. But it is of no use to practise penance whilst still serving
                   lusts. These must be first subdued.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . p. 538
                   Note on the Penitential Discipline of the Early Church.. . . . . . . . . . p. 539
                Concerning Virgins.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . p. 540
                 Introduction.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . p. 540
                 Book I.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . p. 542
                   Chapter I. St. Ambrose, reflecting upon the account he will have to give
                   of his talents, determines to write, and consoles himself with certainp. 542


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                   examples of God's mercy. Then recognizing his own deficiencies desires
                   that he may be dealt with like the fig-tree in the Gospel, and expresses
                   a hope that words will not fail him in his endeavour to preach
                   Christ.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
                   Chapter II. This treatise has a favourable beginning, since it is the
                   birthday of the holy Virgin Agnes, of whose name, modesty, and
                   martyrdom St. Ambrose speaks in commendation, but more especially
                   of her age, seeing that she, being but twelve years old, was superior
                   to terrors, promises, tortures, and death itself, with a courage wholly
                   worthy of a man.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . p. 543
                   Chapter III. Virginity is praised on many grounds, but chiefly because
                   it brought down the Word from heaven, and hence its pursuit, which
                   existed in but few under the old covenant, has spread to countless
                   numbers.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . p. 544
                   Chapter IV. The comeliness of virginity never existed amongst the
                   heathen, neither with the vestal virgins, nor amongst philosophers, such
                   as Pythagoras.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . p. 545
                   Chapter V. Heaven is the home of virginity, and the Son of God its
                   Author, Who though He was a Virgin before the Virgin, yet being of the
                   Virgin took the Virgin Church as His bride. Of her we have all been born.
                   Some of her gifts are enumerated. Her daughters have a special
                   excellence in that virginity is not a matter of precept, and that it is a
                   most powerful help in the pursuit of piety.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . p. 546
                   Chapter VI. St. Ambrose explains that he is not speaking against
                   marriage, and proceeds to compare the advantages and disadvantages
                   of the single and married state.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . p. 547
                   Chapter VII. St. Ambrose exhorts parents to train their children to
                   virginity, and sets before them the troubles arising from their desire to
                   have grandchildren. He says however that he does not forbid marriage,
                   but rather defends it against heretics who oppose it. Still setting virginity
                   before marriage, he speaks of the beauty of their spouse, and of the
                   gifts wherewith He adorns them, and applies to these points certain
                   verses of the Song of Songs.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . p. 549
                   Chapter VIII. Taking the passage concerning the honeycomb in the
                   Song of Songs, he expounds it, comparing the sacred virgins to
                   bees.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . p. 551
                   Chapter IX. Other passages from the Song of Songs are considered
                   with relation to the present subject, and St. Ambrose exhorting the virgin
                   to seek for Christ, points out where He may be found. A description ofp. 552



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                  His perfections follows, and a comparison is made between virgins and
                  the angels.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
                  Chapter X. Finally, another glory of virginity is mentioned, that it is free
                  from avarice. St. Ambrose, addressing his sister, reminds her of the
                  great happiness of those who are free from those troubles as to luxury
                  and vanity which come upon those who are about to marry.. . . . . . . p. 554
                  Chapter XI. St. Ambrose answers objections made to the uselessness
                  of his exhortations in favour of virginity, and brings forward instances
                  of virgins especially in various places he mentions, and speaks of their
                  zeal in the cause.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . p. 555
                  Chapter XII. It is very desirable that parents should encourage the desire
                  for the virgin life, but more praiseworthy when the love of God draws a
                  maiden even against their will. The violence of parents and the loss of
                  property are not to be feared, and an instance of this is related by St.
                  Ambrose.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . p. 556
                 Book II.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . p. 557
                  Chapter I. In this book St. Ambrose purposes to treat of the training of
                  virgins, using examples rather than precepts, and explains why he does
                  so in writing rather than by word of mouth.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . p. 557
                  Chapter II. The life of Mary is set before virgins as an example, and her
                  many virtues are dwelt upon, her chastity, humility, hard life, love of
                  retirement, and the like; then her kindness to others, her zeal in learning,
                  and love of frequenting the temple. St. Ambrose then sets forth how
                  she, adorned with all these virtues, will come to meet the numberless
                  bands of virgins and lead them with great triumph to the bridal chamber
                  of the Spouse.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . p. 558
                  Chapter III. St. Ambrose having set forth the Virgin Mary as a pattern
                  for life, adduces Thecla as a model for learning how to die. Thecla
                  suffered not from the beasts to whom she was condemned, but on the
                  contrary received from them signs of reverence. He then proceeds to
                  introduce a more recent example.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . p. 560
                  Chapter IV. A virgin at Antioch, having refused to sacrifice to idols, was
                  condemned to a house of ill-fame, whence she escaped unharmed,
                  having changed clothes with a Christian soldier. Then when he was
                  condemned for this, she returned and the two contended for the prize
                  of martyrdom, which was at last given to each.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . p. 561
                  Chapter V. The story of the two Pythagorean friends, Damon and
                  Pythias, is related by St. Ambrose, who points out that the case
                  mentioned in the last chapter is more praiseworthy. A comparison isp. 564



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                  instituted between the treatment of their gods by heathen without any
                  punishment, and Jeroboam's irreverence with its punishment.. . . . .
                  Chapter VI. St. Ambrose, in concluding the second book, ascribes any
                  good there may be in it to the merits of the virgins, and sets forth that
                  it was right before laying down any severe precepts to encourage them
                  by examples, as is done both in human teaching and in holy
                  Scripture.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . p. 565
                 Book III.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . p. 567
                  Chapter I. St. Ambrose now goes back to the address of Liberius when
                  he gave the veil to Marcellina. Touching on the crowds pressing to the
                  bridal feast of that Spouse Who feeds them all, he passes on to the
                  fitness of her profession on the day on which Christ was born of a Virgin,
                  and concludes with a fervent exhortation to love Him.. . . . . . . . . . . p. 567
                  Chapter II. Touching next upon the training of a virgin, he speaks of
                  moderation in food and drink, and of restraint upon the impulses of the
                  mind, introducing some teaching upon the fable of the death and
                  resurrection of Hippolytus, and advises the avoidance of certain
                  meats.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . p. 568
                  Chapter III. Virgins are exhorted to avoid visits, to observe modesty, to
                  be silent during the celebration of the Mysteries after the example of
                  Mary. Then after narrating the story of a heathen youth, and saying of
                  a poet, St. Ambrose relates a miracle wrought by a holy priest.. . . . . p. 569
                  Chapter IV. Having summed up the address of Liberius, St. Ambrose
                  passes on to the virtues of his sister, especially her fasts, which however
                  he advises her to moderate to some extent, and to exercise herself in
                  other matters, after the example which he adduces. Especially he
                  recommends the Lord's Prayer, and the repetition of Psalms by night,
                  and the recitation of the Creed before daylight.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . p. 571
                  Chapter V. St. Ambrose, speaking of tears, explains David's saying,
                  “Every night wash l my couch with my tears,” and goes on to speak of
                  Christ bearing our griefs and infirmities. Everything should be referred
                  to His honour, and we ought to rejoice with spiritual joy, but not after a
                  worldly fashion.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . p. 572
                  Chapter VI. Having mentioned the Baptist, St. Ambrose enters into a
                  description of the events concerning his death, and speaks against
                  dancing and the festivities of the wicked.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . p. 573
                  Chapter VII. In reply to Marcellina, who had asked what should be
                  thought of those who to escape violence killed themselves, St. Ambrose
                  replies by narrating the history of Pelagia, a virgin, with her mother andp. 575



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                   sister, and goes on to speak of the martyrdom of the blessed Sotheris,
                   one of their own ancestors.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
                Concerning Widows.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . p. 577
                 Introduction.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . p. 577
                 Chapter I. After having written about virgins, it seemed needful to say
                 something concerning widows, since the Apostle joins the two classes
                 together, and the latter are as it were teachers of the former, and far
                 superior to those who are married. Elijah was sent to a widow, a great
                 mark of honour; yet widows are not honourable like her of Sarepta, unless
                 they copy her virtues, notably hospitality. The avarice of men is rebuked,
                 who forfeit the promises of God by their grasping.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . p. 577
                 Chapter II. The precepts of the Apostle concerning a widow indeed are
                 laid down, such as, that she bring up children, attend to her parents,
                 desire to please God, show herself irreproachable, set forth a ripeness
                 of merits, have been the wife of one man. St. Ambrose notes, however,
                 that a second marriage was not condemned by St. Paul, and adds that
                 widows must have a good report for virtue with all. The reasons why
                 younger widows are to be avoided, and what is meant by its being better
                 to marry than to burn. St. Ambrose then goes on to speak of the dignity
                 of widows, shown by the fact that any injury done to them is visited by
                 the anger of God.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . p. 579
                 Chapter III. St. Ambrose returns to the story of the widow of Sarepta, and
                 shows that she represented the Church, hence that she was an example
                 to virgins, married women, and widows. Then he refers to the prophet as
                 setting forth Christ, inasmuch as he foretold the mysteries and the rain
                 which was to come. Next he touches upon and explains the twofold sign
                 of Gideon, and points out that it is not in every one's power to work
                 miracles, and that the Incarnation of Christ and the rejection of the Jews
                 were foreshadowed in that account.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . p. 581
                 Chapter IV. By the example of Anna St. Ambrose shows what ought to
                 be the life of widows, and shows that she was an example of chastity at
                 every age. From this he argues that there are three degrees of the same
                 virtue, all of which are included in the Church, and sets forth several
                 examples in Mary, in Anna, and in Susanna. But, he adds, the state of
                 virginity is superior to either of the others, but that a widow ought to take
                 greater care for the preservation of her good name.. . . . . . . . . . . . . p. 583
                 Chapter V. Liberality to the poor is recommended by the example of the
                 widow the Gospel, whose two mites were preferred to the large gifts of
                 the rich. The two mites are treated as mystically representing the two
                 Testaments. What that treasure is for which we are taught to offer, afterp. 584


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                 the example of the wise men, three gifts, or after that of the widow, two.
                 St. Ambrose concludes the chapter by an exhortation to widows to be
                 zealous in good works.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
                 Chapter VI. Naomi is an instance of a widow receiving back from her
                 daughter-in-law the fruits of her own good training, and is a token that
                 necessary support will never fail the good widow. And if her life appears
                 sad, she is happy, since the promises of the Lord are made to her. St.
                 Ambrose then touches upon the benefits of weeping.. . . . . . . . . . . . p. 586
                 Chapter VII. By the example of Judith is shown that courage is not wanting
                 in widows; her preparation for her visit to Holofernes is dwelt upon, as
                 also her chastity and her wisdom, her sobriety and moderation. Lastly,
                 St. Ambrose, after demonstrating that she was no less brave than prudent,
                 sets forth her modesty after her success.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . p. 587
                 Chapter VIII. Though many other widows came near to Judith in virtue,
                 St. Ambrose proposes to speak of Deborah only. What a pattern of virtue
                 she must have been for widows, who was chosen to govern and defend
                 men. It was no small glory to her that when her son was over the host he
                 refused to go forth to battle unless she would go also. So that she led
                 the army and foretold the result. In this story the conflicts and triumphs
                 of the Church, and her spiritual weapons, are set forth, and every excuse
                 of weakness is taken from women.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . p. 588
                 Chapter IX. To an objection that the state of widowhood might indeed be
                 endurable if circumstances were pleasant, St. Ambrose replies that
                 pleasant surroundings are more dangerous than even trouble; and goes
                 to show by examples taken from holy Scripture, that widows may find
                 much happiness in their children and their sons-in-law. They should have
                 recourse to the Apostles, who are able to help us, and should entreat for
                 the intercessions of angels and martyrs. He touches then on certain
                 complaints respecting loneliness, and care of property, and ends by
                 pointing out the unseemliness of a widow marrying who has daughters
                 either married already or of marriageable age.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . p. 590
                 Chapter X. St. Ambrose returns again to the subject of Christ, speaking
                 of His goodness in all misery. The various ways in which the good
                 Physician treats our diseases, and the quickness of the healing if only
                 we do not neglect to call upon Him. He touches upon the moral meaning
                 of the will, which he shows was manifested in Peter's mother-in-law, and
                 lastly points out what a minister of Christ and specially a bishop ought to
                 be, and says that they specially must rise through grace.. . . . . . . . . p. 592
                 Chapter XI. Having shown that the pretexts usually alleged for second
                 marriages have no weight, St. Ambrose declares that he does notp. 594


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                 condemn them, though from the Apostle's words he sets forth their
                 inconveniences, though the state of those twice married is approved in
                 the Church, and he takes occasion to advert to those heretics who forbid
                 them. And he says that it is because the strength of different persons
                 varies that chastity is not commanded, but only recommended.. . . . .
                 Chapter XII. The difference between matters of precept and of counsel
                 is treated of, as shown in the case of the young man in the Gospel, and
                 the difference of the rewards set forth both for counsels and precepts is
                 spoken of.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . p. 596
                 Chapter XIII. St. Ambrose, treating of the words in the Gospel concerning
                 eunuchs, condemns those who make themselves such. Those only
                 deserve praise who have through continence gained the victory over
                 themselves, but no one is to be compelled to live this life, as neither Christ
                 nor the Apostle laid down such a law, so that the marriage vow is not to
                 be blamed, though that of chastity is better.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . p. 597
                 Chapter XIV. Though a widow may have received no commandment, yet
                 she has received so many counsels that she ought not to think little of
                 them. St. Ambrose would be sorry to lay any snare for her, seeing that
                 the field of the Church grows richer as a result of wedlock, but it is
                 absolutely impossible to deny that widowhood, which St. Paul praises,
                 is profitable. Consequently, he speaks severely about those who have
                 proscribed widowhood by law.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . p. 599
                 Chapter XV. St. Ambrose meets the objection of those who make the
                 desire of having children an excuse for second marriage, and especially
                 in the case of those who have children of their former marriage; and points
                 out the consequent troubles of disagreements amongst the children, and
                 even between the married persons, and gives a warning against a wrong
                 use of Scripture instances in this matter.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . p. 600
              Selections from the Letters of St. Ambrose.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . p. 602
               Memorial of Symmachus, the Prefect of the City.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . p. 602
               Epistle XVII: To Valentinian II.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . p. 603
               The Memorial of Symmachus, Prefect of the City.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . p. 606
               Epistle XVIII: To Valentinian, in Reply to Symmachus.. . . . . . . . . . . . p. 610
               Epistle XX: To Marcellina as to the Arian Party.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . p. 617
               Letter XXI: To Valentinian II., Declining Challenge of Auxentius.. . . . . . p. 623
               Sermon Against Auxentius on the Giving Up of the Basilicas.. . . . . . . . p. 626
               Letter XXII: To Marcellina on Finding the Bodies of SS. Gervasius and
               Protasius.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . p. 635
               Letter XL: To Theodosius as to the Burning of a Jewish Synagogue.. . . . p. 641
               Letter XLI: To Marcellina on the Same.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . p. 648


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                Letter LI: To Theodosius After the Massacre at Thessalonica..                      .   .   .   .   .   .   p. 655
                Letter LVII: To Eugenius, Reproving Him.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .              .   .   .   .   .   .   p. 658
                Letter LXI: To Theodosius, After His Victory Over Eugenius.. .                     .   .   .   .   .   .   p. 661
                Letter LXII: To Theodosius, Urging Him To Be Merciful.. . . . .                    .   .   .   .   .   .   p. 662
                Epistle LXIII: To the Church at Vercellæ.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .             .   .   .   .   .   .   p. 663
              Indexes. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   .   .   .   .   .   .   p. 687
                Index of Scripture References. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .           .   .   .   .   .   .   p. 687
                Greek Words and Phrases. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .             .   .   .   .   .   .   p. 695
                Index of Pages of the Print Edition. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .           .   .   .   .   .   .   p. 700




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                                            A SELECT LIBRARY
iii                                              OF THE
                                   NICENE AND
                               POST-NICENE FATHERS
                                                       OF
                                     THE CHRISTIAN CHURCH.
                                               SECOND SERIES
       TRANSLATED INTO ENGLISH WITH PROLEGOMENA AND EXPLANATORY NOTES.
                                       Edited by
                              PHILIP SCHAFF, D.D., LL.D.,
       PROFESSOR OF CHURCH HISTORY IN THE UNION THEOLOGICAL SEMINARY, NEW
                                        YORK.
                                         AND
                                 HENRY WACE, D.D.,
                       PRINCIPAL OF KING’S COLLEGE, LONDON.
                                      VOLUME X

                                 Ambrose: Select Works and Letters
                                                 T&T CLARK
                                                 EDINBURGH
                  __________________________________________________
                             WM. B. EERDMANS PUBLISHING COMPANY
                                    GRAND RAPIDS, MICHIGAN

v


                                                  SOME OF

                         THE PRINCIPAL WORKS OF ST. AMBROSE,


                                                  TRANSLATED

                                                       BY



                                THE REV. H. DE ROMESTIN, M.A.
                               OF ST. JOHN’S COLLEGE, AND RECTOR OF TIPTREE, ESSEX,




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                                           WITH THE ASSISTANCE OF



                                THE REV. E. DE ROMESTIN, M.A.
                                           OF NEW COLLEGE, OXFORD,


                                                    AND



                             THE REV. H. T. F. DUCKWORTH, M.A.
                                         OF MERTON COLLEGE, OXFORD.


vii




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ix
                                 TRANSLATOR’S PREFACE.

           ALTHOUGH, according to the plan of this “Library,” Commentaries on Holy Scripture are omitted,
       and the field of selection is thus somewhat lessened, it has been no easy matter to decide which of
       St. Ambrose’s many treatises should be chosen and which omitted.
           Obviously the great work on the Faith, De Fide, must be included, and this implied the addition
       of that on the Holy Spirit. Then the treatise on the Duties of the Clergy, as throwing much light on
       the ideas of the Fourth Century as to what was expected of ecclesiastics, seemed to claim a place.
       And after these the difficulty becomes very great. It is unfortunate that the limitations of space do
       not admit of the inclusion of all the dogmatic and ascetic treatises. Similarly, one would have been
       glad to insert the addresses on the deaths of the two Emperors Valentinian and Theodosius. More,
       also, of his letters might well have been added, though, as they have appeared in full in the Oxford
       “Library of the Fathers,” this is a matter for less regret.
           As will be seen, I have availed myself of the assistance of my son, the Rev. E. de Romestin, of
       New College, and of the Rev. H. T. F. Duckworth, of Merton College, each of whom took high
       honours in the Theological School at Oxford.
           The work has been carried out under some difficulties, and not the least has been the loss in
       travelling of a considerable portion of the manuscript, the whole of which had to be translated anew.




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xi
                         PROLEGOMENA TO ST. AMBROSE.


                                            I.—LITERATURE.

                                                   §1. EDITIONS.
           ALL the Editions of the works of St. Ambrose which preceded that of the Benedictines are very
       inadequate. Of these the chief are the following:
          1. Venice, A.D. 1485.
          2. Cribellius, A.D. 1490.
          3. Auerbach, Basel, A.D. 1492, reprinted in 1506, with a full Index. These are very faulty Editions.
          4. Erasmus, Basel, A.D. 1527, reprinted and re-edited by different persons, in various places [by
             Baronius amongst others, A.D. 1549].
          5. Gillot Campanus, Paris, A.D. 1568.
          6. Felix de Montalto [afterwards Pope Sixtus V.], Rome, A.D. 1580–1585, reprinted at Paris,
             A.D. 1603.
          7. The Benedictines of St. Maur, Paris, A.D. 1686–1690, reprinted at Venice, A.D. 1748 and 1781,
             as well as with additions by Migne, Patres Latini, Vols. XIV.–XVII.
          8. A new edition by Ballerini, Milan, A.D. 1875–1886, founded on that of the Benedictines, but
             by no means superior to it.
                  There is still room for a critical edition of the works of this great Father, which are
             unfortunately very corrupt, but in many points it is not likely that the work of the Benedictine
             editors can be improved upon.
          9. There are separate editions of some of the treatises of St. Ambrose, as of the Hexaëmeron
             and De Officiis Clericorum, in the Bibliotheca Patrum Eccl. Latinæ Selecta, Leipzig,
             Tauchnitz. The De Officiis has also been edited, with considerable improvements in the text,
             by Krabinger, Tübingen, 1857, and the De Fide and De Pœnitentia, by Hurter in the Vienna
             selections from the Fathers.

                                                §2. TRANSLATIONS.
            There seems to have never been any attempt to translate the works of this great Christian Father
       and Doctor in full.
            Some few treatises, De Officiis, De excessu fratris Satyri, De Virginitate, and several other
       short ones, appear in German, in the select writings of the Fathers, published by Kosel of Kempten.
       The Epistles have been translated into French by Bonrecueil, Paris, A.D. 1746; and the De Officiis
       and Epistles into English, the former by Humfrey, London, A.D. 1637; the latter in the Oxford
       “Library of the Fathers,” revised by E. Walford, London, 1881; whilst the De Mysteriis appears in
       a little volume of Sacramental Treatises, published by Messrs. J. Parker & Co., Oxford, under the



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       supervision of the Editor of this volume. There is a very valuable little monograph entitled Studia
       Ambrosiana, chiefly critical, and unfortunately brief, by Maximilian Ihm. Leipzig, Teubner, 1889.

                                §3. BIOGRAPHIES AND AUTHORITIES FOR THE LIFE OF ST. AMBROSE.
                                                                (a.) Ancient.
           Many of his own writings.—Life of St. Ambrose by Paulinus,1 a deacon of the Church of
       Milan.—St. Augustine, Confessions, V. 23, 24; VI. 1–6; IX. 13–16; and many other passages in
       his writings.—St. Jerome, De Scriptoribus Ecclesiasticis, c. 134.—Rufinus, Ecclesiastical History,
       XI, 11, 15, 16, 18.—Socrates, Eccl. History, IV. 30; V. 11.—Sozomen, Eccl. History, VI. 24; VII.
xii    13, 25.
                                                 (b.) Modern.
           Baronius, Annals, A.D. 397, n. 25–35; Life of St. Ambrose in the prolegomena to the Roman
       Edition of his works.—The Life of St. Ambrose gathered from his own writings, in the Benedictine
       Edition (excellent).—Hermant, Vie de St. Ambroise, Paris, 1678.—Tillemont, Mémoires, etc., Tome
       X. St. Ambroise [pp. 78–386], and notes, pp. 729–770.—Ceillier, Histoire générale des Auteurs
       sacrés, Tome V. pp. 328 ff. Ed. 2, Paris, 1860.—Dupin, Tome ii. pp. 438–515. [This writer says
       that the text of St. Ambrose is more corrupt than that of any other Father. See Alzog, Patrologie,
       p. 296. Ed. i.]—Cave, Hist. Lit. Vol. I. 262.—Schœneman, Biblíotheca historica PP. Lat. I.
       388–419.—Silbert, Leben des heiligen Ambrosius, Vienna, 1841—Baunard, Histoire de St. Ambroise,
       Paris, 1872 [translated into German, Freiburg, 1873].—Life of St. Ambrose, by Archdeacon
       Thornton, London, and other shorter sketches.—Fessler [Jungmann], Institutiones Patrologiæ, I.
       655 [also Patrologies of Mœhler, Alzog, etc.]. Articles in the Freiburg Kirchen-Lexikon, the
       Dictionary of Christian Biography, and other encyclopædias.




            II. NOTES ON SECULAR AND CHURCH HISTORY DURING THE
                     LATTER PART OF THE FOURTH CENTURY.
            After the Council of Nicæa, A.D. 325, the faith of the Catholic Church was established, but a
       considerable time was to elapse, and the tide of heterodoxy was to ebb and flow many times before
       peace should finally ensue. The “conversion” of the Emperor Constantine, though not followed,
       till he was dying, by baptism, led not merely to the toleration but to the protection and, as it were,
       the “establishment” of the Christian religion. This very naturally was followed by a large influx of
       worldliness into the Church, and bishops began to be time-servers and courtiers. St. Ambrose,
       however, was not of this number, but whether in defence of the Catholic faith, of the property of
       the Church, or, as in his legations to Maximus, for the protection of those in peril or anxiety who
       sought his aid, he braved every danger, even that of death itself.



       1           Paulinus, who had been in constant attendance on St. Ambrose, and was with him at his death, wrote this life a few years
           after that event, at the request of St. Augustine.


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           During the greater part of the life of St. Ambrose many of those in power, amongst others the
       empress mother Justina, were Arians. Julian, though too early to affect the actions of the bishop,
       apostatized to paganism, which also numbered many supporters of high station. On the other hand,
       the influence of St. Ambrose, exercised even with severe strictness, was all-powerful with
       Theodosius, known as the emperor who subdued the Arian heresy and abolished the worship of
       idols in the Roman Empire.
           The various historical events during the lifetime of St. Ambrose will be found entered under
       the different years in the subjoined table; it remains only here to give some account of his
       burial-place.
           St. Ambrose having discovered the bodies of SS. Cosmas and Damian, A.D. 389, placed them
       under the right side of the altar in his basilica, and desired that he should be himself buried near
       them to the left, which was done A.D. 397. In the year 835 the Archbishop of Milan, Angilbert II.,
       caused a large porphyry sarcophagus to be made in which he laid the body of St. Ambrose between
       the other two under the altar. In 1864 some excavations and repairs revealed in situ a magnificent
       sarcophagus nearly four and a half feet in length, three in width, and nearly two in height, without
       the covering, placed lengthwise. Further excavations brought to view two other tombs, one to the
       right and one to the left, lined with marble and placed east and west, not as the sarcophagus, north
       and south. In the one to the left were a few pieces of money, one of Flavius Victor, one of
       Theodosius, with some fragments of cloth of gold and other things. These were evidently the original
       resting-places of St. Ambrose and of SS. Cosmas and Damian, and the sarcophagus that constructed
       under Lothair, A.D. 835, by Angilbert.




xiii      III. HISTORICAL SUMMARY AND CHRONOLOGICAL TABLES.
          A.D.
          340. Birth of St. Ambrose (probably at Trèves), youngest son of Ambrose, Prefect of the Gauls.
       Constantine II. killed at Aquileia. Death of Eusebius.
          341. Seventh Council of Antioch. Second exile of St. Athanasius.
          343. Photinus begins teaching his heresy.
          347. Birth of St. John Chrysostom. Council of Sardica. St. Athanasius restored.
          348. Birth of Prudentius the Christian poet.
          349. Synod of Sirmium against Photinus.
          350. Death of the Emperor Constans. St. Hilary, Bishop of Poitiers. Magnentius proclaimed
       Emperor of the West.
          351. Photinus condemned by a semi-Arian synod.
          352. Liberius, Pope in succession to Julius.
          353–4. About this date St. Ambrose is taken by his mother to live at Rome, where his sister
       Marcellina received the veil at the hands of Liberius at Christmas, either A.D. 353, or more probably
       354. Suicide of Magnentius the Emperor.
          354. Birth of St. Augustine. Death of the Emperor Gallus.



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           355. Liberius the Pope, Dionysius, Bishop of Milan, and Lucifer, Bishop of Cagliari, banished
       by an Arian synod at Milan. Third exile of St. Athanasius.
           356. Banishment of St. Hilary of Poitiers.
           357. Liberius subscribes (as the Arians say) an Arian Creed, and returns to Rome A.D. 358.
           359. Council of Ariminum. Macedonius of Constantinople deposed. Eudoxius consecrated
       Bishop.
           361. Julian Emperor.
           362. Fourth exile of St. Athanasius.
           363. Death of the Emperor Julian. St. Athanasius restored. Felix Pope.
           364. Death of the Emperor Jovian. Valentinian and Valens Emperors.
           366. Death of Liberius in September. Damasus elected in his place, but the see is also claimed
       by Ursinus.
           367. Gratian, though only a boy, declared Augustus by his father Valentinian.
           368–74. Successful career of St. Ambrose in legal business and as “consular.”
           370. St. Basil, Bishop of Cæsarea.
           372. St. Gregory of Nazianzus, Bishop of Susium.
           373. Death of St. Athanasius.
           374. Death of Auxentius, the Arian Bishop of Milan, and election of St. Ambrose, though still
       only a catechumen, by acclamation. St. Martin Bishop of Tours.
           374–5. St. Ambrose sends a deputation of clerics to St. Basil to ask for the body of St. Dionysius,
       late Catholic Bishop of Milan. [St. Basil, Ep. 197.]
           375. Death of Valentinian in November. His son Valentinian is admitted by Gratian to be
       Emperor of the East, though only four years old.
           377. St. Ambrose writes the three books, De Virginibus; one, De Viduis; which is followed by
       the book, De Virginitate.
           378. The first two books, De Fide, written at the request of Gratian, who was setting out to the
       relief of Valens against the Goths. Valens is overcome and killed at Adrianople. Many Christians
       having been made captives, St. Ambrose sells Church plate to redeem them.
           379. Theodosius is proclaimed Augustus. Death of St. Basil and of St. Ephrem Syrum. Gratian,
       on his way back from Thrace, requests St. Ambrose to come to meet him and receives the first two
       books of the treatise De Fide, and asks for a further one of the Holy Spirit; the latter was written
       two years later. Death of Satyrus, brother of St. Ambrose. The two treatises on his death written.
           379–80. Famine in Rome.—See De Off. III. 46–48.
           380. Baptism of Theodosius at Thessalonica. Books III.–V. of the De Fide written about this
       time. The basilica which had been sequestered by Gratian is restored to the Church.
           380. Synod at Rome under Damasus at which St. Ambrose was present. Probably in the same
       year St. Ambrose consecrated Anemius Bishop of Sirmium in spite of Arian opposition.
           381. Death at Constantinople of Athanaricus, leader of the Goths. The three books, De Spiritu
       Sancto, written. Death of Peter, Bishop of Alexandria. The Œcumenical Council of Constantinople
       commences under the presidency of Meletius of Antioch. Also at Aquileia a council, at which St.
       Ambrose took a leading part, was held against the heretics Palladius and Secundianus. An account
       is given of the proceedings in Epistles 9–12.




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           381–2. St. Ambrose presides over a council of Italian bishops to take into consideration the
       troubles at Antioch and Constantinople. Epistles 13, to Theodosius, and 14, his reply, state the
       proceedings. Theodosius summoned a council to consider the same matters at Constantinople.
           382. Gratian orders the removal of the image of Victory from the forum at Rome. [Ep. 17, 18.]
       Acholius, Bishop of Thessalonica, dies and is succeeded by Anysius.
           383. The Priscillianists endeavour in vain to gain Damasus and St. Ambrose to their side by
       means of a visit to Rome and Milan. On the 25th of August Gratian is assassinated at Lyons by the
       instigation of Maximus. A great dearth at Rome. [De Off. III. 7, 49; Ep. 18.]
           383–4. First legation of St. Ambrose to Maximus on behalf of Justina the Empress and her son
       Valentinian II.
           384. The memorial of Symmachus the prefect of the city to Valentinian, requesting the restoration
       of the Altar of Victory, and the reply of St. Ambrose. [Ep. 17, 18.] A synod at Bordeaux against
       the Priscillianists. Death of Damasus, who is succeeded by Siricius as Pope.
           385. Priscillian and his companions are condemned to death at Trèves at the instigation of the
       Spanish Bishops Idacius and Ithacius. The Ithacians consecrate Felix as Bishop. [Ep. 42–51.] The
       persecution at Milan of Catholics by Justina in Holy Week. [Ep. 20.] The law of Valentinian II.,
       granting Arians equal rights with Catholics. Auxentius claims the see of Milan. [Sermon against
       Auxentius and Ep. 21.] The deposit which a widow had entrusted to the Church at Trent having
       been carried off by imperial order, St. Ambrose succeeds in procuring its restitution. [De Off. II.
       29, 150, 151.] New basilica at Milan consecrated.
           386. Finding of the bodies of St. Gervasius and Protasius [Ep. 22]. Epistle 23 to the bishops of
       the province of Æmilia on the right day for the observance of Easter.
           386–7. The exposition of the Gospel according to St. Luke written.
           387. Baptism of St. Augustine at Milan by St. Ambrose at Easter. Second mission of St. Ambrose
       to Maximus. [Ep. 24.] Expulsion of St. Ambrose from Trèves because of his refusal to communicate
       with the murderer of his sovereign. In the later part of the year Maximus crosses into Italy and
       enters Milan.
           388. At Constantinople the Arians destroy the residence of the Catholic Bishop Nectarius. [Ep.
       40, § 13.] Death of Justina, and conversion of Valentinian II. by Theodosius. Theodosius marches
       against Maximus, who is everywhere defeated [Ep. 40, § 23], and executed at Aquileia. Third
       application concerning the Altar of Victory.
           390. The excessive cruelty with which Theodosius punished a sedition at Thessalonica brought
       on him exclusion from communion, and a severe rebuke at the hands of St. Ambrose. The Emperor’s
       penitence and readmission to communion. A synod is held at Milan against the Ithacian heretics,
       and Felix, Bishop of Trèves. [Ep. 51.]
           391–2. The deputation of part of the Roman Senate to Valentinian to request the restoration of
       the Altar of Victory in the Forum. [Ep. 57, § 5.] The treatise De institutione Virginis, written about
       this time, as also, De Officiis.
           392. Valentinian II. killed at Vienne by Arbogastes [Ep. 53, § 2; De ob. Valent. 25 ff.]. His
       body is brought to Milan. The address, Consolatio de ob. Val. A further delegation from the Senate
       is sent to Eugenius respecting the Altar of Victory [Ep. 57, § 6 ff.].
           393. On the arrival of Eugenius at Milan St. Ambrose leaves the city for Bononia Faventia and
       Florence. The letters to Eugenius and Sabinus written about this time.



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           393–4. At Florence St. Ambrose dedicates a basilica, in which he deposits the bodies of the
       martyrs Vitalis and Agricola, which he had brought from Bononia. His address on this occasion
       was that which is inscribed, Exhortatio Virginitatis. He writes Ep. 59.
           394. Theodosius sets out from Constantinople against Eugenius. About the beginning of August
       St. Ambrose returns to Milan. Eugenius defeated by Theodosius and slain, Sept. 6. St. Ambrose
       intercedes and obtains pardon for the followers of Eugenius. After this St. Ambrose writes the
       Enarrationes on Psalms 35–40 and Ep. 61, 62.
           395. Death of Theodosius at Milan. St. Ambrose’s oration De obitu Theodosii. Honorius and
       Arcadius Emperors. St. Augustine, Bishop of Hippo. Death of Rufinus.
           396. Dissensions at Vercellæ, the occasion of writing Ep. 63, and of a visit to that Church.
           397. St. Ambrose consecrates a bishop for Ticinum, and shortly after falls ill. He commenced
       the Enarratio on Psalm 43, which he left unfinished; and died in the night between Good Friday
       and Easter Eve, having recommended Simplicianus as his successor.




xiv                           IV. ON THE DOCTRINE OF ST. AMBROSE.
            There is a very complete agreement on the part of St. Ambrose with the Catholic teaching of
       the universal Church. St. Augustine speaks of him as “a faithful teacher of the Church, and even
       at the risk of his life a most strenuous defender of Catholic truth,”2 “whose skill, constancy, labours,
       and perils, both on account of what he did and what he wrote, the Roman world unhesitatingly
       proclaims.”3 In matters both of faith and morals by his words and writings he greatly benefited the
       Church and was called by St. Jerome “a pillar of the Church.”4
            In his dogmatic treatises, more particularly in his books on the Faith, he shows great skill and
       penetration, and his reasoning is full and clear, meeting the most subtle objections with patient
       industry. Scarcely any ancient writer has treated the mystery of the Holy Trinity and the theological
       difficulties connected with it more clearly and convincingly than St. Ambrose in his De Fide and
       De Spiritu Sancto.
            In his expositions of Holy Scripture he treats of the threefold sense, the literal, the moral, and
       the mystical, devoting more pains, however, and time to the latter than to the former. He gives
       special consideration to the mystical interpretation of such passages as may seem to contain in a
       literal sense anything diverging from sound morality. Many of his other mystical interpretations
       of plain, simple matters of fact have much beauty, as in his treatment of the story of the building
       of the ark, the marriage of Isaac, and the blessings of the Patriarchs. The literal sense is followed
       specially in the Hexaëmeron, the treatise on Paradise, Noah and the Ark, and the Exposition of the
       Gospel according to St. Luke. The moral sense, though referred to throughout his writings, is more
       particularly sought out in the Expositions of the Psalms.
            St. Ambrose was a diligent student of the Greek writers, whom he often follows largely,
       especially Origen and Didymus, as also St. Basil the Great and St. Athanasius, and he has also

       2       Cont. Jul. Pelag. II. 32.
       3       Cont. Jul. Pelag. I. 40.
       4       Adv. Rufin. I. 2.


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       adapted many points of allegorical interpretation from Philo. He is fond of alleging scriptural proofs,
       and when he argues from reason often confirms his argument by some quotation or reference, a
       task easy for him who, from his consecration, was so diligent a student of holy Scripture.
            As to justification, St. Ambrose ascribes the whole work to the Holy Spirit, Who seals us in
       our hearts, as we receive the outward sign in our bodies. Through the Holy Spirit we receive a share
       of the grace of adoption. Christ was perfect according to the fulness of His Majesty; we are perfected
       by a continual progress in virtue.5
            With regard to baptism, he taught in accordance with the received belief of his day that it is the
       sacrament of adoption and regeneration, wherein sin is forgiven,6 and the Holy Spirit confers new
       life upon the soul and joins it mystically to Christ. As to the Real Presence in the Sacrament of the
       Eucharist, his doctrine is no less definite. In his treatise on the Faith he says of the elements that
       they “are transfigured [transfigurantur]7 by the mystery of the sacred prayer into flesh and blood.”8
       He interprets various texts, also, in many places in the same sense. In a like spirit he maintains that
       the power of forgiving sins on repentance is vested in the ministry of the Church.9 The intercession
       of the saints, and up to a certain point their invocation, is likewise upheld.10
            There was a Latin version made from the Septuagint, including the Apocrypha, in Africa, and
       in use there at the end of the second century, very barbarous, and copying even Greek constructions.
       Of this text SS. Ambrose and Augustine used a recension. But our author seems to have been very
       independent, and to have made use of several different versions of holy Scripture, translating, as
       it would seem, often for himself from the Septuagint, referring also to Symmachus, Theodotion,
       and Aquila, though thinking less of the latter. When the prophets, he says, were moved by the Holy
       Spirit, they were troubled and darkened with their own ignorance.11 Prayer, he asserts, is necessary
       for understanding holy Scripture.12 Each Testament is not equally easy, and we are not to criticise
       what we do not understand.13 He speaks of the Hebrew as the truth,14 but states that the Septuagint
       added much that is useful.15
xv          The Arians are repeatedly charged by St. Ambrose with falsifying and manipulating Scripture
       for their own ends, not always, it would seem, very justly, but the same charge is a common one
       against all heretical bodies in early days. As to the Canon, he would seem to have no very definite
       rule. He admits Tobit as prophetic, Judith as canonical, nor does he distinguish between canonical
       and deuterocanonical, while the sapiential books are all attributed to Solomon. He quotes Baruch
       as Jeremiah, and refers to the History of Susanna, Bel and the Dragon, and other apocryphal works



       5          De Sp. S. I. 79, 80; De Fide, V. 91.
       6          De Pœn. I. 36.
       7          For the force of the word transfigurantur in early ecclesiastical Latin, compare Tertullian, adv. Praxeam, c. 27:
            “Transfiguratio interremptio est pristini. Omne enim, quodcunque transfiguratur in aliud desinit esse quod fuerat, et incipit esse
            quod non erat.”
       8          De Fid. IV. 124.
       9          De Pœn. II. 12, etc.
       10         Ep. 22 De ob. Theod. 41–51; De Viduis., 55.
       11         De Abrah. II. 61.
       12         Ps. cxviii. 59.
       13         Ep. 63–78, De Parad. II. 7.
       14         De Noe et Arca, XII. 60.
       15         Hexaëm. V. 20.


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       as “Scripture.” Ezra, he says, re-established holy Scripture by memory,16 and he quotes the fourth
       book of Esdras.




                                                 V. LIFE OF ST. AMBROSE.
           St. Ambrose, Bishop of Milan, one of the four Latin doctors of the Church, was descended from
       a Roman family of some distinction, some time Christian, and counting martyrs as well as state
       officials amongst its members.
           His father, likewise named Ambrosius, was prefect of the Gauls, an office the jurisdiction of
       which extended over Spain, Britain, Cis- and Trans-Alpine Gaul. His chief official residence was
       Trèves, where probably St. Ambrose was born, as seems most likely, A.D. 340.17
           After his father’s death, his mother and his elder brother, Satyrus, went with St. Ambrose to
       Rome, not earlier than 353, where his elder sister, Marcellina, received the veil at Christmas from
       Pope Liberius, the exact year being uncertain.
           Here the future bishop devoted himself to legal studies, in which he met with great success.
       His skill in law and general reputation soon led to his advancement, and about A.D. 370 he was
       appointed by the Prætorian Prefect Probus governor of Liguria and Æmilia, with the rank of
       consular.18 On this occasion Probus is said to have closed an address to St. Ambrose with the words,
       “Go and act, not as a judge, but as a bishop.” This advice was so well followed by Ambrose, that
       owing to his equity and kindness the people came to look up to him rather as a father than as a
       judge.19
           After some few years Auxentius,20 the intended Arian Bishop of Milan, died, A.D. 374, and it is
       said that during the discussion as to the appointment of his successor a child cried out in the
       assembly, “Ambrose Bishop,” and, although he was but a catechumen and so canonically unqualified,
       the multitude immediately elected him by acclamation.
           St. Ambrose did all in his power, even, if we accept the statements if his biographer Paulinus,
       probably a clerk of Milan, resorting to some questionable expedients, to escape from the dignity
       laid upon him, but when his election was ratified by the Emperor Valentinian, he recognized his
       appointment as being the will of God, and insisted on being baptized by a Catholic priest. Eight
       days later, December 7, A.D. 374, he was consecrated Bishop.
           The first care of the new bishop was at once to divest himself of his worldly property, giving
       his silver and gold to the poor and the Church, and committing the management of his estates,

       16          Ep. 63, 30.
       17          The exact date depends upon whether the passage “barbaracis motibus et bellorum procellis,” etc., Ep. lix., 12–3, refers
            to the war against Maximus, A.D. 387, or to that against Eugenius, A.D. 393–4; so that the birth year of St. Ambrose might be 333
            or 340. The latter date is, however, most generally accepted.
       18          Of the 116 provinces of the empire 37 were governed by magistrates with the title of consular.
       19          De Exc. Sat. I. 25, 49, 58.
       20          Auxentius, a Cappadocian, was ordained priest by Gregory, usurper of St. Athanasius, see of Alexandria. He was much
            esteemed by the Arians; and when after a synod at Milan, A.D. 355, the Catholic Bishop Dionysius was banished with many
            others, Auxentius was intruded in his stead, and, as St. Athanasius remarked, a Latin Church received as its pastor one who was
            ignorant of the Latin tongue, St. Hilary and others endeavoured to remove him, but in vain, and in 369 Auxentius was
            excommunicated in a synod at Rome, but succeeded in maintaining his post.


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       except a life interest for his sister, to his brother Satyrus, who gave up his own office to come to
       his assistance, and enable him to devote himself wholly to theological study and his other episcopal
       duties.
            His chief studies were holy Scripture and ecclesiastical writers, especially St. Basil the Great
       and Didymus of Alexandria, from whom no less a man than St. Jerome accused him of plagiarizing.
       His natural abilities and thorough knowledge of Greek stood him in good stead, when, as he says
       himself,21 he had to learn and to teach at the same time.
            The life of St. Ambrose was a pattern of the discharge of episcopal duties. He spent much time
       daily in study and devotion, besides the more public duties of his office.22 He preached every Sunday
       and at certain seasons daily. His labours in preparing catechumens for baptism were blessed with
xvi    great success, amongst those taught by him being St. Augustine.
            But the zeal and courage of the new Bishop were soon tried. The Empress mother Justina was
       still an Arian, but had little influence during the life of the Emperor Gratian, who was much attached
       to St. Ambrose. After his murder, however, A.D. 383, his brother Valentinian II., a boy of only
       twelve years of age, ascended the throne and was naturally much under his mother’s influence.
       Justina led him to support a demand of the Arians for the use of the Portian basilica, situated outside
       the walls of Milan. This being refused, a second application was made for the large and newer
       basilica within the city. Ambrose replied, “The Emperor has his palaces, let him leave the churches
       to the Bishop.” Soldiers were sent to secure the delivery of the basilica, but St. Ambrose with the
       faithful occupied the building and remained within, singing psalms and hymns till the soldiers
       retired.
            St. Ambrose was no less successful in his zeal against the expiring heathenism of Italy than
       against Arianism. One of the many remnants till recent times of heathen worship had been the Altar
       of Victory in the Senate-house at Rome, which was removed under Gratian; the prefect of Rome,
       Symmachus, himself a heathen but a friend of St. Ambrose, appealed to Valentinan II. that it might
       be restored, and Ambrose successfully opposed this appeal in two Epistles (17, 18) addressed to
       the young Emperor. Yet again, when Theodosius assumed the imperial power [A.D. 387], a renewed
       attempt was made and once more frustrated. Later on, Eugenius the usurper judged it politic to take
       the heathen’s side,23 the Altar of Victory was once more set up, and the temples stood open as in
       the days of old. But this triumph lasted only for a brief period. When Theodosius defeated the
       usurper at Aquileia, in the spring of 394, he also defeated paganism, which sank to rise no more as
       a public religion, though it long lingered in private amidst indifference, toleration, and at times
       persecution.
            The influence exercised by Ambrose upon the rulers of his day is sufficiently manifested by
       these facts, but he had the courage to use not only influence, but, when needed, rebuke and Church
       discipline.
            Only a few months after his elevation to the see of Milan, he remonstrated with Valentinian I.
       concerning the severity of his rule and other abuses, and required amendment. The Emperor’s reply
       did him honour: “Well, if I have offended, prescribe for me the remedies which the law of God
       requires.” Again, on another occasion, in 390, Theodosius had put down a seditious movement in


       21      De Off. lib. I. c. i. 4.
       22      Ep. xx. 15.
       23      St. Ambr. Ep. 57.


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       Thessalonica with great severity, causing some 7,000 persons to be slain. St. Ambrose at once,
       disregarding the possible consequences to himself, wrote him a letter (Ep. 51) on the subject,
       exhorting him to repentance, and pointing out that he could not permit him to be present at the
       celebration of the Mysteries, till he had openly testified his sorrow. At another time when the same
       Emperor had ventured into the sanctuary or chancel of the church, which was the right of the clergy
       alone, St. Ambrose rebuked him and caused him to retire.
            These acts of ecclesiastical discipline were also accompanied by others in which the great
       Bishop was able in temporal matters to assist the imperial family.
            Twice on behalf of the young Emperor Valentinian II. he undertook a mission to Trèves, to see
       the usurper Maximus, and when Valentinian died, St. Ambrose delivered a striking oration at his
       funeral, recording his many virtues. Theodosius did not survive his victory over Eugenius for many
       months. In January of the following year [A.D. 395], he died at Milan, and the funeral oration which
       St. Ambrose pronounced over him is also extant.
           Yet whilst thus devoting much time to weighty affairs of State, the Bishop never neglected the
       duties of his office. He preached every Sunday, at great festivals, once or more often, every day.
       He celebrated the Holy Mysteries daily. His life was marked by perfect purity, sympathy, energy,
       and devotion. He was always ready to help those requiring assistance, and so when Augustine came
       to Milan to teach rhetoric, A.D. 384, he was kindly received and fascinated. Probably he owed his
       conversion even more to the life and character than to the teaching of St. Ambrose.
           One subject St. Ambrose never tired of recommending was Virginity; and such was the power
       of his exhortations that mothers used to forbid their daughters to attend his sermons and addresses.
            The indefatigable zeal of the great Bishop further exhibited itself in the number of his writings.
       Many of them consist of addresses subsequently worked up into treatises, and are on all subjects,
xvii   dogmatic, controversial, exegetical, and ascetic. There remain also a large number of valuable
       letters, and some hymns, probably from four to twelve of those ascribed to him being genuine, and
       in use to the present day.
            But besides his writings and his resistance to the attacks of Arianism, heathenism, or the secular
       power, St. Ambrose devoted himself to actively defending the cause of the Church and of orthodoxy
       wherever he had the opportunity. Although the death of Satyrus, A.D. 379, must have greatly added
       to the troubles of St. Ambrose, he was as watchful as ever against all possibilities of heretical
       aggression. To his care and opposition to the party of the Empress Justina it was owing that the
       city of Sirmium was preserved in A.D. 381 from receiving an Arian bishop. And in the same year,
       when the Arians, hoping for large support from the East, had almost persuaded the Emperor to
       summon a general council at Aquileia, St. Ambrose prevailed upon him to summon only the
       neighbouring bishops, and what might have been a serious evil was avoided.
            In such ways the holy man, embracing in his far-seeing care the interests of religion far and
       wide, spent his days in unceasing labour till his health failed in the year 397, when, as is related by
       Paulinus, Count Stilicho, saying that the loss of such a man threatened destruction to Italy, persuaded
       the nobles of the city to request St. Ambrose that he would pray for longer life. But the Saint replied:
       “I have not so lived amongst you as to be ashamed of living, and I do not fear to die, for we have
       a good Lord.” As some of the bystanders were discussing in whispers who would be St. Ambrose’s
       successor, and mentioned Simplicianus, he overheard them, and said, “An old man, but good.” For
       the last few hours of his life Ambrose lay with his arms extended in the form of a cross, praying.
       Honoratus, Bishop of Vercellæ, lying in another room, heard himself called thrice, and coming

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        down, offered him the Body of the Lord, after receiving which St. Ambrose breathed his last, on
        Good Friday night, April 4–5, A.D. 397, and was laid to rest on Easter morning in the Ambrosian
        basilica at Milan, where he still is reverenced, and in which the Ambrosian liturgy and rites, differing
        considerably from the Roman use of the rest of the churches of Italy, continue to this day, though
        doubtless with many modifications subsequent to the time of St. Ambrose.




                                   VI. WRITINGS OF ST. AMBROSE.
             The extant writings of St. Ambrose may be divided under six heads. I. Dogmatic; II. Exegetic;
        III. Moral; IV. Sermons; V. Letters; VI. A few Hymns.

                                       I. DOGMATIC AND CONTROVERSIAL WORKS.
            1. De Fide. The chief of these are the Five Books on the Faith, of which the two first were
        written in compliance with a request of the Emperor Gratian, A.D. 378. Books III.–V. were written
        in 379 or 380, and seem to have been worked up from addresses delivered to the people [V. prol.
        9, 11; III. 143; IV. 119]. This treatise vindicates the Divinity of Christ from the attacks of the Arians,
        and has always enjoyed the highest reputation, being quoted and referred to again and again.
            2. De Spiritu Sancto. The three books on the Holy Spirit may be considered as a continuation
        of the above treatise, and were also addressed to Gratian in compliance with his request, A.D. 381.
        In this treatise St. Ambrose shows that the Holy Spirit is God, and of one nature and substance with
        the Father and the Son. He makes use of the Greek writers, SS. Didymus, Basil the Great, and
        Athanasius, and was on this ground attacked by St. Jerome. See Rufinus, Apol. adv. Hieron. II.
        23–25.
            3. De Incarnationis Dominicæ Sacramento. The book on the Mystery of the Lord’s Incarnation
        owed its origin to a challenge to dispute publicly given to St. Ambrose by two Arian chamberlains
        of Gratian. On the day appointed they were, as Paulinus relates in his life of St. Ambrose, thrown
        out of the chariot which was conveying them and killed. On the next day, that the people might not
        be disappointed, this discourse was delivered, but the reference made to the absence of the
        challengers hardly suits the story of Paulinus. The treatise is a very valuable argument in defence
        of our Lord’s Divinity and Eternity, and that He is perfect God and perfect Man. In rewriting the
        address the Bishop added a refutation of the argument that the Begotten and the Unbegotten could
        not be of one nature and substance. The treatise may be considered as a supplement to that concerning
xviii   the Faith.
            4. De Mysteriis. A valuable treatise on the Mysteries, under which title St. Ambrose includes
        Baptism, with its complement, Confirmation, and the Eucharist. It is somewhat similar to the
        Catecheses Mystagogicæ of St. Cyril of Jerusalem, expounding the doctrine and ceremonies of
        these sacraments. On doctrinal grounds the authenticity of the work has been impugned by some
        modern writers, but there is no sufficient foundation for their arguments, as the teaching may be
        paralleled in many other passages of St. Ambrose. The date is not certain, but may be about A.D.
        387.



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           5. Libri duo de pœnitentia. These books on Penitence were written about A.D. 384, against the
       Novatians. In the first book the writer proves that the power of forgiving sins was left by Christ to
       His Church. In the second book, insisting on the necessity of repentance and confession, he also
       refutes the Novatian interpretations of Heb. vi. 4–6 and St. Matt. xii. 31–32. This treatise has also
       undeservedly been questioned on doctrinal grounds by some moderns.
           These treatises are all translated in this volume.

                                              II. EXEGETICAL WORKS.
            St. Ambrose was in the habit of explaining various books of holy Scripture in courses of lectures,
       which he subsequently worked up, often at the request of friends, into treatises in the shape in which
       they have come down to us. Of the class we have:
            1. Hexaëmeron. This treatise, expounding the literal and moral sense of the work of the six days
       of creation [Gen. i. 1–26], consists of nine addresses to the people of Milan, delivered in the last
       week of Lent, probably A.D. 389, and is now divided into six books. The writer has studied Origen,
       but followed rather the teaching of St. Hippolytus and Basil the Great, though he expresses himself
       often quite in a different sense.
            2. De Paradiso. This is the earliest or one of the earliest of the extant writings of St. Ambrose,
       though the exact date is uncertain. In it he discusses what and where Paradise was, and the question
       of the life of our first parents there, the temptation, fall and its results, and answers certain cavils
       of the Gnostics and Manichees. He also enters into an allegorical exposition comparing Paradise
       with the human soul.
            3. De Cain et Abel. The treatise is now divided into two books, but the division is too inartistic
       to have been made by the writer. As to the date, it was later than the last treatise, but probably not
       many months. The interpretations are very mystical, and touch upon moral and dogmatic questions.
            4. De Noe et Arca. This treatise has reached us in a mutilated condition. It was written probably
       before the De Officiis and De Abraham, but after the works on Paradise and Cain and Abel, though
       the exact date cannot be determined. The exposition is literal and allegorical.
            5. De Patriarchis. Seven books preached and written at various dates about 387 or 388. The
       same kind of interpretation is followed in these as in the former treatises.
            6. De fuga sæculi. Written probably about A.D. 389–390. An instructive treatise setting forth the
       desirability of avoiding the dangers of the world, and for those who must live in the world, showing
       how to pass through them most safely.
            7. De Elia et jejunio. A treatise composed from addresses delivered during Lent, certainly after
       A.D. 386, possibly 389.
            8. De Tobia. A work quoted by St. Augustine (C. Jul. Pelag. I. 3, 10), consisting of sermons
       on the story of Tobias, and chiefly directed against the practice of usury.
            9. De Nabuthe Jezraelita. One or two sermons against avarice, probably written about A.D. 395.
            10. Libri iv. de interpellatione Job et David. The first and third books have Job, the second and
       fourth David, for their subject, and formed a course of sermons the date of which is uncertain.
            11. Apologia prophetæ David ad Theodosium Augustum. A number of addresses delivered, it
       would seem, about A.D. 384, quoted also by St. Augustine.
            12. Enarrationes in xii. Psalmos Davidicos. Commentaries on Psalms 1, 35–40, 43, 45, 47, 48,
       61 (according to St. Ambrose’s numbering). These seem to have been partly preached, partly
       dictated at various dates, and much in them is borrowed from St. Basil.

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           13. Expositio Psalmi cxviii. This treatise is one of the most carefully worked out of all the
       writings of St. Ambrose and consists of twenty-two addresses to the faithful, each address comprising
xix    one division of the Psalm. From various allusions, it would seem that the completed work dates
       from about A.D. 388.
           14. Expositio Evangelii secundum Lucam. The ten books of this commentary consist likewise
       of sermons in which St. Ambrose explained the Gospel during a period of one or two years, in 386
       and 387.

                                             III. ETHICAL WRITINGS.
           Among the ethical or moral writings of St. Ambrose, the first place is deservedly assigned to:
           1. De Officiis Ministrorum. In three books, which are translated in this series.
           2. De Virginibus. Three books concerning Virgins, addressed to his sister Marcellina in the year
       377, probably, like most of the treatises of St. Ambrose, revised from addresses, the first of which
       was delivered on the festival of St. Agnes, January 21. This would seem to have been perhaps the
       very earliest of the writings of St. Ambrose, judging from the opening chapter. The treatise is
       referred to by St. Jerome, St. Augustine, Cassian, and others.
           3. De Viduis. This shorter work, concerning Widows, was probably written not very long after
       the last mentioned treatise.
           4. De Virginitate. A treatise on Virginity, the date of which cannot certainly be fixed, but the
       writing De Viduis is referred to in chapter 9.
           5. De Institutione Virginis. A treatise on the training and discipline of a Virgin, addressed to
       Eusebius, either bishop or a noble of Bologna, after St. Ambrose had admitted his niece to the rank
       of Virgins, probably about A.D. 391 or 392.
           6. Exhortatio Virginitatis. A commendation of Virginity preached on the occasion of the
       consecration of a church at Florence by St. Ambrose, A.D. 393 or 394.

                                          IV. SERMONS AND ADDRESSES.
           1. Contra Auxentium. A sermon against Auxentius, concerning giving up the basilicas to the
       Arians, usually inserted between the twenty-first and twenty-second of the letters of St. Ambrose.
           2. De Excessu fratris Satyri. The two addresses on the occasion of the death of St. Ambrose’s
       brother Satyrus, translated in this volume.
           3. De obitu Valentiniani Consolatio. The Emperor Valentinian having been murdered by
       Arbogastes, Count of Vienne, his body was brought to Milan, and remained two months unburied.
       At last Theodosius sent the necessary rescript, and at the funeral solemnities St. Ambrose delivered
       the address entitled the “Consolation.”
           4. De obitu Theodosii oratio. A discourse delivered forty days after the death of the Emperor
       Theodosius before the Emperor Honorius at Milan.

                                         V. THE LETTERS OF ST. AMBROSE.
           The Benedictine Editors of St. Ambrose have divided his Epistles into two classes: the first
       comprising those to which they thought it possible to assign dates; the second those which afford
       no data for a conclusion. Probably in many cases the exact year is not so certain as the editors have
       made it appear, but they seem arranged in a fairly probable consecutive order.


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                                                    THE LETTERS
            1. To the Emperor Gratian, in reply to his request for a treatise on the Faith. Written A.D. 379,
       before August, as Gratian came to Milan in that month.
            2. To Constantius, a bishop, on episcopal duties, and commending to him the care of the vacant
       see of Forum Cornelii, or Imola. Probably written about A.D. 379.
            3, 4. To Cornelius, Bishop of Comum, the first a friendly letter, the second containing also an
       invitation to the consecration of a church by Bassianus, Bishop of Laus Pompeia, now Lodi Vecchio,
       near Milan. Written probably after A.D. 381.
            5, 6. To Syagrius, Bishop of Verona. On a charge falsely brought against the Virgin Indicia.
       They may have been written A.D. 380.
            7, 8. To Justus, perhaps Bishop of Lyons. On holy Scripture. If the conjecture that Justus was
xx     the Bishop of Lyons is correct, written about 380 or 381.
            9–12. Letters concerning the Council of Aquileia, held A.D. 381, to the bishops of the provinces
       of Gaul, to the Emperor Gratian and his colleagues. Two men, Palladius and Secundianus, held
       Arian opinions, and the former appears to have asked Gratian to convoke a General Council,
       pleading that he was unjustly condemned. St. Ambrose pointed out to the Emperor that such a
       question as the orthodoxy of two persons could be settled by a local council in Italy; and as a result,
       by the Emperor’s mandate, a council of Italian bishops met at Aquileia, other bishops having also
       permission to attend. Palladius and Secundianus were condemned, and these letters have reference
       to the proceedings at the council. They were probably written by St. Ambrose in the name of the
       council, A.D. 381.
            13, 14. Two letters addressed to Theodosius, the former relating the decisions of a council,
       probably held at Milan, on the Meletian schism at Antioch, and the latter further expressing the
       desire of the bishops for a council on this subject, and also on the opinions of Apollinaris. Written
       A.D. 381 or 382.
            15. To the Bishops of Macedonia, in reply to their notification of the death of Acholius, Bishop
       of Thessalonica, who baptized Theodosius, and had met St. Ambrose at a council in Rome. Written
       A.D. 383.
            16. To Anicius, on his election to succeed Acholius, whose labours and life are commended by
       St. Ambrose. Written A.D. 383.
            17, 18. On the occasion of the attempt of Symmachus and the heathen senators to procure the
       restitution of the image and Altar of Victory in the Roman Senate-house, frustrated by St. Ambrose,
       A.D. 384.
            19. To Vigilius, Bishop of Trent, subsequently martyred, written probably about A.D. 385.
            20. To his sister, Marcellina, giving an account of the frustrated attempts of the Arian and
       imperial party to gain possession of a basilica at Milan, A.D. 385,
            21. To the Emperor Valentinian II., declining the challenge to dispute with the Arian Auxentius
       before lay judges. A.D. 386.
            22. To his sister Marcellina, giving an account of the finding of the bodies of SS. Gervasius
       and Protasius, and of the consequent miracles. Written A.D. 386.
            23. To the bishops of the province of Æmilia, on the proper date for the observance of Easter,
       in 387. Written A.D. 386.


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            24. To Valentinian II., with an account of St. Ambrose’s second mission to Maximus on his
       behalf. Written probably A.D. 387.
            25, 26. Inscribed the former to Studius, the second to Irenæus, but from internal evidence these
       appear to be the same person. It deals with the question, how far a judge being a Christian may
       lawfully sentence any one to death. Written probably about A.D. 388.
           27–33. Addressed to Irenæus, on various questions. Written about A.D. 387.
           34–36. To Orontianus, a cleric, on the soul and other questions. Written after 386.
           37, 38. To Simplicianus, who became the successor of St. Ambrose in the see of Milan, setting
       forth that holiness is perfect freedom.
           39. To Faustinus, on the occasion of the death of a sister. Written probably after A.D. 387.
            40. To Theodosius. The Jewish synagogue at Callinicum in Mesopotamia having been destroyed
       by the Christians, and a meeting-house of the Valentinian heretics also burnt by the Catholics,
       Theodosius ordered that the bishop should rebuild the synagogue at his own expense, and the monks
       be punished. St. Ambrose remonstrates with the Emperor, and it would seem, from the following
       letter to his sister, at first unsuccessfully.
            41. To his sister Marcellina, relating the circumstances alluded to above, and telling her of his
       sermon before the Emperor, and of his subsequent refusal to celebrate the Eucharist, until the
       Emperor had promised to rescind the order. The date of the two letters is A.D. 388.
            42. Reply of St. Ambrose and a synod at Milan to the notification of Pope Siricius announcing
       the sentence of excommunication passed upon Jovinian and his followers.
            43, 44. To Horontianus, in reply to his inquiries on some points connected with the Creation.
            45. To Sabinus, Bishop of Placentia, in answer to questions concerning Paradise.
xxi         46. To the same, on the subject of an Apollinarian heretic.
            47–49. To the same, with books and on private matters.
            50. To Chromatius, probably Bishop of Aquileia, explaining how evil men may be used to utter
       true prophecies.
            51. To Theodosius, after the massacre at Thessalonica. Written A.D. 390.
            52. A private letter to Titianus.
            53. To Theodosius, to express the sorrow of St. Ambrose at the death of Valentinian II., slain
       by Arbogastes.
            54, 55. To Eusebius, not, it would seem, the Bishop of Bologna who was present at the Council
       of Aquileia, but rather a lay friend to whom St. Ambrose wrote his treatise on the training of a
       virgin. Probably written A.D. 392 or 393.
            56. To Theophilus. The troubles of the church of Antioch through the Meletian schism might
       have terminated on the death of Paulinus, had he not on his deathbed consecrated Evagrius as his
       successor in violation of the canons. Theodosius, being pressed by the Western bishops, now
       summoned a council at Capua, commanding Flavian to attend, which command he however
       disobeyed. The council referred the matter to Theophilus of Alexandria and the bishops of Egypt.
       But Flavian, as Theophilus had informed St. Ambrose, refused to submit to their decision. This is
       the reply of St. Ambrose advising Theophilus to summon Flavian once more, and communicate
       the result to Pope Siricius. The letter must have been written quite at the end of A.D. 391, or the
       beginning of 392.
           57. To Eugenius the usurper, to avoid whom St. Ambrose had left Milan, and to whose letters
       he had sent no reply. Written A.D. 393.

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            58. To Sabinus, Bishop, on the resolution of Paulinus and Therasia to forsake the world. Written
       probably A.D. 393.
            59. To Severus, Bishop probably of Naples, telling him of James, a Persian priest, who had
       resolved to retire from the world into Campania, and contrasting this with his own troubles, owing
       to the invasion of Eugenius, A.D. 393 or 394.
            60. To Paternus, against a proposed incestuous marriage.
            61. To Theodosius, after his victory over Eugenius. Written A.D. 394.
           62. To the same, urging him to be merciful to the followers of Eugenius. Written in the same
       year.
           63. To the Church at Vercellæ.
           The second division of the letters, being those which cannot be dated, begins here in the
       Benediction Edition.
           64. To Irenæus, on the Manna.
           65. To Simplicianus, on Exodus xxiv. 6.
           66. To Romulus, on Aaron’s making the calf of the golden earrings.
           67. To Simplicianus, showing how Moses yielded to Aaron in matters relating to his priestly
       character.
           68. To Romulus. Explanation of the text Deut. xxviii. 23.
            69. To Irenæus, answering a question as to the prohibition under severe penalties in the Mosaic
       law, of disguising the sex by dress.
            70, 71. To Horontianus, on part of the prophecy of Micah.
            72. To Constantius, on the rite of circumcision.
            73–76. To Irenæus. Why the law was given, and the scope of the Epistle to the Ephesians. The
       letter numbered 75 is plainly a continuation of 74, although inscribed to Clementianus, a difficulty
       similar to that about letter 26.
            77, 78. To Horontianus, contrasting the condition of the Jew and the Christian.
            79, 80. To Bellicius, on recovery from sickness, and on the miracle of healing the man blind
       from his birth.
            81. To certain clergy, against despondency.
            82. To Marcellus, concerning a lawsuit.
            83. To Sisinnius, commending him for forgiving his son, who had married without consulting
       him.
            84. To Cynegius.
            85, 86. To Siricius, with thanks for letters, and commending Priscus.
            87. To Segatius [more probably Phæbadius], Bishop of Agens, and Delphinus, Bishop of
xxii   Bordeaux. Polybius, mentioned in the letter, was proconsul of Africa between the years 380 and
       390.
            88. To Atticus. Commendation of Priscus.
            89. To Alypius. Acknowledgment of letters.
            90. To Antonius. On the mutual affection of himself and St. Ambrose.
            91. To Candidianus, probably a fellow-bishop. A letter of affection.

                                                   VI. HYMNS.



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           During the persecutions stirred up by the Arian Empress Justina, A.D. 385–6, referred to in his
       20th letter, St. Ambrose and the faithful spent the whole night in the basilica, and the holy Bishop
       employed the people in singing psalms and hymns. A large number of hymns have been attributed
       to St. Ambrose, the number having by some editors been brought down to twelve, of which, however,
       only four are certainly his compositions.
           1. Eterne rerum Conditor, referred to by St. Augustine, Retract. I. 21, and by St. Ambrose
       himself, Hexaëm. V. 24, 88. The hymn is still in use at Lauds on Sunday.
           2. Deus Creator omnium. Quoted by St. Augustine, Conf. IX. 12, 32.
           3. Jam surigit hora tertia. Also quoted by St. Augustine.
           4. Veni Redemptor gentium. A Christmas hymn, quoted by Pope Celestine, A.D. 430, in a sermon
       against the Nestorians, preached before a synod at Rome, and also by other writers.
           Of other hymns one commencing, Illuminans Altissimus, is quoted by Cassiodorus as an
       Epiphany hymn by St. Ambrose, and the same author refers to another, Orabo mente Dominum.
       The Benedictine Editors admit six other hymns, but they are supported by no authority anterior to
       Venerable Bede.

                                            VII. DOUBTFUL AND SPURIOUS WORKS.
            This volume cannot of course comprehend the arguments and discussions necessary for any
       critical examination of certain works whether doubtful or certainly spurious, but their names may
       be given and certain conclusions stated.
            1. Five books on the Jewish war, ordinarily attributed to Hegisippus. This is a translation into
       Latin and a condensation in part of the well-known work of Josephus. Ihm, a very thorough student
       of St. Ambrose, seems quite disposed to maintain after careful examination that this is the work of
       St. Ambrose.
            2. De lege Dei. This treatise, a sort of compendium of Roman law in the fourth century, and
       comparison of it with the law of Moses, is ascribed, in a translation published by Mai,24 to St.
       Ambrose, who is said to have undertaken the work at the command of Theodosius. On the
       authenticity, however, of this treatise there probably will always remain much doubt.
            3. Among works more or less doubtful are De Sacramentis, admitted by the Benedictines, but
       rejected, and apparently on sufficient grounds, by Ihm.
            4. Apologia David altera. Suspected by Erasmus, Tillemont, and Ihm.
            5. De lapsu Virginis consecratæ. A severe castigation of a fallen virgin and of her seducer. The
       treatise seems to have been written by a certain Bishop of Nicetas, and a MS. at speaks of it as having
       been revised by St. Ambrose.
            6. There are further three brief addresses ascribed by some persons to St. Ambrose, touching
       on the question of selling all and giving to the poor. Some of the matter is like St. Ambrose, but
       the same cannot be said of the diction and style.

                                            VIII. LOST WRITINGS OF ST. AMBROSE.
            1. Expositio Isaiæ prophetiæ, referred to by St. Augustine as well as by St. Ambrose himself.
            2. Liber de Sacramento regenerationis sive de philosophia, referred to by St. Augustine.


       24      Scriptorum veterum nova Collectio, Vol. X.


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         3. Libellus ad Pansophium puerum, written A.D. 393–4, according to Paulinus in his life of St.
       Ambrose.
         4. Libri quatuor regnorum, referred to in the introduction to the work on the Jewish war.
         5. Expositio fidei, quoted by Theodoret and others as a writing of St. Ambrose.




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xxiii
                                ON THE DUTIES OF THE CLERGY.

                                                INTRODUCTION.
             ST. AMBROSE, esteeming very highly the dignity of the ministerial office, was most desirous that
        the clergy of his diocese should live worthily of their high vocation, and be good and profitable
        examples to the people. Consequently he undertook the following treatise, setting forth the duties
        of the clergy, and taking as a model the treatise of Cicero, De Officiis.
             The writer says that his object is to impress upon those whom he has ordained the lessons which
        he had previously taught them.25 Like Cicero, he treats of that which is right, becoming, or honourable
        [decorum], and what is expedient [utile];26 but with reference not to this life but to that which is to
        come, teaching in the first book that which is becoming or honourable; in the second, what is
        expedient; and in the third, considering both in conjunction.
             In the first book he divides duties into “ordinary,” or the way of the commandments, binding
        upon all alike; and “perfect,” which consist in following the counsels. After treating then of some
        elementary duties, such as those towards parents and elders, he touches upon the two principles
        which lead the mind, reason and appetite, and shows that what is becoming consists in thinking of
        good and right things, and in the subjection of the appetite to reason,27 and supplies certain rules
        and examples, ending with a discussion on the four Cardinal Virtues, Prudence, Justice, Fortitude,
        and Temperance.
             In the second book, passing from what is becoming to what is expedient, he points out that we
        can only measure what is really expedient by reference to eternal life, in contradiction to the errors
        of heathen philosophers, and shows that what is expedient consists in the knowledge of God and
        in good living. Incidentally he shows that what is becoming is really that which is expedient, and
        ends the book with several chapters of practical considerations.
             In the third book he treats of duties of perfection, and lays down as a rule that in everything we
        must inquire what is expedient, not for individuals, but for many or for all. Nothing is to be striven
        after which is not becoming; to this everything must give place, not only expediency but even
        friendship and life itself. By many examples he then proves how holy men have sought after what
        was becoming, and have thereby secured what was expedient.
             The object of St. Ambrose in basing his treatise on the lines of that of Cicero would seem to
        have been the confutation of some of the false principles of heathenism, and to show how much
        higher Christian morality is than that of the Gentiles. The treatise was probably composed about
        A.D. 391.




        25      II. 6, § 25.
        26      I. 9, § 28.
        27      I. 24, § 106.


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1                        THREE BOOKS ON THE DUTIES OF THE CLERGY.

                                                                          BY

                                               ST. AMBROSE, BISHOP OF MILAN.


                                                                     BOOK I.

                                                                   CHAPTER I.

       A Bishop’s special office is to teach; St. Ambrose himself, however, has to learn in order that he
          may teach; or rather has to teach what he has not learnt; at any rate learning and teaching
          with himself must go on together.
           1. I THINK I shall not seem to be taking too much on myself, if, in the midst of my children, I
       yield to my desire to teach, seeing that the master of humility himself has said: “Come, ye children,
       hearken unto me: I will teach you the fear of the Lord.”28 Wherein one may observe both the humility
       and the grace of his reverence for God. For in saying “the fear of the Lord,” which seems to be
       common to all, he has described the chief mark of reverence for God. As, however, fear itself is
       the beginning of wisdom and the source of blessedness—for they that fear the Lord are blessed29—he
       has plainly marked himself out as the teacher for instruction in wisdom, and the guide to the
       attainment of blessedness.
           2. We therefore, being anxious to imitate his reverence for God, and not without justification
       in dispensing grace, deliver to you as to children those things which the Spirit of Wisdom has
       imparted to him, and which have been made clear to us through him, and learnt by sight and by
       example. For we can no longer now escape from the duty of teaching which the needs of the
       priesthood have laid upon us, though we tried to avoid it:30 “For God gave some, apostles; and
       some, prophets; and some, evangelists; and some, pastors and teachers.”31
           3. I do not therefore claim for myself the glory of the apostles (for who can do this save those
       whom the Son of God Himself has chosen?); nor the grace of the prophets, nor the virtue of the
       evangelists, nor the cautious care of the pastors. I only desire to attain to that care and diligence in
       the sacred writings, which the Apostle has placed last amongst the duties of the saints;32 and this
       very thing I desire, so that, in the endeavour to teach, I may be able to learn. For one is the true
       Master, Who alone has not learnt, what He taught all; but men learn before they teach, and receive
       from Him what they may hand on to others.


       28          Ps. xxxiv. [xxxiii.] 11.
       29          Ib. cxii. [cxi.] 1.
       30          Paulinus, in his Life of St. Ambrose, relates various expedients that he tried, to enable him to avoid the office to which he
            had been called; e.g. how he caused torture to be applied to prisoners, contrary to his usual practice, in the hope that this might
            lead to his rejection. More than once, also, he endeavoured to escape the honour by flight.
       31          Eph. iv. 11.
       32          1 Cor. xii. 10.


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           4. But not even this was the case with me. For I was carried off from the judgment seat, and
       the garb [infulis] of office, to enter on the priesthood,33 and began to teach you, what I myself had
       not yet learnt. So it happened that I began to teach before I began to learn. Therefore I must learn
       and teach at the same time, since I had no leisure to learn before.34



                                                                  CHAPTER II.

       Manifold dangers are incurred by speaking; the remedy for which Scripture shows to consist in
         silence.
           5. NOW what ought we to learn before everything else, but to be silent, that we may be able to
       speak? lest my voice should condemn me, before that of another acquit me; for it is written: “By
       thy words thou shalt be condemned.”35 What need is there, then, that thou shouldest hasten to
2      undergo the danger of condemnation by speaking, when thou canst be more safe by keeping silent?
       How many have I seen to fall into sin by speaking, but scarcely one by keeping silent; and so it is
       more difficult to know how to keep silent than how to speak. I know that most persons speak because
       they do not know how to keep silent. It is seldom that any one is silent even when speaking profits
       him nothing. He is wise, then, who knows how to keep silent. Lastly, the Wisdom of God said:
       “The Lord hath given to me the tongue of learning, that I should know when it is good to speak.”36
       Justly, then, is he wise who has received of the Lord to know when he ought to speak. Wherefore
       the Scripture says well: “A wise man will keep silence until there is opportunity.”37
           6. Therefore the saints of the Lord loved to keep silence, because they knew that a man’s voice
       is often the utterance of sin, and a man’s speech is the beginning of human error. Lastly, the Saint
       of the Lord said: “I said, I will take heed to my ways, that I offend not in my tongue.”38 For he knew
       and had read that it was a mark of the divine protection for a man to be hid from the scourge of his
       own tongue,39 and the witness of his own conscience. We are chastised by the silent reproaches of
       our thoughts, and by the judgment of conscience. We are chastised also by the lash of our own
       voice, when we say things whereby our soul is mortally injured, and our mind is sorely wounded.
       But who is there that has his heart clean from the impurities of sin, and does not offend in his
       tongue? And so, as he saw there was no one who could keep his mouth free from evil speaking, he
       laid upon himself the law of innocency by a rule of silence, with a view to avoiding by silence that
       fault which he could with difficulty escape in speaking.


       33           St. Ambrose, at the time of his election to the episcopate, was a consular magistrate, and was not even baptized. The
            infula was a flock of red and white wool formed into a fillet, and worn on the head; from which ribands hung down on either
            side. It was a mark of religious consecration, and so worn by the priests and vestal virgins. In later times it was adopted also by
            the emperors and magistrates as a sign of their semi-sacred character.
       34           The following is found in many MSS., but not in the Benedictine edition. “Et quantumlibet quisque profecerit nemo est
            qui docere non egeat dum vivit.”
       35           S. Matt. xii. 37.
       36           Is. l. 4 [LXX.].
       37           Ecclus. xx. 7.
       38           Ps. xxxix. [xxxviii.] 1.
       39           Job v. 21.


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            7. Let us hearken, then, to the master of precaution: “I said, I will take heed to my ways;” that
       is, “I said to myself: in the silent biddings of my thoughts, I have enjoined upon myself, that I
       should take heed to my ways.” Some ways there are which we ought to follow; others as to which
       we ought to take heed. We must follow the ways of the Lord, and take heed to our own ways, lest
       they lead us into sin. One can take heed if one is not hasty in speaking. The law says: “Hear, O
       Israel, the Lord thy God.”40 It said not: “Speak,” but “Hear.” Eve fell because she said to the man
       what she had not heard from the Lord her God. The first word from God says to thee: Hear! If thou
       hearest, take heed to thy ways; and if thou hast fallen, quickly amend thy way. For: “Wherein does
       a young man amend his way; except in taking heed to the word of the Lord?”41 Be silent therefore
       first of all, and hearken, that thou fail not in thy tongue.
            8. It is a great evil that a man should be condemned by his own mouth. Truly, if each one shall
       give account for an idle word,42 how much more for words of impurity and shame? For words
       uttered hastily are far worse than idle words. If, therefore, an account is demanded for an idle word,
       how much more will punishment be exacted for impious language?



                                                  CHAPTER III.

       Silence should not remain unbroken, nor should it arise from idleness. How heart and mouth must
           be guarded against inordinate affections.
            9. WHAT then? Ought we to be dumb? Certainly not. For: “there is a time to keep silence and
       a time to speak.”43 If, then, we are to give account for an idle word, let us take care that we do not
       have to give it also for an idle silence. For there is also an active silence, such as Susanna’s was,
       who did more by keeping silence than if she had spoken. For in keeping silence before men she
       spoke to God, and found no greater proof of her chastity than silence. Her conscience spoke where
       no word was heard, and she sought no judgment for herself at the hands of men, for she had the
       witness of the Lord. She therefore desired to be acquitted by Him, Who she knew could not be
       deceived in any way.44 Yea, the Lord Himself in the Gospel worked out in silence the salvation of
       men.45 David rightly therefore enjoined on himself not constant silence, but watchfulness.
            10. Let us then guard our hearts, let us guard our mouths. Both have been written about. In this
       place we are bidden to take heed to our mouth; in another place thou art told: “Keep thy heart with
       all diligence.”46 If David took heed, wilt thou not take heed? If Isaiah had unclean lips—who said:
       “Woe is me, for I am undone, for I am a man, and have unclean lips”47—if a prophet of the Lord
3      had unclean lips, how shall we have them clean?



       40      Deut. vi. 4.
       41      Ps. cxix. [cxviii.] 9.
       42      S. Matt. xii. 36.
       43      Eccles. iii. 7.
       44      Sus. v. 35.
       45      S. Matt. xxvi. 63.
       46      Prov. iv. 23.
       47      Isa. vi. 5.


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           11. But for whom was it written, unless it was for each one of us: “Hedge thy possession about
       with thorns, and bind up thy silver and gold, and make a door and a bar for thy mouth, and a yoke
       and a balance for thy words”?48 Thy possession is thy mind, thy gold thy heart, thy silver thy speech:
       “The words of the Lord are pure words, as silver tried in the fire.”49 A good mind is also a good
       possession. And, further, a pure inner life is a valuable possession. Hedge in, then, this possession
       of thine, enclose it with thought, guard it with thorns, that is, with pious care, lest the fierce passions
       of the flesh should rush upon it and lead it captive, lest strong emotions should assault it, and,
       overstepping their bounds, carry off its vintage. Guard thy inner self. Do not neglect or contemn it
       as though it were worthless, for it is a valuable possession; truly valuable indeed, for its fruit is not
       perishable and only for a time, but is lasting and of use for eternal salvation. Cultivate, therefore,
       thy possession, and let it be thy tilling ground.
           12. Bind up thy words that they run not riot, and grow wanton, and gather up sins for themselves
       in too much talking. Let them be rather confined, and held back within their own banks. An
       overflowing river quickly gathers mud. Bind up also thy meaning; let it not be left slack and
       unchecked, lest it be said of thee: “There is no healing balsam, nor oil, nor bandage to apply.”50
       Sobriety of mind has its reins, whereby it is directed and guided.
           13. Let there be a door to thy mouth, that it may be shut when need arises, and let it be carefully
       barred, that none may rouse thy voice to anger, and thou pay back abuse with abuse. Thou hast
       heard it read to-day: “Be ye angry and sin not.”51 Therefore although we are angry (this arising
       from the motions of our nature, not of our will), let us not utter with our mouth one evil word, lest
       we fall into sin; but let there be a yoke and a balance to thy words, that is, humility and moderation,
       that thy tongue may be subject to thy mind. Let it be held in check with a tight rein; let it have its
       own means of restraint, whereby it can be recalled to moderation; let it utter words tried by the
       scales of justice, that there may be seriousness in our meaning, weight in our speech, and due
       measure in our words.



                                                     CHAPTER IV.

       The same care must be taken that our speech proceed not from evil passions, but from good motives;
          for here it is that the devil is especially on the watch to catch us.
           14. IF any one takes heed to this, he will be mild, gentle, modest. For in guarding his mouth,
       and restraining his tongue, and in not speaking before examining, pondering, and weighing his
       words—as to whether this should be said, that should be answered, or whether it be a suitable time
       for this remark—he certainly is practising modesty, gentleness, patience. So he will not burst out
       into speech through displeasure or anger, nor give sign of any passion in his words, nor proclaim
       that the flames of lust are burning in his language, or that the incentives of wrath are present in



       48      Ecclus. xxviii. 24, 25.
       49      Ps. xii. [xi.] 6.
       50      Isa. i. 6 [LXX.].
       51      Ps. iv. 4.


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       what he says. Let him act thus for fear that his words, which ought to grace his inner life, should
       at the last plainly show and prove that there is some vice in his morals.
            15. For then especially does the enemy lay his plans, when he sees passions engendered in us;
       then he supplies tinder; then he lays snares. Wherefore the prophet says not without cause, as we
       heard read to-day: “Surely He hath delivered me from the snare of the hunter and from the hard
       word.”52 Symmachus53 said this means “the word of provocation;” others “the word that brings
       disquiet.” The snare of the enemy is our speech—but that itself is also just as much an enemy to
       us. Too often we say something that our foe takes hold of, and whereby he wounds us as though
       by our own sword. How far better it is to perish by the sword of others than by our own!
           16. Accordingly the enemy tests our arms and clashes together his weapons. If he sees that I
       am disturbed, he implants the points of his darts, so as to raise a crop of quarrels. If I utter an
       unseemly word, he sets his snare. Then he puts before me the opportunity for revenge as a bait, so
       that in desiring to be revenged, I may put myself in the snare, and draw the death-knot tight for
       myself. If any one feels this enemy is near, he ought to give greater heed to his mouth, lest he make
       room for the enemy; but not many see him.
4




                                                               CHAPTER V.

       We must guard also against a visible enemy when he incites us by silence; by the help of which
          alone we can escape from those greater than ourselves, and maintain that humility which we
          must display towards all.
            17. BUT we must also guard against him who can be seen, and who provokes us, and spurs us
       on, and exasperates us, and supplies what will excite us to licentiousness or lust. If, then, any one
       reviles us, irritates, stirs us up to violence, tries to make us quarrel; let us keep silence, let us not
       be ashamed to become dumb. For he who irritates us and does us an injury is committing sin, and
       wishes us to become like himself.
            18. Certainly if thou art silent, and hidest thy feelings, he is wont to say: “Why are you silent?
       Speak if you dare; but you dare not, you are dumb, I have made you speechless.” If thou art silent,
       he is the more excited. He thinks himself beaten, laughed at, little thought of, and ridiculed. If thou
       answerest, he thinks he has become the victor, because he has found one like himself. For if thou
       art silent, men will say: “That man has been abusive, but this one held him in contempt.” If thou
       return the abuse, they will say: “Both have been abusive.” Both will be condemned, neither will
       be acquitted. Therefore it is his object to irritate, so that I may speak and act as he does. But it is
       the duty of a just man to hide his feelings and say nothing, to preserve the fruit of a good conscience,
       to trust himself rather to the judgment of good men than to the insolence of a calumniator, and to
       be satisfied with the stability of his own character. For that is: “To keep silence even from good



       52          Ps. xc. 3 [LXX.].
       53          Symmachus, said to have been an Ebionite, lived c. 193–211. He translated the Old Testament into Greek. This was one
            of the versions Origen made use of in his Hexapla edition of the Bible.


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       words;”54 since one who has a good conscience ought not to be troubled by false words, nor ought
       he to make more of another’s abuse than of the witness of his own heart.
            19. So, then, let a man guard also his humility. If, however, he is unwilling to appear too humble,
       he thinks as follows, and says within himself: “Am I to allow this man to despise me, and say such
       things to my face against me, as though I could not open my mouth before him? Why should I not
       also say something whereby I can grieve him? Am I to let him do me wrong, as though I were not
       a man, and as though I could not avenge myself? Is he to bring charges against me as though I
       could not bring together worse ones against him?”
            20. Whoever speaks like this is not gentle and humble, nor is he without temptation. The tempter
       stirs him up, and himself puts such thoughts in his heart. Often and often, too, the evil spirit employs
       another person, and gets him to say such things to him; but do thou set thy foot firm on the rock.
       Although a slave should abuse, let the just man be silent, and if a weak man utter insults, let him
       be silent, and if a poor man should make accusations, let him not answer. These are the weapons
       of the just man, so that he may conquer by giving way, as those skilled in throwing the javelin are
       wont to conquer by giving way, and in flight to wound their pursuers with severer blows.



                                                      CHAPTER VI.

       In this matter we must imitate David’s silence and humility, so as not even to seem deserving of
           harm.
           21. WHAT need is there to be troubled when we hear abuse? Why do we not imitate him who
       says: “I was dumb and humbled myself, and kept silence even from good words”?55 Or did David
       only say this, and not act up to it? No, he also acted up to it. For when Shimei the son of Gera
       reviled him, David was silent; and although he was surrounded with armed men he did not return
       the abuse, nor sought revenge: nay, even when the son of Zeruiah spoke to him, because he wished
       to take vengeance on him, David did not permit it.56 He went on as though dumb, and humbled; he
       went on in silence; nor was he disturbed, although called a bloody man, for he was conscious of
       his own gentleness. He therefore was not disturbed by insults, for he had full knowledge of his own
       good works.
           22. He, then, who is quickly roused by wrong makes himself seem deserving of insult, even
       whilst he wishes to be shown not to deserve it. He who despises wrongs is better off than he who
       grieves over them. For he who despises them looks down on them, as though he feels them not;
       but he who grieves over them is tormented, just as though he actually felt them.



                                                     CHAPTER VII.
5




       54      Ps. xxxix. [xxxviii.] 2.
       55      Ps. xxxix. [xxxviii.] 2.
       56      2 Sam. [2 Kings] xvi. 6 ff.


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       How admirably Ps. xxxix. [xxxviii.] takes the place of an introduction. Incited thereto by this psalm
         the saint determines to write on duties. He does this with more reason even than Cicero, who
         wrote on this subject to his son. How, further, this is so.
           23. NOT without thought did I make use of the beginning of this psalm, in writing to you, my
       children. For this psalm which the Prophet David gave to Jeduthun to sing,57 I urge you to regard,
       being delighted myself with its depth of meaning and the excellency of its maxims. For we have
       learnt in those words we have just shortly touched upon, that both patience in keeping silence and
       the duty of awaiting a fit time for speaking are taught in this psalm, as well as contempt of riches
       in the following verses, which things are the chief groundwork of virtues. Whilst, therefore,
       meditating on this psalm, it has come to my mind to write “on the Duties.”
           24. Although some philosophers have written on this subject,—Panætius,58 for instance, and
       his son amongst the Greek, Cicero amongst the Latin, writers—I did not think it foreign to my
       office to write also myself. And as Cicero wrote for the instruction of his son,59 so I, too, write to
       teach you, my children. For I love you, whom I have begotten in the Gospel, no less than if you
       were my own true sons. For nature does not make us love more ardently than grace. We certainly
       ought to love those who we think will be with us for evermore than those who will be with us in
       this world only. These often are born unworthy of their race, so as to bring disgrace on their father;
       but you we chose beforehand, to love. They are loved naturally, of necessity, which is not a
       sufficiently suitable and constant teacher to implant a lasting love. But ye are loved on the ground
       of our deliberate choice, whereby a great feeling of affection is combined with the strength of our
       love: thus one tests what one loves and loves what one has chosen.



                                                                CHAPTER VIII.

       The word “Duty” has been often used both by philosophers and in the holy Scriptures; from whence
          it is derived.
            25. SINCE, therefore, the person concerned is one fit to write on the Duties, let us see whether
       the subject itself stands on the same ground, and whether this word is suitable only to the schools
       of the philosophers, or is also to be found in the sacred Scriptures. Beautifully has the Holy Spirit,
       as it happens, brought before us a passage in reading the Gospel to-day, as though He would urge
       us to write; whereby we are confirmed in our view, that the word officium, “duty,” may also be
       used with us. For when Zacharias the priest was struck dumb in the temple, and could not speak,
       it is said: “And it came to pass that as soon as the days of his duty [officii] were accomplished, he
       departed to his own house.”60 We read, therefore, that the word officium, “duty,” can be used by
       us.

       57          This psalm in the Hebrew is inscribed to Jeduthun, one of the three leading musicians in the temple services.
       58          A Stoic philosopher who lived and taught at Athens, c. B.C. 120. His chief work was a treatise περὶ τοὺ καθήκοντος, which
            Cicero himself afterward used as the groundwork of his own book de Officiis.
       59          Cic. de Off. I. 2.
       60          Luke i. 23. The Vulgate has officii; the Greek text reads: τῆς λειτουργίας.


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            26.61 And this is not inconsistent with reason, since we consider that the word officium (duty)
       is derived from efficere (to effect), and is formed with the change of one letter for the sake of
       euphony; or at any rate that you should do those things which injure [officiant] no one, but benefit
       all.



                                                                  CHAPTER IX.

       A duty is to be chosen from what is virtuous, and from what is useful, and also from the comparison
          of the two, one with the other; but nothing is recognized by Christians as virtuous or useful
          which is not helpful to the future life. This treatise on duty, therefore, will not be superfluous.
           27. THE philosophers considered that duties62 were derived from what is virtuous and what is
       useful, and that from these two one should choose the better. Then, they say, it may happen that
       two virtuous or two useful things will clash together, and the question is, which is the more virtuous,
       and which the more useful? First, therefore, “duty” is divided into three sections: what is virtuous,
       what is useful, and what is the better of two. Then, again, these three are divided into five classes;
       that is, two that are virtuous, two that are useful, and, lastly, the right judgment as to the choice
       between them. The first they say has to do with the moral dignity and integrity of life; the second
       with the conveniences of life, with wealth, resources, opportunities; whilst a right judgment must
       underlie the choice of any of them. This is what the philosophers say.63
6          28. But we measure nothing at all but that which is fitting and virtuous, and that by the rule of
       things future rather than of things present; and we state nothing to be useful but what will help us
       to the blessing of eternal life; certainly not that which will help us enjoy merely the present time.
       Nor do we recognize any advantages in opportunities and in the wealth of earthly goods, but consider
       them as disadvantages if not put aside, and to be looked on as a burden, when we have them, rather
       than as a loss when expended.
           29. This work of ours, therefore, is not superfluous, seeing that we and they regard duty in quite
       different ways. They reckon the advantages of this life among the good things, we reckon them
       among the evil things; for he who receives good things here, as the rich man in the parable, is
       tormented there; and Lazarus, who endured evil things here, there found comfort.64 Lastly, those
       who do not read their writings may read ours if they will—if, that is, they do not require great
       adornment of language or a skilfully-treated subject, but are satisfied with the simple charm of the
       subject itself.




       61          In this section it is impossible to give the point in a translation, but the passage does not affect the argument. The text
            runs as follows: “Nec ratio ipsa abhorret, quandoquidem officium ab efficiendo dictum putamus, quasi efficium: sed propter
            decorem sermonis una immutata litera, officium nuncupari, vel certe, ut ea agas quæ nulli officiant, prosint omnibus.”
       62          Cic. de Off. I. 3, § 9.
       63          Cic. de Off. I. 3.
       64          S. Luke xvi. 25.


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                                                   CHAPTER X.

       What is seemly is often found in the sacred writings long before it appears in the books of the
         philosophers. Pythagoras borrowed the law of his silence from David. David’s rule, however,
         is the best, for our first duty is to have due measure in speaking.
           30. WE are instructed and taught that “what is seemly”65 is put in our Scriptures in the first
       place. (In Greek it is called πρέπον.) For we read: “A Hymn beseems Thee, O God, in Sion.” In
       Greek this is: Σοί πρέπει ὕμνος ὁ θεὸς ἐν Σιών.66 And the Apostle says: “Speak the things which
       become sound doctrine.”67 And elsewhere: “For it beseemed Him through Whom are all things and
       for Whom are all things, in bringing many sons unto glory, to make the Captain of their salvation
       perfect through sufferings.”68
           31. Was Panætius or Aristotle, who also wrote on duty, earlier than David? Why, Pythagoras
       himself, who lived before the time of Socrates, followed the prophet David’s steps and gave his
       disciples a law of silence. He went so far as to restrain his disciples from the use of speech for five
       years. David, on the other hand, gave his law, not with a view to impair the gift of nature, but to
       teach us to take heed to the words we utter. Pythagoras again made his rule, that he might teach
       men to speak by not speaking. But David made his, so that by speaking we might learn the more
       how to speak. How can there be instruction without exercise, or advance without practice?
           32. A man wishing to undergo a warlike training daily exercises himself with his weapons. As
       though ready for action he rehearses his part in the fight and stands forth just as if the enemy were
       in position before him. Or, with a view to acquiring skill and strength in throwing the javelin, he
       either puts his own arms to the proof, or avoids the blows of his foes, and escapes them by his
       watchful attention. The man that desires to navigate a ship on the sea, or to row, tries first on a
       river. They who wish to acquire an agreeable style of singing and a beautiful voice begin by bringing
       out their voice gradually by singing. And they who seek to win the crown of victory by strength of
       body and in a regular wrestling match, harden their limbs by daily practice in the wrestling school,
       foster their endurance, and accustom themselves to hard work.
           33. Nature herself teaches us this in the case of infants. For they first exercise themselves in
       the sounds of speech and so learn to speak. Thus these sounds of speech are a kind of practice, and
       a school for the voice. Let those then who want to learn to take heed in speaking not refuse what
       is according to nature, but let them use all watchful care; just as those who are on a watch-tower
       keep on the alert by watching, and not by going to sleep. For everything is made more perfect and
       strong by exercises proper and suitable to itself.
           34. David, therefore, was not always silent, but only for a time; not perpetually nor to all did
       he refuse to speak; but he used not to answer the enemy that provoked him, the sinner that
       exasperated him. As he says elsewhere: “As though he were deaf he heard not them that speak




       65      Cic. de Off. I. 27.
       66      Ps. lxv. [lxiv.] 1.
       67      Tit. ii. 1.
       68      Heb. ii. 10.


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       vanity and imagine deceit: and as though he were dumb he opened not his mouth to them.”69 Again,
       in another place, it is said: “Answer not a fool according to his folly, lest thou also be like to him.”70
           35. The first duty then is to have due measure in our speech. In this way a sacrifice of praise is
7      offered up to God; thus a godly fear is shown when the sacred Scriptures are read; thus parents are
       honoured. I know well that many speak because they know not how to keep silence. But it is not
       often any one is silent when speaking does not profit him. A wise man, intending to speak, first
       carefully considers what he is to say, and to whom he is to say it; also where and at what time.
       There is therefore such a thing as due measure in keeping silence and also in speaking; there is also
       such a thing as a due measure in what we do. It is a glorious thing to maintain the right standard
       of duty.



                                                     CHAPTER XI.

       It is proved by the witness of Scripture that all duty is either “ordinary” or “perfect.” To which is
            added a word in praise of mercy, and an exhortation to practise it.
            36. EVERY duty is either “ordinary” or “perfect,”71 a fact which we can also confirm by the
       authority of the Scriptures. For we read in the Gospel that the Lord said: “If thou wilt enter into
       life, keep the commandments. He saith: Which? Jesus said to him: Thou shalt do no murder, Thou
       shalt not commit adultery, Thou shalt not steal, Thou shalt not bear false witness, Honour thy father
       and thy mother, Thou shalt love thy neighbour as thyself.”72 These are ordinary duties, to which
       something is wanting.
            37. Upon this the young man says to Him: “All these things have I kept from my youth up,
       what lack I yet? Jesus said unto him: If thou wilt be perfect, go and sell all thy goods and give to
       the poor, and thou shalt have treasure in heaven; and come and follow Me.”73 And earlier the same
       is written, where the Lord says that we must love our enemies, and pray for those that falsely accuse
       and persecute us, and bless those that curse us.74 This we are bound to do, if we would be perfect
       as our Father Who is in heaven; Who bids the sun to shed his rays over the evil and the good, and
       makes the lands of the whole universe fertile with rain and dew without any distinction.75 This,
       then, is a perfect duty (the Greeks call it κατόρθωμα), whereby all things are put right which could
       have any failings in them.
            38. Mercy, also, is a good thing, for it makes men perfect, in that it imitates the perfect Father.
       Nothing graces the Christian soul so much as mercy; mercy as shown chiefly towards the poor,
       that thou mayest treat them as sharers in common with thee in the produce of nature, which brings
       forth the fruits of the earth for use to all. Thus thou mayest freely give to a poor man what thou


       69      Ps. xxxviii. [xxxvii.] 13.
       70      Prov. xxvi. 4.
       71      Cic. de Off. I. 3, § 8.
       72      S. Matt. xix. 17, 18, 19.
       73      S. Matt. xix. 20, 21.
       74      S. Matt. v. 44.
       75      S. Matt. v. 45.


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       hast, and in this way help him who is thy brother and companion. Thou bestowest silver; he receives
       life. Thou givest money; he considers it his fortune. Thy coin makes up all his property.
            39. Further, he bestows more on thee than thou on him, since he is thy debtor in regard to thy
       salvation. If thou clothe the naked, thou clothest thyself with righteousness; if thou bring the stranger
       under thy roof, if thou support the needy, he procures for thee the friendship of the saints and eternal
       habitations. That is no small recompense. Thou sowest earthly things and receivest heavenly. Dost
       thou wonder at the judgment of God in the case of holy Job? Wonder rather at his virtue, in that he
       could say: “I was an eye to the blind, and a foot to the lame. I was a father to the poor. Their
       shoulders were made warm with the skins of my lambs. The stranger dwelt not at my gates, but
       my door was open to every one that came.”76 Clearly blessed is he from whose house a poor man
       has never gone with empty hand. Nor again is any one more blessed than he who is sensible of the
       needs of the poor, and the hardships of the weak and helpless. In the day of judgment he will receive
       salvation from the Lord, Whom he will have as his debtor for the mercy he has shown.



                                                          CHAPTER XII.

       To prevent any one from being checked in the exercise of mercy, he shows that God cares for human
           actions; and proves on the evidence of Job that all wicked men are unhappy in the very
           abundance of their wealth.
           40. BUT many are kept back from the duty of showing active mercy, because they suppose that
       God does not care about the actions of men, or that He does not know what we do in secret, and
       what our conscience has in view. Some again think that His judgment in no wise seems to be just;
       for they see that sinners have abundance of riches, that they enjoy honours, health, and children;
8      while, on the other hand, the just live in poverty and unhonoured, they are without children, sickly
       in body, and often in grief.
           41. That is no small point. For those three royal friends of Job declared him to be a sinner,
       because they saw that he, after being rich, became poor; that after having many children, he had
       lost them all, and that he was now covered with sores and was full of weals, and was a mass of
       wounds from head to foot. But holy Job made this declaration to them: “If I suffer thus because of
       my sins, why do the wicked live? They grow old also in riches, their seed is according to their
       pleasure, their children are before their eyes, their houses are prosperous; but they have no fear;
       there is no scourge from the Lord on them.”77
           42. A faint-hearted man, seeing this, is disturbed in mind, and turns his attention away from it.
       Holy Job, when about to speak in the words of such a one, began thus, saying: “Bear with me, I
       also will speak; then laugh at me. For if I am found fault with, I am found fault with as a man. Bear,
       therefore, the burden of my words.”78 For I am going to say (he means) what I do not approve; but
       I shall utter wrong words to refute you. Or, to translate it in another way: “How now? Am I found
       fault with by a man?” That is: a man cannot find fault with me because I have sinned, although I

       76      Job xxix. 15, 16.
       77      Job xxi. 7–9.
       78      Job xxi. 2–4, differing, however, widely from both the Hebrew and Greek text.


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       deserve to be found fault with; for ye do not find fault with me on the ground of an open sin, but
       estimate what I deserve for my offences by the extent of my misfortunes. Thus the faint-hearted
       man, seeing that the wicked succeed and prosper, whilst he himself is crushed by misfortune, says
       to the Lord: “Depart from me, I desire not the knowledge of Thy ways.79 What good is it that we
       serve Him, or what use to hasten to Him? In the hands of the wicked are all good things, but He
       sees not their works.”
            43. Plato has been greatly praised, because in his book “on the State,”80 he has made the person
       who undertook the part of objector against justice to ask pardon for his words, of which he himself
       did not approve; and to say that that character was only assumed for the sake of finding out the
       truth and to investigate the question at issue. And Cicero so far approved of this, that he also, in
       his book which he wrote “on the Commonwealth,” thought something must be said against that
       idea.
            44. How many years before these did Job live! He was the first to discover this, and to consider
       what excuses had to be made for this, not for the sake of decking out his eloquence, but for the sake
       of finding out the truth. At once he made the matter plain, stating that the lamp of the wicked is
       put out, that their destruction will come;81 that God, the teacher of wisdom and instruction, is not
       deceived, but is a judge of the truth. Therefore the blessedness of individuals must not be estimated
       at the value of their known wealth, but according to the voice of their conscience within them. For
       this, as a true and uncorrupted judge of punishments and rewards, decides between the deserts of
       the innocent and the guilty. The innocent man dies in the strength of his own simplicity, in the full
       possession of his own will; having a soul filled as it were with marrow.82 But the sinner, though he
       has abundance in life, and lives in the midst of luxury, and is redolent with sweet scents, ends his
       life in the bitterness of his soul, and brings his last day to a close, taking with him none of those
       good things which he once enjoyed—carrying away nothing with him but the price of his own
       wickedness.83
            45. In thinking of this, deny if thou canst that a recompense is paid by divine judgment. The
       former feels happy in his heart, the latter wretched; that man on his own verdict is guiltless, this
       one a criminal; that man again is happy in leaving the world, this man grieves over it. Who can be
       pronounced guiltless that is not innocent in the sight of his own conscience? “Tell me,” he says,
       “where is the covering of his tabernacle; his token will not be found.”84 The life of the criminal is
       as a dream. He has opened his eyes. His repose has departed, his enjoyment has fled. Nay, that very
       repose of the wicked, which even while they live is only seeming, is now in hell, for alive they go
       down into hell.
            46. Thou seest the enjoyments of the sinner; but question his conscience. Will he not be more
       foul than any sepulchre? Thou beholdest his joy, thou admirest the bodily health of his children,
       and the amount of his wealth; but look within at the sores and wounds of his soul, the sadness of




       79      Job xxi. 14.
       80      Plato, de Repub. II. 2.
       81      Job xxi. 17.
       82      Job xxi. 24.
       83      Job xxi. Very freely used all through this section.
       84      Job xxi. 28.


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       his heart. And what shall I say of his wealth, when thou readest: “For a man’s life consisteth not
       in the abundance of the things which he possesseth”?85 When thou knowest, that though he seems
9      to thee to be rich, to himself he is poor, and in his own person refutes thy judgment? What also
       shall I say of the number of his children and of his freedom from pain—when he is full of grief and
       decides that he will have no heir, and does not wish that those who copy his ways should succeed
       him? For the sinner really leaves no heir. Thus the wicked man is a punishment to himself, but the
       upright man is a grace to himself—and to either, whether good or bad, the reward of his deeds is
       paid in his own person.



                                                                CHAPTER XIII.

       The ideas of those philosophers are refuted who deny to God the care of the whole world, or of any
          of its parts.
            47. BUT let us return to our point, lest we seem to have lost sight of the break we made in
       answering the ideas of those who, seeing some wicked men, rich, joyous, full of honours, and
       powerful, whilst many upright men are in want and are weak,—suppose therefore that God either
       cares nothing about us (which is what the Epicureans say), or that He is ignorant of men’s actions
       as the wicked say—or that, if He knows all things, He is an unjust judge in allowing the good to
       be in want and the wicked to have abundance. But it did not seem out of place to make a digression
       to meet an idea of this kind and to contrast it with the feelings of those very persons whom they
       consider happy—for they think themselves wretched. I suppose they would believe themselves
       more readily than us.
            48. After this digression I consider it an easy matter to refute the rest—above all the declaration
       of those who think that God has no care whatever for the world. For instance, Aristotle declares
       that His providence extends only to the moon. But what workman is there who gives no care to his
       work? Who would forsake and abandon what he believes himself to have produced? If it is derogatory
       to rule, is it not more so to have created? Though there is no wrong involved in not creating anything,
       it is surely the height of cruelty not to care for what one has created.
            49. But if some deny God to be the Creator, and so count themselves amongst the beasts and
       irrational creatures, what shall we say of those who condemn themselves to such indignity? They
       themselves declare that God pervades all things, that all depend upon His power, that His might
       and majesty penetrate all the elements,—lands, heaven, and seas; yet they think it derogatory to
       Him to enter into man’s spirit, which is the noblest thing He has given us, and to be there with the
       full knowledge of the divine Majesty.
            50. But philosophers who are held to be reasonable laugh at the teacher86 of these ideas as
       besotted and licentious. But what shall I say of Aristotle’s idea? He thinks that God is satisfied with
       His own narrow bounds, and lives within the prescribed limits of His kingdom. This, however, is
       also what the poets’ tales tell us. For they relate that the world is divided between three gods, so

       85          S. Luke xii. 15.
       86          It is only fair to state that the character of Epicurus is mainly known in modern times from opponents or persons who did
            not understand him. See the account in Dict. of Gr. and Rom. Biography.


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       that it has fallen to the lot of one to restrain and rule heaven, to another the sea, and to a third the
       lower regions. They have also to take care not to stir up war one with the other by allowing thoughts
       and cares about the belongings of others to take hold of them. In the same way, Aristotle also
       declares that God has no care for the earth, as He has none for the sea or the lower regions. How
       is it that these philosophers shut out of their ranks the poets whose footsteps they follow?87



                                                             CHAPTER XIV.

       Nothing escapes God’s knowledge. This is proved by the witness of the Scriptures and the analogy
          of the sun, which, although created, yet by its light or heat enters into all things.
           51. NEXT comes the answer to the question, whether God, not having failed to show care for
       His work, now fails to have knowledge of it? Thus it is written: “He that planted the ear, shall He
       not hear? He that made the eye, shall He not regard?”88
           52. This false idea was not unknown to the holy prophets. David himself introduces men to
       speak whom pride has filled and claimed for its own. For what shows greater pride than when men
       who are living in sin think it unfit that other sinners should live, and say: “Lord, how long shall the
       ungodly, how long shall the ungodly triumph?”89 And later on: “And yet they say, the Lord shall
       not see: neither shall the God of Jacob regard it.”90 Whom the prophet answers, saying: “Take heed,
10     ye unwise among the people: O ye fools, when will ye understand? He that planted the ear, shall
       He not hear? or He that made the eye, shall He not see? He that rebuketh the nations, shall He not
       punish?—He that teacheth man knowledge? The Lord knoweth the thoughts of man that they are
       vain.”91 Does He Who discerns whatsoever is vain not know what is holy, and is He ignorant of
       what He Himself has made? Can the workman be ignorant of his own work? This one is a man,
       yet he discerns what is hidden in his work; and God—shall He not know His own work? Is there
       more depth, then, in the work than in its author? Has He made something superior to Himself; the
       value of which, as its Author, He was ignorant of, and whose condition He knew not, though He
       was its Director? So much for these persons.
           53. But we are satisfied with the witness of Him Who says: “I search out the heart and the
       reins.”92 In the Gospel, also, the Lord Jesus says: “Why think ye evil in your hearts? For He knew
       they were thinking evil.”93 The evangelist also witnesses to this, saying: “For Jesus knew their
       thoughts.”94
           54. The idea of these people will not trouble us much if we look at their actions. They will not
       have Him to be judge over them, Whom nothing deceives; they will not grant to Him the knowledge
       of things hidden, for they are afraid their own hidden things may be brought to light. But the Lord,

       87      Arist. Metaph. i. 2. An allusion to Aristotle’s saying that “the poets lie much.”
       88      Ps. xciv. [xciii.] 9.
       89      Ps. xciv. [xciii] 3.
       90      Ps. xciv. [xciii.] 7.
       91      Ps. xciv. [xciii.] 8–11.
       92      Jer. xvii. 10.
       93      S. Matt. ix. 4.
       94      S. Luke vi. 8.


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       also, “knowing their works, has given them over unto darkness. In the night,” he says, “he will be
       as a thief, and the eye of the adulterer will watch for the darkness, saying, No eye shall see me; he
       hath covered up his face.”95 For every one that avoids the light loves darkness, seeking to be hid,
       though he cannot be hid from God, Who knows not only what is transacted, but also what will be
       thought of, both in the depths of space and in the minds of men. Thus, again, he who speaks in the
       book Ecclesiasticus says: “Who seeth me? The darkness hath covered me, and the walls have hidden
       me; whom do I fear?”96 But although lying on his bed he may think thus, he is caught where he
       never thought of it. “It shall be,” it says, “a shame to him because he knew not what the fear of the
       Lord was.”97
           55. But what can be more foolish than to suppose that anything escapes God’s notice, when the
       sun which supplies the light enters even hidden spots, and the strength of its heat reaches to the
       foundations of a house and its inner chambers? Who can deny that the depths of the earth, which
       the winter’s ice has bound together, are warmed by the mildness of spring? Surely the very heart
       of a tree feels the force of heat or cold, to such an extent that its roots are either nipped with the
       cold or sprout forth in the warmth of the sun. In short, wherever the mildness of heaven smiles on
       the earth, there the earth produces in abundance fruits of different kinds.
           56. If, then, the sun’s rays pour their light over all the earth and enter into its hidden spots; if
       they cannot be checked by iron bars or the barrier of heavy doors from getting within, how can it
       be impossible for the Glory of God, which is instinct with life, to enter into the thoughts and hearts
       of men that He Himself has created? And how shall it not see what He Himself has created? Did
       He make His works to be better and more powerful than He Himself is, Who made them (in this
       event) so as to escape the notice of their Creator whensoever they will? Did He implant such
       perfection and power in our mind that He Himself could not comprehend it when He wished?



                                                   CHAPTER XV.

       Those who are dissatisfied with the fact that the good receive evil, and the evil good, are shown by
          the example of Lazarus, and on the authority of Paul, that punishments and rewards are reserved
          for a future life.
           57. WE have fully discussed two questions; and this discussion, as we think, has not turned out
       quite unfavourably for us. A third question yet remains; it is this: Why do sinners have abundance
       of wealth and riches, and fare sumptuously, and have no grief or sorrow; whilst the upright are in
       want, and are punished by the loss of wives or children? Now, that parable in the Gospel ought to
       satisfy persons like these;98 for the rich man was clothed in purple and fine linen, and dined
       sumptuously every day; but the beggar, full of sores, used to gather the crumbs of his table. After




       95      Job xxiv. 14, 15.
       96      Ecclus. xxiii. 18.
       97      Ecclus. xxiii. 31.
       98      S. Luke xvi. 19 ff.


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       the death of the two, however, the beggar was in Abraham’s bosom in rest; the rich man was in
       torment. Is it not plain from this that rewards and punishments according to deserts await one after
11     death?
           58. And surely this is but right. For in a contest there is much labour needed—and after the
       contest victory falls to some, to others disgrace. Is the palm ever given or the crown granted before
       the course is finished? Paul writes well; He says: “I have fought a good fight, I have finished my
       course, I have kept the faith; henceforth there is laid up for me a crown of righteousness, which the
       Lord, the righteous judge, shall give me at that day; and not to me only, but unto all them also that
       love His appearing.”99 “In that day,” he says, He will give it—not here. Here he fought, in labours,
       in dangers, in shipwrecks, like a good wrestler; for he knew how that “through much tribulation
       we must enter into the kingdom of God.”100 Therefore no one can receive a reward, unless he has
       striven lawfully; nor is the victory a glorious one, unless the contest also has been toilsome.



                                                  CHAPTER XVI.

       To confirm what has been said above about rewards and punishments, he adds that it is not strange
           if there is no reward reserved for some in the future; for they do not labour here nor struggle.
           He goes on to say also that for this reason temporal goods are granted to these persons, so that
           they may have no excuse whatever.
            59. IS not he unjust who gives the reward before the end of the contest? Therefore the Lord says
       in the Gospel: “Blessed are the poor in spirit, for theirs is the kingdom of heaven.”101 He said not:
       “Blessed are the rich,” but “the poor.” By the divine judgment blessedness begins there whence
       human misery is supposed to spring. “Blessed are they that hunger, for they shall be filled; Blessed
       are they that mourn, for they shall be comforted; Blessed are the merciful, for God will have mercy
       on them; Blessed are the pure in heart, for they shall see God; Blessed are they that are persecuted
       for righteousness’ sake, for theirs is the kingdom of heaven; Blessed are ye when men shall revile
       you, and persecute you, and shall say all manner of evil against you for righteousness’ sake. Rejoice
       and be exceeding glad, for plentiful is your reward in heaven.”102 A reward future and not present,—in
       heaven, not on earth,—has He promised shall be given. What further dost thou expect? What further
       is due? Why dost thou demand the crown with so much haste, before thou dost conquer? Why dost
       thou desire to shake off the dust and to rest? Why dost thou long to sit at the feast before the course
       is finished? As yet the people are looking on, the athletes are in the arena, and thou—dost thou
       already look for ease?
            60. Perhaps thou sayest: Why are the wicked joyous? why do they live in luxury? why do they
       not toil with me? It is because they who have not put down their names to strive for the crown are
       not bound to undergo the labours of the contest. They who have not gone down into the race-course


       99      2 Tim. iv. 7, 8.
       100     Acts xiv. 22.
       101     S. Matt. v. 3.
       102     S. Matt. v. 4 ff.


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       do not anoint themselves with oil nor get covered with dust. For those whom glory awaits trouble
       is at hand. The perfumed spectators are wont to look on, not to join in the struggle, nor to endure
       the sun, the heat, the dust, and the showers. Let the athletes say to them: Come, strive with us. The
       spectators will but answer: We sit here now to decide about you, but you, if you conquer, will gain
       the glory of the crown and we shall not.
            61. They, then, who have devoted themselves to pleasures, luxury, robbery, gain, or honours
       are spectators rather than combatants. They have the profit of labour, but not the fruits of virtue.
       They love their ease; by cunning and wickedness they heap up riches; but they will pay the penalty
       of their iniquity, though it be late. Their rest will be in hell, thine in heaven; their home in the grave,
       thine in paradise. Whence Job said beautifully that they watch in the tomb,103 for they cannot have
       the calm of quiet rest which he enjoys who shall rise again.
            62. Do not, therefore, understand, or speak, or think as a child; nor as a child claim those things
       now which belong to a future time. The crown belongs to the perfect. Wait till that which is perfect
       is come, when thou mayest know—not through a glass as in a riddle, but face to face104—the very
       form of truth made clear. Then will be made known why that person was rich who was wicked and
       a robber of other men’s goods, why another was powerful, why a third had many children, and yet
       a fourth was loaded with honours.
            63. Perhaps all this happens that the question may be asked of the robber: Thou wast rich,
       wherefore didst thou seize on the goods of others? Need did not force thee, poverty did not drive
12     thee to it. Did I not make thee rich, that thou mightest have no excuse? So, too, it may be said to a
       person of power: Why didst thou not aid the widow, the orphans also, when enduring wrong? Wast
       thou powerless? Couldst thou not help? I made thee for this purpose, not that thou mightest do
       wrong, but that thou mightest check it. Is it not written for thee “Save him that endureth wrong?”105
       Is it not written for thee: “Deliver the poor and needy out of the hand of the sinner”?106 It may be
       said also to the man who has abundance of good things: I have blessed thee with children and
       honours; I have granted thee health of body; why didst thou not follow my commands? My servant,
       what have I done to thee, or how have I grieved thee? Was it not I that gave thee children, bestowed
       honours, granted health to thee? Why didst thou deny me? Why didst thou suppose that thy actions
       would not come to my knowledge? Why didst thou accept my gifts, yet despise my commands?
            64. We can gather the same from the example of the traitor Judas. He was chosen among the
       Twelve Apostles, and had charge of the money bag, to lay it out upon the poor,107 that it might not
       seem as though he had betrayed the Lord because he was unhonoured or in want. Wherefore the
       Lord granted him this office, that He might also be justified in him; he would be guilty of a greater
       fault, not as one driven to it by wrong done to him, but as one misusing grace.



                                                   CHAPTER XVII.



       103     Job xxi. 32.
       104     1 Cor. xiii. 12.
       105     Ecclus. iv. 9.
       106     Ps. lxxxii. [lxxxi.] 4.
       107     S. John xii. 6.


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       The duties of youth, and examples suitable to that age, are next put forth.
            65. SINCE it has been made sufficiently plain that there will be punishment for wickedness and
       reward for virtue, let us proceed to speak of the duties which have to be borne in mind from our
       youth up,108 that they may grow with our years.109 A good youth ought to have a fear of God, to be
       subject to his parents, to give honour to his elders, to preserve his purity; he ought not to despise
       humility, but should love forbearance and modesty. All these are an ornament to youthful years.
       For as seriousness is the true grace of an old man, and ardour of a young man, so also is modesty,
       as though by some gift of nature, well set off in a youth.
            66. Isaac feared the Lord, as was indeed but natural in the son of Abraham; being subject also
       to his father to such an extent that he would not avoid death in opposition to his father’s will.110
       Joseph also, though he dreamed that sun and moon and stars made obeisance to him, yet was subject
       to his father’s will with ready obedience.111 So chaste was he, he would not hear even a word unless
       it were pure; humble was he even to doing the work of a slave, modest, even to taking flight,
       enduring, even to bearing imprisonment, so forgiving of wrong as even to repay it with good. Whose
       modesty was such, that, when seized by a woman, he preferred to leave his garment in her hands
       in flight, rather than to lay aside his modesty.112 Moses,113 also, and Jeremiah,114 chosen by the Lord
       to declare the words of God to the people, were for avoiding, through modesty, that which through
       grace they could do.



                                                         CHAPTER XVIII.

       On the different functions of modesty. How it should qualify both speech and silence, accompany
          chastity, commend our prayers to God, govern our bodily motions; on which last point reference
          is made to two clerics in language by no means unsuited to its object. Further he proceeds to
          say that one’s gait should be in accordance with that same virtue, and how careful one must
          be that nothing immodest come forth from one’s mouth, or be noticed in one’s body. All these
          points are illustrated with very appropriate examples.
           67. LOVELY, then, is the virtue of modesty, and sweet is its grace! It is seen not only in actions,
       but even in our words,115 so that we may not go beyond due measure in speech, and that our words
       may not have an unbecoming sound. The mirror of our mind often enough reflects its image in our
       words. Sobriety weighs out the sound even of our voice, for fear that too loud a voice should offend
       the ear of any one. Nay, in singing itself the first rule is modesty, and the same is true in every kind


       108     Cic. de Off. I. 34.
       109     Thus the Benedictine edition reads; most others have: “accrescant simul studia bonorum actuum.”
       110     Gen. xxii. 9.
       111     Gen. xxxvii. 9.
       112     Gen. xxxix. 12.
       113     Ex. iv. 10.
       114     Jer. i. 6.
       115     Cic. de Off. I. 37, § 134.


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       of speech, too, so that a man may gradually learn to praise God, or to sing songs, or even to speak,
       in that the principles of modesty grace his advance.
            68. Silence, again, wherein all the other virtues rest, is the chief act of modesty. Only, if it is
       supposed to be a sign of a childish or proud spirit, it is accounted a reproach; if a sign of modesty,
13     it is reckoned for praise. Susanna was silent in danger,116 and thought the loss of modesty was worse
       than loss of life. She did not consider that her safety should be guarded at the risk of her chastity.
       To God alone she spoke, to Whom she could speak out in true modesty. She avoided looking on
       the face of men. For there is also modesty in the glance of the eye, which makes a woman unwilling
       to look upon men, or to be seen by them.
            69. Let no one suppose that this praise belongs to chastity alone. For modesty is the companion
       of purity, in company with which chastity itself is safer. Shame, again, is good as a companion and
       guide of chastity, inasmuch as it does not suffer purity to be defiled in approaching even the outskirts
       of danger. This it is that, at the very outset of her recognition, commends the Mother of the Lord
       to those who read the Scriptures, and, as a credible witness, declares her worthy to be chosen to
       such an office. For when in her chamber, alone, she is saluted by the angel, she is silent, and is
       disturbed at his entrance,117 and the Virgin’s face is troubled at the strange appearance of a man’s
       form. And so, though she was humble, yet it was not because of this, but on account of her modesty,
       that she did not return his salutation, nor give him any answer, except to ask, when she had learnt
       that she should conceive the Lord, how this should be. She certainly did not speak merely for the
       sake of making a reply.
            70. In our very prayers, too, modesty is most pleasing, and gains us much grace from our God.
       Was it not this that exalted the publican, and commended him, when he dared not raise even his
       eyes to heaven?118 So he was justified by the judgment of the Lord rather than the Pharisee, whom
       overweening pride made so hideous. “Therefore let us pray in the incorruptibility of a meek and
       quiet spirit, which is in the sight of God of great price,”119 as St. Peter says. A noble thing, then, is
       modesty, which, though giving up its rights, seizing on nothing for itself, laying claim to nothing,
       and in some ways somewhat retiring within the sphere of its own powers, yet is rich in the sight of
       God, in Whose sight no man is rich. Rich is modesty, for it is the portion of God. Paul also bids
       that prayer be offered up with modesty and sobriety.120 He desires that this should be first, and, as
       it were, lead the way of prayers to come, so that the sinner’s prayer may not be boastful, but veiled,
       as it were, with the blush of shame, may merit a far greater degree of grace, in giving way to modesty
       at the remembrance of its fault.
            71. Modesty must further be guarded in our very movements and gestures and gait.121 For the
       condition of the mind is often seen in the attitude of the body. For this reason the hidden man of
       our heart (our inner self) is considered to be either frivolous, boastful, or boisterous, or, on the other
       hand, steady, firm, pure, and dependable. Thus the movement of the body is a sort of voice of the
       soul.


       116     Sus. v. 35.
       117     S. Luke i. 29 ff.
       118     S. Luke xviii. 13, 14.
       119     1 Pet. iii. 4.
       120     1 Tim. ii. 9.
       121     Cic. de Off. I. 35.


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            72. Ye remember, my children, that a friend of ours who seemed to recommend himself by his
       assiduity in his duties, yet was not admitted by me into the number of the clergy, because his
       gestures were too unseemly. Also that I bade one, whom I found already among the clergy, never
       to go in front of me, because he actually pained me by the seeming arrogance of his gait. That is
       what I said when he returned to his duty after an offence committed. This alone I would not allow,
       nor did my mind deceive me. For both have left the Church. What their gait betrayed them to be,
       such were they proved to be by the faithlessness of their hearts. The one forsook his faith at the
       time of the Arian troubles; the other, through love of money, denied that he belonged to us, so that
       he might not have to undergo sentence at the hands of the Church. In their gait was discernible the
       semblance of fickleness, the appearance, as it were, of wandering buffoons.
            73. Some there are who in walking perceptibly copy the gestures of actors,122 and act as though
       they were bearers in the processions, and had the motions of nodding statues, to such an extent that
       they seem to keep a sort of time, as often as they change their step.
            74. Nor do I think it becoming to walk hurriedly, except when a case of some danger demands
       it, or a real necessity. For we often see those who hurry come up panting, and with features distorted.
       But if there is no reason for the need of such hurry, it gives cause for just offence. I am not, however,
       talking of those who have to hurry now and then for some particular reason, but of those to whom,
14     by the yoke of constant habit, it has become a second nature. In the case of the former I cannot
       approve of their slow solemn movements, which remind one of the forms of phantoms. Nor do I
       care for the others with their headlong speed, for they put one in mind of the ruin of outcasts.
            75. A suitable gait is that wherein there is an appearance of authority and weight and dignity,
       and which has a calm collected bearing. But it must be of such a character that all effort and conceit
       may be wanting, and that it be simple and plain. Nothing counterfeit is pleasing. Let nature train
       our movements. If indeed there is any fault in our nature, let us mend it with diligence. And, that
       artifice may be wanting, let not amendment be wanting.
            76. But if we pay so much attention to things like these, how much more careful ought we to
       be to let nothing shameful proceed out of our mouth, for that defiles a man terribly. It is not food
       that defiles, but unjust disparagement of others and foul words.123 These things are openly shameful.
       In our office indeed must no word be let fall at all unseemly, nor one that may give offence to
       modesty. But not only ought we to say nothing unbecoming to ourselves, but we ought not even
       to lend our ears to words of this sort. Thus Joseph fled and left his garment, that he might hear
       nothing inconsistent with his modesty.124 For he who delights to listen, urges the other on to speak.
            77. To have full knowledge of what is foul is in the highest degree shameful. To see anything
       of this sort, if by chance it should happen, how dreadful that is! What, therefore, is displeasing to
       us in others, can that be pleasing in ourselves? Is not nature herself our teacher, who has formed
       to perfection every part of our body, so as to provide for what is necessary and to beautify and
       grace its form? However she has left plain and open to the sight those parts which are beautiful to
       look upon; among which, the head, set as it were above all, and the pleasant lines of the figure, and
       the appearance of the face are prominent, whilst their usefulness for work is ready to hand. But
       those parts in which there is a compliance with the necessities of nature, she has partly put away


       122     Cic. de Off. I. 36.
       123     Cic. de Off. I. 35, § 127.
       124     Gen. xxxix. 12.


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       and hidden in the body itself, lest they should present a disgusting appearance, and partly, too, she
       has taught and persuaded us to cover them.125
            78. Is not nature herself then a teacher of modesty? Following her example, the modesty of
       men, which I suppose126 is so called from the mode of knowing what is seemly,127 has covered and
       veiled what it has found hid in the frame of our body; like that door which Noah was bidden to
       make in the side of the ark;128 wherein we find a figure of the Church, and also of the human body,
       for through that door the remnants of food were cast out. Thus the Maker of our nature so thought
       of our modesty, and so guarded what was seemly and virtuous in our body, as to place what is
       unseemly behind, and to put it out of the sight of our eyes. Of this the Apostle says well: “Those
       members of the body which seem to be more feeble are necessary, and those members of the body
       which we think to be less honourable, upon these we bestow more abundant honour, and our
       uncomely parts have more abundant comeliness.”129 Truly, by following the guidance of nature,
       diligent care has added to the grace of the body. In another place130 I have gone more fully into this
       subject, and said that not only do we hide those parts which have been given us to hide, but also
       that we think it unseemly to mention by name their description, and the use of those members.
            79. And if these parts are exposed to view by chance, modesty is violated; but if on purpose, it
       is reckoned as utter shamelessness. Wherefore Ham, Noah’s son, brought disgrace upon himself;
       for he laughed when he saw his father naked, but they who covered their father received the gift
       of a blessing.131 For which cause, also, it was an ancient custom in Rome, and in many other states
       as well, that grown-up sons should not bathe with their parents, or sons-in-law with their
       fathers-in-law,132 in order that the great duty of reverence for parents should not be weakened.
       Many, however, cover themselves so far as they can in the baths, so that, where the whole body is
       bare, that part of it at least may be covered.
            80. The priests, also, under the old law, as we read in Exodus, wore breeches, as it was told
       Moses by the Lord: “And thou shalt make them linen breeches to cover their shame: from the loins
       even to the thighs they shall reach, and Aaron and his sons shall wear them, when they enter into
       the tabernacle of witness, and when they come unto the altar of the holy place to offer sacrifice,
       that they lay not sin upon themselves and die.”133 Some of us are said still to observe this, but most
15     explain it spiritually, and suppose it was said with a view to guarding modesty and preserving
       chastity.



                                                        CHAPTER XIX.




       125     Cic. de Off. I. 35.
       126     Cic. de Off. I. 40, § 142.
       127     “modestia…quam a modo scientiæ, quid deceret, appellatam arbitror.”
       128     Gen. vi. 16.
       129     1 Cor. xii. 22, 23.
       130     Ambr. de Noe et Arca. cap. viii.
       131     Gen. ix. 22.
       132     Cic. de Off. I. 35, § 129.
       133     Ex. xxviii. 42, 43.


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       How should seemliness be represented by a speaker? Does beauty add anything to virtue, and, if
         so, how much? Lastly, what care should we take that nothing conceited or effeminate be seen
         in us?
            81. IT has given me pleasure to dwell somewhat at length on the various functions of modesty;
       for I speak to you who either can recognize the good that is in it in your own cases, or at least do
       not know its loss. Fitted as it is for all ages, persons, times, and places, yet it most beseems youthful
       and childish years.
            82. But at every age we must take care that all we do is seemly and becoming, and that the
       course of our life forms one harmonious and complete whole. Wherefore Cicero134 thinks that a
       certain order ought to be observed in what is seemly. He says that this lies in beauty, order, and in
       appointment fitted for action. This, as he says, it is difficult to explain in words, yet it can be quite
       sufficiently understood.
            83. Why Cicero should have introduced beauty, I do not quite understand; though it is true he
       also speaks in praise of the powers of the body. We certainly do not locate virtue in the beauty of
       the body, though, on the other hand, we do recognize a certain grace, as when modesty is wont to
       cover the face with a blush of shame, and to make it more pleasing. For as a workman is wont to
       work better the more suitable his materials are, so modesty is more conspicuous in the comeliness
       of the body. Only the comeliness of the body should not be assumed; it should be natural and artless,
       unstudied rather than elaborated, not heightened by costly and glistening garments, but just clad in
       ordinary clothing. One must see that nothing is wanting that one’s credit or necessity demands,
       whilst nothing must be added for the sake of splendour.
            84. The voice, too, should not be languid, nor feeble, nor womanish in its tone,—such a tone
       of voice as many are in the habit of using, under the idea of seeming important. It should preserve
       a certain quality, and rhythm, and a manly vigour. For all to do what is best suited to their character
       and sex, that is to attain to beauty of life. This is the best order for movements, this the employment
       fitted for every action. But as I cannot approve of a soft or weak tone of voice, or an effeminate
       gesture of the body, so also I cannot approve of what is boorish and rustic. Let us follow nature.
       The imitation of her provides us with a principle of training, and gives us a pattern of virtue.



                                                    CHAPTER XX.

       If we are to preserve our modesty we must avoid fellowship with profligate men, also the banquets
           of strangers, and intercourse with women; our leisure time at home should be spent in pious
           and virtuous pursuits.
           85. MODESTY has indeed its rocks—not any that she brings with her, but those, I mean, which
       she often runs against, as when we associate with profligate men, who, under the form of pleasantry,
       administer poison to the good. And the latter, if they are very constant in their attendance at banquets
       and games, and often join in jests, enervate that manly gravity of theirs. Let us then take heed that,

       134     Cic. de Off. I. 35, § 126.


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       in wishing to relax our minds, we do not destroy all harmony, the blending as it were of all good
       works. For habit quickly bends nature in another direction.
            86. For this reason I think that what ye wisely do is befitting to the duties of clerics, and
       especially to those of the priesthood—namely, that ye avoid the banquets of strangers, but so that
       ye are still hospitable to travellers, and give no occasion for reproach by reason of your great care
       in the matter. Banquets with strangers engross one’s attention, and soon produce a love for feasting.
       Tales, also, of the world and its pleasures often creep in. One cannot shut one’s ears; and to forbid
       them is looked on as a sign of haughtiness. One’s glass, too, even against one’s will, is filled time
       after time. It is better surely to excuse oneself once for all at one’s own home, than often at another’s.
       When one rises sober, at any rate one’s presence need not be condemned by the insolence of another.
            87. There is no need for the younger clergy to go to the houses of widows or virgins, except
       for the sake of a definite visit, and in that case only with the elder clergy, that is, with the bishop,
       or, if the matter be somewhat important, with the priests. Why should we give room to the world
       to revile? What need is there for those frequent visits to give ground for rumours? What if one of
16     those women should by chance fall? Why shouldst thou undergo the reproach of another’s fall?
       How many even strong men have been led away by their passions? How many are there who have
       not indeed yielded to sin, but have given ground for suspicion?
            88. Why dost thou not spend the time which thou hast free from thy duties in the church in
       reading? Why dost thou not go back again to see Christ? Why dost thou not address Him, and hear
       His voice? We address Him when we pray, we hear Him when we read the sacred oracles of God.
       What have we to do with strange houses? There is one house which holds all. They who need us
       can come to us. What have we to do with tales and fables? An office to minister at the altar of Christ
       is what we have received; no duty to make ourselves agreeable to men has been laid upon us.
            89. We ought to be humble, gentle, mild, serious, patient. We must keep the mean in all things,
       so that a calm countenance and quiet speech may show that there is no vice in our lives.



                                                   CHAPTER XXI.

       We must guard against anger, before it arises; if it has already arisen we must check and calm it,
          and if we cannot do this either, at least we should keep our tongue from abuse, so that our
          passions may be like boys’ quarrels. He relates what Archites said, and shows that David led
          the way in this matter, both in his actions and in his writings.
            90. LET anger be guarded against.135 If it cannot, however, be averted, let it be kept within
       bounds. For indignation is a terrible incentive to sin. It disorders the mind to such an extent as to
       leave no room for reason. The first thing, therefore, to aim at, if possible, is to make tranquillity of
       character our natural disposition by constant practice, by desire for better things, by fixed
       determination. But since passion is to a large extent implanted in our nature and character, so that
       it cannot be uprooted and avoided, it must be checked by reason, if, that is, it can be foreseen. And
       if the mind has already been filled with indignation before it could be foreseen or provided against

       135     Cic. de Off. I. 25, § 89.


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       in any way, we must consider how to conquer the passion of the mind, how to restrain our anger,
       that it may no more be so filled. Resist wrath, if possible; if not, give way, for it is written: “Give
       place to wrath.”136
            91. Jacob dutifully gave way to his brother when angry, and to Rebecca; that is to say, taught
       by counsels of patience, he preferred to go away and live in foreign lands, rather than to arouse his
       brother’s anger; and then to return only when he thought his brother was appeased.137 Thus it was
       that he found such great grace with God. With what offers of willing service, with what gifts, did
       he reconcile his brother to himself again, so that he should not remember the blessing which had
       been taken away from him, but should only remember the reparation now offered?138
            92. If, then, anger has got the start, and has already taken possession of thy mind, and mounted
       into thy heart, forsake not thy ground. Thy ground is patience, it is wisdom, it is reason, it is the
       allaying of indignation. And if the stubbornness of thy opponent rouses thee, and his perverseness
       drives thee to indignation: if thou canst not calm thy mind, check at least thy tongue. For so it is
       written: “Keep thy tongue from evil, and thy lips that they speak no guile. Seek peace and pursue
       it.”139 See the peace of holy Jacob, how great it was! First, then, calm thy mind. If thou canst not
       do this, put a restraint upon thy tongue. Lastly, omit not to seek for reconciliation. These ideas the
       speakers of the world have borrowed from us, and have set down in their writings. But he who said
       it first has the credit of understanding its meaning.
            93. Let us then avoid or at any rate check anger, so that we may not lose our share of praise,
       nor yet add to our list of sins. It is no light thing to calm one’s anger. It is no less difficult a thing
       than it is not to be roused at all. The one is an act of our own will, the other is an effect of nature.
       So quarrels among boys are harmless, and have more of a pleasant than a bitter character about
       them. And if boys quickly come to quarrel one with the other, they are easily calmed down again,
       and quickly come together with even greater friendliness. They do not know how to act deceitfully
       and artfully. Do not condemn these children, of whom the Lord says: “Except ye be converted and
       become as this child, ye shall not enter into the kingdom of heaven.”140 So also the Lord Himself,
       Who is the Power of God, as a Boy, when He was reviled, reviled not again, when He was struck,
       struck not back.141 Set then thy mind on this—like a child never to keep an injury in mind, never
17     to show malice, but that all things may be done blamelessly by thee. Regard not the return made
       thee by others. Hold thy ground. Guard the simplicity and purity of thy heart. Answer not an angry
       man according to his anger, nor a foolish man according to his folly. One fault quickly calls forth
       another. If stones are rubbed together, does not fire break forth?
            94. The heathen—(they are wont to exaggerate everything in speaking)—make much of the
       saying of the philosopher Archites142 of Tarentum, which he spoke to his bailiff: “O you wretched
       man, how I would punish you, if I were not angry.” But David already before this had in his
       indignation held back his armed hand. How much greater a thing it is not to revile again, than not


       136     Rom. xii. 19.
       137     Gen. xxvii. 42.
       138     Gen. xxxii. 3 ff.
       139     Ps. xxxiv. [xxxiii.] 13, 14.
       140     S. Matt. xviii. 3.
       141     1 Pet. ii. 23.
       142     lived c. B.C. 400. A noted philosopher, and also general.


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       to avenge oneself! The warriors, too, prepared to take vengeance against Nabal, Abigail restrained
       by her prayers.143 From whence we perceive that we ought not only to yield to timely entreaties,
       but also to be pleased with them. So much was David pleased that he blessed her who intervened,
       because he was restrained from his desire for revenge.
            95. Already before this he had said of his enemies: “For they cast iniquity upon me, and in their
       wrath they were grievous to me.”144 Let us hear what he said when overwhelmed in wrath: “Who
       will give me wings like a dove, and I will flee away and be at rest.”145 They kept provoking him to
       anger, but he sought quietness.
            96. He had also said: “Be ye angry and sin not.”146 The moral teacher who knew that the natural
       disposition should rather be guided by a reasonable course of teaching, than be eradicated, teaches
       morals, and says: “Be angry where there is a fault against which ye ought to be angry.” For it is
       impossible not to be roused up by the baseness of many things;147 otherwise we might be accounted,
       not virtuous, but apathetic and neglectful. Be angry therefore, so that ye keep free from fault, or,
       in other words: If ye are angry, do not sin, but overcome wrath with reason. Or one might put it
       thus: If ye are angry, be angry with yourselves, because ye are roused, and ye will not sin. For he
       who is angry with himself, because he has been so easily roused, ceases to be angry with another.
       But he who wishes to prove his anger is righteous only gets the more inflamed, and quickly falls
       into sin. “Better is he,” as Solomon says, “that restraineth his anger, than he that taketh a city,”148
       for anger leads astray even brave men.
            97. We ought therefore to take care that we do not get into a flurry, before reason prepares our
       minds. For oftentimes anger or distress or fear of death almost deprives the soul of life, and beats
       it down by a sudden blow. It is therefore a good thing to anticipate this by reflection, and to exercise
       the mind by considering the matter. So the mind will not be roused by any sudden disturbance, but
       will grow calm, being held in by the yoke and reins of reason.



                                                    CHAPTER XXII.

       On reflection and passion, and on observing propriety of speech, both in ordinary conversation
          and in holding discussions.
           98. THERE are two kinds of mental motions149—those of reflection and of passion. The one has
       to do with reflection, the other with passion. There is no confusion one with the other, for they are
       markedly different and unlike. Reflection has to search and as it were to grind out the truth. Passion
       prompts and stimulates us to do something. Thus by its very nature reflection diffuses tranquillity
       and calm; and passion sends forth the impulse to act. Let us then be ready to allow reflection on
       good things to enter into our mind, and to make passion submit to reason (if indeed we wish to

       143     1 Sam. [1 Kings] xxv.
       144     Ps. lv. [liv.] 3.
       145     Ps. lv. [liv.] 6.
       146     Ps. iv. 4.
       147     Cic. de Off. I. 38, § 136.
       148     Prov. xvi. 32.
       149     Cic. de Off. I. 36, § 132.


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       direct our minds to guard what is seemly), lest desire for anything should shut out reason. Rather
       let reason test and see what befits virtue.
            99. And since we have said that we must aim at the observance of what is seemly,150 so as to
       know what is the due measure in our words and deeds, and as order in speech rather than in action
       comes first; speech is divided into two kinds: first, as it is used in friendly conversation, and then
       in the treatment and discussion of matters of faith and justice. In either case we must take care that
       there is no irritation. Our language should be mild and quiet, and full of kindness and courtesy and
       free from insult. Let there be no obstinate disputes in our familiar conversations, for they are wont
       only to bring up useless subjects, rather than to supply anything useful. Let there be discussion
18     without wrath, urbanity without bitterness, warning without sharpness, advice without giving
       offence. And as in every action of our life we ought to take heed to this, in order that no overpowering
       impulse of our mind may ever shut out reason (let us always keep a place for counsel), so, too,
       ought we to observe that rule in our language, so that neither wrath nor hatred may be aroused, and
       that we may not show any signs of our greed or sloth.
            100. Let our language be of this sort, more especially when we are speaking of the holy
       Scriptures. For of what ought we to speak more often than of the best subject of conversation, of
       its exhortation to watchfulness, its care for good instruction? Let us have a reason for beginning,
       and let our end be within due limits.151 For a speech that is wearisome only stirs up anger. But surely
       it is most unseemly that when every kind of conversation generally gives additional pleasure, this
       should give cause of offence!
            101. The treatment also of such subjects as the teaching of faith, instruction on self-restraint,
       discussion on justice, exhortation to activity, must not be taken up by us and fully gone into all at
       one time, but must be carried on in course, so far as we can do it, and as the subject-matter of the
       passage allows. Our discourse must not be too lengthy, nor too soon cut short, for fear the former
       should leave behind it a feeling of aversion, and the latter produce carelessness and neglect. The
       address should be plain and simple, clear and evident, full of dignity and weight; it should not be
       studied or too refined, nor yet, on the other hand, be unpleasing and rough in style.



                                                   CHAPTER XXIII.

       Jests, although at times they may be quite proper, should be altogether banished among clerics.
           The voice should be plain and frank.
           102. MEN of the world give many further rules about the way to speak,152 which I think we may
       pass over; as, for instance, the way jesting should be conducted.153 For though at times jests may
       be proper and pleasant, yet they are unsuited to the clerical life. For how can we adopt those things
       which we do not find in the holy Scriptures?


       150     Cic. de Off. I. 37.
       151     Cic. de Off. I. 37, § 135.
       152     Cic. de Off. I. 37.
       153     Cic. de Off. I. 29, § 103.


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           103. We must also take care that in relating stories we do not alter the earnest purpose of the
       harder rule we have set before us. “Woe unto you that laugh, for ye shall weep,”154 says the Lord.
       Do we seek for something to laugh at, that laughing here we may weep hereafter? I think we ought
       to avoid not only broad jokes, but all kinds of jests, unless perchance it is not unfitting at the time
       for our conversation to be agreeable and pleasant.
           104. In speaking of the voice, I certainly think it ought to be plain and clear.155 That it should
       be musical is a gift of nature, and is not to be won by exertion. Let it be distinct in its pronunciation
       and full of a manly vigour, but let it be free from a rough and rustic twang. See, too, that it does
       not assume a theatrical accent, but rather keeps true to the inner meaning of the words it utters.



                                                   CHAPTER XXIV.

       There are three things to be noticed in the actions of our life. First, our passions are to be controlled
          by our reason; next, we ought to observe a suitable moderation in our desires; and, lastly,
          everything ought to be done at the right time and in the proper order. All these qualities shone
          forth so conspicuously in the holy men of Old Testament time, that it is evident they were well
          furnished with what men call the cardinal virtues.
            105. I THINK I have said enough on the art of speaking. Let us now consider what beseems an
       active life. We note that there are three things156 to be regarded in connection with this subject. One
       is, that passion should not resist our reason. In that way only can our duties be brought into line
       with what is seemly. For if passion yields to reason we can easily maintain what is seemly in our
       duties. Next, we must take care lest, either by showing greater zeal or less than the matter we take
       up demands, we look as though we were taking up a small matter with great parade or were treating
       a great matter with but little care. Thirdly, as regards moderation in our endeavours and works, and
       also with regard to order in doing things and in the right timing of things, I think that everything
       should be open and straightforward.
            106. But first comes that which I may call the foundation of all, namely, that our passions should
       obey our reason. The second and third are really the same—moderation in either case. There is
       room with us for the survey of a pleasing form, which is accounted beauty, and the consideration
19     of dignity. Next follows the consideration of the order and the timing of things. These, then, are
       the three points, and we must see whether we can show them in perfection in any one of the saints.
            107. First there is our father Abraham,157 who was formed and called for the instruction of
       generations to come. When bidden to go forth from his own country and kindred and from his
       father’s house, though bound and held back by many ties of relationship, did he not give proof that
       in him passion was subject to reason? Who does not delight in the sweet charms of his native land,
       his kindred, and his own home? Their sweetness then delighted him. But the thought of the heavenly
       command and of an eternal reward influenced him more. Did he not reflect that he could not take

       154     S. Luke vi. 25.
       155     Cic. de Off. I. 37, § 133.
       156     Cic. de Off. I. 39, § 141.
       157     Gen. xii. 1 ff.


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       his wife with him without the greatest danger, unused as she was to hardships, and so tender to
       bear insults, and so beautiful as to be likely to arouse the lust of profligate men? Yet he decided
       somewhat deliberately to undergo all this rather than to escape it by making excuses. Lastly, when
       he had gone into Egypt, he advised her to say she was his sister, not his wife.
            108. See here what passions are at work! He feared for the chastity of his wife, he feared for
       his own safety, he had his suspicions about the lust of the Egyptians, and yet the reasonableness of
       performing his duty to God prevailed with him. For he thought that by the favour of God he could
       be safe everywhere, but if he offended the Lord he could not abide unharmed even at home. Thus
       reason conquered passion, and brought it into subjection to itself.
            109. When his nephew was taken captive,158 without being terrified or dismayed at the hordes
       of so many kings, he resumed the war. And after the victory was gained he refused his share of the
       spoil, which he himself had really won. Also, when a son was promised him, though he thought of
       the lost vigour of his body, now as good as dead, and the barrenness of his wife, and his own great
       age, he believed God, though it was against the law of nature.159
            110. Note how everything meets together here. Passion was not wanting, but it was checked.
       Here was a mind equable in action, which neither treated great things as unimportant or little things
       as great. Here there was moderation in different affairs, order in things, fitness of occasion, due
       measure in words. He was foremost in faith, conspicuous in virtue, vigorous in battle, in victory
       not greedy, at home hospitable, and to his wife attentive.
            111. Jacob also, his holy grandson, loved to pass his time at home free from danger; but his
       mother wished him to live in foreign parts, and so give place to his brother’s anger.160 Sound counsels
       prevailed over natural feelings. An exile from home, banished from his parents, yet everywhere,
       in all he did, he observed due measure, such as was fitting, and made use of his opportunities at
       the right time. So dear was he to his parents at home, that the one, moved by the promptness of his
       compliance, gave him his blessing, the other inclined towards him with tender love. In the judgment
       of his brother, also, he was placed first, when he thought that he ought to give up his food to his
       brother.161 For though according to his natural inclinations he wished for food, yet when asked for
       it he gave it up from a feeling of brotherly affection. He was a faithful shepherd of the flock for his
       master, an attentive son-in-law to his father-in-law; he was active in work, sparing in his meals,
       conspicuous in making amends, lavish in repaying. Nay, so well did he calm his brother’s anger
       that he received his favour, though he had feared his enmity.162
            112. What shall I say of Joseph?163 He certainly had a longing for freedom, and yet endured the
       bonds of servitude. How meek he was in slavery, how unchanging in virtue, how kindly in prison!
       Wise, too, in interpreting, and self-restrained in exercising his power! In the time of plenty was he
       not careful? In the time of famine was he not fair? Did he not praiseworthily do everything in order,
       and use opportunities at their season; giving justice to his people by the restraining guidance of his
       office?


       158        Gen. xiv. 14.
       159        Gen. xv. 4; xvii. 15.
       160        Gen. xxvii. 42 ff.
       161        Gen. xxv. 34. St. Ambrose at times gets carried away by his subject and says more than is warranted by the words of the
           Bible. Cf. also II. § 101; II. § 154; III. § 64.
       162        Gen. xxxiii. 4.
       163        Gen. xxxix.


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           113. Job also, both in prosperity and adversity, was blameless, patient, pleasing, and acceptable
       to God. He was harassed with pain, yet could find consolation.
           114. David also was brave in war, patient in time of adversity, peaceful at Jerusalem, in the
       hour of victory merciful, on committing sin repentant, in his old age foreseeing. He preserved due
       measure in his actions, and took his opportunities as they came. He has set them down in the songs
       of succeeding years; and so it seems to me that he has by his life no less than by the sweetness of
20     his hymns poured forth an undying song of his own merits to God.
           115. What duty connected with the chief virtues was wanting in these men?164 In the first place
       they showed prudence, which is exercised in the search of the truth, and which imparts a desire for
       full knowledge; next, justice, which assigns each man his own, does not claim another’s, and
       disregards its own advantage, so as to guard the rights of all; thirdly, fortitude, which both in warfare
       and at home is conspicuous in greatness of mind and distinguishes itself in the strength of the body;
       fourthly, temperance, which preserves the right method and order in all things that we think should
       either be done or said.



                                                   CHAPTER XXV.

       A reason is given why this book did not open with a discussion of the above-mentioned virtues. It
           is also concisely pointed out that the same virtues existed in the ancient fathers.
           116. PERHAPS, as the different classes of duties are derived from these four virtues, some one
       may say that they ought to have been described first of all. But it would have been artificial to have
       given a definition of duty at the outset,165 and then to have gone on to divide it up into various
       classes. We have avoided what is artificial, and have put forward the examples of the fathers of
       old. These certainly offer us no uncertainty as regards our understanding them, and give us no room
       for subtlety in our discussion of them. Let the life of the fathers, then, be for us a mirror of virtue,
       not a mere collection of shrewd and clever acts. Let us show reverence in following them, not mere
       cleverness in discussing them.
           117. Prudence held the first place in holy Abraham. For of him the Scriptures say: “Abraham
       believed God, and that was counted to him for righteousness;”166 for no one is prudent who knows
       not God. Again: “The fool hath said, There is no God;”167 for a wise man would not say so. How
       is he wise who looks not for his Maker, but says to a stone: “Thou art my father”?168 Who says to




       164     Cic. de Off. I. 5.
       165     Ib. I. 2, § 7.
       166     Gen. xv. 6.
       167     Ps. xiv. [xiii.] 1.
       168     Jer. ii. 27.


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       the devil as the Manichæan does: “Thou art the author of my being”?169 How is Arius170 wise, who
       prefers an imperfect and inferior creator to one who is a true and perfect one? How can Marcion171
       or Eunomius172 be wise, who prefer to have an evil rather than a good God? And how can he be
       wise who does not fear his God? For: “The fear of the Lord is the beginning of wisdom.”173
       Elsewhere, too, it stands: “The wise turn not aside from the mouth of the Lord, but come near Him
       in their confession of His greatness.”174 So when the Scripture says: “It was counted to him for
       righteousness,” that brought to him the grace of another virtue.
           118. The chief amongst ourselves have stated that prudence lies in the knowledge of the truth.
       But who of them all excelled Abraham, David, or Solomon in this? Then they go on to say that
       justice has regard to the whole community of the human race. So David said: “He hath dispersed
       abroad and given to the poor, His righteousness remaineth for ever.”175 The just man has pity, the
       just man lends. The whole world of riches lies at the feet of the wise and the just. The just man
       regards what belongs to all as his own, and his own as common property. The man just accuses
       himself rather than others. For he is just who does not spare himself, and who does not suffer his
       secret actions to be concealed. See now how just Abraham was! In his old age he begat a son
       according to promise, and when the Lord demanded him for sacrifice he did not think he ought to
       refuse him, although he was his only son.176
           119. Note here all these four virtues in one act. It was wise to believe God, and not to put love
       for his son before the commands of his Creator. It was just to give back what had been received.
       It was brave to restrain natural feelings by reason. The father led the victim; the son asked where
21     it was: the father’s feelings were hardly tried, but were not overcome. The son said again: “My
       father,” and thus pierced his father’s heart, though without weakening his devotion to God. The
       fourth virtue, temperance, too, was there. Being just he preserved due measure in his piety, and
       order in all he had to carry out. And so in bringing what was needed for the sacrifice, in lighting
       the fire, in binding his son, in drawing the knife, in performing the sacrifice in due order; thus he
       merited as his reward that he might keep his son.




       169         Manes, the founder of Manicheism, living about A.D. 250. He taught that there were two original principles absolutely
           opposed one to the other. On the one side God, from Whom nothing but good can go forth; on the other original evil—the author
           of all matter—which therefore is evil too. Man was formed by this evil spirit. For, whilst man’s soul is an emanation from the
           good God, man’s body in which the soul is imprisoned was framed of material elements. Hence the Manichæan is here represented
           addressing the devil as his father, the author of his earthly existence.
       170         The father of Arianism, born A.D. 256, was condemned at the Council of Nicæa A.D. 325. He denied that Christ was “of
           one substance with the Father;” but held Him to be a kind of secondary God, created out of nothing before the world. But he
           considered Him to be the creator of the world.
       171         Marcion flourished between the years A.D. 140–190. He also taught the existence of more than one Principle, and held
           that man was created by an inferior Being.
       172         Eunomius was the leader of the extreme Arian party, flourishing c. A.D. 360. He maintained the absolute unlikeness of
           the Son to the Father not only in substance but even in will. Hence his party were called Anomœans (ανόμοιος, unlike). In
           baptizing they also applied no water to the lower part of the body, asserting that it was created by an evil spirit, thus with Marcion
           recognizing the dual Principle. Theodoret, who is the authority for this latter and some other charges against the Eunomians,
           says, however, that he is speaking from hearsay, not of his own knowledge. Hær. Fab. IV. 3.
       173         Ps. cxi. [cx.] 10.
       174         Prov. xxiv. 7 [LXX.].
       175         Ps. cxii. [cxi.] 9.
       176         Gen. xxii. 3.


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            120. Is there greater wisdom than holy Jacob’s, who saw God face to face and won a blessing?177
       Can there be higher justice than his in dividing with his brother what he had acquired, and offering
       it as a gift?178 What greater fortitude than his in striving with God?179 What moderation so true as
       his, who acted with such moderation as regards time and place, as to prefer to hide his daughter’s
       shame rather than to avenge himself?180 For being set in the midst of foes, he thought it better to
       gain their affections than to concentrate their hate on himself.
            121. How wise also was Noah, who built the whole of the ark!181 How just again! For he alone,
       preserved of all to be the father of the human race, was made a survivor of past generations, and
       the author of one to come; he was born, too, rather for the world and the universe than for himself.
       How brave he was to overcome the flood! how temperate to endure it! When he had entered the
       ark, with what moderation he passed the time! When he sent forth the raven and the dove, when
       he received them on their return, when he took the opportunity of leaving the ark, with what
       moderation did he make use of these occasions!



                                                CHAPTER XXVI.

       In investigating the truth the philosophers have broken through their own rules. Moses, however,
           showed himself more wise than they. The greater the dignity of wisdom, the more earnestly
           must we strive to gain it. Nature herself urges us all to do this.
           122. IT is said, therefore, that in investigating the truth, we must observe what is seemly. We
       ought to look for what is true with the greatest care. We must not put forward falsehood for truth,
       nor hide the truth in darkness, nor fill the mind with idle, involved, or doubtful matters. What so
       unseemly as to worship a wooden thing, which men themselves have made? What shows such
       darkness as to discuss subjects connected with geometry and astronomy (which they approve of),
       to measure the depths of space, to shut up heaven and earth within the limits of fixed numbers, to
       leave aside the grounds of salvation and to seek for error?
           123. Moses, learned as he was in all the wisdom of the Egyptians,182 did not approve of those
       things, but thought that kind of wisdom both harmful and foolish. Turning away therefrom, he
       sought God with all the desire of his heart, and thus saw, questioned, heard Him when He spoke.183
       Who is more wise than he whom God taught, and who brought to nought all the wisdom of the
       Egyptians, and all the powers of their craft by the might of his works? He did not treat things
       unknown as well known, and so rashly accept them. Yet these philosophers, though they do not
       consider it contrary to nature, nor shameful for themselves to worship, and to ask help from an idol
       which knows nothing, teach us that these two things mentioned in the words just spoken, which
       are in accordance both with nature and with virtue, ought to be avoided.

       177    Gen. xxxii. 29, 30.
       178    Gen. xxxiii. 8.
       179    Gen. xxxii. 24–26.
       180    Gen. xxxiv. 5.
       181    Gen. vi. 14.
       182    Acts vii. 22.
       183    Ex. iii. 4.


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            124. The loftier the virtue of wisdom is, the more I say we ought to strive for it, so that we may
       be able to attain to it. And that we may have no ideas which are contrary to nature, or are disgraceful,
       or unfitting, we ought to give two things, that is, time and care, to considering matters for the sake
       of investigating them. For there is nothing in which man excels all other living creatures more than
       in the fact that he has reason, seeks out the origin of things, thinks that the Author of his being
       should be searched out. For in His hand is our life and death; He rules this world by His nod. And
       to Him we know that we must give a reason for our actions. For there is nothing which is more of
       a help to a good life than to believe that He will be our judge, Whom hidden things do not escape,
       and unseemly things offend, and good deeds delight.
            125. In all men, then, there lies, in accordance with human nature, a desire to search out the
       truth, which leads us on to have a longing for knowledge and learning, and infuses into us a wish
       to seek after it. To excel in this seems a noble thing to mankind; but there are only few who attain
22     to it. And they, by deep thought, by careful deliberation, spend no little labour so as to be able to
       attain to that blessed and virtuous life, and to approach its likeness in their actions. “For not he that
       saith to Me Lord, Lord, shall enter into the kingdom of heaven, but he that doeth those things that
       I say.”184 To have a desire for knowledge without actions to correspond—well! I do not know
       whether that carries anything more with it.



                                                              CHAPTER XXVII.

       The first source of duty is prudence, from whence spring three other virtues; and they cannot be
          separated or torn asunder, since they are mutually connected one with the other.
           126. THE first source of duty, then, is prudence.185 For what is more of a duty than to give to the
       Creator all one’s devotion and reverence? This source, however, is drawn off into other virtues.
       For justice cannot exist without prudence, since it demands no small amount of prudence to see
       whether a thing is just or unjust. A mistake on either side is very serious. “For he that says a just
       man is unjust, or an unjust man is just, is accursed with God. Wherefore does justice186 abound unto
       the wicked?”187 says Solomon. Nor, on the other hand, can prudence exist without justice, for piety
       towards God is the beginning of understanding. On which we notice that this is a borrowed rather
       than an original idea among the worldly wise, for piety is the foundation of all virtues.
           127. But the piety of justice188 is first directed towards God; secondly, towards one’s country;
       next, towards parents;189 lastly, towards all. This, too, is in accordance with the guidance of nature.
       From the beginning of life, when understanding first begins to be infused into us, we love life as
       the gift of God, we love our country and our parents; lastly, our companions, with whom we like

       184        S. Matt. vii. 21.
       185        Cic. de Off. I. 6.
       186        Some MSS. have “injustitiæ,” others “pecuniæ,” which seems to be a correction to bring it into harmony with the LXX:
           “ἱνατί ὑπῆρξε χρήματα ἄφρονι.”
       187        Prov. xvii. 15 [LXX.].
       188        Cic. de Off. I. 7.
       189        Summa Theol. II. 2, q. 101. St. Thomas Aquinas agrees in making piety a part of justice, and a gift of the Holy Spirit, but
           places parents before instead of after our country.


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       to associate. Hence arises true love, which prefers others to self, and seeks not its own, wherein
       lies the pre-eminence of justice.
           128. It is ingrained in all living creatures,190 first of all, to preserve their own safety, to guard
       against what is harmful, to strive for what is advantageous. They seek food and converts, whereby
       they may protect themselves from dangers, storms, and sun,—all which is a mark of prudence.
       Next we find that all the different creatures are by nature wont to herd together, at first with fellows
       of their own class and sort, then also with others. So we see oxen delighted to be in herds, horses
       in droves, and especially like with like, stags, also, in company with stags and often with men. And
       what should I say on their desire to have young, and on their offspring, or even on their passions,
       wherein the likeness of justice is conspicuous?
           129. It is clear, then, that these and the remaining virtues are related to one another. For courage,
       which in war preserves one’s country from the barbarians, or at home defends the weak, or comrades
       from robbers, is full of justice; and to know on what plan to defend and to give help, how to make
       use of opportunities of time and place, is the part of prudence and moderation, and temperance
       itself cannot observe due measure without prudence. To know a fit opportunity, and to make return
       according to what is right, belongs to justice. In all these, too, large-heartedness is necessary, and
       fortitude of mind, and often of body, so that we may carry out what we wish.



                                                 CHAPTER XXVIII.

       A community rests upon justice and good-will. Two parts of the former, revenge and private
          possession, are not recognized by Christians. What the Stoics say about common property and
          mutual help has been borrowed from the sacred writings. The greatness of the glory of justice,
          and what hinders access to it.
            130. JUSTICE,191 then, has to do with the society of the human race, and the community at large.
       For that which holds society together is divided into two parts,—justice and good-will, which also
       is called liberality and kindness. Justice seems to me the loftier, liberality the more pleasing, of the
       two. The one gives judgment, the other shows goodness.
            131. But that very thing is excluded with us which philosophers think to be the office of justice.
       For they say that the first expression of justice is, to hurt no one, except when driven to it by wrongs
       received. This is put aside by the authority of the Gospel. For the Scripture wills that the Spirit of
23     the Son of Man should be in us, Who came to give grace, not to bring harm.192
            132. Next they considered it consonant with justice that one should treat common, that is, public
       property as public, and private as private. But this is not even in accord with nature, for nature has
       poured forth all things for all men for common use. God has ordered all things to be produced, so
       that there should be food in common to all, and that the earth should be a common possession for
       all. Nature, therefore, has produced a common right for all, but greed has made it a right for a few.
       Here, too, we are told that the Stoics taught that all things which are produced on the earth are

       190     Cic. de Off. I. 4.
       191     Cic. de Off. I. I. 7.
       192     S. Luke ix. 56.


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       created for the use of men, but that men are born for the sake of men, so that mutually one may be
       of advantage to another.193
           133. But whence have they got such ideas but out of the holy Scriptures? For Moses wrote that
       God said: “Let us make man in our image, after our likeness, and let them have dominion over the
       fish of the sea, and over the fowl of the air, and over the cattle, and over every creeping thing that
       creepeth upon the earth.”194 And David said: “Thou hast put all things under his feet; all sheep and
       oxen, yea, and the beasts of the field, the fowls of the air, and the fishes of the sea.”195 So these
       philosophers have learnt from our writings that all things were made subject to man, and, therefore,
       they think that all things were produced also for man’s sake.
           134. That man was made for the sake of man we find stated also in the books of Moses, when
       the Lord says: “It is not good that man should be alone, let us make him an helpmeet for him.”196
       Thus the woman was given to the man to help him. She should bear him children, that one man
       might always be a help to another. Again, before the woman was formed, it was said of Adam:
       “There was not found an help-meet for him.”197 For one man could not have proper help but from
       another. Amongst all the living creatures, therefore, there was none meet for him, or, to put it
       plainly, none to be his helper. Hence a woman was looked for to help him.
           135. Thus, in accordance with the will of God and the union of nature, we ought to be of mutual
       help one to the other, and to vie with each other in doing duties, to lay all our advantages as it were
       before all, and (to use the words of Scripture) to bring help one to the other from a feeling of
       devotion or of duty, by giving money, or by doing something, at any rate in some way or other; so
       that the charm of human fellowship may ever grow sweeter amongst us, and none may ever be
       recalled from their duty by the fear of danger, but rather account all things, whether good or evil,
       as their own concern.198 Thus holy Moses feared not to undertake terrible wars for his people’s
       sake, nor was he afraid of the arms of the mightiest kings, nor yet was he frightened at the savagery
       of barbarian nations. He put on one side the thought of his own safety so as to give freedom to the
       people.
           136. Great, then, is the glory of justice; for she, existing rather for the good of others than of
       self, is an aid to the bonds of union and fellowship amongst us. She holds so high a place that she
       has all things laid under her authority, and further can bring help to others and supply money; nor
       does she refuse her services, but even undergoes dangers for others.
           137. Who would not gladly climb and hold the heights of this virtue, were it not that greed
       weakens and lessens the power of such a virtue?199 For as long as we want to add to our possessions
       and to heap up money, to take into our possession fresh lands, and to be the richest of all, we have
       cast aside the form of justice and have lost the blessing of kindness towards all. How can he be just
       that tries to take from another what he wants for himself?




       193     Cic. de Off. I. 9.
       194     Gen. i. 26.
       195     Ps. viii. 7, 8.
       196     Gen. ii. 18.
       197     Gen. ii. 20.
       198     Cic. de Off. I. 9, § 30.
       199     Cic. de Off. I. 7, § 24.


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           138. The desire to gain power also enervates200 the perfect strength and beauty of justice. For
       how can he, who attempts to bring others under his own power, come forward on behalf of others?
       And how can a man help the weak against the strong, when he himself aspires to great power at
       the cost of liberty?



                                                  CHAPTER XXIX.

       Justice should be observed even in war and with enemies. This is proved by the example of Moses
           and Elisha. The ancient writers learnt in turn from the Hebrews to call their enemies by a
           gentler term. Lastly, the foundation of justice rests on faith, and its symmetry is perfect in the
           Church.
           139. HOW great a thing justice is can be gathered from the fact that there is no place, nor person,
       nor time, with which it has nothing to do. It must even be preserved in all dealings with enemies.201
24     For instance, if the day or the spot for a battle has been agreed upon with them, it would be
       considered an act against justice to occupy the spot beforehand, or to anticipate the time. For there
       is some difference whether one is overcome in some battle by a severe engagement, or by superior
       skill, or by a mere chance. But a deeper vengeance is taken on fiercer foes, and on those that are
       false as well as on those who have done greater wrongs, as was the case with the Midianites.202 For
       they had made many of the Jewish people to sin through their women; for which reason the anger
       of the Lord was poured out upon the people of our fathers. Thus it came about that Moses when
       victorious allowed none of them to live. On the other hand, Joshua did not attack the Gibeonites,
       who had tried the people of our fathers with guile rather than with war, but punished them by laying
       on them a law of bondage.203 Elisha again would not allow the king of Israel to slay the Syrians
       when he wished to do so. He had brought them into the city, when they were besieging him, after
       he had struck them with instantaneous blindness, so that they could not see where they were going.
       For he said: “Thou shalt not smite those whom thou hast not taken captive with thy spear and with
       thy sword. Set before them bread and water, that they may eat and drink and return and go to their
       own home.”204 Incited by their kind treatment they should show forth to the world the kindness they
       had received. “Thus” (we read) “there came no more the bands of Syria into the land of Israel.”205
           140. If, then, justice is binding, even in war, how much more ought we to observe it in time of
       peace. Such favour the prophet showed to those who came to seize him. We read that the king of
       Syria had sent his army to lie in wait for him, for he had learnt that it was Elisha who had made
       known to all his plans and consultations. And Gehazi the prophet’s servant, seeing the army, began
       to fear that his life was in danger. But the prophet said to him: “Fear not, for they that be with us
       are more than they that be with them.”206 And when the prophet asked that the eyes of his servant

       200     Cic. de Off. I. 8, § 26.
       201     Cic. de Off. I. 11, § 34.
       202     Num. xxxi.
       203     Josh. ix.
       204     2 [4] Kings vi. 22.
       205     2 [4] Kings vi. 23.
       206     2 [4] Kings vi. 16.


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       might be opened, they were opened. Then Gehazi saw the whole mountain full of horses and chariots
       round about Elisha. As they came down to him the prophet says: “Smite, O God, the army of Syria
       with blindness.” And this prayer being granted, he says to the Syrians: “Follow me, and I will bring
       you to the man whom ye seek.” Then saw they Elisha, whom they were endeavouring to lay hold
       of, and seeing him they could not hold him fast.207 It is clear from this that faith and justice should
       be observed even in war; and that it could not but be a disgraceful thing if faith were violated.
           141. So also the ancients used to give their foes a less harsh name, and called them strangers.208
       For enemies used to be called strangers after the customs of old. This too we can say they adopted
       from our writings; for the Hebrews used to call their foes “allophyllos,” that is, when put into Latin,
       “alienigenas” (of another race). For so we read in the first book of Kings: “It came to pass in those
       days that they of another race put themselves in array against Israel.”209
           142. The foundation of justice therefore is faith,210 for the hearts of the just dwell on faith, and
       the just man that accuses himself builds justice on faith, for his justice becomes plain when he
       confesses the truth. So the Lord saith through Isaiah: “Behold, I lay a stone for a foundation in
       Sion.”211 This means Christ as the foundation of the Church. For Christ is the object of faith to all;
       but the Church is as it were the outward form of justice, she is the common right of all. For all in
       common she prays, for all in common she works, in the temptations of all she is tried. So he who
       denies himself is indeed a just man, is indeed worthy of Christ. For this reason Paul has made Christ
       to be the foundation, so that we may build upon Him the works of justice,212 whilst faith is the
       foundation. In our works, then, if they are evil, there appears unrighteousness; if they are good,
       justice.



                                                  CHAPTER XXX.

       On kindness and its several parts, namely, good-will and liberality. How they are to be combined.
          What else is further needed for any one to show liberality in a praiseworthy manner.
           143. NOW we can go on to speak of kindness, which breaks up into two parts, goodwill and
       liberality. Kindness to exist in perfection must consist of these two qualities. It is not enough just
       to wish well; we must also do well. Nor, again, is it enough to do well, unless this springs from a
       good source even from a good will. “For God loveth a cheerful giver.”213 If we act unwillingly,
25     what is our reward? Wherefore the Apostle, speaking generally, says: “If I do this thing willingly,
       I have a reward, but if unwillingly, a dispensation is given unto me.”214 In the Gospel, also, we have
       received many rules of just liberality.



       207     2 [4] Kings vi. 8–23.
       208     Cic. de Off. I. 12.
       209     1 Sam. [1 Kings] iv. 1.
       210     Cic. de Off. I. 7, § 23.
       211     Isa. xxviii. 16.
       212     1 Cor. iii. 11.
       213     2 Cor. ix. 7.
       214     1 Cor. ix. 17.


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            144. It is thus a glorious thing to wish well, and to give freely, with the one desire to do good
       and not to do harm. For if we were to think it our duty to give the means to an extravagant man to
       live extravagantly, or to an adulterer to pay for his adultery, it would not be an act of kindness, for
       there would be no good-will in it. We should be doing harm, not good, to another if we gave him
       money to aid him in plotting against his country, or in attempting to get together at our expense
       some abandoned men to attack the Church. Nor, again, does it look like liberality to help one who
       presses very hardly on widows and orphans, or attempts to seize on their property with any show
       of violence.
            145. It is no sign of a liberal spirit215 to extort from one what we give to another, or to gain
       money unjustly, and then to think it can be well spent, unless we act as Zacchæus216 did, and restore
       fourfold what we have taken from him whom we have robbed, and make up for such heathenish
       crimes by the zeal of our faith and by true Christian labour. Our liberality must have some sure
       foundation.
            146. The first thing necessary is to do kindness in good faith, and not to act falsely when the
       offering is made. Never let us say we are doing more, when we are really doing less. What need is
       there to speak at all? In a promise a cheat lies hid. It is in our power to give what we like. Cheating
       shatters the foundation, and so destroys the work. Did Peter grow angry only so far as to desire that
       Ananias and his wife should be slain?217 Certainly not. He wished that others, through knowing
       their example, should not perish.
            147. Nor is it a real act of liberality if thou givest for the sake of boasting about it, rather than
       for mercy’s sake. Thy inner feelings give the name to thy acts. As it comes forth from thee, so will
       others regard it. See what a true judge thou hast! He consults with thee how to take up thy work,
       and first of all he questions thy mind. “Let not,” he says, “thy left hand know what thy right hand
       doth.”218 This does not refer to our actual bodies, but means: Let not him who is of one mind with
       thee, not even thy brother, know what thou doest, lest thou shouldst lose the fruit of thy reward
       hereafter by seeking here thy price in boastfulness. But that liberality is real where a man hides
       what he does in silence, and secretly assists the needs of individuals, whom the mouth of the poor,
       and not his own lips, praises.
            148. Perfect liberality is proved by its good faith, the case it helps, the time and place when and
       where it is shown. But first we must always see that we help those of the household of faith.219 It
       is a serious fault if a believer is in want, and thou knowest it, or if thou knowest that he is without
       means, that he is hungry, that he suffer distress, especially if he is ashamed of his need. It is a great
       fault if he is overwhelmed by the imprisonment or false accusation of his family, and thou dost not
       come to his help. If he is in prison, and—upright though he is—has to suffer pain and punishment
       for some debt (for though we ought to show mercy to all, yet we ought to show it especially to an
       upright man); if in the time of his trouble he obtains nothing from thee; if in the time of danger,
       when he is carried off to die, thy money seems more to thee than the life of a dying man; what a



       215     Cic. de Off. I. 14, § 43.
       216     S. Luke xix. 8.
       217     Acts v. 11.
       218     S. Mat. vi. 3.
       219     Gal. vi. 10.


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       sin is that to thee! Wherefore Job says beautifully: “Let the blessing of him that was ready to perish
       come upon me.”220
            149. God, indeed, is not a respecter of persons, for He knows all things. And we, indeed, ought
       to show mercy to all. But as many try to get help on false pretences, and make out that they are
       miserably off; therefore where the case is plain and the person well known, and no time is to be
       lost, mercy ought to be shown more readily. For the Lord is not exacting to demand the utmost.
       Blessed, indeed, is he who forsakes all and follows Him, but blessed also is he who does what he
       can to the best of his powers with what he has. The Lord preferred the two mites of the widow to
       all the gifts of the rich, for she gave all that she had, but they only gave a small part out of all their
       abundance.221 It is the intention, therefore, that makes the gift valuable or poor, and gives to things
       their value. The Lord does not want us to give away all our goods at once, but to impart them little
       by little; unless, indeed, our case is like that of Elisha, who killed his oxen, and fed the people on
       what he had, so that no household cares might hold him back, and that he might give up all things,
26     and devote himself to the prophetic teaching.222
            150. True liberality also must be tested in this way:223 that we despise not our nearest relatives,
       if we know they are in want. For it is better for thee to help thy kindred who feel the shame of
       asking help from others, or of going to another to beg assistance in their need. Not, however, that
       they should become rich on what thou couldst otherwise give to the poor. It is the facts of the case
       we must consider, and not personal feeling. Thou didst not dedicate thyself to the Lord on purpose
       to make thy family rich, but that thou mightest win eternal life by the fruit of good works, and atone
       for thy sins by showing mercy. They think perhaps that they are asking but little, but they demand
       the price thou shouldst pay for thy sins. They attempt to take away the fruits of thy life, and think
       they are acting rightly.224 And one accuses thee because thou hast not made him rich, when all the
       time he wished to cheat thee of the reward of eternal life.
            151. So far we have given our advice, now let us look for our authority. First, then, no one
       ought to be ashamed of becoming poor after being rich, if this happens because he gives freely to
       the poor; for Christ became poor when He was rich, that through His poverty He might enrich all.225
       He has given us a rule to follow, so that we may give a good account of our reduced inheritance;
       whoever has stayed the hunger of the poor has lightened his distress. “Herein I give my advice,”
       says the Apostle, “for this is expedient for you, that ye should be followers of Christ.”226 Advice is
       given to the good, but warnings restrain the wrong-doers. Again he says, as though to the good:
       “For ye have begun not only to do, but also to be willing, a year ago.”227 Both of these, and not only
       one, is the mark of perfection. Thus he teaches that liberality without good-will, and good-will
       without liberality, are neither of them perfect. Wherefore he also urges us on to perfection, saying:228
       “Now, therefore, perform the doing of it; that as the will to do it was ready enough in you, so also
       there may be the will to accomplish it out of that which ye have. For if the will be ready, it is

       220     Job xxix. 13.
       221     S. Luke xxi. 3, 4.
       222     1 [3] Kings xix. 20.
       223     Cic. de Off. I. 17, § 58.
       224     “Et se juste facere putant.” These words are omitted in many MSS.
       225     2 Cor. viii. 9.
       226     2 Cor. viii. 10.
       227     2 Cor. viii. 10.
       228     2 Cor. viii. 11–15.


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       accepted according to that a man hath, and not according to that he hath not. But not so that others
       should have plenty, and ye should be in want: but let there be equality,—your abundance must now
       serve for their want, that their abundance may serve for your want; that there may be equality, as
       it is written: “He that gathered much had nothing over, and he that gathered little had no lack.”229
            152. We notice how the Apostle includes both good-will and liberality, as well as the manner,
       the fruits of right giving, and the persons concerned. The manner certainly, for he gave advice to
       those not perfect: For only the imperfect suffer anxiety. But if any priest or other cleric, being
       unwilling to burden the Church,230 does not give away all that he has, but does honourably what
       his office demands, he does not seem to me to be imperfect. I think also that the Apostle here spoke
       not of anxiety of mind, but rather of domestic troubles.
            153. And I think it was with reference to the persons concerned that he said: “that your abundance
       might serve for their want, and their abundance for your want.” This means, that the abundance of
       the people might arouse them to good works, so as to supply the want of food of others; whilst the
       spiritual abundance of these latter might assist the want of spiritual merits among the people
       themselves, and so win them a blessing.
            154. Wherefore he gave them an excellent example: “He that gathered much had nothing over,
       and he that gathered little had no lack.” That example is a great encouragement to all men to show
       mercy. For he that possesses much gold has nothing over, for all in this world is as nothing; and
       he that has little has no lack, for what he loses is nothing already. The whole matter is without loss,
       for the whole of it is lost already.
            155. We can also rightly understand it thus. He that has much, although he does not give away,
       has nothing over. For however much he gets, he always is in want, because he longs for more. And
       he who has little has no lack, for it does not cost much to feed the poor. In like manner, too, the
       poor person that gives spiritual blessings in return for money, although he has much grace, has
       nothing over. For grace does not burden the mind, but lightens it.
27          156. It can further be taken in this way: Thou, O man, hast nothing over! For how much hast
       thou really received, though it may seem much to thee? John, than whom none was greater among
       those born of woman, yet was less than he who is least in the kingdom of heaven.231
            157. Or once more. The grace of God is never superabundant, humanly speaking, for it is
       spiritual. Who can measure its greatness or its breadth, which one cannot see? Faith, if it were as
       a grain of mustard seed, can transplant mountains—and more than a grain is not granted thee. If
       grace dwelt fully in thee, wouldst thou not have to fear lest thy mind should begin to be elated at
       so great a gift? For there are many who have fallen more terribly, from spiritual heights, than if
       they had never received grace at all from the Lord. And he who has little has no lack, for it is not
       tangible so as to be divided; and what seems little to him that has is much to him that lacks.
            158. In giving we must also take into consideration age and weakness; sometimes, also, that
       natural feeling of shame, which indicates good birth. One ought to give more to the old who can
       no longer supply themselves with food by labour. So, too, weakness of body must be assisted, and



       229       Ex. xvi. 18.
       230       St. Ambrose, allowing clergy to retain some of their patrimony so as not to burden the Church, is less strict than St.
           Augustine, who would have them give up everything and live in common. Serm. 355.
       231       S. Matt. xi. 11.


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       that readily. Again, if any one after being rich has fallen into want, we must assist, especially if he
       has lost what he had from no sin of his own, but owing to robbery or banishment or false accusation.
           159. Perchance some one may say: A blind man sits here in one place, and people pass him by,
       whilst a strong young man often has something given him. That is true; for he comes over people
       by his importunity. That is not because in their judgment he deserves it, but because they are wearied
       by his begging. For the Lord speaks in the Gospel of him who had already closed his door; how
       that when one knocks at his door very violently, he rises and gives what is wanted, because of his
       importunity.232



                                                  CHAPTER XXXI.

       A kindness received should be returned with a freer hand. This is shown by the example of the
          earth. A passage from Solomon about feasting is adduced to prove the same, and is expounded
          later in a spiritual sense.
            160. IT is also right233 that more regard should be paid to him who has conferred some benefit
       or gift upon thee, if he ever is reduced to want. For what is so contrary to one’s duty as not to return
       what one has received? Nor do I think that a return of equal value should be made, but a greater.
       One ought to make up for the enjoyment of a kindness one has received from another, to such an
       extent as to help that person, even to putting an end to his needs. For not to be the better in returning
       than in conferring a kindness, is to be the inferior; for he who was the first to give was the first in
       point of time, and also first in showing a kind disposition.
            161. Wherefore we must imitate the nature of the earth234 in this respect, which is wont to return
       the seed she has received, multiplied a thousand-fold. And so it is written: “As a field is the foolish
       man, and as a vineyard is the man without sense. If thou leavest him, he will be made desolate.”235
       As a field also is the wise man, so as to return the seed given him in fuller measure, as though it
       had been lent to him on interest. The earth either produces fruits of its own accord, or pays back
       and restores, what it was entrusted with, in fruitful abundance. In both these ways a return is due
       from thee, when thou enterest upon the use of thy father’s possession, that thou mayest not be left
       to lie as an unfruitful field. It may be that a man can make an excuse for not giving anything, but
       how can he excuse himself for not returning what was given? It is hardly right not to give anything;
       it is certainly not right to make no return for kindness done to oneself.236
            162. Therefore Solomon says well: “When thou sittest to eat at the table of a ruler consider
       diligently what is before thee, and put forth thine hand, knowing that it behoves thee to make such
       preparations. But if thou art insatiable, be not desirous of his dainties, for they have but a deceptive
       life.”237 I have written these words as I wish that we all should follow them. It is a good thing to do


       232     S. Luke xi. 8.
       233     Cic. de Off. I. 15, § 47.
       234     Cic. de Off. I. 15, § 48.
       235     Prov. xxiv. 30 [LXX].
       236     Cic. de Off. I. 15, § 48.
       237     Prov. xxiii. 1 [LXX.].


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       a service, but he who knows not how to return one is very hard. The earth herself supplies an
       example of kindliness. She provides fruits of her own accord, which thou didst not sow; she also
       returns many-fold what she has received. It is not right for thee to deny knowledge of money paid
       in to thee, and how can it be right to let a service done go without notice? In the book of Proverbs
       also it is said: that the repayment of kindness has such great power with God, that through it, even
       in the day of destruction, a man may find grace, though his sins outweigh all else.238 And why need
28     I bring forward other examples when the Lord Himself promises in the Gospel a fuller reward to
       the merits of the saints, and exhorts us to do good works, saying: “Forgive, and ye shall be forgiven;
       give, and it shall be given unto you; good measure, shaken together and running over, shall men
       give into your bosom.”239
           163. But the feasting that Solomon speaks of has not to do with common food only, but it is to
       be understood as having to do with good works. For how can the soul be feasted in better wise than
       on good works; or what can so easily fill the mind of the just as the knowledge of a good work
       done? What pleasanter food is there than to do the will of God? The Lord has told us that He had
       this food alone in abundance, as it is written in the Gospel, saying: “My food is to do the will of
       My Father which is in heaven.”240
           164. In this food let us delight of which the prophet says: “Delight thou in the Lord.”241 In this
       food they delight, who have with wonderful knowledge learnt to take in the higher delights; who
       can know what that delight is which is pure and which can be understood by the mind. Let us
       therefore eat the bread of wisdom, and let us be filled with the word of God. For the life of man
       made in the image of God consists not in bread alone, but in every word that cometh from God.242
       About the cup, too, holy Job says, plainly enough: “As the earth waiteth for the rain, so did they
       for my words.”243



                                                        CHAPTER XXXII.

       After saying what return must be made for the service of the above-mentioned feast, various reasons
           for repaying kindness are enumerated. Then he speaks in praise of good-will, on its results and
           its order.
           165. IT is therefore a good thing for us to be bedewed with the exhortations of the divine
       Scriptures, and that the word of God should come down upon us like the dew. When, therefore,
       thou sittest at the table of that great man, understand who that great man is. Set in the paradise of
       delight and placed at the feast of wisdom, think of what is put before thee! The divine Scriptures
       are the feast of wisdom, and the single books the various dishes. Know, first, what dishes the banquet
       offers, then stretch forth thy hand, that those things which thou readest, or which thou receivest


       238     Allusion is made to Ecclus. iii. 31.
       239     S. Luke vi. 37, 38.
       240     S. John iv. 34.
       241     Ps. xxxvii. 4.
       242     S. Matt. iv. 4.
       243     Job xxix. 23.


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       from the Lord thy God, thou mayest carry out in action, and so by thy duties mayest show forth
       the grace that was granted thee. Such was the case with Peter and Paul, who in preaching the Gospel
       made some return to Him Who freely gave them all things. So that each of them might say: “By
       the grace of God I am what I am, and His grace in me was not in vain, but I laboured more abundantly
       than they all.”244
           166. One repays the fruit of a service done him, and repays it, gold with gold, silver with silver.
       Another gives his labour. Another—and I do not know whether he does not do it in fuller
       measure—gives but the best wishes of his heart.245 But what if there is no opportunity to make a
       return at hand? If we wish to return a kindness, more depends on the spirit in which we do it than
       on the amount of our property, whilst people will think more of our good-will, than of our power
       to make a full return. For a kindness done is regarded in the light of what one has. A great thing,
       therefore, is good-will. For even if it has nothing to give, yet it offers the more, and though there
       is nothing in its own possession, yet it gives largely to many, and does that, too, without loss to
       itself, and to the gain of the many. Thus good-will is better than liberality itself. It is richer in
       character than the other is in gifts; for there are more that need a kindness than there are that have
       abundance.
           167. But good-will also goes in conjunction with liberality, for liberality really starts from it,
       seeing that the habit of giving comes after the desire to give. It exists, however, also separate and
       distinct. For where liberality is wanting, there good-will abides—the parent as it were of all in
       common, uniting and binding friendships together. It is faithful in counsel, joyful in times of
       prosperity, and in times of sorrow sad. So it happens that any one trusts himself to the counsels of
       a man of good-will rather than to those of a wise one, as David did. For he, though he was the more
       farseeing, agreed to the counsels of Jonathan, who was the younger.246 Remove good-will out of
       the reach of men, and it is as though one had withdrawn the sun from the world.247 For without it
       men would no longer care to show the way to the stranger, to recall the wanderer, to show hospitality
       (this latter is no small virtue, for on this point Job praised himself, when he said: “At my doors the
29     stranger dwelt not, my gate was open to every one who came”),248 nor even to give water from the
       water that flows at their door, or to light another’s candle at their own. Thus good-will exists in all
       these, like a fount of waters refreshing the thirsty, and like a light, which, shining forth to others,
       fails not them who have given a light to others from their own light.249
           168. There is also liberality springing from good-will, that makes one tear up the bond of a
       debtor which one holds, without demanding any of the debt back from him. Holy Job bids us act
       thus by his own example.250 For he that has does not borrow, but he that has not does not put an
       end to the agreement. Why, then, if thou hast no need, dost thou save up for greedy heirs what thou
       canst give back immediately, and so get praise for good-will, and that without loss of money?



       244     1 Cor. xv. 10.
       245     Cic. de Off. II. 20, § 69.
       246     1 Sam. [1 Kings] xx. 11 ff.
       247     Cic. de Amic. 13, § 47.
       248     Job xxxi. 32.
       249     Cic. de Off. I. 16.
       250     Job xxxi. 35 [LXX.].


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           169. To go to the root of the matter—good-will starts first with those at home, that is with
       children, parents, brothers, and goes on from one step to another throughout the world.251 Having
       started from Paradise, it has filled the world. For God set the feeling of good-will in the man and
       woman, saying: “They shall be one flesh,”252 and (one may add) one spirit. Wherefore Eve also
       believed the serpent; for she who had received the gift of good-will did not think there was ill-will.



                                                 CHAPTER XXXIII.

       Good-will exists especially in the Church, and nourishes kindred virtues.
           170. GOOD-WILL expands in the body of the Church,253 by fellowship in faith, by the bond of
       baptism, by kinship through grace received, by communion in the mysteries. For all these bonds
       claim for themselves the name of intimacy, the reverence of children, the authority and religious
       care of parents, the relationship of brothers. Therefore the bonds of grace clearly point to an increase
       of good-will.
           171. The desire to attain to like virtues also stands one in good stead;254 just as again good-will
       brings about a likeness in character. For Jonathan the king’s son imitated the gentleness of holy
       David, because he loved him. Wherefore those words: “With the holy thou shalt be holy,”255 seem
       not only to be concerned with our ordinary intercourse, but also to have some connection with
       good-will. The sons of Noah indeed dwelt together, and yet their characters were not at all alike.
       Esau and Jacob also dwelt together in their father’s house, but were very unlike. There was, however,
       no good-will between them to make the one prefer the other to himself, but rather a rivalry as to
       which should first get the blessing. Since one was so hard, and the other gentle, good-will could
       not exist as between such different characters and conflicting desires. Add to this the fact that holy
       Jacob could not prefer the unworthy in son of his father’s house to virtue.
           172. But nothing is so harmonious256 as justice and impartiality. For this, as the comrade and
       ally of good-will, makes us love those whom we think to be like ourselves. Again, good-will contains
       also in itself fortitude. For when friendship springs from the fount of good-will it does not hesitate
       to endure the great dangers of life for a friend. “If evils come to me through him,” it says, “I will
       bear them.”257



                                                 CHAPTER XXXIV.

       Some other advantages of goodwill are here enumerated.

       251     Cic. de Off. I. 16, 17.
       252     Gen. ii. 24.
       253     Cic. de Off. I. 17, § 55.
       254     Cic de Off. I. 17, § 55.
       255     Ps. xviii. 26.
       256     Cic. de Off. I. 17, § 56.
       257     Ecclus. xxiii. 31.


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           173. GOOD-WILL also is wont to remove the sword of anger. It is also good-will that makes the
       wounds of a friend to be better than the willing kisses of an enemy.258 Goodwill again makes many
       to become one. For if many are friends, they become one; in whom there is but one spirit and one
       opinion.259 We note, too, that in friendship corrections are pleasing. They have their sting, but they
       cause no pain. We are pierced by the words of blame, but are delighted with the anxiety that
       good-will shows.
           174. To conclude, the same duties are not owed to all. Nor is regard ever paid to persons, though
       the occasion and the circumstances of the case are generally taken into consideration, so that one
       may at times have to help a neighbour rather than one’s brother. For Solomon also says: “Better is
       a neighbour that is near than a brother far off.”260 For this reason a man generally trusts himself to
       the good-will of a friend rather than to the ties of relationship with his brother. So far does good-will
30     prevail that it often goes beyond the pledges given by nature.



                                                      CHAPTER XXXV.

       On fortitude. This is divided into two parts: as it concerns matters of war and matters at home. The
          first cannot be a virtue unless combined with justice and prudence. The other depends to a
          large extent upon endurance.
           175. WE have discussed fully enough the nature and force of what is virtuous from the standpoint
       of justice.261 Now let us discuss fortitude, which (being a loftier virtue than the rest) is divided into
       two parts, as it concerns matters of war and matters at home. But the thought of warlike matters
       seems to be foreign to the duty of our office, for we have our thoughts fixed more on the duty of
       the soul than on that of the body; nor is it our business to look to arms, but rather to the affairs of
       peace. Our fathers, however, as Joshua, the son of Nun, Jerubbaal, Samson, and David, gained
       great glory also in war.
           176. Fortitude, therefore, is a loftier virtue than the rest, but it is also one that never stands
       alone. For it never depends on itself alone. Moreover, fortitude without justice is the source of
       wickedness.262 For the stronger it is, the more ready is it to crush the weaker, whilst in matters of
       war one ought to see whether the war is just or unjust.
           177. David never waged war unless he was driven to it. Thus prudence was combined in him
       with fortitude in the battle. For even when about to fight single-handed against Goliath, the enormous
       giant, he rejected the armour with which he was laden.263 His strength depended more on his own
       arm than on the weapons of others. Then, at a distance, to get a stronger throw, with one cast of a
       stone, he slew his enemy. After that he never entered on a war without seeking counsel of the



       258     Prov. xxvii. 6.
       259     Cic. de Off. I. 17, § 57.
       260     Prov. xxvii. 10.
       261     Cic. de Off. I. 18, § 61.
       262     Cic. de Off. I. 19.
       263     1 Sam. [1 Kings] xvii. 39 ff.


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       Lord.264 Thus he was victorious in all wars, and even to his last years was ready to fight. And when
       war arose with the Philistines, he joined battle with their fierce troops, being desirous of winning
       renown, whilst careless of his own safety.265
           178. But this is not the only kind of fortitude which is worthy of note. We consider their fortitude
       glorious, who, with greatness of mind, “through faith stopped the mouth of lions, quenched the
       violence of fire, escaped the edge of the sword, out of weakness were made strong.”266 They did
       not gain a victory in common with many, surrounded with comrades, and aided by the legions, but
       won their triumph alone over their treacherous foes by the mere courage of their own souls. How
       unconquerable was Daniel, who feared not the lions raging round about him. The beasts roared,
       whilst he was eating.267



                                                              CHAPTER XXXVI.

       One of the duties of fortitude is to keep the weak from receiving injury; another, to check the wrong
          motions of our own souls; a third, both to disregard humiliations, and to do what is right with
          an even mind. All these clearly ought to be fulfilled by all Christians, and especially by the
          clergy.
           179. THE glory of fortitude, therefore, does not rest only on the strength of one’s body or of
       one’s arms, but rather on the courage of the mind.268 Nor is the law of courage exercised in causing,
       but in driving away all harm. He who does not keep harm off a friend, if he can, is as much in fault
       as he who causes it. Wherefore holy Moses gave this as a first proof of his fortitude in war. For
       when he saw an Hebrew receiving hard treatment at the hands of an Egyptian, he defended him,
       and laid low the Egyptian and hid him in the sand.269 Solomon also says: “Deliver him that is led
       to death.”270
           180. From whence, then, Cicero and Panætius, or even Aristotle, got these ideas is perfectly
       clear. For though living before these two, Job had said: “I delivered the poor out of the hand of the
       strong, and I aided the fatherless for whom there was no helper. Let the blessing of him that was
       ready to perish come upon me.”271 Was not he most brave in that he bore so nobly the attacks of
       the devil, and overcame him with the powers of his mind?272 Nor have we cause to doubt the fortitude
       of him to whom the Lord said: “Gird up thy loins like a man. Put on loftiness and power. Humble




       264     2 Sam. [2 Kings] v. 19.
       265     2 Sam. [2 Kings] xxi. 15.
       266     Heb. xi. 33, 34.
       267     Bel and the Dragon v. 39.
       268     Cic. de Off. I. 23.
       269     Ex. ii. 11.
       270     Prov. xxiv. 11.
       271     Job xxix. 12, 13.
       272     Cf. Job i. 12, w. i. 22, and Job ii. 6, w. ii. 10.


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       every one that doeth wrong.”273 The Apostle also says: “Ye have a strong consolation.”274 He, then,
       is brave who finds consolation in any grief.
31          181. And in very truth, rightly is that called fortitude, when a man conquers himself, restrains
       his anger, yields and gives way to no allurements, is not put out by misfortunes, nor gets elated by
       good success, and does not get carried away by every varying change as by some chance wind.275
       But what is more noble and splendid than to train the mind, keep down the flesh, and reduce it to
       subjection, so that it may obey commands, listen to reason, and in undergoing labours readily carry
       out the intention and wish of the mind?
            182. This, then, is the first notion of fortitude. For fortitude of the mind can be regarded in two
       ways.276 First, as it counts all externals as very unimportant, and looks on them as rather superfluous
       and to be despised than to be sought after. Secondly, as it strives after those things which are the
       highest, and all things in which one can see anything moral (or as the Greeks call it, πρέπον,) with
       all the powers of the mind. For what can be more noble than to train thy mind so as not to place a
       high value on riches and pleasures and honours, nor to waste all thy care on these? When thy mind
       is thus disposed, thou must consider how all that is virtuous and seemly must be placed before
       everything else; and thou must so fix thy mind upon that, that if aught happens which may break
       thy spirit, whether loss of property, or the reception of fewer honours, or the disparagement of
       unbelievers, thou mayest not feel it, as though thou wert above such things; nay, so that even dangers
       which menace thy safety, if undertaken at the call of justice, may not trouble thee.
            183. This is the true fortitude which Christ’s warrior has, who receives not the crown unless
       he strives lawfully.277 Or does that call to fortitude seem to thee but a poor one: “Tribulation worketh
       patience, and patience, experience, and experience, hope”?278 See how many a contest there is, yet
       but one crown! That call none gives, but he who was strengthened in Christ Jesus, and whose flesh
       had no rest. Affliction on all sides, fighting without and fears within.279 And though in dangers, in
       countless labours, in prisons, in deaths280—he was not broken in spirit, but fought so as to become
       more powerful through his infirmities.
            184. Think, then, how he teaches those who enter upon their duties in the Church, that they
       ought to have contempt for all earthly things: “If, then, ye be dead with Christ from the elements
       of this world, why do ye act as though living in the world? Touch not, taste not, handle not, which
       all are to perish with the using.”281 And further: “If ye then be risen with Christ, seek those things
       which are above, not those things which are on the earth.”282 And again: “Mortify, therefore, your
       members which are on the earth.”283 This, indeed, is meant for all the faithful. But thee, especially,
       my son, he urges to despise riches and to avoid profane and old wives fables—allowing nothing



       273     Job xl. 2, 5, 6 [LXX.].
       274     Heb. vi. 18.
       275     Cic. de Off. I. 20, § 68.
       276     Cic. de Off. I. 20, § 66.
       277     2 Tim. ii. 5.
       278     Rom. v. 3, 4.
       279     2 Cor. vii. 5.
       280     2 Cor. xi. 24 ff.
       281     Col. ii. 20, 21, 22.
       282     Col. iii. 1, 2.
       283     Col. iii. 5.


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       but this: “Exercise thyself unto godliness, for bodily exercise profiteth a little, but godliness is
       profitable unto all things.”284
            185. Let, then, godliness exercise thee unto justice, continence, gentleness, that thou mayest
       avoid childish acts, and that rooted and grounded in grace thou mayest fight the good fight of
       faith.285 Entangle not thyself in the affairs of this life, for thou art fighting for God.286 For if he who
       fights for the emperor is forbidden by human laws to enter upon lawsuits, to do any legal business,
       or to sell merchandise; how much more ought he who enters upon the warfare of faith to keep from
       every kind of business, being satisfied with the produce of his own little bit of land, if he has it? If
       he has not that, let him be content with the pay he will get for his service. Here is a good witness
       to this fact, who says: “I have been young and now am old, yet have I not seen the righteous forsaken,
       nor his seed begging bread.”287 That is the true rest and temperance of the mind which is not excited
       by the desire of gain, nor tormented by the fear of want.



                                                  CHAPTER XXXVII.

       An even mind should be preserved in adversity as well as in prosperity. However, evil things must
          be avoided.
           186. THERE is also that true freedom of the mind from vexation which makes us neither give
       way too much in our griefs, nor be too elated in prosperity.288 And if they who urge men to undertake
       the affairs of the state give such rules, how much more ought we who are called to do duty in the
       Church, to act thus and do those things which are pleasing to God, so that Christ’s power may show
32     itself forth in us. We too must prove ourselves to our Captain, so that our members may be the
       weapons of justice; not carnal weapons in which sin may reign, but weapons strong for God, whereby
       sin may be destroyed. Let our flesh die, that in it every sin may die. And as though living again
       after death, may we rise to new works and a new life.
           187. These, then, are the services of fortitude; and full they are of virtuous and seemly duties.
       But in all that we do we must look to see, not only if it is virtuous, but whether it is possible, so
       that we may not enter upon anything that we cannot carry out.289 Wherefore the Lord, to use His
       own word, wills us to flee in the time of persecution from one city to another;290 so that no one,
       whilst longing for the crown of martyrdom, may put himself in the way of dangers which possibly
       the weak flesh or a mind indulged could not bear and endure.




       284     1 Tim. iv. 8.
       285     1 Tim. vi. 12.
       286     2 Tim. ii. 4.
       287     Ps. xxxvii. [xxxvi.] 25.
       288     Cic. de Off. I. 21, § 72.
       289     Cic. de Off. I. 21, § 73.
       290     S. Matt. x. 23.


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                                                CHAPTER XXXVIII.

       We must strengthen the mind against troubles to come, and build it up by looking out for them
          beforehand. What difficulties there are in doing this.
            188. BUT again, no one must retire through cowardice, or give up his faith from fear of danger.
       With what grace must the soul be equipped, and the mind trained and taught to stand firm, so as
       never to be disturbed by any fears, to be broken by any troubles, or to yield to any torments! With
       what difficulty indeed are they borne! But as all pains seem less in the fear of greater pains, so also,
       if thou dost build up thy soul by quiet counsel, and dost determine not to go from thy course, and
       layest before thee the fear of divine judgment and the torment of eternal punishment, canst thou
       gain endurance of mind.
            189. If a man thus prepares himself, he gives signs of great diligence. On the other hand it is a
       sign of natural ability, if a man by the power of his mind can foresee the future, and put as it were
       before his eyes what may happen, and decide what he ought to do if it should take place. It may
       happen, too, that he will think over two or three things at once, which he supposes may come either
       singly or together, and that he settles what he will do with them as he thinks will be to the most
       advantage, in the event of their coming either singly or together.
            200. Therefore it is the duty of a brave man not to shut his eyes when anything threatens, but
       to put it before him and to search it out as it were in the mirror of his mind, and to meet the future
       with foreseeing thought, for fear he might afterwards have to say: This has come to me because I
       thought it could not come about. If misfortunes are not looked for beforehand, they quickly get a
       hold over us. In war an unexpected enemy is with difficulty resisted, and if he finds the others
       unprepared, he easily overcomes them; so evils unthought of readily break down the soul.
            200. In these two points, then, consists the excellency of the soul: so that thy soul, trained in
       good thoughts, and with a pure heart, first, may see what is true and virtuous (for “blessed are the
       pure in heart, for they shall see God”),291 and may decide that only to be good which is virtuous;
       and, next, may never be disturbed by business of any kind, nor get tossed about by any desires.
            201. Not that this is an easy thing for any one. For what is so difficult as to discern, as though
       from some watch-tower, the resources of wisdom and all those other things, which to most seem
       so great and noble? Again, what so difficult as to place one’s decision on fixed grounds, and to
       despise what one has decided to be worthless, as of no good? Or, once more, what so difficult,
       when some misfortune has happened, and it is looked on as something serious and grieving, as to
       bear it in such a way that one considers it nothing beyond what is natural, when one reads: “Naked
       was I born, naked shall I go forth. What the Lord gave, the Lord hath taken away”292 (he who said
       this had lost children and possessions), and to preserve in all things the character of a wise and
       upright man, as he did who says: “As the Lord pleased, so did He. Blessed be the name of the
       Lord.”293 And again: “Thou speakest as one of the foolish women speaketh. Shall we receive good
       at the hand of God, and shall we not receive evil?”294


       291     S. Matt. v. 8.
       292     Job i. 21.
       293     Job i. 21.
       294     Job ii. 10.


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                                                               CHAPTER XXXIX.
33

       One must show fortitude in fighting against all vices, especially against avarice. Holy Job teaches
          this lesson.
            202. FORTITUDE of soul, then, is not an unimportant thing, nor is it cut off from the other virtues,
       for it wages war in conjunction with the virtues, and alone defends the beauty of all the virtues,
       and guards their powers of discernment, and fights against all vices with implacable hate. It is
       unconquerable as regards labours, brave to endure dangers, stern as against pleasures, hardened
       against allurements, to which it knows not how to lend an ear, nor, so to speak, to give a greeting.
       It cares not for money, and flies from avarice as from a plague that destroys all virtue.295 For nothing
       is so much opposed to fortitude as when one allows oneself to be overcome by gain. Often when
       the enemy is repulsed and the hosts of the foe are turned to flight, has the warrior died miserably
       among those whom he has laid low, whilst he is busy with the spoils of the fallen; and the legions,
       whilst busy with their booty, have called back upon them the enemy that had fled, and so have been
       robbed of their triumph.
            203. Fortitude, then, must repulse so foul a plague and crush it down. It must not let itself be
       tempted by desires, nor shaken by fear. Virtue stands true to itself and bravely pursues all vices as
       though they were the poison of virtue. It must repel anger as it were with arms, for it removes
       counsel far off. It must avoid it as though it were some severe sickness.296 It must further be on its
       guard against a desire for glory, which often has done harm when sought for too anxiously, and
       always when it has been once attained.
            204. What of all this was wanting in holy Job, or in his virtue, or what came upon him in the
       way of vice? How did he bear the distress of sickness or cold or hunger? How did he look upon
       the dangers which menaced his safety? Were the riches from which so much went to the poor
       gathered together by plunder? Did he ever allow greed for wealth, or the desire for pleasures, or
       lusts to rise in his heart? Did ever the unkind disputes of the three princes, or the insults of the
       slaves, rouse him to anger? Did glory carry him away like some fickle person when he called down
       vengeance on himself if ever he had hidden even an involuntary fault, or had feared the multitude
       of the people so as not to confess it in the sight of all? His virtues had no point of contact with any
       vices, but stood firm on their own ground. Who, then, was so brave as holy Job? How can he be
       put second to any, on whose level hardly one like himself can be placed?



                                                                  CHAPTER XL.

       Courage in war was not wanting in our forefathers, as is shown by the example of the men of old,
          especially by the glorious deed of Eleazar.


       295           Cic. de Off. I. 20, § 68.
       296           There is a considerable variation of text here. The original of the translation is: “iracundiam velut quibusdam propulset
             armis, quæ tollat consilium, et tanquam ægritudinem vitet.” Cod. Dresd. reads: “iracundiam…propulset arietibus armisque
             tollat et convicia tanquam ægritudinem vitet.”


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           205. BUT perhaps renown in war keeps some so bound to itself297 as to make them think that
       fortitude is to be found in battle alone, and that therefore I had gone aside to speak of these things,
       because that was wanting in us. But how brave was Joshua the son of Nun, who in one battle laid
       low five kings together with their people!298 Again, when he fought against the Gibeonites and
       feared that night might stop him from gaining the victory, he called out with deep faith and high
       spirit:299 “Let the sun stand still;” and it stood still until the victory was complete. Gideon with three
       hundred men gained a triumph over a great nation and a cruel foe.300 Jonathan when a young man
       showed great courage in battle,301 and what shall I say about the Maccabees?
           206. First, I will speak of the people of our fathers. They were ready to fight for the temple of
       God and for their rights, and when attacked on the Sabbath day by the craft of the enemy, willingly
       allowed wounds to be inflicted on their unprotected bodies, rather than to join in the fight, so that
       they might not defile the Sabbath.302 They all gladly gave themselves up to death. But the Maccabees
       thinking that then all the nation would perish, on the Sabbath also, when they were challenged to
       fight, took vengeance for the death of their innocent brethren. And afterwards when he had been
       roused by this to fresh exertions, King Antiochus, having begun the war afresh under the leadership
       of his generals Lysias, Nicanor, and Georgias, was so utterly crushed, together with his Eastern
       and Assyrian forces, that he left 48,000 lying on the battle-field, slain by an army of but 3,000 men.
           207. Mark the courage of the leader, Judas Maccabæus, as exemplified in the character of one
34     of his soldiers. Eleazar,303 meeting with an elephant higher than all the rest, and with all the royal
       trappings upon it, and thinking that the king was on it, ran hastily and threw himself into the midst
       of the legion; and, casting away his shield, with both hands he slew those opposed to him until he
       reached the beast.304 Then he got beneath it, thrust in his sword and slew it. But the beast in falling
       crushed Eleazar and so killed him. What courage of mind was his then, first, in that he feared not
       death, next because, when surrounded by enemies, he was carried by it into the thickest of his foes
       and penetrated the very centre! Then, despising death, and casting away his shield, he ran beneath
       the huge beast, wounded it with both his hands, and let it fall upon him. He ran beneath it so as to
       give a more deadly blow. Enclosed by its fall, rather than crushed, he was buried in his own triumph.
           208. Nor was he deceived in his intention though he was deceived by the royal ornaments. For
       the enemy, startled at such an exhibition of valour, dared not rush upon this single unarmed man,
       held fast though he was. They were so terrified after the mischance of the slaughter of the beast,
       that they considered themselves altogether unequal to the valour of one. Nay, King Antiochus, son
       of Lysias, terrified at the fortitude of one, asked for peace. He had come to the war with 120,000
       armed men and with 32 elephants, which glittered and gleamed with the sheen of arms like a line




       297         Cic. de Off. I. 22.
       298         Josh. x.
       299         Josh. x. 12.
       300         Judg. vii.
       301         1 Sam. [1 Kings] xiv. 1.
       302         1 Macc. ii. 35 ff.
       303         1 Mac. vi. 43.
       304         The Latin text has: “utraque manu interficiebat, donec pervenit ad bestiam.” Cod. Dresd., ed. Med. have: “utraque manu
           interficiebat bestiam, atque intravit sab eam.”


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       of burning lamps, as the sun rose upon them, marching along one by one, like very mountains for
       size.305 Thus Eleazar left peace as the heir of his courage. These are the signs of triumphs.



                                                             CHAPTER XLI.

       After praising Judas’ and Jonathan’s loftiness of mind, the constancy of the martyrs in their
           endurance of tortures, which is no small part of fortitude, is next brought before us.
           209. BUT as fortitude is proved not only by prosperity but also in adversity, let us now consider
       the death of Judas Maccabæus. For he, after Nicanor, the general of King Demetrius, was defeated,
       boldly engaged 20,000 of the king’s army with 900 men who were anxious to retire for fear of
       being overcome by so great a multitude, but whom he persuaded to endure a glorious death rather
       than to retire in disgraceful flight. “Let us not leave,” he says, “any stain upon our glory.” Thus,
       then, engaging in battle after having fought from sunrise till evening, he attacks and quickly drives
       back the right wing, where he sees the strongest troop of the enemy to be. But whilst pursuing the
       fugitives from the rear he gave a chance for a wound to be inflicted.306 Thus he found the spot of
       death more full of glory for himself than any triumph.
           210. Why need I further mention his brother Jonathan, who fought against the king’s force,
       with but a small troop.307 Though forsaken by his men, and left with only two, he retrieved the
       battle, drove back the enemy, and recalled his own men, who were flying in every direction, to
       share in his triumph.
           211. Here, then, is fortitude in war, which bears no light impress of what is virtuous and seemly
       upon it, for it prefers death to slavery and disgrace. But what am I to say of the sufferings of the
       martyrs? Not to go too far abroad, did not the children of Maccabæus gain triumphs over the proud
       King Antiochus, as great as those of their fathers? The latter in truth were armed, but they conquered
       without arms. The company of the seven brothers stood unconquered,308 though surrounded by the
       legions of the king—tortures failed, tormentors ceased; but the martyrs failed not. One, having had
       the skin of his head pulled off, though changed in appearance, grew in courage. Another, bidden
       to put forth his tongue, so that it might be cut off, answered: “The Lord hears not only those who
       speak, for He heard Moses when silent. He hears better the silent thoughts of His own than the
       voice of all others. Dost thou fear the scourge of my tongue—and dost thou not fear the scourge
       of blood spilt upon the ground? Blood, too, has a voice whereby it cries aloud to God—as it did in
       the case of Abel.”
           212. What shall I say of the mother309 who with joy looked on the corpses of her children as so
       many trophies, and found delight in the voices of her dying sons, as though in the songs of singers,


       305        Ed. Bened. here has: “ita ut ab ortu solis per singulas bestias velut montes quidam splendor armorum corusco, tanquam
           lampadibus ardentibus.” Cod. Dresd. and Goth.: “ita ut…quidam armorum coruscorum…refulgerent.” Other ancient editions:
           “ita ut…quidam armorum corusco…refulgerent.”
       306        1 Macc. ix. 8.
       307        1 Macc. xi. 68.
       308        2 Macc. vii. 1 ff.
       309        2 Macc. vii. 20.


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       noting in her children the tones of the glorious harp of her own heart, and a sweeter harmony of
       love than any strain of the lute could give?
35          213. What shall I say of those two-year-old children of Bethlehem,310 who received the palm
       of victory before they felt their natural life within them? What of St. Agnes, who when in danger
       as regards two great matters, that is, chastity and life, protected her chastity and exchanged life for
       immortality?
            214. And let us not pass by St. Lawrence, who, seeing Xystus his bishop led to martyrdom,
       began to weep, not at his sufferings but at the fact that he himself was to remain behind. With these
       words he began to address him: “Whither, father, goest thou without thy son? Whither, holy priest,
       art thou hastening without thy deacon? Never wast thou wont to offer sacrifice without an attendant.
       What are thou displeased at in me, my father? Hast thou found me unworthy? Prove, then, whether
       thou hast chosen a fitting servant. To him to whom thou hast entrusted the consecration311 of the
       Saviour’s blood,312 to whom thou hast granted fellowship in partaking of the Sacraments, to him
       dost thou refuse a part in thy death? Beware lest thy good judgment be endangered, whilst thy
       fortitude receives its praise. The rejection of a pupil is the loss of the teacher; or how is it that noble
       and illustrious men gain the victory in the contests of their scholars rather than in their own?
       Abraham offered his son, Peter sent Stephen on before him! Do thou, father, show forth thy courage
       in thy son. Offer me whom thou hast trained, that thou, confident in thy choice of me, mayest reach
       the crown in worthy company.”
            215. Then Xystus said: “I leave thee not nor forsake thee. Greater struggles yet await thee. We
       as old men have to undergo an easier fight; a more glorious triumph over the tyrant awaits thee, a
       young man. Soon shalt thou come. Cease weeping; after three days thou shalt follow me. This
       interval must come between the priest and his levite. It was not for thee to conquer under the eye
       of thy master, as though thou neededst a helper. Why dost thou seek to share in my death? I leave
       to thee its full inheritance. Why dost thou need my presence? Let the weak disciples go before their
       master, let the brave follow him, that they may conquer without him. For they no longer need his
       guidance. So Elijah left Elisha. To thee I entrust the full succession to my own courage.”
            216. Such was their contention, and surely a worthy one, wherein priest and attendant strove
       as to who should be the first to suffer for the name of Christ. When that tragic piece is played, it is
       said there is great applause in the theatre as Pylades says he is Orestes, whilst Orestes declares that
       he is really himself. The former acted as he did, that he might die for Orestes, and Orestes, that he
       might not allow Pylades to be slain instead of himself. But it was not right that they should live,
       for each of them was guilty of parricide, the one because he had committed the crime, the other
       because he had helped in its commission. But here there was nothing to call holy Lawrence to act
       thus but his love and devotion. However, after three days he was placed upon the gridiron by the
       tyrant whom he mocked, and was burnt. He said: “The flesh is roasted, turn it and eat.” So by the
       courage of his mind he overcame the power of fire.


       310         S. Matt. ii. 16.
       311         “Consecrationem.” So all MSS. Ed. Rom. alone has “dispensationem.”
       312         Consecration seems a strange expression in the mouth of a deacon, but it may be explained either by the intimate connection
           between the celebrant and his deacon, as at the present day in the Liturgy of the Eastern Church; or it may refer to the hallowing
           of the faithful in the partaking of the Sacrament. The word consecratio is not always restrained to the consecration properly so
           called, as may be seen by the prayer in the Roman missal said by the priest when he drops a consecrated particle into the chalice
           which has also been already consecrated;—“Hæc commixtio et consecratio Corporis et Sansguinis…fiat nobis in vitam æternam.”


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                                                 CHAPTER XLII.

       The powers that be are not needlessly to be irritated. One must not lend one’s ears to flattery.
           217. I THINK we must take care, lest in being led on by too great a desire for glory, we should
       abuse the powers that be, and arouse the minds of the heathen, who are opposed to us, to desire
       persecution, and excite them to anger. How many do some cause to perish, that they themselves
       may continue to the end, and overcome their tortures!
           218. We must also look to it that we do not open our ears to flatterers. To allow oneself to be
       smoothed down by flattery seems to be a sign not only of want of fortitude, but a sign of actual
       cowardice.



                                                CHAPTER XLIII.

       On temperance and its chief parts, especially tranquillity of mind and moderation, care for what
          is virtuous, and reflection on what is seemly.
            219. AS we have spoken of three of the virtues, there remains but the fourth for us to speak
       of.313 This is called temperance and moderation; wherein, before all else, tranquillity of mind, the
       attainment of gentleness, the grace of moderation, regard for what is virtuous, and reflection on
36     what is seemly are sought and looked for.
            220. We must keep to a certain order in life, so that a foundation may be laid with our first
       feelings of modesty, for that is the friend and ally of calmness of mind. Avoiding over-confidence,
       averse to all excess, it loves sobriety, guards what is honourable, and seeks only what is seemly.
            221. Let choice of intercourse come next. Let us link ourselves with older men of approved
       goodness. For as the companionship of people of our own age is the pleasanter, so that of our elders
       is the safer. By their guidance and the conduct of their lives they give colour to the character of
       younger men, and tinge them as it were with the deep purple of probity. For if they who are ignorant
       of a locality are very glad to take a journey in the company of skilled guides, how much more ought
       young men to enter on the path of life, which is new to them, in the company of old men; so that
       they may not go wrong, and turn aside from the true path of virtue. For nothing is better than to
       have the same men both to direct us in life, and also to be witnesses of how we live.
            222. One must also in every action consider what is suitable for different persons, times, and
       ages, and what will also be in accordance with the abilities of individuals. For often what befits
       one does not befit another; one thing suits a youth, another an old man; one thing does in danger,
       another in good fortune.
            223. David danced before the ark of the Lord.314 Samuel did not dance; yet David was not
       blamed, while the other was praised. David changed his countenance before the king, whose name
       was Achish.315 If he had done this without any fear of being recognized, he would certainly not

       313    Cic. de Off. I. 27.
       314    2 Sam. [2 Kings] vi. 14.
       315    1 Sam. xxi. 13.


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       have escaped the charge of levity. Saul also, surrounded by the company of prophets, himself
       prophesied. Yet of him alone, as though he were unworthy, was it said: “Is Saul also among the
       prophets?”316



                                                              CHAPTER XLIV.

       Every one ought to apply himself to the duties suited to his character. Many, however, are hindered
          by following their fathers’ pursuits. Clerics act in a different way.
           224. EACH one knows his own powers. Therefore let each one apply himself to that which he
       has chosen as suitable to himself. But he must first consider what will be the consequences. He
       may know his good points, but he must know his faults also. He must also be a fair judge of himself,
       so as to aim at what is good and avoid what is bad.
           225. One is more fitted for the post of reader, another does better for the singing, a third is more
       solicitous for exorcising those possessed with an evil spirit, another, again, is held to be more suited
       to have the charge of the sacred things. All these things a priest should look at. He should give each
       one that particular duty for which he is best fitted. For whither each one’s bent of mind leads him,
       or whatever duty befits him, that position or duty is filled with greater grace.
           226. But as this is a difficult matter in every state of life, so in our case it is most difficult. For
       each one is wont to follow his parent’s choice in life.317 Thus those whose fathers were in the army
       generally enter the army too. And others do the same with regard to the different professions.
           227. In the clerical office, however, nothing is more rare than to find a man to follow his father’s
       footsteps,318 either because the difficulties of the work hold him back, or continence in the uncertain
       days of youth is too difficult to hold to, or the life seems to be too quiet for the activity of youth.
       So they turn to those pursuits which are thought to be more showy. Most, indeed, prefer the present
       to the future. They are fighting for the present, we for the future. Wherefore it follows that the
       greater the cause in which we are engaged, the more must our attention be devoted to it.



                                                              CHAPTER XLV.

       On what is noble and virtuous, and what the difference between them is, as stated both in the profane
          and sacred writers.




       316         1 Sam. xix. 24.
       317         Cic. de Off. I. 31, § 114.
       318         It has been supposed that St. Ambrose in this passage by “father” means “spiritual father,” in whose hands the teaching
           and guidance of the young was put. But there is no reason why the word should not be taken in its ordinary sense. If so, however,
           the father must have been in one of the inferior orders only, or else his children must have been born before he was admitted to
           the priesthood. For elsewhere (I. 258), as here, St. Ambrose clearly shows that absolute continence is required of priests, after
           entering on their sacred office.


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            228. LET us then hold fast modesty, and that moderation which adds to the beauty of the whole
       of life. For it is no light thing in every matter to preserve due measure and to bring about order,
       wherein that is plainly conspicuous which we call “decorum,” or what is seemly. This is so closely
37     connected with what is virtuous, that one cannot separate the two.319 For what is seemly is also
       virtuous—and what is virtuous is seemly. So that the distinction lies rather in the words than in the
       things themselves. That there is a difference between them we can understand, but we cannot explain
       it.
            229. To make an attempt to get some sort of a distinction between them, we may say that what
       is virtuous may be compared to the good health and soundness of the body, whilst what is seemly
       is, as it were, its comeliness and beauty. And as beauty seems to stand above soundness and health,
       and yet cannot exist without them, nor be separated from them in any way—for unless one has
       good health, one cannot have beauty and comeliness—so what is virtuous contains in itself also
       what is seemly, so as to seem to start with it, and to be unable to exist without it. What is virtuous,
       then, is like soundness in all our work and undertaking; what is seemly is, as it were, the outward
       appearance, which, when joined with what is virtuous, can only be known apart in our thoughts.
       For though in some cases it seems to stand out conspicuous, yet it has its root in what is virtuous,
       though the flower is its own. Rooted in this, it flourishes; otherwise it fails and droops. For what
       is virtue, but to avoid anything shameful as though it were death? And what is the opposite of virtue,
       except that which brings barrenness and death? If, then, the essence of virtue is strong and vigorous,
       seemliness will also quickly spring forth like a flower, for its root is sound. But if the root of its
       purpose is corrupt, nothing will grow out of it.
            230. In our writings this is put somewhat more plainly. For David says: “The Lord reigneth,
       He is clothed with splendour.”320 And the Apostle says: “Walk honestly as in the day.”321 The Greek
       text has ευσχημόνως —and this really means: with good clothing, with a good appearance. When
       God made the first man, He created him with a good figure, with limbs well set, and gave him a
       very noble appearance. He had not given him remission of sins. But afterwards He, Who came in
       the form of a servant, and in the likeness of man, renewed him with His Spirit, and poured His
       grace into his heart, and put on Himself the splendour322 of the redemption of the human race.
       Therefore the Prophet said: “The Lord reigneth, He is clothed with splendour.”323 And again he
       says: “A hymn beseems Thee, O God, in Sion.”324 That is: It is right and good to fear Thee, to love
       Thee, to pray to Thee, to honour Thee, for it is written: “Let all things be done decently and in
       order.”325 But we can also fear, love, ask, honour men; yet the hymn especially is addressed to God.
       This seemliness which we offer to God we may believe to be far better than other things. It befits
       also a woman to pray in an orderly dress,326 but it especially beseems her to pray covered, and to
       pray giving promise of purity together with a good conversation.

       319         Cic. de Off. I. 27.
       320         Ps. xciii. [xcii.] 1.
       321         Rom. xiii. 13.
       322         The words decorum and honestum being used in different senses, it is not possible to give the points in a translation as
           in the original.
       323         Ps. xciii. [xcii.] 1.
       324         Ps. lxv. [lxiv.] 1.
       325         1 Cor. xiv. 40.
       326         1 Tim. ii. 9, 10.


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                                                  CHAPTER XLVI.

       A twofold division of what is seemly is given. Next it is shown that what is according to nature is
           virtuous, and what is otherwise must be looked on as shameful. This division is explained by
           examples.
            231. SEEMLINESS, therefore, which stands conspicuous has a twofold division.327 For there is
       what we may call a general seemliness, which is diffused through all that is virtuous, and is seen,
       as one may say, in the whole body. It is also individual, and shows itself clearly in some particular
       part. The first has a consistent form and the perfection of what is virtuous harmonizing in every
       action. For all its life is consistent with itself, and there is no discrepancy in anything. The other is
       concerned when there is any special action done in a virtuous course of life.
            232. At the same time let us note that it is seemly to live in accordance with nature, and to pass
       our time in accordance with it, and that whatever is contrary to nature is shameful. For the Apostle
       asks: “Is it comely that a woman pray unto God uncovered; doth not nature itself teach you that if
       a man have long hair, it is a shame unto him? For it is contrary to nature.” And again he says: “If
       a woman have long hair, it is a glory unto her.”328 It is according to nature, since her hair is given
       her for a veil, for it is a natural veil. Thus nature arranges for us both character and appearance,
       and we ought to observe her directions. Would that we could guard her innocence, and not change
38     what we have received by our wickedness!
            233. We have that general seemliness; for God made the beauty of this world. We have it also
       in its parts; for when God made the light, and marked off the day from the night, when He made
       heaven, and separated land and seas, when He set the sun and moon and stars to shine on the earth,
       He approved of them all one by one. Therefore this comeliness, which shone forth in each single
       part of the world, was resplendent in the whole, as the Book of Wisdom shows, saying: “I existed,
       in whom He rejoiced when He was glad at the completion of the world.”329 Likewise also in the
       building up of the human body each single member is pleasing, but the right adjustment of the
       members all together delights us far more. For thus they seem to be united and fitted in one
       harmonious whole.



                                                  CHAPTER XLVII.

       What is seemly should always shine forth in our life. What passions, then, ought we to allow to
         come to a head, and which should we restrain?
           234. IF any one preserves an even tenor in the whole of life, and method in all that he does, and
       sees there is order and consistency in his words and moderation in his deeds, then what is seemly
       stands forth conspicuous in his life and shines forth as in some mirror.


       327     Cic. de Off. I. 27, § 96.
       328     1 Cor. xi. 13, 14.
       329     Prov. viii 30, 31 [LXX.].


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            235. There should be besides a pleasant way of speaking, so that we may win the good-will of
       those who hear us, and make ourselves agreeable to all our friends and fellow-citizens, if possible.
       Let none show himself to be given to flattery, nor to be desirous of flattery from any one. The one
       is a mark of artfulness, the other of vanity.
            236. Let no one ever look down on what another, least of all a good man, thinks of him, for
       thus he learns to give regard to the good. For to disregard the judgment of good men is a sign of
       conceitedness or of weakness. One of these arises from pride, the other from carelessness.
            237. We must also guard against the motions of our soul. The soul must always watch and look
       after itself, so as to guard itself against itself. For there are motions in which there is a kind of
       passion that breaks forth as it were in a sort of rush. Wherefore in Greek it is called ὁρμή, because
       it comes out suddenly with some force. In these there lies no slight force of soul or of nature. Its
       force, however, is twofold: on the one side it rests on passion, on the other on reason, which checks
       passion, and makes it obedient to itself, and leads it whither it will; and trains it by careful teaching
       to know what ought to be done, and what ought to be avoided, so as to make it submit to its kind
       tamer.
            238. For we ought to be careful never to do anything rashly or carelessly, or anything at all for
       which we cannot give a reasonable ground. For though a reason for our action is not given to every
       one, yet everybody looks into it. Nor, indeed, have we anything whereby we can excuse ourselves.
       For though there is a sort of natural force in every passion of ours, yet that same passion is subject
       to reason by the law of nature itself, and is obedient to it.330 Wherefore it is the duty of a careful
       watchman so to keep a lookout, that passion may not outrun reason nor utterly forsake it, lest by
       outstripping it confusion be caused, and reason be shut out, and come to nothing by such desertion.
       Disquiet destroys consistency. Withdrawal shows cowardice and implies indolence. For when the
       mind is disquieted passion spreads wide and far, and in a fierce outburst endures not the reins of
       reason and feels not the management of its driver so as to be turned back. Wherefore as a rule not
       only is the soul perturbed and reason lost, but one’s countenance gets inflamed by anger or by lust.
       it grows pale with fear, it contains not itself in pleasure, and cannot bear joy.
            239. When this happens, then that natural judgment and weight of character is cast aside, and
       that consistency which alone in deed and thought can keep up its own authority and what is seemly,
       can no longer be retained.
            240. But fiercer passion springs from excessive anger,331 which the pain of some wrong received
       kindles within us. The monitions of the psalm which forms the opening of our subject instruct us
       on this point. Beautifully, then, has it come about that, in writing on duties, we used that declaration
       of our opening passage which also itself has to do with the direction of duty.
            241. But since (as was but right) we there only touched upon the matter, as to how each one
       ought to take care not to be disturbed when wrong is done him, for fear that our preliminary remarks
39     should run to too great length, I think that I will now discuss it a little more fully. For the occasion
       is opportune, as we are speaking on the different parts of temperance, to see how anger may be
       checked.




       330     Cic. de Off. I. 29, § 102.
       331     Cic. de Off. I. 38, § 137.


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                                                        CHAPTER XLVIII.

       The argument for restraining anger is given again. Then the three classes of those who receive
          wrongs are set forth; to the most perfect of which the Apostle and David are said to have
          attained. He takes the opportunity to state the difference between this and the future life.
           242. WE wish if we can to point out three classes of men who receive wrongs in holy Scripture.
       One of these forms the class of those whom the sinner reviles, abuses, rides over rough-shod.332
       And just because justice fails them, shame grows, pain increases. Very many of my own order, of
       my own number, are like these. For if any one does me, who am weak, an injury, perhaps, though
       I am weak, I may forgive the wrong done me. If he charges me with an offence I am not such an
       one as to be content with the witness of my own conscience, although I know I am clear of what
       he brings against me; but I desire, just because I am weak, to wash out the mark of my inborn
       shame. Therefore I demand eye for eye, and tooth for tooth, and repay abuse with abuse.
           243. If, however, I am one who is advancing, although not yet perfect, I do not return the
       reproaches; and if he breaks out into abuse, and fills my ears with reproaches, I am silent and do
       not answer.
           244. But if I am perfect (I say this only by way of example, for in truth I am weak), if, then, I
       am perfect, I bless him that curses me, as Paul also blessed, for he says: “Being reviled we bless.”333
       He had heard Him Who says: “Love your enemies, pray for them which despitefully use you and
       persecute you.”334 And so Paul suffered persecution and endured it, for he conquered and calmed
       his human feelings for the sake of the reward set before him, namely, that he should become a son
       of God if he loved his enemies.
           245. We call show, too, that holy David was like to Paul in this same class of virtue. When the
       son of Shimei cursed him, and charged him with heavy offences, at the first he was silent and
       humbled himself, and was silent even about his good deeds, that is, his knowledge of good works.
       Then he even asked to be cursed; for when he was cursed he hoped to gain divine pity.335
           246. But see how he stored up humility and justice and prudence so as to merit grace from the
       Lord! At first he said: “Therefore he cursed me, because the Lord hath said unto him that he should
       curse.”336 Here we have humility; for he thought that those things which are divinely ordered were
       to be endured with an even mind, as though he were but some servant lad. Then he said: “Behold
       my son, which came forth of my bowels, seeketh my life.”337 Here we have justice. For if we suffer
       hard things at the hand of our own family, why are we angry at what is done to us by strangers?
       Lastly he says: “Let him alone that he may curse, for the Lord hath bidden him. It may be that the
       Lord will look on my humiliation and requite me good for this cursing.”338 So he bore not only the
       abuse, but left the man unpunished when throwing stones and following him. Nay, more, after his
       victory he freely granted him pardon when he asked for it.


       332     “inequitat.” Ed. Med. has “inquietat.”
       333     1 Cor. iv. 12.
       334     S. Matt. v. 44.
       335     2 Sam. [2 Kings] xvi. 12.
       336     2 Sam. [2 Kings] xvi. 10.
       337     2 Sam. [2 Kings] xvi. 11.
       338     2 Sam. [2 Kings] xvi. 11, 12.


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            247. I have written this to show that holy David, in true evangelical spirit, was not only not
       offended, but was even thankful to his abuser, and was delighted rather than angered by his wrongs,
       for which he thought some return would be granted to him. But, though perfect, he sought something
       still more perfect. As a man he grew hot at the pain of his wrongs, but like a good soldier he
       conquered, he endured like a brave wrestler. The end and aim of his patience was the expectation
       of the fulfilment of the promises, and therefore he said: “Lord, make me to know mine end and the
       measure of my days, what it is: that I may know what is wanting to me.”339 He seeks, then, that end
       of the heavenly promises, when each one shall arise in his own order: “Christ the firstfruits, then
       they that are Christ’s who have believed in His coming. Then cometh the end.”340 For when the
       kingdom is delivered up to God, even the Father, and all the powers are put down, as the Apostle
       says, then perfection begins. Here, then, is the hindrance, here the weakness of the perfect; there
       full perfection. Thus it is he asks for those days of eternal life which are, and not for those which
       pass away, so that he may know what is wanting to him, what is the land of promise that bears
       everlasting fruits, which is the first mansion in his Father’s house, which the second, which the
40     third, wherein each one will rest according to his merits.
            248. We then must strive for that wherein is perfection and wherein is truth. Here is the shadow,
       here the image;341 there the truth. The shadow is in the law, the image in the Gospel, the truth in
       heaven. In old times a lamb, a Calf was offered; now Christ is offered. But He is offered as man
       and as enduring suffering. And He offers Himself as a priest to take away our sins, here in an image,
       there in truth,342 where with the Father He intercedes for us as our Advocate. Here, then, we walk
       in an image, we see in an image; there face to face where is full perfection. For all perfection rests
       in the truth.



                                                           CHAPTER XLIX.

       We must reserve the likeness of the virtues in ourselves. The likeness of the devil and of vice must
          be got rid of, and especially that of avarice; for this deprives us of liberty, and despoils those
          who are in the midst of vanities of the image of God.
            249. WHILST, then, we are here let us preserve the likeness, that there we may attain to the truth.
       Let the likeness of justice exist in us, likewise that of wisdom, for we shall come to that day and
       shall be rewarded according to our likeness.
            250. Let not the adversary find his image in thee, let him not find fury nor rage; for in these
       exists the likeness of wickedness. “Our adversary the devil as a roaring lion seeketh whom he may
       kill, whom he may devour.”343 Let him not find desire for gold, nor heaps of money, nor the
       appearance of vices, lest he take from thee the voice of liberty. For the voice of true liberty is heard,



       339     Ps. xxxix. [xxxviii.] 4.
       340     1 Cor. xv. 23.
       341     Heb. x. 1.
       342     Cf. St. Amb. Enarr. in Ps. xxxix. [xxxviii.].
       343     1 Pet. v. 8.


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       when thou canst say: “The prince of this world shall come, and shall find no part in me.”344 Therefore,
       if thou art sure that he will find nothing in thee, when he comes to search through thee, thou wilt
       say, as the patriarch Jacob did to Laban: “Know now if there is aught of thine with me.”345 Rightly
       do we account Jacob blessed with whom Laban could find naught of his. For Rachel had hidden
       the gold and silver images of his gods.
            251. If, then, wisdom, and faith, and contempt of the world, and spiritual grace, exclude all
       faithlessness, thou wilt be blessed; for thou regardest not vanity and folly and lying. Is it a light
       thing to take away from thy adversary the opportunity to speak, so that he can have no ground to
       make his complaint against thee? Thus he who looks not on vanity is not perturbed; but he who
       looks upon it is perturbed, and that, too, all to no purpose. Is it not a vain thing to heap up riches?
       for surely to seek for fleeting things is vain enough. And when thou hast gathered them, how dost
       thou know that thou shalt have them in possession?
            252. Is it not vain for a merchant to journey by night and by day, that he may be able to heap
       up treasures? Is it not vain for him to gather merchandise, and to be much perturbed about its price,
       for fear he might sell it for less than he gave? that he should strive everywhere for high prices, and
       thus unexpectedly call up robbers against himself through their envy at his much-vaunted business;
       or that, without waiting for calmer winds, impatient of delays, he should meet with shipwreck whilst
       seeking for gain?
            253. And is not he, too, perturbed in vain who with great toil amasses wealth, though he knows
       not what heir to leave it to? Often and often all that an avaricious man has got together with the
       greatest care, his spendthrift heir scatters abroad with headlong prodigality. The shameless prodigal,
       blind to the present, heedless of the future, swallows up as in an abyss what took so long to gather.
       Often, too, the desired successor gains but envy for his share of the inheritance, and by his sudden
       death hands over the whole amount of the succession, which he has hardly entered upon, to strangers.
            254. Why, then, dost thou idly spin a web which is worthless and fruitless? And why dost thou
       build up useless heaps of treasures like spiders’ webs? For though they overflow, they are no good;
       nay, they denude thee of the likeness of God, and put on thee the likeness of the earthy. If any one
       has the likeness of the tyrant, is he not liable to condemnation? Thou layest aside the likeness of
       the Eternal King, and raisest in thyself the image of death. Rather cast out of the kingdom of thy
       soul the likeness of the devil, and raise up the likeness of Christ. Let this shine forth in thee; let this
       glow brightly in thy kingdom, that is, thy soul, for it destroys the likeness of all vices. David says
       of this: “O Lord, in Thy kingdom thou bringest their images to nothing.”346 For when the Lord has
       adorned Jerusalem according to His own likeness, then every likeness of the adversary is destroyed.
41




                                                     CHAPTER L.

       The Levites ought to be utterly free from all earthly desires. What their virtues should be on the
          Apostle’s own showing, and how great their purity must be. Also what their dignity and duty


       344     S. John xiv. 30.
       345     Gen. xxxi. 32.
       346     Ps. lxxii. 20 [LXX.].


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             is, for the carrying out of which the chief virtues are necessary. He states that these were not
             unknown to the philosophers, but that they erred in their order. Some are by their nature in
             accordance with duty, which yet on account of what accompanies them become contrary to
             duty. From whence he gathers what gifts the office of the Levites demands. To conclude, he
             adds an exposition of Moses’ words when blessing the tribe of Levi.
           255. IF, then, in the Gospel of the Lord the people themselves were taught and led to despise
       riches,347 how much more ought ye Levites no longer to be bound down by earthly desires. For your
       portion is God. For when their earthly possessions were portioned out by Moses to the people of
       our fathers, the Lord suffered not the Levites to have a share in that earthly possession,348 for He
       Himself would be the strength of their inheritance. Wherefore David says: “The Lord is the portion
       of mine inheritance and of my cup.”349 Whence we get the name “Levite,” which means: “Himself
       is mine,” or “Himself for me.” Great, then, is his honour, that God should say of him: Himself is
       Mine. Or, as was said to Peter about the piece of money found in the fish’s mouth: “Give to them
       for Me and for thee.”350 Wherefore the Apostle, when he said: “A bishop should be sober, modest,
       of good behaviour, given to hospitality, apt to teach, not covetous, nor a brawler, one that rules
       well his own house,” also added: “Likewise must the deacons be grave, not double-tongued, not
       given to much wine, not greedy of filthy lucre, holding the mystery of the faith in a pure conscience.
       And let them also first be proved, and so let them serve, being found blameless.”351
           256. We note how much is required of us. The minister of the Lord should abstain from wine,
       so that he may be upheld by the good witness not only of the faithful but also by those who are
       without. For it is right that the witness to our acts and works should be the opinion of the public at
       large, that the office be not disgraced. Thus he who sees the minister of the altar adorned with
       suitable virtues may praise their Author, and reverence the Lord Who has such servants. The praise
       of the Lord sounds forth where there is a pure possession and an innocent rule at home.
           257. But what shall I say about chastity, when only one and no second union is allowed? As
       regards marriage, the law is, not to marry again, nor to seek union with another wife. It seems
       strange to many why impediment should be caused by a second marriage entered on before baptism,
       so as to prevent election to the clerical office, and to the reception of the gift of ordination; seeing
       that even crimes are not wont to stand in the way, if they have been put away in the sacrament of
       baptism.352 But we must learn, that in baptism sin can be forgiven, but law cannot be abolished. In
       the case of marriage there is no sin, but there is a law. Whatever sin there is can be put away,
       whatever law there is cannot be laid aside in marriage. How could he exhort to widowhood who
       himself had married more than once?
           258. But ye know that the ministerial office must be kept pure and unspotted, and must not be
       defiled by conjugal intercourse; ye know this, I say, who have received the gifts of the sacred


       347          S. Mark x. 23.
       348          Num. xviii. 23.
       349          Ps. xvi. 5.
       350          S. Matt. xvii. 27.
       351          1 Tim. iii. 2–10.
       352          The question kept coming up from time to time: Did Baptism annul all previous impedimenta ordinationis? Even in the
           fifth century, as Pope Innocent I. (Ep. XXIX.) shows, some maintained that as Baptism puts away all sins committed previous
           to its reception, so also it removes all impediments to ordination. This same idea St. Ambrose combats here.


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       ministry, with pure bodies, and unspoilt modesty, and without ever having enjoyed conjugal
       intercourse. I am mentioning this, because in some out-of-the-way places, when they enter on the
       ministry, or even when they become priests, they have begotten children. They defend this on the
       ground of old custom, when, as it happened, the sacrifice was offered up at long intervals. However,
       even the people had to be purified two or three days beforehand, so as to come clean to the sacrifice,
       as we read in the Old Testament.353 They even used to wash their clothes. If such regard was paid
       in what was only the figure, how much ought it to be shown in the reality! Learn then, Priest and
       Levite, what it means to wash thy clothes. Thou must have a pure body wherewith to offer up the
       sacraments. If the people were forbidden to approach their victim unless they washed their clothes,
       dost thou, while foul in heart and body, dare to make supplication for others? Dost thou dare to
       make an offering for them?
            259. The duty of the Levites is no light one, for the Lord says of them: “Behold I have taken
42     the Levites from among the children of Israel, instead of every first-born that openeth the matrix
       among the children of Israel. These shall be their redemption, and the Levites shall be Mine. For I
       hallowed unto Me all the first-born in the land of Egypt.”354 We know that the Levites are not
       reckoned among the rest, but are preferred before all, for they are chosen out of all, and are sanctified
       like the firstfruits and the firstlings which belong to the Lord, since the payment of vows and
       redemption for sin are offered by them. “Thou shalt not receive them,” He says, “among the children
       of Israel, but thou shalt appoint the Levites over the tabernacle of testimony, and over all the vessels
       thereof, and over all things that belong to it. They shall bear the tabernacle and all the vessels
       thereof, and they shall minister in it, and shall encamp round about the tabernacle. And when the
       tabernacle setteth forward the Levites shall take it down, and when the camp is pitched they shall
       set up the tabernacle again. And the stranger that cometh nigh shall surely be put to death.”355
            260. Thou, then, art chosen out of the whole number of the children of Israel, regarded as the
       firstfruits of the sacred offerings, set over the tabernacle so as to keep guard in the camp of holiness
       and faith, to which if a stranger approach, he shall surely die. Thou art placed there to watch over
       the ark of the covenant. All do not see the depths of the mysteries, for they are hid from the Levites,
       lest they should see who ought not to see, and they who cannot serve should take it up. Moses,
       indeed, saw the circumcision of the Spirit, but veiled it, so as to give circumcision only in an outward
       sign. He saw the unleavened bread of sincerity and truth; he saw the sufferings of the Lord, but he
       veiled the unleavened bread of truth in the material unleavened bread, he veiled the sufferings of
       the Lord in the sacrifice of a lamb or a calf. Good Levites have ever preserved the mystery entrusted
       to them under the protection of their own faith, and yet dost thou think little of what is entrusted
       to thee? First, thou shalt see the deep things of God, which needs wisdom. Next, thou must keep
       watch for the people; this requires justice. Thou must defend the camp and guard the tabernacle,
       which needs fortitude. Thou must show thyself continent and sober, and this needs temperance.
            261. These chief virtues, they who are without have recognized,356 but they considered that the
       order resting on society was higher than that resting on wisdom; though wisdom is the foundation,
       and justice the building which cannot stand unless it have a foundation. The foundation is Christ.357

       353     Ex. xix. 10.
       354     Num. iii. 12, 13.
       355     Num. i. 49–51.
       356     Cic. de Off. I. 43.
       357     1 Cor. iii. 11.


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           262. First stands faith, which is a sign of wisdom, as Solomon says, in following his father:
       “The fear of the Lord is the beginning of wisdom.”358 And the law says: “Thou shalt love the Lord
       thy God, thou shalt love thy neighbour.”359 It is a noble thing to do one’s kindnesses and duties
       towards the whole of the human race. But it is ever most seemly that thou shouldst give to God the
       most precious thing thou hast, that is, thy mind,360 for thou hast nothing better than that. When thou
       hast paid thy debt to thy Creator, then thou mayest labour for men, to show them kindness, and to
       give help; then thou mayest assist the needy with money, or by some duty, or some service that
       lies in the way of thy ministry; by money to support him; by paying a debt, so as to free him that
       is bound; by undertaking a duty, so as to take charge of a trust, which he fears to lose, who has put
       it by in trust.
           263. It is a duty, then, to take care of and to restore what has been entrusted to us. But meanwhile
       a change comes, either in time or circumstances,361 so that it is no longer a duty to restore what one
       has received. As, for instance, when a man demands back his money as an open enemy, to use it
       against his country, and to offer his wealth to barbarians. Or, if thou shouldst have to restore it,
       whilst another stood by to extort it from him by force. If thou restore money to a raving lunatic
       when he cannot keep it; if thou give up to a madman a sword once put by with thee, whereby he
       may kill himself, is it not an act contrary to duty to pay the debt? Is it not contrary to duty to take
       knowingly what has been got by a thief, so that he who has lost it is cheated out of it?
           264. It is also sometimes contrary to duty to fulfil a promise,362 or to keep an oath. As was the
       case with Herod, who swore that whatever was asked he would give to the daughter of Herodias,
       and so allowed the death of John, that he might not break his word.363 And what shall I say of
       Jephthah,364 who offered up his daughter in sacrifice, she having been the first to meet him as he
43     returned home victorious; whereby he fulfilled the vow which he had made that he would offer to
       God whatever should meet him first. It would have been better to make no promise at all, than to
       fulfil it in the death of his daughter.
           265. Ye are not ignorant how important it is to look to this. And so a Levite is chosen to guard
       the sanctuary, one who shall never fail in counsel, nor forsake the faith, nor fear death, nor do
       anything extravagant, so that in his whole appearance he may give proof of his earnestness. For he
       ought to have not only his soul but even his eyes in restraint, so that no chance mishap may bring
       a blush to his forehead. For “whosoever looketh on a woman to desire her hath already committed
       adultery with her in his heart.”365 Thus adultery is committed not only by actual committal of the
       foul deed, but even by the desire of the ardent gaze.
           266. This seems high and somewhat severe, but in a high office it is not out of place. For the
       grace of the Levites is such that Moses spoke of them as follows in his blessing: “Give to Levi his
       men, give Levi his trusted ones, give Levi the lot of his inheritance, and his truth to the holy men
       whom they tempted in temptation, and reviled at the waters of contradiction. Who said to his father


       358     Prov. ix. 10, and Ps. cxi. [cx.] 10.
       359     Deut. vi. 5.
       360     Cic. de Off. I. 45.
       361     Cic. de Off. I. 10.
       362     Cic. de Off. I. 10, § 32.
       363     S. Matt. xiv. 6 ff.
       364     Jud. xi. 30 ff.
       365     S. Matt. v. 28.


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       and mother, I know thee not, and knew not his brethren, and renounced his children. He guarded
       Thy word and kept Thy testimony.”366
           267. They, then, are His men, His trusty ones, who have no deceit in their hearts, hide no
       treachery within them, but guard His words and ponder them in their heart, as Mary pondered
       them;367 who know not their parents so as to put them before their duty; who hate the violators of
       chastity, and avenge the injury done to purity; and know the times for the fulfilling of their duty,
       as also which duty is the greater, which the lesser, and to what occasion each is suited. In all this
       they follow that alone which is virtuous. And who, where there are two virtuous duties, think that
       which is the more virtuous must come first. These are in truth rightly blessed.
           268. If any one makes known the just works of the Lord, and offers Him incense, then: “Bless,
       O Lord, his strength; accept the work of his hands,”368 that he may find the grace of the prophetic
       blessing with Him Who liveth and reigneth for ever and ever. Amen.



                                                      BOOK II.

                                                     CHAPTER I.

       Happiness in life is to be gained by living virtuously, inasmuch as thus a Christian, whilst despising
          glory and the favour of men, desires to please God alone in what he does.
           1. IN the first book we spoke of the duties369 which we thought befitted a virtuous life, whereon
       no one has ever doubted but that a blessed life, which the Scripture calls eternal life, depends. So
       great is the splendour of a virtuous life that a peaceful conscience and a calm innocence work out
       a happy life. And as the risen sun hides the globe of the moon and the light of the stars, so the
       brightness of a virtuous life, where it glitters in true pure glory, casts into the shade all other things,
       which, according to the desires of the body, are considered to be good, or are reckoned in the eyes
       of the world to be great and noble.
           2. Blessed, plainly, is that life which is not valued at the estimation of outsiders, but is known,
       as judge of itself, by its own inner feelings. It needs no popular opinion as its reward in any way;
       nor has it any fear of punishments. Thus the less it strives for glory, the more it rises above it. For
       to those who seek for glory, that reward in the shape of present things is but a shadow of future
       ones, and is a hindrance to eternal life, as it is written in the Scriptures: “Verily, I say unto you,
       they have received their reward.”370 This is said of those who, as it were, with the sound of a trumpet
       desire to make known to all the world the liberality they exercise towards the poor. It is the same,
       too, in the case of fasting, which is done but for outward show. “They have,” he says, “their reward.”
           3. It therefore belongs to a virtuous life to show mercy and to fast in secret; that thou mayest
44     seem to be seeking a reward from thy God alone, and not from men. For he who seeks it from man

       366     Deut. xxxiii. 8, 9.
       367     S. Luke ii. 19.
       368     Deut. xxxiii. 11.
       369     Cic. de Off. II. 1.
       370     S. Matt. vi. 2.


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       has his reward, but he who seeks it from God has eternal life, which none can give but the Lord of
       Eternity, as it is said: “Verily, I say unto thee, to-day shalt thou be with Me in Paradise.”371 Wherefore
       the Scripture plainly has called that life which is blessed, eternal life. It has not been left to be
       appraised according to man’s ideas on the subject, but has been entrusted to the divine judgment.



                                                                CHAPTER II.

       The different ideas of philosophers on the subject of happiness. He proves, first, from the Gospel
          that it rests on the knowledge of God and the pursuit of good works; next, that it may not be
          thought that this idea was adopted from the philosophers, he adds proofs from the witness of
          the prophets.
           4. THE philosophers have made a happy life to depend, either (as Hieronymus372) on freedom
       from pain, or (as Herillus373) on knowledge. For Herillus, hearing knowledge very highly praised
       by Aristotle374 and Theophrastus,375 made it alone to be the chief good, when they really praised it
       as a good thing, not as the only good; others, as Epicurus,376 have called pleasure such; others, as
       Callipho,377 and after him Diodorus,378 understood it in such a way as to make a virtuous life go in
       union, the one with pleasure, the other with freedom from pain, since a happy life could not exist
       without it. Zeno,379 the Stoic, thought the highest and only good existed in a virtuous life. But
       Aristotle and Theophrastus and the other Peripatetics maintained that a happy life consisted in
       virtue, that is, in a virtuous life, but that its happiness was made complete by the advantages of the
       body and other external good things.
           5. But the sacred Scriptures say that eternal life rests on a knowledge of divine things and on
       the fruit of good works. The Gospel bears witness to both these statements. For the Lord Jesus
       spoke thus of knowledge: “This is eternal life, to know Thee, the only true God, and Jesus Christ
       Whom Thou hast sent.”380 About works He gives this answer: “Every one that hath forsaken house,
       or brethren, or sisters, or father, or mother, or wife, or children, or lands, for My Name’s sake, shall
       receive an hundred-fold, and shall inherit everlasting life.”381



       371         S. Luke xxiii. 43.
       372         Hieronymus, often mentioned by Cicero. Cf. Cic. de Finib. II. 3.—He lived about B.C. 300, at Rhodes. He held that the
           highest good consisted in freedom from pain and trouble.
       373         Herillus. Cf. Cic. de Finib. V. 25. Of Carthage; a Stoic. The chief good, according to him, consisted in knowledge.
       374         Aristotle, the famous philosopher and writer. Born B.C. 384. Taught chiefly at Athens, where Theophrastus was his pupil.
       375         Theophrastus of Eresus in Lesbos, also a voluminous writer. He is mentioned by Cicero thus: “Sæpe ab Aristotele, a
           Theophrasto mirabiliter caudatur scientia, hoc uno captus Herillus scientiam summum bonum esse defendit.” (de Fin. V. 25.)
       376         Epicurus. Cf. Cic. Tuscul. V. 30. Born B.C. 342 in Samos. The founder of the Epicurean School of Philosophy. With him
           pleasure constituted the highest happiness, but probably not sensual pleasures. Cf. note on I. 50.
       377         Callipho. Cic. Acad. II. 42: A disciple of Epicurus. The chief good of man he said consisted in the union of a virtuous
           life with bodily pleasure, or, as Cicero puts it, in the union of the man with the beast. (Cic. de Off. III. 33.)
       378         Diodorus living about B.C. 110, at Tyre. His view was as stated above by St. Ambrose, whereby an attempt was made to
           reconcile the Stoics and Epicureans.
       379         Zeno of Citium, the founder of the Stoic School.
       380         S. John xvii. 3.
       381         S. Matt. xix. 29.


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            6. Let no one think that this was but lately said, and that it was spoken of by the philosophers
       before it was mentioned in the Gospel. For the philosophers, that is to say, Aristotle and
       Theophrastus, as also Zeno and Hieronymus, certainly lived before the time of the Gospel; but they
       came after the prophets. Let them rather think how long before even the names of the philosophers
       were heard of, both of these seem to have found open expression through the mouth of the holy
       David; for it is written: “Blessed is the man whom Thou instructest, O Lord, and teachest him out
       of Thy law.”382 We find elsewhere also: “Blessed is the man that feareth the Lord, he will rejoice
       greatly in His commandments.”383 We have proved our point as regards knowledge, the reward for
       which the prophet states to be the fruit of eternity, adding that in the house of the man that feareth
       the Lord, or is instructed in His law and rejoices greatly in the divine commandments, “is glory
       and riches; and his justice abideth for ever and ever.”384 He has further also in the same psalm stated
       of good works, that they gain for an upright man the gift of eternal life. He speaks thus: “Blessed
       is the man that showeth pity and lendeth, he will guide his affairs with discretion, surely he shall
       not be moved for ever, the righteous shall be in everlasting remembrance.”385 And further: “He hath
       dispersed, he hath given to the poor, his justice endureth for ever.”386
            7. Faith, then, has [the promise of] eternal life, for it is a good foundation. Good works, too,
       have the same, for an upright man is tested by his words and acts. For if a man is always busy
       talking and yet is slow to act, he shows by his acts how worthless his knowledge is: besides it is
45     much worse to know what one ought to do, and yet not to do what one has learnt should be done.
       On the other hand, to be active in good works and unfaithful at heart is as idle as though one wanted
       to raise a beautiful and lofty dome upon a bad foundation. The higher one builds, the greater is the
       fall; for without the protection of faith good works cannot stand. A treacherous anchorage in a
       harbour perforates a ship, and a sandy bottom quickly gives way and cannot bear the weight of the
       building placed upon it. There then will be found the fulness of reward, where the virtues are perfect,
       and where there is a reasonable agreement between words and acts.



                                                           CHAPTER III.

       The definition of blessedness as drawn from the Scriptures is considered and proved. It cannot be
          enhanced by external good fortune, nor can it be weakened by misfortune.
           8. AS, then, knowledge, so far as it stands alone, is put aside either as worthless, according to
       the superfluous discussions of the philosophers,387 or as but an imperfect idea, let us now note how
       clearly the divine Scriptures explain a thing about which we see the philosophers held so many
       involved and perplexing ideas. For the Scriptures state that nothing is good but what is virtuous,
       and declare that virtue is blessed in every circumstance, and that it is never enhanced by either


       382     Ps. xciv. [xciii.] 12.
       383     Ps. cxii. [cxi.] 1.
       384     Ps. cxii. [cxi.] 3.
       385     Ps. cxii. [cxi.] 5, 6.
       386     Ps. cxii. [cxi.] 9.
       387     See St. Augustine, De Civit. Dei. XIX. 1.


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       corporal or other external good fortune, nor is it weakened by adversity. No state is so blessed as
       that wherein one is free from sin, is filled with innocence, and is fully supplied with the grace of
       God. For it is written: “Blessed is the man that hath not walked in the counsel of the ungodly, and
       hath not stood in the way of sinners, and hath not sat in the seat of pestilence, but in the law of the
       Lord was his delight.”388 And again: “Blessed are the undefiled in the way, who walk in the law of
       the Lord.”389
           9. Innocence, then, and knowledge make a man blessed. We have also noted already that the
       blessedness of eternal life is the reward for good works. It remains, then, to show that when the
       patronage of pleasure or the fear of pain is despised (and the first of these one abhors as poor and
       effeminate, and the other as unmanly and weak), that then a blessed life can rise up in the midst of
       pain. This can easily be shown when we read: “Blessed are ye when men shall revile you and
       persecute you and shall say all manner of evil against you for righteousness’ sake. Rejoice and be
       exceeding glad, for great is your reward in heaven; for so persecuted they the prophets which were
       before you.”390 And again: “He that will come after Me, let him take up his cross and follow Me.”391



                                                   CHAPTER IV.

       The same argument, namely, that blessedness is not lessened or added to by external matters, is
          illustrated by the example of men of old.
           10. THERE is, then, a blessedness even in pains and griefs. All which virtue with its sweetness
       checks and restrains, abounding as it does in natural resources for either soothing conscience or
       increasing grace. For Moses was blessed in no small degree when, surrounded by the Egyptians
       and shut in by the sea, he found by his merits a way for himself and the people to go through the
       waters.392 When was he ever braver than at the moment when, surrounded by the greatest dangers,
       he gave not up the hope of safety, but besought a triumph?
           11. What of Aaron? When did he ever think himself more blessed than when he stood between
       the living and the dead, and by his presence stayed death from passing from the bodies of the dead
       to the lines of the living?393 What shall I say of the youth Daniel, who was so wise that, when in
       the midst of the lions enraged with hunger, he was by no means overcome with terror at the fierceness
       of the beasts. So free from fear was he, that he could eat, and was not afraid he might by his example
       excite the animals to feed on him.394
           12. There is, then, in pain a virtue that can display the sweetness of a good conscience, and
       therefore it serves as a proof that pain does not lessen the pleasure of virtue. As, then, there is no
       loss of blessedness to virtue through pain, so also the pleasures of the body and the enjoyment that


       388     Ps. i. 1, 2.
       389     Ps. cxix. 1.
       390     S. Matt. v. 11, 12.
       391     S. Matt. xvi. 24.
       392     Ex. xiv.
       393     Num. xvi. 48.
       394     Bel v. 39.


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       benefits give add nothing to it. On this the Apostle says well: “What things to me were gain, those
       I counted loss for Christ,” and he added: “Wherefore I count all things but loss, and do count them
       but dung, that I may win Christ.”395
            13. Moses, too, thought the treasures of Egypt to be his loss, and thus showed forth in his life
46     the reproach of the Cross of the Lord. He was not rich when he had abundance of money, nor was
       he afterwards poor when he was in want of food, unless, perchance, there is any one who thinks
       he was less happy when daily food was wanting to him and his people in the wilderness. But yet
       manna, that is, angels’ food, which surely none will dare deny to be a mark of the greatest good
       and of blessedness, was given him from heaven; also the daily shower of meat was sufficient to
       feed the whole multitude.396
            14. Bread for food also failed Elijah, that holy man, had he sought for it; but it seemed not to
       fail him because he sought it not. Thus by the daily service of the ravens bread was brought to him
       in the morning, meat in the evening.397 Was he any the less blessed because he was poor to himself?
       Certainly not. Nay, he was the more blessed, for he was rich toward God. It is better to be rich for
       others than for oneself. He was so, for in the time of famine he asked a widow for food, intending
       to repay it, so that the barrel of meal failed not for three years and six months, and the oil jar sufficed
       and served the needy widow for her daily use all that time also.398 Rightly did Peter wish to be there
       where he saw them. Rightly did they appear in the mount with Christ in glory,399 for He Himself
       became poor when He was rich.
            15. Riches, then, give no assistance to living a blessed life, a fact that the Lord clearly shows
       in the Gospel, saying: “Blessed are ye poor, for yours is the kingdom of God. Blessed are they that
       hunger and thirst now, for they shall be filled. Blessed are ye that weep now, for ye shall laugh.”400
       Thus it is stated as plainly as possible that poverty, hunger, and pain, which are considered to be
       evils, not only are not hindrances to a blessed life, but are actually so many helps toward it.



                                                     CHAPTER V.

       Those things which are generally looked on as good are mostly hindrances to a blessed life, and
          those which are looked on as evil are the materials out of which virtues grow. What belongs to
          blessedness is shown by other examples.
           16. BUT those things which seem to be good, as riches, abundance, joy without pain, are a
       hindrance to the fruits of blessedness, as is clearly stated in the Lord’s own words, when He said:
       “Woe to you rich, for ye have received your consolation! Woe unto you that are full, for ye shall
       hunger, and to those who laugh, for they shall mourn!”401 So, then, corporal or external good things
       are not only no assistance to attaining a blessed life, but are even a hindrance to it.

       395     Phil. iii. 7, 8.
       396     Ex. xvi. 13.
       397     1 [3] Kings xvii. 6.
       398     1 [3] Kings xvii. 14.
       399     S. Matt. xvii. 3.
       400     S. Luke vi. 20, 21.
       401     S. Luke vi. 24, 25.


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           17. Wherefore Naboth was blessed, even though he was stoned by the rich; weak and poor, as
       opposed to the royal resources, he was rich in his aim and his religion; so rich, indeed, that he would
       not exchange the inheritance of the vineyard received from his father for the king’s money; and on
       this account was he perfect, for he defended the rights of his forefathers with his own blood. Thus,
       also, Ahab was wretched on his own showing, for he caused the poor man to be put to death, so as
       to take possession of his vineyard himself.402
           18. It is quite certain that virtue is the only and the highest good; that it alone richly abounds
       in the fruit of a blessed life; that a blessed life, by means of which eternal life is won, does not
       depend on external or corporal benefits, but on virtue only. A blessed life is the fruit of the present,
       and eternal life is the hope of the future.
           19. Some, however, there are who think a blessed life is impossible in this body, weak and
       fragile as it is. For in it one must suffer pain and grief, one must weep, one must be ill. So I could
       also say that a blessed life rests on bodily rejoicing, but not on the heights of wisdom, on the
       sweetness of conscience, or on the loftiness of virtue. It is not a blessed thing to be in the midst of
       suffering; but it is blessed to be victorious over it, and not to be cowed by the power of temporal
       pain.
           20. Suppose that things come which are accounted terrible as regards the grief they cause, such
       as blindness, exile, hunger, violation of a daughter, loss of children. Who will deny that Isaac was
       blessed, who did not see in his old age, and yet gave blessings with his benediction?403 Was not
       Jacob blessed who, leaving his father’s house, endured exile as a shepherd for pay,404 and mourned
       for the violated chastity of his daughter,405 and suffered hunger?406 Were they not blessed on whose
       good faith God received witness, as it is written: “The God of Abraham, the God of Isaac, and the
       God of Jacob”?407 A wretched thing is slavery, but Joseph was not wretched; nay, clearly he was
47     blessed, when he whilst in slavery checked the lusts of his mistress.408 What shall I say of holy
       David who bewailed the death of three sons,409 and, what was even worse than this, his daughter’s
       incestuous connection?410 How could he be unblessed from whom the Author of blessedness Himself
       sprung, Who has made many blessed? For: “Blessed are they who have not seen yet have believed.”411
       All these felt their own weakness, but they bravely prevailed over it. What can we think of as more
       wretched than holy Job, either in the burning of his house, or the instantaneous death of his ten
       sons, or his bodily pains?412 Was he less blessed than if he had not endured those things whereby
       he really showed himself approved?
           21. True it is that in these sufferings there is something bitter, and that strength of mind cannot
       hide this pain. I should not deny that the sea is deep because inshore it is shallow, nor that the sky
       is clear because sometimes it is covered with clouds, nor that the earth is fruitful because in some


       402     1 [3] Kings xxi. 13–16.
       403     Gen. xxvii. 28.
       404     Gen. xxxi. 41.
       405     Gen. xxxiv. 5.
       406     Gen. xlii. 2.
       407     Ex. iii. 6.
       408     Gen. xxxix. 7.
       409     2 Sam. [2 Kings] xii. 16; xiii. 31; xviii. 33.
       410     2 Sam. [2 Kings] xiii. 21.
       411     S. John xx. 29.
       412     Job i. 14 ff.


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       places there is but barren ground, nor that the crops are rich and full because they sometimes have
       wild oats mingled with them. So, too, count it as true that the harvest of a happy conscience may
       be mingled with some bitter feelings of grief. In the sheaves of the whole of a blessed life, if by
       chance any misfortune or bitterness has crept in, is it not as though the wild oats were hidden, or
       as though the bitterness of the tares was concealed by the sweet scent of the corn? But let us now
       proceed again with our subject.



                                                    CHAPTER VI.

       On what is useful: not that which is advantageous, but that which is just and virtuous. It is to be
          found in losses, and is divided into what is useful for the body, and what is useful unto godliness.
            22. IN the first book we made our division in such a way as to set in the first place what is
       virtuous and what is seemly; for all duties are derived from these. In the second place we set what
       is useful. But as at the start we said that there was a difference between what is virtuous and what
       is seemly—which one can comprehend more easily than one can explain—so also when we are
       thinking of what is useful, we have to give considerable thought to what is the more useful.413
            23. But we do not reckon usefulness by the value of any gain in money, but in acquiring
       godliness, as the Apostle says: “But godliness is profitable unto all things, having promise of the
       life that now is, and of that which is to come.”414 Thus in the holy Scriptures, if we look carefully
       we shall often find that what is virtuous is called useful: “All things are lawful unto me, but all
       things are not profitable” [useful].415 Before that he was speaking of vices, and so means: It is lawful
       to sin, but it is not seemly. Sins rest in one’s own power, but they are not virtuous. To live wantonly
       is easy, but it is not right. For food serves not God but the belly.
            24. Therefore, because what is useful is also just, it is just to serve Christ, Who redeemed us.
       They too are just who for His Name’s sake have given themselves up to death, they are unjust who
       have avoided it. Of them it says: What profit is there in my blood?416 that is: what advance has my
       justice made? Wherefore they also say: “Let us bind the just, for he is useless to us,”417 that is: he
       is unjust, for he complains of us, condemns and rebukes us. This could also be referred to the greed
       of impious men, which closely resembles treachery; as we read in the case of the traitor Judas, who
       in his longing for gain and his desire for money put his head into the noose of treachery and fell.
            25. We have then to speak of that usefulness which is full of what is virtuous, as the Apostle
       himself has laid it down in so many words, saying: “And this I speak for your own profit, not that
       I may cast a snare upon you, but for that which is comely.”418 It is plain, then, that what is virtuous
       is useful, and what is useful is virtuous; also that what is useful is just, and what is just is useful. I
       can say this, for I am speaking, not to merchants who are covetous from a desire to make gain, but


       413     Cic. de Off. II. 3.
       414     1 Tim. iv. 8.
       415     1 Cor. vi. 12.
       416     Ps. xxx. [xxix.] 9.
       417     Isa. iii. 10 [LXX.].
       418     1 Cor. vii. 35.


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       to my children. And I am speaking of the duties which I wish to impress upon and impart to you,
       whom I have chosen for the service of the Lord; so that those things which have been already
       implanted and fixed in your minds and characters by habit and training may now be further unfolded
       to you by explanation and instruction.
           26. Therefore as I am about to speak of what is useful, I will take up those words of the Prophet:
       “Incline my heart unto Thy testimonies and not to covetousness,”419 that the sound of the word
48     “useful” may not rouse in us the desire for money. Some indeed put it thus: “Incline my heart unto
       Thy testimonies and not to what is useful,” that is, that kind of usefulness which is always on the
       watch for making gains in business, and has been bent and diverted by the habits of men to the
       pursuit of money. For as a rule most people call that only useful which is profitable, but we are
       speaking of that kind of usefulness which is sought in earthly loss “that we may gain Christ,”420
       whose gain is “godliness with contentment.”421 Great, too, is the gain whereby we attain to godliness,
       which is rich with God, not indeed in fleeting wealth, but in eternal gifts, and in which rests no
       uncertain trial but grace constant and unending.
           27. There is therefore a usefulness connected with the body, and also one that has to do with
       godliness, according to the Apostle’s division: “Bodily exercise profiteth a little, but godliness is
       profitable unto all things.”422 And what is so virtuous as integrity? what so seemly as to preserve
       the body unspotted and undefiled, and its purity unsullied? What, again, is so seemly as that a
       widow should keep her plighted troth to her dead husband? What more useful than this whereby
       the heavenly kingdom is attained? For “there are some who have made themselves eunuchs for the
       kingdom of heaven’s sake.”423



                                                  CHAPTER VII.

       What is useful is the same as what is virtuous; nothing is more useful than love, which is gained
         by gentleness, courtesy, kindness, justice, and the other virtues, as we are given to understand
         from the histories of Moses and David. Lastly, confidence springs from love, and again love
         from confidence.
           28. THERE is therefore not only a close intercourse between what is virtuous and what is useful,
       but the same thing is both useful and virtuous. Therefore He Who willed to open the kingdom of
       heaven to all sought not what was useful to Himself, but what was useful for all. Thus we must
       have a certain order and proceed step by step from habitual or common acts to those which are
       more excellent, so as to show by many examples the advancement of what is useful.
           29. And first we may know there is nothing so useful as to be loved,424 nothing so useless as
       not to be loved; for to be hated in my opinion is simply fatal and altogether deadly. We speak of


       419     Ps. cxix. [cxviii.] 36.
       420     Phil. iii. 8.
       421     1 Tim. vi. 6.
       422     1 Tim. iv. 8.
       423     S. Matt. xix. 12.
       424     Cic. de Off. II. 7.


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       this, then, in order that we may take care to give cause for a good estimate and opinion to be formed
       of us, and may try to get a place in others’ affections through our calmness of mind and kindness
       of soul. For goodness is agreeable and pleasing to all, and there is nothing that so easily reaches
       human feelings. And if that is assisted by gentleness of character and willingness, as well as by
       moderation in giving orders and courtesy of speech, by honour in word, by a ready interchange of
       conversation and by the grace of modesty, it is incredible how much all this tends to an increase
       of love.425
           30. We read, not only in the case of private individuals but even of kings, what is the effect of
       ready and willing courtesy, and what harm pride and great swelling words have done, so far as to
       make even kingdoms to totter and powers to be destroyed. If any one gains the people’s favour by
       advice or service, by fulfilling the duties of his ministry or office, or if he encounters danger for
       the sake of the whole nation, there is no doubt but that such love will be shown him by the people
       that they all will put his safety and welfare before their own.
           31. What reproaches Moses had to bear from his people! But when the Lord would have avenged
       him on those who reviled him, he often used to offer himself for the people that he might save them
       from the divine anger.426 With what gentle words used he to address the people, even after he was
       wronged! He comforted them in their labours, consoled them by his prophetic declarations of the
       future, and encouraged them by his works. And though he often spoke with God, yet he was wont
       to address men gently and pleasantly. Worthily was he considered to stand above all men. For they
       could not even look on his face,427 and refused to believe that his sepulchre was found.428 He had
       captivated the minds of all the people to such an extent; that they loved him even more for his
       gentleness than they admired him for his deeds.
           32. There is David too who followed his steps, who was chosen from among all to rule the
       people. How gentle and kindly he was, humble in spirit too, how diligent and ready to show affection.
       Before he came to the throne he offered himself in the stead of all.429 As king he showed himself
       an equal to all in warfare, and shared in their labours. He was brave in battle, gentle in ruling, patient
49     under abuse, and more ready to bear than to return wrongs. So dear was he to all, that though a
       youth, he was chosen even against his will to rule over them, and was made to undertake the duty
       though he withstood it. When old he was asked by his people not to engage in battle, because they
       all preferred to incur danger for his sake rather than that he should undergo it for theirs.
            33. He had bound the people to himself freely in doing his duty; first, when he during the
       division among the people preferred to live like an exile at Hebron430 rather than to reign at Jerusalem;
       next, when he showed that he loved valour even in an enemy. He had also thought that justice
       should be shown to those who had borne arms against himself the same as to his own men. Again,
       he admired Abner, the bravest champion of the opposing side, whilst he was their leader and was
       yet waging war. Nor did he despise him when suing for peace, but honoured him by a banquet.431
       When killed by treachery, he mourned and wept for him. He followed him and honoured his


       425     Cic. de Off. II. 14.
       426     Ex. xxxii. 32.
       427     Ex. xxxiv. 30.
       428     Deut. xxxiv. 6.
       429     1 Sam. [1 Kings] xvii. 32.
       430     2 Sam. [2 Kings] ii. 3.
       431     2 Sam. [2 Kings] iii. 20.


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       obsequies, and evinced his good faith in desiring vengeance for the murder; for he handed on that
       duty to his son in the charge that he gave him,432 being anxious rather that the death of an innocent
       man should not be left unavenged, than that any one should mourn for his own.
           34. It is no small thing, especially in the case of a king, so to perform humble duties as to make
       oneself like the very lowest. It is noble not to seek for food at another’s risk and to refuse a drink
       of water, to confess a sin, and to offer oneself to death for one’s people. This latter David did, so
       that the divine anger might be turned against himself, when he offered himself to the destroying
       angel and said: “Lo I have sinned: I the shepherd have done wickedly, but this flock, what hath it
       done? Let Thy hand be against me.”433
           35. What further should I say? He opened not his mouth to those planning deceit, and, as though
       hearing not, he thought no word should be returned, nor did be answer their reproaches. When he
       was evil spoken of, he prayed, when he was cursed, he blessed. He walked in simplicity of heart,
       and fled from the proud. He was a follower of those unspotted from the world, one who mixed
       ashes with his food when bewailing his sins, and mingled his drink with weeping.434 Worthily, then,
       was he called for by all the people. All the tribes of Israel came to him saying: “Behold, we are thy
       bone and thy flesh. Also yesterday and the day before when Saul lived, and reigned, thou wast he
       that leddest out and broughtest in Israel. And the Lord said to thee, Thou shalt feed My people!”435
       And why should I say more about him of whom the word of the Lord has gone forth to say: “I have
       found David according to My heart”?436 Who ever walked in holiness of heart and in justice as he
       did, so as to fulfil the will of God; for whose sake pardon was granted to his children when they
       sinned, and their rights were preserved to his heirs?437
           36. Who would not have loved him, when they saw how dear he was to his friends? For as he
       truly loved his friends, so he thought that he was loved as much in return by his own friends. Nay,
       parents put him even before their own children, and children loved him more than their parents.
       Wherefore Saul was very angry and strove to strike Jonathan his son with a spear because he thought
       that David’s friendship held a higher place in his esteem than either filial piety or a father’s
       authority.438
           37. It gives a very great impetus to mutual love if one shows love in return to those who love
       us and proves that one does not love them less than oneself is loved, especially if one shows it by
       the proofs that a faithful friendship gives. What is so likely to win favour as gratitude? What more
       natural than to love one who loves us? What so implanted and so impressed on men’s feelings as
       the wish to let another, by whom we want to be loved, know that we love him? Well does the wise
       man say: “Lose thy money for thy brother and thy friend.”439 And again: “I will not be ashamed to
       defend a friend, neither will I hide myself from him.”440 If, indeed, the words in Ecclesiasticus
       testify that the medicine of life and immortality is in a friend;441 yet none has ever doubted that it

       432     1 [3] Kings ii. 5.
       433     2 Sam. [2 Kings] xxiv. 17.
       434     Ps. cii. [ci.] 9.
       435     2 Sam. [2 Kings] v. 1, 2.
       436     Ps. lxxxix [lxxxviii.] 20.
       437     1 [3] Kings xi. 34.
       438     1 Sam. [1 Kings] xx. 34.
       439     Ecclus. xxix. 10.
       440     Ecclus. xxii. 31.
       441     Ecclus. vi. 16.


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       is in love that our best defence lies. As the Apostle says: “It beareth all things, believeth all things,
       hopeth all things, endureth all things; love never faileth.”442
            38. Thus David failed not, for he was dear to all, and wished to be loved rather than feared by
       his subjects. Fear keeps the watch of temporal protection, but knows not how to keep guard
50     permanently.443 And so where fear has departed, boldness often creeps in; for fear does not force
       confidence but affection calls it forth.
            39. Love, then, is the first thing to give us a recommendation. It is a good thing therefore to
       have our witness in the love of many.444 Then arises confidence, so that even strangers are not afraid
       to trust themselves to thy kindness, when they see thee so dear to many. So likewise one goes
       through confidence to love, so that he who has shown good faith to one or two has an influence as
       it were on the minds of all, and wins the good-will of all.



                                                   CHAPTER VIII.

       Nothing has greater effect in gaining good-will than giving advice; but none can trust it unless it
          rests on justice and prudence. How conspicuous these two virtues were in Solomon is shown
          by his well-known judgment.
           40. TWO things, therefore, love and confidence, are the most efficacious in commending us to
       others; also this third quality if thou hast it, namely, what many consider to be worthy of admiration
       in thee, and think to be rightly worthy of honour445 [the power, in fact, of giving good advice].
           41. Since the giving of good advice is a great means of gaining men’s affections, prudence and
       justice are much needed in every case. These are looked for by most, so that confidence at once is
       placed in him in whom they exist, because he can give useful and trustworthy advice to whoever
       wants it. Who will put himself into the hands of a man whom he does not think to be more wise
       than himself who asks for advice? It is necessary therefore that he of whom advice is asked should
       be superior to him who asks it. For why should we consult a man when we do not think that he can
       make anything more plain than we ourselves see it?
           42. But if we have found a man that by the vigour of his character, by his strength of mind and
       influence, stands forth above all others, and further, is better fitted by example and experience than
       others; that can put an end to immediate dangers, foresee future ones, point out those close at hand,
       can explain a subject, bring relief in time, is ready not only to give advice but also to give help,—in
       such a man confidence is placed, so that he who seeks advice can say: “Though evil should happen
       to me through him, I will bear it.”446
           43. To a man of this sort then we entrust our safety and our reputation, for he is, as we said
       before, just and prudent. Justice causes us to have no fear of deceit, and prudence frees us from
       having any suspicions of error. However, we trust ourselves more readily to a just than to a prudent


       442     1 Cor. xiii. 7, 8.
       443     Cic. de Off. II. 7, § 23.
       444     Cic. de Off. II. 8, § 30.
       445     Cic. de Off. II. 9.
       446     Ecclus. xxii. 31.


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       man, to put it in the way people generally do. But, according to the definition of the philosophers,
       where there is one virtue, others exist too,447 whilst prudence cannot exist without justice. We find
       this stated also in our writers, for David says: “The just showeth mercy and lendeth.”448 What the
       just lends, he says elsewhere: “A good man is he that showeth mercy and lendeth, he will guide
       his words with discretion.”449
            44. Is not that noble judgment of Solomon full of wisdom and justice? Let us see whether it is
       so.450 “Two women,” it says, “stood before King Solomon, and the one said to him, Hear me, my
       lord, I and this woman dwell in one house, and before the third day we gave birth and bore a son
       apiece, and were together, there was no witness in the house, nor any other woman with us, only
       we two alone. And her son died this night, because she overlaid it, and she arose at midnight, and
       took my son from my breast, and laid it in her bosom, and her dead child she laid at my breast. And
       I arose in the morning to give my child suck, and found him dead. And I considered it at dawn, and
       behold it was not my son. And the other woman said, Nay, but the living is my son, and the dead
       is thy son.”
            45. This was their dispute, in which either tried to claim the living child for herself, and denied
       that the dead one was hers. Then the king commanded a sword to be brought and the infant to be
       cut in half, and either piece to be given to one, one half to the one, and one half to the other. Then
       the woman whose the child really was, moved by her feelings, cried out: “Divide not the child, my
       lord; let it rather be given to her and live, and do not kill it.” But the other answered: “Let it be
       neither mine nor hers, divide it.” Then the king ordered that the infant should be given to the woman
       who had said: Do not kill it, but give it to that woman; “For,” as it says, “her bowels yearned upon
51     her son.”451
            46. It is not wrong to suppose that the mind of God was in him; for what is hidden from God?
       What can be more hidden than the witness that lies deep within; into which the mind of the wise
       king entered as though to judge a mother’s feelings, and elicited as it were the voice of a mother’s
       heart. For a mother’s feelings were laid bare, when she chose that her son should live with another,
       rather than that he should be killed in his mother’s sight.
            47. It was therefore a sign of wisdom to distinguish between secret heart-thoughts, to draw the
       truth from hidden springs, and to pierce as it were with the sword of the Spirit not only the inward
       parts of the body, but even of the mind and soul. It was the part of justice also that she who had
       killed her own child should not take away another’s, but that the real mother should have her own
       back again. Indeed the Scriptures have declared this. “All Israel,” it says, “heard of the judgment
       which the king had judged, and they feared the king, for they saw that the wisdom of God was in
       him to do judgment.”452 Solomon also himself had asked for wisdom, so that a prudent heart might
       be given him to hear and to judge with justice.453




       447     Cic. de Off. II. 10.
       448     Ps. xxxvii. [xxxvi.] 21.
       449     Ps. cxii. [cxi.] 5.
       450     1 [3] Kings iii. 26 ff.
       451     1 [3] Kings iii. 26.
       452     1 [3] Kings iii. 28.
       453     1 [3] Kings iii. 9.


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                                                     CHAPTER IX.

       Though justice and prudence are inseparable, we must have respect to the ideas of people in general,
          for they make a distinction between the different cardinal virtues.
           48. IT is clear also, according to the sacred Scriptures, which are the older, that wisdom cannot
       exist without justice, for where one of these two is, there the other must be also. With what wisdom
       did Daniel expose the lie in the false accusation brought against him by his thorough examination,
       so that those false informers had no answer ready to hand!454 It was a mark of prudence to convict
       the criminals by the witness of their own words, and a sign of justice to give over the guilty to
       punishment, and to save the innocent from it.
           49. There is therefore an inseparable union between wisdom and justice; but, generally
       speaking,455 the one special form of virtue is divided up. Thus temperance lies in despising pleasures,
       fortitude may be seen in undergoing labours and dangers, prudence in the choice of what is good,
       by knowing how to distinguish between things useful and the reverse; justice, in being a good
       guardian of another’s rights and protector of its own, thus maintaining for each his own. We can
       make this fourfold division in deference to commonly received ideas; and so, whilst deviating from
       those subtle discussions of philosophic learning which are brought forth as though from some inner
       recess for the sake of investigating the truth, can follow the commonly received use and their
       ordinary meaning. Keeping, then, to this division, let us return to our subject.



                                                     CHAPTER X.

       Men entrust their safety rather to a just than to a prudent man. But every one is wont to seek out
         the man who combines in himself the qualities of justice and prudence. Solomon gives us an
         example of this. (The words which the queen of Sheba spoke of him are explained.) Also Daniel
         and Joseph.
           50. WE entrust our case to the most prudent man we can find, and ask advice from him more
       readily than we do from others. However, the faithful counsel of a just456 man stands first and often
       has more weight than the great abilities of the wisest of men: “For better are the wounds of a friend
       than the kisses of others.”457 And just because it is the judgment of a just man, it is also the conclusion
       of a wise one: in the one lies the result of the matter in dispute, in the other readiness of invention.
           51. And if one connects the two, there will be great soundness in the advice given, which is
       regarded by all with admiration for the wisdom shown, and with love for its justice. And so all will
       desire to hear the wisdom of that man in whom those two virtues are found together, as all the kings
       of the earth desired to see the face of Solomon and to hear his wisdom. Nay, even the queen of



       454     Bel and the Dragon 44.
       455     Cic. de Off. II. 10, § 35.
       456     Cic. de Off. II. 9, § 34.
       457     Prov. xxvii. 6.


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       Sheba came to him and tried him with questions. She came and spoke of all the things that were in
       her heart, and heard all the wisdom of Solomon, nor did any word escape her.458
           52. Who she was whom nothing escaped, and that there was nothing which the truth-loving
       Solomon did not tell her, learn, O man, from this which thou hearest her saying: “It was a true
       report that I heard in mine own land of thy words and of thy prudence, yet I did not believe those
       that told it me until I came, and mine eyes had seen it; and behold the half was not told me. Thou
52     hast added good things over and above all that I heard in mine own land. Blessed are thy women
       and blessed thy servants, which stand before thee, and that hear all thy prudence.”459 Recognize the
       feast of the true Solomon, and who are set down at that feast; recognize it wisely and think in what
       land all the nations shall hear the fame of true wisdom and justice, and with what eyes they shall
       see Him, beholding those things which are not seen. “For the things that are seen are temporal, but
       the things which are not seen are eternal.”460
           53. What women are blessed but those of whom it is said “that many hear the word of God and
       bring forth fruit”?461 And again: “Whosoever doeth the word of God is My father and sister and
       mother.”462 And who are those blessed servants, who stand before Him, but Paul, who said: “Even
       to this day I stand witnessing both to great and small;”463 or Simeon, who was waiting in the temple
       to see the consolation of Israel?464 How could he have asked to be let depart, except that in standing
       before the Lord he had not the power of departing, but only according to the will of God? Solomon
       is put before us simply for the sake of example, of whom it was eagerly expected that his wisdom
       should be heard.
           54. Joseph also when in prison was not free from being consulted about matters of uncertainty.
       His counsel465 was of advantage to the whole of Egypt, so that it felt not the seven years’ famine,
       and he was able even to relieve other peoples from their dreadful hunger.
           55. Daniel, though one of the captives, was made the head of the royal counsellors. By his
       counsels he improved the present and foretold the future.466 Confidence was put in him in all things,
       because he had frequently interpreted things, and had shown that he had declared the truth.



                                                  CHAPTER XI.

       A third element which tends to gain any one’s confidence is shown to have been conspicuous in
           Moses, Daniel, and Joseph.




       458     1 [3] Kings x. 2, 3.
       459     1 [3] Kings x. 6–8.
       460     2 Cor. iv. 18.
       461     S. Luke xi. 28.
       462     S. Matt. xii. 50.
       463     Acts xxvi. 22.
       464     S. Luke ii. 25.
       465     Gen. xli. 9 ff.
       466     Dan. ii.


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           56. BUT a third point seems also to have been noted in the case of those who were thought
       worthy of admiration467 after the example of Joseph, Solomon, and Daniel. For what shall I say of
       Moses whose advice all Israel always waited for,468 whose life caused them to trust in his prudence
       and increased their esteem for him? Who would not trust to the counsel of Moses, to whom the
       elders reserved for decision whatever they thought beyond their understanding and powers?
           57. Who would refuse the counsel of Daniel, of whom God Himself said: “Who is wiser than
       Daniel?”469 How can men doubt about the minds of those to whom God has given such grace? By
       the counsel of Moses wars were brought to an end, and for his merit’s sake food came from heaven
       and drink from the rock.
           58. How pure must have been the soul of Daniel to soften the character of barbarians and to
       tame the lions!470 What temperance was his, what self-restraint in soul and body! Not unworthily
       did he become an object of admiration to all, when—and all men do admire this,—though enjoying
       royal friendships, he sought not for gold, nor counted the honour given him as more precious than
       his faith. For he was willing to endure danger for the law of God rather than to be turned from his
       purpose in order to gain the favour of men.
           59. And what, again, shall I say of the chastity and justice of Joseph, whom I had almost passed
       by, whereby on the one hand he rejected the allurements of his mistress and refused rewards, on
       the other he mocked at death, repressed his fear, and chose a prison? Who would not consider him
       a fit person to give advice in a private case, whose fruitful spirit and fertile mind enriched the
       barrenness of the time with the wealth of his counsels and heart?471



                                                   CHAPTER XII.

       No one asks counsel from a man tainted with vice, or from one who is morose or impracticable,
          but rather from one of whom we have a pattern in the Scriptures.
            60. WE note therefore that in seeking for counsel, uprightness of life, excellence in virtues,
       habits of benevolence, and the charm of good-nature have very great weight. Who seeks for a spring
       in the mud? Who wants to drink from muddy water? So where there is luxurious living, excess,
       and a union of vices, who will think that he ought to draw from that source? Who does not despise
53     a foul life? Who will think a man to be useful to another’s cause whom he sees to be useless in his
       own life? Who, again, does not avoid a wicked, ill-disposed, abusive person, who is always ready
       to do harm? Who would not be only too eager to avoid him?472
            61. And who will come to a man however well fitted to give the best of advice who is
       nevertheless hard to approach? It goes with him as with a fountain whose waters are shut off. What
       is the advantage of having wisdom, if one refuses to give advice? If one cuts off the opportunities

       467    Cic. de Off. II. 10, § 36.
       468    Ex. xviii. 13.
       469    Ezek. xxviii. 3.
       470    Bel and the Dragon v. 39.
       471    Gen. xli. 33 ff.
       472    Cic. de Off. II. 10, § 36.


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       of giving advice, the source is closed, so as no longer to flow for others or to be of any good to
       oneself.
           62. Well can we refer this to him who, possessing prudence, has defiled it with the foulness of
       a vicious life and so pollutes the water at the source. His life is a proof of a degenerate spirit.473
       How can one judge him to be good in counsel whom one sees to be evil in character? He ought to
       be superior to me, if I am ready to trust myself to him. Am I to suppose that he is fit to give me
       advice who never takes it for himself, or am I to believe that he has time to give to me when he has
       none for himself, when his mind is filled with pleasures, and he is overcome by lust, is the slave
       of avarice, is excited by greed, and is terrified with fright? How is there room for counsel here
       where there is none for quiet?
           63. That man of counsel whom I must admire and look up to, whom the gracious Lord gave to
       our fathers, put aside all that was offensive. His follower he ought to be, who can give counsel and
       protect another’s prudence from vice; for nothing foul can mingle with that.



                                                         CHAPTER XIII.

       The beauty of wisdom is made plain by the divine testimony. From this he goes on to prove its
          connection with the other virtues.
           64. IS there any one who would like to be beautiful in face and at the same time to have its
       charm spoilt by a beast-like body and fearful talons? Now the form of virtues is so wonderful and
       glorious, and especially the beauty of wisdom, as the whole of the Scriptures tell us. For it is more
       brilliant than the sun, and when compared with the stars far outshines any constellation. Night takes
       their light away in its train, but wickedness cannot overcome wisdom.474
           65. We have spoken of its beauty, and proved it by the witness of Scripture. It remains to show
       on the authority of Scripture475 that there can be no fellowship between it and vice, but that it has
       an inseparable union with the rest of the virtues. “It has a spirit sagacious, undefiled, sure, holy,
       loving what is good, quick, that never forbids a kindness, kind, steadfast, free from care, having
       all power, overseeing all things.” And again:476 “She teacheth temperance and justice and virtue.”



                                                         CHAPTER XIV.

       Prudence is combined with all the virtues, especially with contempt of riches.
          66. PRUDENCE, therefore, works through all things, she has fellowship with all that is good. For
       how477 can she give good advice unless she have justice too, so that she may clothe herself in

       473     Vide Virg. Æn.IV. 13: “degeneres animos timor arguit.”
       474     Wisd. vii. 29, 30.
       475     Wisd. vii. 22, 23.
       476     Wisd. viii. 7.
       477     Cic. de Off. II. 11.


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       consistency, not fear death, be held back by no alarm, no fear, nor think it right to be turned aside
       from the truth by any flattery, nor shun exile, knowing that the world is the fatherland of the wise
       man. She fears not want, for she knows that nothing is wanting to the wise man, since the whole
       world of riches is his. What is greater than the man that knows not how to be excited at the thought
       of money, and has a contempt for riches, and looks down as from some lofty vantage-ground on
       the desires of men? Men think that one who acts thus is more than man: “Who is this,” it says, “and
       we will praise him. For wonderful things hath he done in his life.”478 Surely he ought to be admired
       who despises riches, seeing that most place them even before their own safety.
           67. The rule of economy and the authority of self-restraint befits all, and most of all him who
       stands highest in honour; so that no love for his treasures may seize upon such a man, and that he
       who rules over free men may never become a slave to money. It is more seemly that in soul he
       should be superior to treasures, and in willing service be subject to his friends. For humility in
       creases the regard in which one is held. It is praiseworthy and right for the chief of men to have no
54     desire for filthy lucre in common with Syrian traders and Gilead merchants, nor to place all their
       hope of good in money, or to count up their daily gains and to calculate their savings like a hireling.



                                                              CHAPTER XV.

       Of liberality. To whom it must chiefly be shown, and how men of slender means may show it by
           giving their service and counsel.
            68. BUT if it is praiseworthy to have one’s soul free from this failing, how much more glorious
       is it to gain the love of the people by liberality which is neither too freely shown to those who are
       unsuitable, nor too sparingly bestowed upon the needy.
            69. There are many kinds of liberality.479 Not only can we distribute and give away food to
       those who need it from our own daily supply, so that they may sustain life; but we can also give
       advice and help to those who are ashamed to show their want openly, so long as the common
       supplies of the needy are not exhausted. I am now speaking of one set over some office. If he is a
       priest or almoner, let him inform the bishop of them, and not withhold the name of any he knows
       to be in any need, or to have lost their wealth and to be now reduced to want; especially if they
       have not fallen into this trouble owing to wastefulness in youth, but because of another’s theft, or
       through loss of their inheritance from no fault of their own, so that they cannot now earn their daily
       bread.
            70. The highest kind of liberality is, to redeem captives, to save them from the hands of their
       enemies, to snatch men from death, and, most of all, women from shame, to restore children to
       their parents, parents to their children, and, to give back a citizen to his country. This was recognized
       when Thrace and Illyria were so terribly devastated.480 How many captives were then for sale all

       478        Ecclus. xxxi. 9.
       479        Cic. de Off. II. 9, § 32.
       480        This was in the year 378. These provinces were invaded by the Goths, who after the defeat and death of Valens at
           Hadrianople ravaged the whole country, and carried away with them a vast number of captives and afterwards sold them into
           slavery. St. Ambrose busied himself in redeeming all he could. He tells us himself how his efforts were met by the Arian party.


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       over the world! Could one but call them together, their number would have surpassed that of a
       whole province. Yet there were some who would have sent back into slavery those whom the
       Church had redeemed. They themselves were harder than slavery itself to look askance at another’s
       mercy. If they themselves (they said) had come to slavery, they would be slaves freely. If they had
       been sold, they would not refuse the service of slavery. They wished to undo the freedom of others,
       though they could not undo their own slavery, unless perchance it should please the buyer to receive
       his price again, whereby, however, slavery would not be simply undone but redeemed.
            71. It is then a special quality of liberality to redeem captives,481 especially from barbarian
       enemies who are moved by no spark of human feeling to show mercy, except so far as avarice has
       preserved it with a view to redemption. It is also a great thing to take upon oneself another’s debt,
       if the debtor cannot pay and is hard pressed to do so, and where the money is due by right and is
       only left unpaid through want. So, too, it is a sign of great liberality to bring up children, and to
       take care of orphans.
            72. There are others who place in marriage maidens that have lost their parents, so as to preserve
       their chastity, and who help them not only with good wishes but also by a sum of money. There is
       also another kind of liberality which the Apostle teaches: “If any that believeth hath widows let
       him relieve them, that the Church be not burdened by supplying them, that it may have enough for
       those that are widows indeed.”482
            73. Useful, then, is liberality of this sort; but it is not common to all. For there are many good
       men who have but slender means, and are content with little for their own use, and are not able to
       give help to lighten the poverty of others. However, another sort of kindness is ready to their hand,
       whereby they can help those poorer still. For there is a twofold liberality:483 one that gives actual
       assistance, that is, in money; the other, which is busy in offering active help, is often much grander
       and nobler.
            74. How much grander it was for Abraham to have recovered his captured son-in-law by his
       victorious arms,484 than if he had ransomed him! How much more usefully did holy Joseph help
       King Pharaoh by his counsel to provide for the future, than if he had offered him money! For money
       would not have bought back the fruitfulness of any one state; whilst he by his foresight kept the
       famine for five years485 from the whole of Egypt.
55          75. Money is easily spent; counsels can never be exhausted. They only grow the stronger by
       constant use. Money grows less and quickly comes to an end, and has failed even kindness itself;
       so that the more there are to whom one wants to give, the fewer one can help; and often one has
       not got what one thinks ought to be given to others. But as regards the offer of advice and active
       help, the more there are to spend it on, the more there seems to be, and the more it returns to its
       own source. The rich stream of prudence ever flows back upon itself, and the more it has reached
       out to, so much the more active becomes all that remains.




       481     Cic. de Off. II. 16.
       482     1 Tim. v. 16.
       483     Cic. de Off. II. 15, § 52.
       484     Gen. xiv. 16.
       485     Gen. xli. 53–57.


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                                                    CHAPTER XVI.

       Due measure must be observed in liberality, that it may not be expended on worthless persons,
          when it is needed by worthier ones. However, alms are not to be given in too sparing and
          hesitating a way. One ought rather to follow the example of the blessed Joseph, whose prudence
          is commended at great length.
            76. IT is clear, then,486 that there ought to be due measure in our liberality, that our gifts may
       not become useless. Moderation must be observed, especially by priests, for fear that they should
       give away for the sake of ostentation, and not for justice’ sake. Never was the greed of beggars
       greater than it is now. They come in full vigour, they come with no reason but that they are on the
       tramp. They want to empty the purses of the poor—to deprive them of their means of support. Not
       content with a little, they ask for more. In the clothes that cover them they seek a ground to urge
       their demands, and with lies about their lives they ask for further sums of money. If any one were
       to trust their tale too readily, he would quickly drain the fund which is meant to serve for the
       sustenance of the poor. Let there be method in our giving, so that the poor may not go away empty
       nor the subsistence of the needy be done away and become the spoil of the dishonest. Let there be
       then such due measure that kindness may never be put aside, and true need never be left neglected.
            77. Many pretend they have debts. Let the truth be looked into. They bemoan the fact that they
       have been stripped of everything by robbers. In such a case give credit only if the misfortune is
       apparent, or the person is well known; and then readily give help. To those rejected by the Church
       supplies must be granted if they are in want of food. He, then, that observes method in his giving
       is hard towards none, but is free towards all. We ought not only to lend our ears to hear the voices
       of those who plead, but also our eyes to look into their needs. Weakness calls more loudly to the
       good dispenser than the voice of the poor. It cannot always be that the cries of an importunate
       beggar will never extort more, but let us not always give way to impudence. He must be seen who
       does not see thee. He must be sought for who is ashamed to be seen. He also that is in prison must
       come to thy thoughts; another seized with sickness must present himself to thy mind, as he cannot
       reach thy ears.
            78. The more people see thy zeal in showing mercy, the more will they love thee. I know many
       priests who had the more, the more they gave. For they who see a good dispenser give him something
       to distribute in his round of duty, sure that the act of mercy will reach the poor. If they see him
       giving away either in excess or too sparingly, they contemn either of these; in the one case because
       he wastes the fruits of another’s labours by unnecessary payments, on the other hand because he
       hoards them in his money bags. As, then, method487 must be observed in liberality, so also at times
       it seems as though the spur must be applied. Method, then, so that the kindness one shows may be
       able to be shown day by day, and that we may not have to withdraw from a needful case what we
       have freely spent on waste. A spur, because money is better laid out in food for the poor than on a
       purse for the rich. We must take care lest in our money chests we shut up the welfare of the needy,
       and bury the life of the poor as it were in a sepulchre.



       486     Cic. de Off. II. 15, § 55.
       487     Cic. de Off. II. 15, § 54.


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            79. Joseph could have given away all the wealth of Egypt, and have spent the royal treasures;
       but he would not even seem to be wasteful of what was another’s. He preferred to sell the corn
       rather than to give it to the hungry. For if he had given it to a few there would have been none for
       most. He gave good proof of that liberality whereby there was enough for all. He opened the
       storehouses that all might buy their corn supply, lest if they received it for nothing, they should
       give up cultivating the ground. For he who has the use of what is another’s often neglects his own.
            80. First of all, then, he gathered up their money, then their implements, last of all he acquired
56     for the king all their rights to the ground.488 He did not wish to deprive all of them of their property,
       but to support them in it. He also imposed a general tax,489 that they might hold their own in safety.
       So pleasing was this to all from whom he had taken the land, that they looked on it, not as the
       selling of their rights, but as the recovery of their welfare. Thus they spoke: “Thou hast saved our
       lives, let us find grace in the sight of our Lord.”490 For they had lost nothing of their own, but had
       received a new right. Nothing of what was useful to them had failed, for they had now gained it in
       perpetuity.
            81. O noble man!491 who sought not for the fleeting glory of a needless bounty, but set up as
       his memorial the lasting benefits of his foresight. He acted so that the people should help themselves
       by their payments, and should not in their time of need seek help from others. For it was surely
       better to give up part of their crops than to lose the whole of their rights. He fixed the impost at a
       fifth of their whole produce, and thus showed himself clear-sighted in making provision for the
       future, and liberal in the tax he laid upon them. Never after did Egypt suffer from such a famine.
            82. How splendidly he inferred the future. First, how acutely, when interpreting the royal dream,
       he stated the truth. This was the king’s first dream.492 Seven heifers came up out of the river
       well-favoured and fat-fleshed, and they fed at the banks of the river. And other bullocks ill-favoured
       and lean-fleshed came up out of the river after the heifers, and fed near them on the very edge of
       the river. And these thin and wretched bullocks seemed to devour those others which were so fat
       and well-favoured. And this was the second dream.493 Seven fat ears full and good came up from
       the ground. And after them seven wretched ears, blasted with the wind and withered, endeavoured
       to take their place. And it seemed that the barren and thin ears devoured the rich and fruitful ears.
            83. This dream Joseph unfolded as follows: that the seven heifers were seven years, and the
       seven ears likewise were seven years,—interpreting the times by the produce of cattle and crops.
       For both the calving of a heifer takes a year, and the produce of a crop fills out a whole year. And
       they came up out of the river just as days, years, and times pass by and flow along swiftly like the
       rivers. He therefore states that the seven earlier years of a rich land will be fertile and fruitful but
       the latter seven years will be barren and unfruitful, whose barrenness will eat up the richness of the
       former time. Wherefore he warns them to see that supplies of corn are got together in the fruitful
       years that they may help out the needs of the coming scarcity.
            84. What shall we admire first? His powers of mind, with which he descended to the very
       resting-place of truth? Or his counsel, whereby he foresaw so great and lasting a need? Or his

       488     Gen. xlvii. 14–20.
       489     Cic. de Off. II. 21.
       490     Gen. xlvii. 25.
       491     Cic. de Off. II. 23, 83.
       492     Gen. xli. 17 ff.
       493     Gen. xli. 22 ff.


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       watchfulness or justice? By his watchfulness, when so high an office was given him, he gathered
       together such vast supplies; and through his justice he treated all alike. And what am I to say of his
       greatness of mind? For though sold by his brothers into slavery,494 he took no revenge for this
       wrong, but put an end to their want. What of his gentleness, whereby by a pious fraud he sought
       to gain the presence of his beloved brother whom, under pretence of a well-planned theft, he declared
       to have stolen his property, that he might hold him as a hostage of his love?495
           85. Whence it was deservedly said to him by his father: “My son Joseph is enlarged, my son is
       enlarged, my younger son, my beloved. My God hath helped thee and blessed thee with the blessing
       of heaven above and the blessing of the earth, the earth that hath all things, on account of the
       blessings of thy father and thy mother. It hath prevailed over the blessings of the everlasting hills
       and the desires of the eternal hills.”496 And in Deuteronomy: “Thou Who wast seen in the bush, that
       Thou mayest come upon the head of Joseph, upon his pate. Honoured among his brethren, his glory
       is as the firstling of his bullocks; his horns are like the horns of unicorns. With his horn he shall
       push the nations even to the ends of the earth. They are the ten thousands of Ephraim and the
       thousands of Manasseh.”497



                                                        CHAPTER XVII.
57

       What virtues ought to exist in him whom we consult. How Joseph and Paul were equipped with
         them.
           86. SUCH, then, ought he to be who gives counsel to another, in order that he may offer himself
       as a pattern in all good works, in teaching, in trueness of character, in seriousness. Thus his words
       will be wholesome and irreproachable, his counsel useful, his life virtuous, and his opinions seemly.
           87. Such was Paul, who gave counsel to virgins,498 guidance to priests,499 so as to offer himself
       as a pattern for us to copy. Thus he knew how to be humble, as also Joseph did, who, though sprung
       from the noble family of the patriarchs, was not ashamed of his base slavery; rather he adorned it
       with his ready service, and made it glorious by his virtues. He knew how to be humble who had to
       go through the hands of both buyer and seller, and called them, Lord. Hear him as he humbles
       himself: “My lord on my account knoweth not500 what is in his house, and he hath committed all
       that he hath to my hand, neither hath he kept back anything from me but thee, because thou art his
       wife; how, then, can I do this great wickedness, and sin against God?”501 Full of humility are his
       words, full, too, of chastity. Of humility, for he was obedient to his Lord; of an honourable spirit,




       494     Gen. xxxvii. 28.
       495     Gen. xliv. 2 ff.
       496     Gen. xlix. 22, 25, 26.
       497     Deut. xxxiii. 16, 17.
       498     1 Cor. vii. 25.
       499     1 Tim. iv. 12 ff.
       500     “propter me.” Cod. Dresd., Ed. Med. have “præter me.”
       501     Gen. xxxix. 8, 9.


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       for he was grateful;502 full, also, of chastity, for he thought it a terrible sin to be defiled by so great
       a crime.
            88. Such, then, ought the man of counsel to be. He must have nothing dark, or deceptive, or
       false about him, to cast a shadow on his life and character, nothing wicked or evil to keep back
       those who want advice. For there are some things which one flies from, others which one despises.503
       We fly from those things which can do harm, or can perfidiously and quietly grow to do us hurt,
       as when he whose advice we ask is of doubtful honour, or is desirous of money, so that a certain
       sum can make him change his mind. If a man acts unjustly, we fly from him and avoid him. A man
       that is a pleasure seeker and extravagant, although he does not act falsely, yet is avaricious and too
       fond of filthy lucre; such an one is despised. What proof of hard work, what fruits of labour, can
       he give who gives himself up to a sluggish and idle life, or what cares and anxieties ever enter his
       mind?
            89. Therefore the man of good counsel says: “I have learnt in whatsoever state I am therewith
       to be content.”504 For he knew that the root of all evils is the love of money,505 and therefore he was
       content with what he had, without seeking for what was another’s. Sufficient for me, he says, is
       what I have; whether I have little or much, to me it is much. It seems as though he wanted to state
       it as clearly as possible. He makes use of these words: “I am content,” he says, “with what I have.”
       That means: “I neither have want, nor have I too much. I have no want, for I seek nothing more. I
       have not too much, for I have it not for myself, but for the many.” This is said with reference to
       money.
            90. But he could have said these words about everything, for all that he had at the moment
       contented him; that is, he wanted no greater honour, he sought for no further services, he was not
       desirous of vainglory, nor did he look for gratitude where it was not due; but patient in labours,
       sure in his merits, he waited for the end of the struggle that he must needs endure. “I know,” he
       says, “how to be abased.”506 An untaught humility has no claim to praise, but only that which
       possesses modesty and a knowledge of self. For there is a humility that rests on fear, one, too, that
       rests on want of skill and ignorance. Therefore the Scripture says: “He will save the humble in
       spirit.”507 Gloriously, therefore, does he say: “I know how to be abased;” that is to say, where, in
       what moderation, to what end, in what duty, in which office. The Pharisee knew not how to be
       abased, therefore he was cast down. The publican knew, and therefore he was justified.508
            91. Paul knew, too, how to abound, for he had a rich soul, though he possessed not the treasure
       of a rich man. He knew how to abound, for he sought no gift in money, but looked for fruit in grace.
       We can understand his words that he knew how to abound also in another way. For he could say
       again: “O ye Corinthians, our mouth is open unto you, our heart is enlarged.”509
            92. In all things he was accustomed both to be full and to be hungry. Blessed is he that knows
       how to be full in Christ. Not corporal, but spiritual, is that satiety which knowledge brings about.

       502       “humilitatis, quia domino deferebat; honorificentiæ, quia referebat gratiam.” Others read: “humilitatis…deferebat
           honorificentiam, quia,” etc.
       503       Cic. de Off. II, 10, § 36.
       504       Phil. iv. 11.
       505       1 Tim. vi. 10.
       506       Phil. iv. 12.
       507       Ps. xxxiv. [xxxiii.] 18.
       508       S. Luke xviii. 11.
       509       2 Cor. vi. 14.


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       And rightly is there need of knowledge: “For man lives not by bread alone, but by every word of
       God.”510 For he who knew how to be full also knew how to be hungry, so as to be always seeking
58     something new, hungering after God, thirsting for the Lord. He knew how to hunger, for he knew
       that the hungry shall eat.511 He knew, also, how to abound, and was able to abound, for he had
       nothing and yet possessed all things.512



                                                   CHAPTER XVIII.

       We learn from the fact of the separation of the ten tribes from King Rehoboam what harm bad
          counsellors can do.
           93. JUSTICE, then, especially graces men that are set over any office;513 on the other hand, injustice
       fails them and fights against them. Scripture itself gives us an example, where it says, that when
       the people of Israel, after the death of Solomon, had asked his son Rehoboam to free their neck
       from their cruel yoke, and to lighten the harshness of his father’s rule, he, despising the counsel of
       the old men, gave the following answer at the suggestion of the young men: “He would add a burden
       to the yoke of his father, and change their lighter toils for harder.”514
           94. Angered by this answer, the people said: “We have no portion in David, nor inheritance in
       the son of Jesse. Return to your tents, O Israel. For we will not have this man for a prince or a leader
       over us.”515 So, forsaken and deserted by the people, he could keep with him scarce two of the ten
       tribes for David’s sake.



                                                    CHAPTER XIX.

       Many are won by justice and benevolence and courtesy, but all this must be sincere.
            95. IT is plain, then, that equity strengthens empires, and injustice destroys them. How could
       wickedness hold fast a kingdom when it cannot even rule over a single family? There is need,
       therefore, of the greatest kindness, so that we may preserve not only the government of affairs in
       general, but also the rights of individuals. Benevolence is of the greatest value; for it seeks to
       embrace all in its favours, to bind them to itself by fulfilling duties, and to pledge them to itself by
       its charm.
            96. We have also said that courtesy of speech has great effect in winning favour. But we want
       it to be sincere and sensible, without flattery, lest flattery should disgrace the simplicity and purity
       of our address. We ought to be a pattern to others not only in act but also in word, in purity, and in


       510     Deut. viii. 3.
       511     S. Matt. v. 6.
       512     2 Cor. vi. 10.
       513     Cic. de Off. II. 22, § 77.
       514     1 [3] Kings xii. 4 ff.
       515     1 [3] Kings xii. 16.


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       faith. What we wish to be thought, such let us be;516 and let us show openly such feelings as we
       have within us. Let us not say an unjust word in our heart that we think can be hid in silence, for
       He hears things said in secret Who made things secret, and knows the secrets of the heart, and has
       implanted feelings within. Therefore as though under the eyes of the Judge let us consider all we
       do as set forth in the light, that it may be manifest to all.



                                                    CHAPTER XX.

       Familiarity with good men is very advantageous to all, especially to the young, as is shown by the
          example of Joshua and Moses and others. Further, those who are unlike in age are often alike
          in virtues, as Peter and John prove.
            97. IT is a very good thing to unite oneself to a good man. It is also very useful for the young517
       to follow the guidance of great and wise men. For he who lives in company with wise men is wise
       himself; but he who clings to the foolish is looked on as a fool too. This friendship with the wise
       is a great help in teaching us, and also as giving a sure proof of our uprightness. Young men show
       very soon that they imitate those to whom they attach themselves. And this idea gains ground from
       the fact that in all their daily life they grow to be like those with whom they have enjoyed intercourse
       to the full.
            98. Joshua the son of Nun became so great, because his union with Moses was the means not
       only of instructing him in a knowledge of the law, but also of sanctifying him to receive grace.
       When in His tabernacle the majesty of the Lord was seen to shine forth in its divine Presence,
       Joshua alone was in the tabernacle. When Moses spoke with God, Joshua too was covered by the
       sacred cloud.518 The priests and people stood below, and Joshua and Moses went up the mount to
       receive the law. All the people were within the camp; Joshua was without the camp in the tabernacle
       of witness. When the pillar of a cloud came down, and God spoke with Moses, he stood as a trusty
59     servant beside him; and he, a young man, did not go out of the tabernacle, though the old men who
       stood afar off trembled at these divine wonders.
            99. Everywhere, therefore, he alone kept close to holy Moses amid all these wondrous works
       and dread secrets. Wherefore it happens that he who had been his companion in this intercourse
       with God succeeded to his power.519 Worthy surely was he to stand forth as a man who might stay
       the course of the river,520 and who might say: “Sun, stand still,” and delay the night and lengthen
       the day, as though to witness his victory.521 Why?—a blessing denied to Moses—he alone was
       chosen to lead the people into the promised land. A man he was, great in the wonders he wrought
       by faith, great in his triumphs. The works of Moses were of a higher type, his brought greater



       516     Cic. de Off. II. 12, § 43.
       517     Cic. de Off. II. 13, § 46.
       518     Ex. xxiv. 12 ff.
       519     Deut. xxxiv. 9.
       520     Josh. iii. 15 ff.
       521     Josh. x. 12, 13.


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       success. Either of these then aided by divine grace rose above all human standing. The one ruled
       the sea, the other heaven.522
           100. Beautiful, therefore, is the union between old and young. The one to give witness, the
       other to give comfort; the one to give guidance, the other to give pleasure. I pass by Lot, who when
       young clung to Abraham, as he was setting out.523 For some perhaps might say this arose rather
       owing to their relationship than from any voluntary action on his part. And what are we to say of
       Elijah and Elisha?524 Though Scripture has not in so many words stated that Elisha was a young
       man, yet we gather from it that he was the younger. In the Acts of the Apostles, Barnabas took
       Mark with him, and Paul took Silas525 and Timothy526 and Titus.527
           101. We see also that duties were divided amongst them according to their superiority in
       anything. The elders took the lead in giving counsel, the younger in showing activity. Often, too,
       those who were alike in virtue but unlike in years were greatly rejoiced at their union, as Peter and
       John were. We read in the Gospel that John was a young man, even in his own words, though he
       was behind none of the elders in merits and wisdom. For in him there was a venerable ripeness of
       character and the prudence of the hoarhead. An unspotted life is the due of a good old age.



                                                            CHAPTER XXI.

       To defend the weak, or to help strangers, or to perform similar duties, greatly adds to one’s worth,
          especially in the case of tried men. Whilst one gets great blame for love of money; wastefulness,
          also, in the case of priests is very much condemned.
           102. THE regard in which one is held is also very much enhanced when one rescues a poor man
       out of the hands of a powerful one, or saves a condemned criminal from death; so long as it can be
       done without disturbance, for fear that we might seem to be doing it rather for the sake of showing
       off than for pity’s sake, and so might inflict severer wounds whilst desiring to heal slighter ones.
       But if one has freed a man who is crushed down by the resources and faction of a powerful person,528
       rather than overwhelmed by the deserts of his own wickedness, then the witness of a great and high
       opinion grows strong.
           103. Hospitality also serves to recommend many.529 For it is a kind of open display of kindly
       feelings: so that the stranger may not want hospitality, but be courteously received, and that the
       door may be open to him when he comes. It is most seemly in the eyes of the whole world that the
       stranger should be received with honour; that the charm of hospitality should not fail at our table;
       that we should meet a guest with ready and free service, and look out for his arrival.



       522     Ex. xiv. 21. Cf. also Josh. x. 12.
       523     Gen. xii. 5.
       524     1 [3] Kings xix. 21.
       525     Acts xv. 39, 40.
       526     Acts xvi. 3.
       527     Tit. i. 5.
       528     Cic. de Off. II. 14, § 51.
       529     Cic. de Off. II. 18, § 64.


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            104. This especially was Abraham’s praise,530 for he watched at the door of his tent, that no
       stranger by any chance might pass by. He carefully kept a lookout, so as to meet the stranger, and
       anticipate him, and ask him not to pass by, saying: “My lord, if I have found favour in thy sight,
       pass not by thy servant.”531 Therefore as a reward for his hospitality, he received the gift of posterity.
            105. Lot also, his nephew,532 who was near to him not only in relationship but also in virtue, on
       account of his readiness to show hospitality, turned aside the punishment of Sodom from himself
       and his family.
            106. A man ought therefore to be hospitable, kind, upright, not desirous of what belongs to
       another, willing to give up some of his own rights if assailed, rather than to take away another’s.
       He ought to avoid disputes, to hate quarrels. He ought to restore unity and the grace of quietness.
60     When a good man gives up any of his own rights, it is not only a sign of liberality, but is also
       accompanied by great advantages. To start with, it is no small gain to be free from the cost of a
       lawsuit. Then it also brings in good results, by an increase of friendship, from which many advantages
       rise. These become afterwards most useful to the man that can despise a little something at the
       time.
            107. In all the duties of hospitality kindly feeling must be shown to all, but greater respect must
       be given to the upright.533 For “Whosoever receiveth a righteous man, in the name of a righteous
       man, shall receive a righteous man’s reward,”534 as the Lord has said. Such is the favour in which
       hospitality stands with God, that not even the draught of cold water shall fail of getting a reward.535
       Thou seest that Abraham, in looking for guests, received God Himself to entertain.536 Thou seest
       that Lot received the angels.537 And how dost thou know that when thou receivest men, thou dost
       not receive Christ? Christ may be in the stranger that comes, for Christ is there in the person of the
       poor, as He Himself says: “I was in prison and thou camest to Me, I was naked and thou didst clothe
       Me.”538.
            108. It is sweet, then, to seek not for money but for grace. It is true539 that this evil has long ago
       entered into human hearts, so that money stands in the place of honour, and the minds of men are
       filled with admiration for wealth. Thus love of money sinks in and as it were dries up every kindly
       duty; so that men consider everything a loss which is spent beyond the usual amount. But even
       here the holy Scriptures have been on the watch against love of money, that it might prove no cause
       of hindrance, saying: “Better is hospitality, even though it consisteth only of herbs.”540 And again:
       “Better is bread in pleasantness with peace.”541 For the Scriptures teach us not to be wasteful, but
       liberal.



       530     Gen. xviii 1 ff.
       531     Gen. xviii. 3.
       532     Gen. xix. 20.
       533     Cic. de Off. II. 20.
       534     S. Matt. x. 41.
       535     S. Matt. x. 42.
       536     Gen. xviii. 1 ff.
       537     Gen. xix. 3.
       538     S. Matt. xxv. 36.
       539     Cic. de Off. II. 20, § 69.
       540     Prov. xv. 17.
       541     Prov. xvii. 1.


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            109. There are two kinds of free-giving, one arising from liberality, the other from wasteful
       extravagance.542 It is a mark of liberality to receive the stranger, to clothe the naked, to redeem the
       captives, to help the needy. It is wasteful to spend money on expensive banquets and much wine.
       Wherefore one reads: “Wine is wasteful, drunkenness is abusive.”543 It is wasteful to spend one’s
       own wealth merely for the sake of gaining the favour of the people. This they do who spend their
       inheritance on the games of the circus, or on theatrical pieces and gladiatorial shows, or even a
       combat of wild beasts, just to surpass the fame of their forefathers for these things. All this that
       they do is but foolish, for it is not right to be extravagant in spending money even on good works.
            110. It is a right kind of liberality to keep due measure towards the poor themselves, that one
       may have enough for more; and not to go beyond the right limit for the sake of winning favour.
       Whatever comes forth out of a pure sincere disposition, that is seemly. It is also seemly not to enter
       on unnecessary undertakings, nor to omit those that are needed.
            111. But it befits the priest especially to adorn the temple of God with fitting splendour, so that
       the court of the Lord may be made glorious by his endeavours. He ought always to spend money
       as mercy demands. It behoves him to give to strangers what is right. This must not be too much,
       but enough; not more than, but as much as, kindly feeling demands, so that he may never seek
       another’s favour at the expense of the poor, nor show himself as either too stingy or too free to the
       clergy. The one act is unkind, the other wasteful. It is unkind if money should be wanting for the
       necessities of those whom one ought to win back from their wretched employments. It is wasteful
       if there should be too much over for pleasure.



                                                    CHAPTER XXII.

       We must observe a right standard between too great mildness and excessive harshness. They who
          endeavour to creep into the hearts of others by a false show of mildness gain nothing substantial
          or lasting. This the example of Absalom plainly enough shows.
           112. MOREOVER, due measure befits even our words and instructions, that it may not seem as
       though there was either too great mildness or too much harshness. Many prefer to be too mild, so
       as to appear to be good. But it is certain that nothing feigned or false can bear the form of true
       virtue; nay, it cannot even last. At first it flourishes, then, as time goes on, like a floweret it fades
       and passes away, but what is true and sincere has a deep root.544
61         113. To prove by examples our assertion that what is feigned cannot last, but flourishing just
       for a time quickly fails, we will take one example of pretence and falsehood from that family, from
       which we have already drawn so many examples to show their growth in virtue.
           114. Absalom was King David’s son, known for his beauty, of splendid appearance and in the
       heyday of youth; so that no other such man as he was found in Israel.545 He was without a blemish
       from the sole of his foot to the crown of his head. He had for himself a chariot and horses and fifty

       542     Cic. de Off. II. 16.
       543     Prov. xx. 1.
       544     Cic. de Off. II. 12, § 43.
       545     2 Sam. [2 Kings] xiv. 25.


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       men to run before him. He rose at early dawn and stood before the gate in the way, and whoever
       he knew to be seeking the judgment of the king, he called to himself, saying: “From what city art
       thou?” And he answered: “I thy servant am of one of the tribes of Israel.” And Absalom answered:
       “Thy words are good and right. Is there none given thee by the king to hear thee? Who will make
       me a judge? And whosoever will come unto me, that hath need of judgment, I will give him justice.”
       With such words he cajoled them. And when they came to make obeisance to him, stretching forth
       his hand he took hold of them and kissed them.546 So he turned the hearts of all to himself. For
       flattery of this sort quickly finds its way to touch the very depths of the heart.
            115. Those spoilt and ambitious men chose what for a time seemed an honour to them, and was
       pleasing and enjoyable. But whilst that delay took place, which the prophet,547 being prudent above
       all, thought ought to intervene, they could no longer hold out or bear it. Then David having no
       doubt about the victory commended his son to those who went out to fight, so that they should
       spare him.548 He would not engage in the battle himself lest he should seem to be taking up arms
       against one who was still his son, though attempting to destroy his father.
            116. It is clear, then, that those things are lasting and sound, which are true and grow out of a
       sincere and not a false heart. Those, however, which are brought about by pretence and adulation
       can never last for long.



                                                         CHAPTER XXIII.

       The good faith of those who are easily bought over with money or flattery is a frail thing to trust
          to.
           117. WHO would suppose that those who are bought over to obedience by money,549 or those
       who are allured by adulation, would ever be faithful to them? For the former are ever ready to sell
       themselves, whilst the latter cannot put up with a hard rule. They are easily won with a little
       adulation, but if one reproves them by a word, they murmur against it, they give one up, they go
       away with hostile feelings, they forsake one in anger. They prefer to rule rather than to obey. They
       think that those whom they ought to have placed over them ought to be subject to themselves, as
       though indebted to them by their kindness.
           118. What man is there that thinks those will be faithful to himself, whom he believes he will
       have to bind to himself by money or flattery? For he who takes thy money supposes that he is
       cheaply held, and looked down upon, unless the money is paid again and again. So he frequently
       expects his price; whilst the other, who is met with prayer and flattery, is always wanting to be
       asked.




       546     2 Sam. [2 Kings] xv. 1–6.
       547     Hushai is probably meant by this, who advised Absalom to delay his attack on the king.
       548     2 Sam. [2 Kings] xviii. 5.
       549     Cic. de Off. II. 6, § 21.


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                                                  CHAPTER XXIV.

       We must strive for preferment only by right means. An office undertaken must be carried out wisely
          and with moderation. The inferior clergy should not detract from the bishop’s reputation by
          feigned virtues; nor again, should the bishop be jealous of a cleric, but he should be just in all
          things and especially in giving judgment.
           119. I THINK, then, that one should strive to win preferment, especially in the Church, only by
       good actions and with a right aim; so that there may be no proud conceit, no idle carelessness, no
       shameful disposition of mind, no unseemly ambition. A plain simplicity of mind is enough for
       everything, and commends itself quite sufficiently.
           120. When in office, again, it is not right to be harsh and severe, nor may one be too easy; lest
       on the one hand we should seem to be exercising a despotic power, and on the other to be by no
       means filling the office we had taken up.
           121. We must strive also to win many by kindnesses and duties that we can do, and to preserve
       the favour already shown us. For they will with good reason forget the benefits of former times if
       they are now vexed at some great wrong. For it often enough happens that those one has shown
62     favour to and allowed to rise step by step, are driven away, if one decides in some unworthy way
       to put another before them. But it is seemly for a priest to show such favour in his kindnesses and
       his decisions as to guard equity, and to show regard to the other clergy as to parents.
           122. Those who once stood approved should not now become overbearing, but rather, as mindful
       of the grace they have received, stand firm in their humility. A priest ought not to be offended if
       either cleric or attendant or any ecclesiastic should win regard for himself, by showing mercy, or
       by fasting, or by uprightness of life, or by teaching and reading. For the grace of the Church is the
       praise of the teacher. It is a good thing that the work of another should be praised, if only it be done
       without any desire to boast. For each one should receive praise from the lips of his neighbour, and
       not from his own mouth, and each one should be commended by the work he has done, not merely
       by the wishes he had.
           123. But if any one is disobedient to his bishop and wishes to exalt and upraise himself, and to
       overshadow his bishop’s merits by a feigned appearance of learning or humility or mercy, he is
       wandering from the truth in his pride; for the rule of truth is, to do nothing to advance one’s own
       cause whereby another loses ground, nor to use whatever good one has to the disgrace or blame of
       another.
           124. Never protect a wicked man, nor allow the sacred things to be given over to an unworthy
       one; on the other hand, do not harass and press hard on a man whose fault is not clearly proved.
       Injustice quickly gives offence in every case, but especially in the Church, where equity ought to
       exist, where like treatment should be given to all, so that a powerful person may not claim the more,
       nor a rich man appropriate the more. For whether we be poor or rich, we are one in Christ. Let him
       that lives a holier life claim nothing more thereby for himself; for he ought rather to be the more
       humble for it.
           125. In giving judgment let us have no respect of persons. Favour must be put out of sight, and
       the case be decided on its merits. Nothing is so great a strain on another’s good opinion or confidence,
       as the fact of our giving away the cause of the weaker to the more powerful in any case that comes
       before us. The same happens if we are hard on the poor, whilst we make excuses for the rich man

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       when guilty. Men are ready enough to flatter those in high positions, so as not to let them think
       themselves injured, or to feel vexed as though overthrown. But if thou fearest to give offence then
       do not undertake to give judgment. If thou art a priest or some cleric do not urge it. It is allowable
       for thee to be silent in the matter, if it be a money affair, though it is always due to consistency to
       be on the side of equity. But in the cause of God, where there is danger to the whole Church, it is
       no small sin to act as though one saw nothing.



                                                    CHAPTER XXV.

       Benefits should be conferred on the poor rather than on the rich, for these latter either think a
          return is expected from them, or else they are angry at seeming to be indebted for such an
          action. But the poor man makes God the debtor in his place, and freely owns to the benefits he
          has received. To these remarks is added a warning to despise riches.
           126. BUT what advantage is it to thee to show favour to a rich man? Is it that he is more ready
       to repay one who loves him?550 For we generally show favour to those from whom we expect to
       receive a return of favour. But we ought to think far more of the weak and helpless, because we
       hope to receive, on behalf of him who has it not, a recompense from the Lord Jesus, Who in the
       likeness of a marriage feast551 has given us a general representation of virtue. By this He bids us
       confer benefits rather on those who cannot give them to us in return, teaching us to bid to our feasts
       and meals, not those who are rich, but those that are poor. For the rich seem to be asked that they
       may prepare a banquet for us in return; the poor, as they have nothing wherewith to make return,
       when they receive anything, make the Lord to be our recompense Who has offered Himself as
       surety for the poor.
           127. In the ordinary course of things, too, the conferring of a benefit on the poor is of more use
       than when it is conferred on the rich. The rich man scorns the benefit and is ashamed to feel indebted
       for a favour. Nay, moreover, whatever is offered to him he takes as due to his merits, as though
       only a just debt were paid him; or else he thinks it was but given because the giver expected a still
       greater return to be made him by the rich man. So, in accepting a kindness, the rich man, on that
       very ground, thinks that he has given more than he ever received. The poor man, however, though
63     he has no money wherewith he can repay, at least shows his gratitude. And herein it is certain that
       he returns more than he received. For money is paid in coins, but gratitude never fails; money grows
       less by payment, but gratitude fails when held back, and is preserved when given to others. Next—a
       thing the rich man avoids—the poor man owns that he feels bound by the debt. He really thinks
       help has been given him, not that it has been offered in return for his honour. He considers that his
       children have been again given him, that his life is restored and his family preserved. How much
       better, then, is it to confer benefits upon the good than on the ungrateful.
           128. Wherefore the Lord said to His disciples: “Take neither gold nor silver nor money.”552
       Whereby as with a sickle He cuts off the love of money that is ever growing up in human hearts.

       550     Cic. de Off. II. 20, § 69.
       551     S. Luke xiv. 12, 13.
       552     S. Matt. x. 9.


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       Peter also said to the lame man, who was always carried even from his mother’s womb: “Silver
       and gold have I none, but what I have give I thee. In the Name of Jesus Christ of Nazareth, arise
       and walk.”553 So he gave not money, but he gave health. How much better it is to have health without
       money, than money without health! The lame man rose; he had not hoped for that: he received no
       money; though he had hoped for that. But riches are hardly to be found among the saints of the
       Lord, so as to become objects of contempt to them.



                                                       CHAPTER XXVI.

       How long standing an evil love of money is, is plain from many examples in the Old Testament.
         And yet it is plain, too, how idle a thing the possession of money is.
           129. BUT man’s habits have so long applied themselves to this admiration of money, that no
       one is thought worthy of honour unless he is rich.554 This is no new habit. Nay, this vice (and that
       makes the matter worse) grew long years ago in the hearts of men. When the city of Jericho fell at
       the sound of the priests’ trumpets, and Joshua the son of Nun gained the victory, he knew that the
       valour of the people was weakened through love of money and desire for gold. For when Achan
       had taken a garment of gold and two hundred shekels of silver and a golden ingot555 from the spoils
       of the ruined city, he was brought before the Lord, and could not deny the theft, but owned it.556
           130. Love of money, then, is an old, an ancient vice, which showed itself even at the declaration
       of the divine law; for a law was given to check it.557 On account of love of money Balak thought
       Balaam could be tempted by rewards to curse the people of our fathers.558 Love of money would
       have won the day too, had not God bidden him hold back from cursing. Overcome by love of money
       Achan led to destruction all the people of the fathers. So Joshua the son of Nun, who could stay
       the sun from setting, could not stay the love of money in man from creeping on. At the sound of
       his voice the sun stood still, but love of money stayed not. When the sun stood still Joshua completed
       his triumph, but when love of money went on, he almost lost the victory.
           131. Why? Did not the woman Delilah’s love of money deceive Samson, the bravest man of
       all? So he who had torn asunder the roaring lion with his hands;560 who, when bound and handed
           559

       over to his enemies, alone, without help, burst his bonds and slew a thousand of them;561 who broke
       the cords interwoven with sinews as though they were but the slight threads of a net; he, I say,
       having laid his head on the woman’s knee, was robbed of the decoration of his victory-bringing




       553     Acts iii. 6.
       554     Cic. de Off. II. 20, § 71.
       555     “linguam auream.” Other readings are: “lineam auream,” or “regulam auream.”
       556     Josh. vii. 21.
       557     Ex. xx. 17.
       558     Num. xxii. 17.
       559     Judg. xvi. 6.
       560     Judg. xiv. 6.
       561     Judg. xv. 14, 15.


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       hair, that which gave him his might. Money flowed into the lap of the woman, and the favour of
       God forsook the man.562
            132. Love of money, then, is deadly. Seductive is money, whilst it also defiles those who have
       it, and helps not those who have it not. Supposing that money sometimes is a help, yet it is only a
       help to a poor man who makes his want known. What good is it to him who does not long for it,
       nor seek it; who does not need its help and is not turned aside by pursuit of it? What good is it to
       others, if he who has it is alone the richer for it? Is he therefore more honourable because he has
       that whereby honour is often lost, because he has what he must guard rather than possess? We
       possess what we use, but what is beyond our use brings us no fruit of possession, but only the
       danger of watching.



                                                 CHAPTER XXVII.
64

       In contempt of money there is the pattern of justice, which virtue bishops and clerics ought to aim
           at together with some others. A few words are added on the duty of not bringing an
           excommunication too quickly into force.
           133. TO come to an end; we know that contempt of riches is a form of justice, therefore we
       ought to avoid love of money, and strive with all our powers never to do anything against justice,
       but to guard it in all our deeds and actions.
           134. If we would please God, we must have love, we must be of one mind, we must follow
       humility, each one thinking the other higher than himself. This is true humility, when one never
       claims anything proudly for oneself, but thinks oneself to be the inferior. The bishop should treat
       the clerics and attendants, who are indeed his sons, as members of himself, and give to each one
       that duty for which he sees him to be fit.
           135. Not without pain is a limb of the body cut off which has become corrupt. It is treated for
       a long time, to see if it can be cured with various remedies. If it cannot be cured, then it is cut off
       by a good physician. Thus it is a good bishop’s desire to wish to heal the weak, to remove the
       spreading ulcers, to burn some parts and not to cut them off; and lastly, when they cannot be healed,
       to cut them off with pain to himself. Wherefore that beautiful rule of the Apostle stands forth
       brightly, that we should look each one, not on his own things, but on the things of others.563 In this
       way it will never come about that we shall in anger give way to our own feelings, or concede more
       than is right in favour to our own wishes.



                                                CHAPTER XXVIII.

       Mercy must be freely shown even though it brings an odium of its own. With regard to this, reference
          is made to the well-known story about the sacred vessels which were broken up by Ambrose to

       562     Judg. xvi. 20.
       563     Phil. ii. 4.


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             pay for the redemption of captives; and very beautiful advice is given about the right use of the
             gold and silver which the Church possesses. Next, after showing from the action of holy Lawrence
             what are the true treasures of the Church, certain rules are laid down which ought to be observed
             in melting down and employing for such uses the consecrated vessels of the Church.
           136. IT is a very great incentive to mercy to share in others’ misfortunes, to help the needs of
       others as far as our means allow, and sometimes even beyond them. For it is better for mercy’s
       sake to take up a case, or to suffer odium rather than to show hard feeling. So I once brought odium
       on myself because I broke up the sacred vessels to redeem captives—a fact that could displease
       the Arians. Not that it displeased them as an act, but as being a thing in which they could take hold
       of something for which to blame me. Who can be so hard, cruel, iron-hearted, as to be displeased
       because a man is redeemed from death, or a woman from barbarian impurities, things that are worse
       than death, or boys and girls and infants from the pollution of idols, whereby through fear of death
       they were defiled?
           137. Although we did not act thus without good reason, yet we have followed it up among the
       people so as to confess and to add again and again that it was far better to preserve souls than gold
       for the Lord. For He Who sent the apostles without gold564 also brought together the churches
       without gold. The Church has gold, not to store up, but to lay out, and to spend on those who need.
       What necessity is there to guard what is of no good? Do we not know how much gold and silver
       the Assyrians took out of the temple of the Lord?565 Is it not much better that the priests should melt
       it down for the sustenance of the poor, if other supplies fail, than that a sacrilegious enemy should
       carry it off and defile it? Would not the Lord Himself say: Why didst thou suffer so many needy
       to die of hunger? Surely thou hadst gold? Thou shouldst have given them sustenance. Why are so
       many captives brought on the slave market, and why are so many unredeemed left to be slain by
       the enemy? It had been better to preserve living vessels than gold ones.
           138. To this no answer could be given. For what wouldst thou say: I feared that the temple of
       God would need its ornaments? He would answer: The sacraments need not gold, nor are they
       proper to gold only—for they are not bought with gold. The glory of the sacraments is the redemption
       of captives. Truly they are precious vessels, for they redeem men from death. That, indeed, is the
       true treasure of the Lord which effects what His blood effected. Then, indeed, is the vessel of the
       Lord’s blood recognized, when one sees in either redemption, so that the chalice redeems from the
       enemy those whom His blood redeemed from sin. How beautifully it is said, when long lines of
       captives are redeemed by the Church: These Christ has redeemed. Behold the gold that can be tried,
65     behold the useful gold, behold the gold of Christ which frees from death, behold the gold whereby
       modesty is redeemed and chastity is preserved.
           139. These, then, I preferred to hand over to you as free men, rather than to store up the gold.
       This crowd of captives, this company surely is more glorious than the sight of cups. The gold of
       the Redeemer ought to contribute to this work so as to redeem those in danger. I recognize the fact
       that the blood of Christ not only glows in cups of gold, but also by the office of redemption has
       impressed upon them the power of the divine operation.


       564       S. Matt. x. 9.
       565       2 [4] Kings xxiv. 13.


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            140. Such gold the holy martyr Lawrence preserved for the Lord. For when the treasures of the
       Church were demanded from him, he promised that he would show them. On the following day he
       brought the poor together. When asked where the treasures were which he had promised, he pointed
       to the poor, saying: “These are the treasures of the Church.” And truly they were treasures, in whom
       Christ lives, in whom there is faith in Him. So, too, the Apostle says: “We have this treasure in
       earthen vessels.”566 What greater treasures has Christ than those in whom He says He Himself lives?
       For thus it is written: “I was hungry and ye gave Me to eat, I was thirsty and ye gave Me to drink,
       I was a stranger and ye took Me in.”567 And again: “What thou didst to one of these, thou didst it
       unto Me.”568 What better treasures has Jesus than those in which He loves to be seen?
            141. These treasures Lawrence pointed out, and prevailed, for the persecutors could not take
       them away. Jehoiachim,569 who preserved his gold during the siege and spent it not in providing
       food, saw his gold carried off, and himself led into captivity. Lawrence, who preferred to spend
       the gold of the Church on the poor, rather than to keep it in hand for the persecutor, received the
       sacred crown of martyrdom for the unique and deep-sighted vigour of his meaning. Or was it
       perhaps said to holy Lawrence: “Thou shouldst not spend the treasures of the Church, or sell the
       sacred vessels”?
            142. It is necessary that every one should fill this office, with genuine good faith and clear-sighted
       forethought. If any one derives profit from it for himself it is a crime, but if he spends the treasures
       on the poor, or redeems captives, he shows mercy. For no one can say: Why does the poor man
       live? None can complain that captives are redeemed, none can find fault because a temple of the
       Lord is built, none can be angry because a plot of ground has been enlarged for the burial of the
       bodies of the faithful, none can be vexed because in the tombs of the Christians there is rest for the
       dead. In these three ways it is allowable to break up, melt down, or sell even the sacred vessels of
       the Church.
            143. It is necessary to see that the mystic cup does not go out of the Church, lest the service of
       the sacred chalice should be turned over to base uses. Therefore vessels were first sought for in the
       Church which had not been consecrated to such holy uses. Then broken up and afterwards melted
       down, they were given to the poor in small payments, and were also used for the ransom of captives.
       But if new vessels fail, or those which never seem to have been used for such a holy purpose, then,
       as I have already said, I think that all might be put to this use without irreverence.



                                                   CHAPTER XXIX.

       The property of widows or of all the faithful, that has been entrusted to the Church, ought to be
          defended though it brings danger to oneself. This is illustrated by the example of Onias the
          priest, and of Ambrose, bishop of Ticinum.



       566     2 Cor. iv. 7.
       567     S. Matt. xxv. 35.
       568     S. Matt. xxv. 40.
       569     2 [4] Kings xxiii. 35.


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            144. GREAT care must be taken that the property entrusted by widows remains inviolate. It
       should be guarded without causing complaint, not only if it belongs to widows, but to any one at
       all. For good faith must be shown to all, though the cause of the widow and orphans comes first.
            145. So everything entrusted to the temple was preserved in the name of the widows alone, as
       we read in the book of the Maccabees.570 For when information was given of the money, which
       Simon treacherously had told King Antiochus could be found in large quantities in the temple at
       Jerusalem, Heliodorus was sent to look into the matter. He came to the temple, and made known
       to the high priest his hateful information and the reason of his coming.
            146. Then the priest said that only means for the maintenance of the widows and orphans was
       laid up there. And when Heliodorus would have gone to seize it, and to claim it on the king’s behalf,
       the, priests cast themselves before the altar, after putting on their priestly robes, and with tears
66     called on the living God Who had given them the law concerning trust-money to show Himself as
       guardian of His own commands. The changed look and colour of the high priest showed what grief
       of soul and anxiety and tension of mind were his. All wept, for the spot would fall into contempt,
       if not even in the temple of God safe and faithful guardianship could be preserved. Women with
       breasts girded, and virgins who usually were shut in, knocked at the doors. Some ran to the walls,
       others looked out of the windows, all raised their hands to heaven in prayer that God would stand
       by His laws.
            147. But Heliodorus, undeterred by this, was eager to carry out his intention, and had already
       surrounded the treasury with his followers, when suddenly there appeared to him a dreadful horseman
       all glorious in golden armour, his horse also being adorned with costly ornaments. Two other youths
       also appeared in glorious might and wondrous beauty, in splendour and glory and beauteous array.
       They stood round him, and on either side beat the sacrilegious wretch, and gave him stroke after
       stroke without intermission. What more need I say? Shut in by darkness he fell to the ground, and
       lay there nearly dead with fear at this plain proof of divine power, nor had he any hope of safety
       left within him. Joy returned to those who were in fear, fear fell on those who were so proud before.
       And some of the friends of Heliodorus in their trouble besought Onias, asking life for him, since
       he was almost at his last breath.
            148. When, therefore, the high priest asked for this, the same youths again appeared to
       Heliodorus, clad in the same garments, and said to him: Give thanks to Onias the high priest, for
       whose sake thy life is granted thee. But do thou, having experienced the scourge of God, go and
       tell thy friends how much thou hast learnt of the sanctity of the temple and the power of God. With
       these words they passed out of sight. Heliodorus then, his life having come back to him, offered a
       sacrifice to the Lord, gave thanks to the priest Onias, and returned with his army to the king, saying:
       “If thou hast an enemy or one who is plotting against thy power, send him thither and thou wilt
       receive him back well scourged.”
            149. Therefore, my sons, good faith must be preserved in the case of trust-money, and care,
       too, must be shown. Your service will glow the brighter if the oppression of a powerful man, which
       some widow or orphan cannot withstand, is checked by the assistance of the Church, and if ye show
       that the command of the Lord has more weight with you than the favour of the rich.



       570     2 Macc. iii.


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            150. Ye also remember how often we entered on a contest against the royal attacks, on behalf
       of the trust-money belonging to widows, yea, and to others as well. You and I shared this in common.
       I will also mention the late case of the Church at Ticinum, which was in danger of losing the widow’s
       trust-money that it had received.571 For when he who wanted to claim it on some imperial rescript
       demanded it, the clergy did not maintain their rights. For they themselves, having once been called
       to office and sent to intervene, now supposed that they could not oppose the emperor’s orders. The
       plain words of the rescript were read, the orders of the chief officer of the court were there, he who
       was to act in the matter was at hand. What more was to be said? It was handed over.
            151. However, after taking counsel with me, the holy bishop took possession of the rooms to
       which he knew that the widow’s property had been carried. As it could not be carried away, it was
       all set down in writing. Later on it was again demanded on proof of the document. The emperor
       repeated the order, and would meet us himself in his own person. We refused. And when the force
       of the divine law, and a long list of passages and the danger of Heliodorus was explained, at length
       the emperor became reasonable. Afterwards, again, an attempt was made to seize it, but the good
       bishop anticipated the attempt and restored to the widow all he had received. So faith was preserved,
       but the oppression was no longer a cause for fear; for now it is the matter itself, not good faith, that
       is in danger.



                                                             CHAPTER XXX.

       The ending of the book brings an exhortation to avoid ill-will, and to seek prudence, faith, and the
          other virtues.
            152. MY sons, avoid wicked men, guard against the envious. There is this difference between
       a wicked and an envious man: the wicked man is delighted at his own good fortune, but the envious
       is tortured at the thought of another’s. The former loves evil, the latter hates good. So he is almost
       more bearable who desires good for himself alone, than he who desires evil for all.
67          153. My sons, think before you act, and when you have thought long then do what you consider
       right. When the opportunity of a praiseworthy death is given let it be seized at once. Glory that is
       put off flies away and is not easily laid hold of again.
            154. Love faith. For by his devotion and faith Josiah572 won great love for himself from his
       enemies. For he celebrated the Lord’s passover when he was eighteen years old, as no one had done
       it before him. As then in zeal he was superior to those who went before him, so do ye, my sons,
       show zeal for God. Let zeal for God search you through, and devour you, so that each one of you
       may say: “The zeal of thine house hath eaten me up. ”573 An apostle of Christ was called the zealot.574




       571        This was attempted by the Emperor Valentinian II., who was induced to act in this way by his mother Justina. She being
           an Arian was only too ready to harass in every possible way a Catholic bishop such as Ambrose of Ticinum was.
       572        2 [4] Kings xxiii. 21 ff.
       573        Ps. lxix. [lxviii.] 9.
       574        S. Luke vi. 15.


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       But why do I speak of an apostle? The Lord Himself said: “The zeal of thine house hath eaten Me
       up.”575 Let it then be real zeal for God, not mean earthy zeal, for that causes jealousy.
           155. Let there be peace among you, which passeth all understanding. Love one another. Nothing
       is sweeter than charity, nothing more blessed than peace. Ye yourselves know that I have ever loved
       you and do now love you above all others. As the children of one father ye have become united
       under the bond of brotherly affection.
           156. Whatsoever is good, that hold fast; and the God of peace and love be with you in the Lord
       Jesus, to Whom be honour and glory, dominion and might, together with the Holy Spirit, for ever
       and ever. Amen.



                                                                 BOOK III.

                                                                 CHAPTER I.

       We are taught by David and Solomon how to take counsel with our own heart. Scipio is not to be
          accounted prime author of the saying which is ascribed to him. The writer proves what glorious
          things the holy prophets accomplished in their time of quiet, and shows, by examples of their
          and others’ leisure moments, that a just man is never alone in trouble.
            1. THE prophet David taught us that we should go about in our heart as though in a large house;
       that we should hold converse with it as with some trusty companion. He spoke to himself, and
       conversed with himself, as these words show: “I said, I will take heed to my ways.”576 Solomon his
       son also said: “Drink water out of thine own vessels, and out of the springs of thy wells; ”577 that
       is: use thine own counsel. For: “Counsel in the heart of a man is as deep waters.”578 “Let no stranger,”
       it says, “share it with thee. Let the fountain of thy water be thine own, and rejoice with thy wife
       who is thine from thy youth. Let the loving hind and pleasant doe converse with thee.”579
            2. Scipio,580 therefore, was not the first to know that he was not alone when he was alone, or
       that he was least at leisure when he was at leisure. For Moses knew it before him, who, when silent,
       was crying out;581 who, when he stood at ease, was fighting, nay, not merely fighting but triumphing
       over enemies whom he had not come near. So much was he at ease, that others held up his hands;
       yet he was no less active than others, for he with his hands at ease was overcoming the enemy,
       whom they that were in the battle could not conquer.582 Thus Moses in his silence spoke, and in his


       575         S. John ii. 17. St. John, however, only says: “The disciples remembered that it was written.”
       576         Ps. xxxix. [xxxviii.] 1.
       577         Prov. v. 15.
       578         Prov. xx. 5.
       579         Prov. v. 17–19.
       580         Cic. de Off. III. 1. Scipio, born B.C. 234. He was the greatest Roman of his time, a famous general and the conqueror of
           Hannibal. His exploits in Africa won him the surname of Africanus. Owing to jealous intrigues he in B.C. 185 left Rome and
           retired to his estate, where he passed the rest of his days in peaceful employments. Cicero (de Off. III. 1) relates on Cato’s
           authority that he used to say: “Nunquam se minus otiosum esse quam cum otiosus, nec minsolum quam cum solus esset.”
       581         Ex. xiv. 16.
       582         Ex. xvii. 11.


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       ease laboured hard. And were his labours greater than his times of quiet, who, being in the mount
       for forty days, received the whole law?583 And in that solitude there was One not far away to speak
       with him. Whence also David says: “I will hear what the Lord God will say within me.”584 How
       much greater a thing is it for God to speak with any one, than for a man to speak with himself!
           3. The apostles passed by and their shadows cured the sick.585 Their garments were touched and
       health was granted.
           4. Elijah spoke the word, and the rain ceased and fell not on the earth for three years and six
68     months.586 Again he spoke, and the barrel of meal failed not, and the cruse of oil wasted not the
       whole time of that long famine.587
           5. But—as many delight in warfare—which is the most glorious, to bring a battle to an end by
       the strength of a great army, or, by merits before God alone? Elisha rested in one place while the
       king of Syria waged a great war against the people of our fathers, and was adding to its terrors by
       various treacherous plans, and was endeavouring to catch them in an ambush. But the prophet found
       out all their preparations, and being by the grace of God present everywhere in mental vigour, he
       told the thoughts of their enemies to his countrymen, and warned them of what places to beware.
       And when this was known to the king of Syria, he sent an army and shut in the prophet. Elisha
       prayed and caused all of them to be struck with blindness, and made those who had come to besiege
       him enter Samaria as captives.588
           6. Let us compare this leisure of his with that of others.589 Other men for the sake of rest are
       wont to withdraw their minds from business, and to retire from the company and companionship
       of men; to seek the retirement of the country or the solitude of the fields, or in the city to give their
       minds a rest and to enjoy peace and quietness. But Elisha was ever active. In solitude he divided
       Jordan on passing over it, so that the lower part flowed down, whilst the upper returned to its source.
       On Carmel he promises the woman, who so far had had no child, that a son now unhoped for should
       be born to her.590 He raises the dead to life,591 he corrects the bitterness of the food, and makes it to
       be sweet by mixing meal with it.592 Having distributed ten loaves to the people for food, he gathered
       up the fragments that were left after they had been filled.593 He makes the iron head of the axe,
       which had fallen off and was sunk deep in the river Jordan, to swim by putting the wooden handle
       in the water.594 He changes leprosy for cleanness,595 drought for rain,596 famine for plenty.597
           7. When can the upright man be alone, since he is always with God? When is he left forsaken
       who is never separated from Christ? “Who,” it says, “shall separate us from the love of Christ? I


       583     Ex. xxiv. 17.
       584     Ps. lxxxv. [lxxxiv.] 8.
       585     Acts v. 15, 16.
       586     1 [3] Kings xvii. 1.
       587     1 [3] Kings xvii. 16 ff.
       588     2 [4] Kings vi. 8 ff.
       589     Cic. de Off. III. 1, § 2.
       590     2 [4] Kings iv. 16.
       591     2 [4] Kings iv. 34.
       592     2 [4] Kings iv. 41.
       593     2 [4] Kings iv. 44.
       594     2 [4] Kings vi. 6.
       595     2 [4] Kings v. 10.
       596     2 [4] Kings iii. 17.
       597     2 [4] Kings vii. 1.


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       am confident that neither death nor life nor angel shall do so.”598 And when can he be deprived of
       his labour who never can be deprived of his merits, wherein his labour receives its crown? By what
       places is he limited to whom the whole world of riches is a possession? By what judgment is he
       confined who is never blamed by any one? For he is “as unknown yet well known, as dying and
       behold he lives, as sorrowful yet always rejoicing, as poor yet making many rich, as having nothing
       and yet possessing all things.”599 For the upright man regards nothing but what is consistent and
       virtuous. And so although he seems poor to another, he is rich to himself, for his worth is taken not
       at the value of the things which are temporal, but of the things which are eternal.



                                                        CHAPTER II.

       The discussions among philosophers about the comparison between what is virtuous and what is
          useful have nothing to do with Christians. For with them nothing is useful which is not just.
          What are the duties of perfection, and what are ordinary duties? The same words often suit
          different things in different ways. Lastly, a just man never seeks his own advantage at the cost
          of another’s disadvantage, but rather is always on the lookout for what is useful to others.
           8. AS we have already spoken about the two former subjects, wherein we discussed what is
       virtuous and what is useful, there follows now the question whether we ought to compare what is
       virtuous and useful together, and to ask which we must follow. For, as we have already discussed
       the matter as to whether a thing is virtuous or wicked, and in another place whether it is useful or
       useless, so here some think we ought to find out whether a thing is virtuous or useful.600
           9. I am induced to do this, lest I should seem to be allowing that these two are mutually opposed
       to one another, when I have already shown them to be one. For I said that nothing can be virtuous
       but what is useful, and nothing can be useful but what is virtuous.601 For we do not follow the
       wisdom of the flesh, whereby the usefulness that consists in an abundance of money is held to be
       of most value, but we follow that wisdom which is of God, whereby those things which are greatly
       valued in this world are counted but as loss.
69         10. For this χατόρθωμα, which is duty carried out entirely and in perfection, starts from the
       true source of virtue.602 On this follows another, or ordinary duty. This shows by its name that no
       hard or extraordinary practice of virtue is involved, for it can be common to very many. The desire
       to save money is the usual practice with many. To enjoy a well-prepared banquet and a pleasant
       meal is a general habit; but to fast or to use self-restraint is the practice of but few, and not to be
       desirous of another’s goods is a virtue rarely found. On the other hand, to wish to deprive another
       of his property—and not to be content with one’s due—here one will find many to keep company




       598     Rom. viii. 35, 38.
       599     2 Cor. vi. 9 ff.
       600     “utile.” Some read “inutile.”
       601     Cic. de Off. III. 3, § 11.
       602     Cic. de Off. III. 3, § 13.


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       with one. Those (the philosopher would say) are primary duties—these ordinary.603 The primary
       are found but with few, the ordinary with the many.
            11. Again, the same words often have a different meaning. For instance, we call God good and
       a man good; but it bears in each case quite a different meaning.604 We call God just in one sense,
       man in another. So, too, there is a difference in meaning when we call God wise and a man wise.
       This we are taught in the Gospel: “Be ye perfect even as your Father Who is in heaven is perfect.”605
       I read again that Paul was perfect and yet not perfect. For when he said: “Not as though I had already
       attained, either were already perfect; but I follow after, if that I may apprehend it.”606 Immediately
       he added: “We, then, that are perfect.”607 There is a twofold form of perfection, the one having but
       ordinary, the other the highest worth. The one availing here, the other hereafter. The one in
       accordance with human powers, the other with the perfection of the world to come. But God is just
       through all, wise above all, perfect in all.
            12. There is also diversity even among men themselves. Daniel, of whom it was said: “Who is
       wiser than Daniel?”608 was wise in a different sense to what others are. The same may be said of
       Solomon, who was filled with wisdom, above all the wisdom of the ancients, and more than all the
       wise men of Egypt.609 To be wise as men are in general is quite a different thing to being really
       wise. He who is ordinarily wise is wise for temporal matters, is wise for himself, so as to deprive
       another of something and get it for himself. He who is really wise does not know how to regard
       his own advantage, but looks with all his desire to that which is eternal, and to that which is seemly
       and virtuous, seeking not what is useful for himself, but for all.
            13. Let this, then, be our rule,610 so that we may never go wrong between two things, one virtuous,
       the other useful. The upright man must never think of depriving another of anything, nor must he
       ever wish to increase his own advantage to the disadvantage of another. This rule the Apostle gives
       thee, saying: “All things are lawful, but all things are not expedient; all things are lawful, but all
       things edify not. Let no man seek his own, but each one another’s.”611 That is: Let no man seek his
       own advantage, but another’s; let no man seek his own honour, but another’s. Wherefore he says
       in another place: “Let each esteem other better than themselves, looking not each one to his own
       things, but to the things of others.”612
            14. And let no one seek his own favour or his own praise, but another’s. This we can plainly
       see declared in the book of Proverbs, where the Holy Spirit says through Solomon: “My son, if
       thou be wise, be wise for thyself and thy neighbours; but if thou turn out evil, thou alone shalt bear
       it.”613 The wise man gives counsel to others, as the upright man does, and shares with him in wearing
       the form of either virtue.



       603     Cic. de Off. III. 3, § 14.
       604     Cic. de Off. III. 4, § 16.
       605     S. Matt. v. 48.
       606     Phil. iii. 12.
       607     Phil. iii. 15.
       608     Ezek. xxviii. 3.
       609     1 [3] Kings iv. 29, 30.
       610     Cic. de Off. III. 4, § 19.
       611     1 Cor. x. 23, 24.
       612     Phil. ii. 3, 4.
       613     Prov. ix. 12.


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                                                          CHAPTER III.

       The rule given about not seeking one’s own gain is established, first by the examples of Christ, next
          by the meaning of the word, and lastly by the very form and uses of our limbs. Wherefore the
          writer shows what a crime it is to deprive another of what is useful, since the law of nature as
          well as the divine law is broken by such wickedness. Further, by its means we also lose that
          gift which makes us superior to other living creatures; and lastly, through it civil laws are
          abused and treated with the greatest contempt.
           15. IF, then, any one wishes to please all, he must strive in everything to do, not what is useful
       for himself, but what is useful for many, as also Paul strove to do. For this is “to be conformed to
       the image of Christ,”614 namely, when one does not strive for what is another’s, and does not deprive
       another of something so as to gain it for oneself. For Christ our Lord,615 though He was in the form
       of God, emptied Himself so as to take on Himself the form of man, which He wished to enrich with
70     the virtue of His works. Wilt thou, then, spoil him whom Christ has put on? Wilt thou strip him
       whom Christ has clothed? For this is what thou art doing when thou dost attempt to increase thine
       own advantage at another’s loss.
           16. Think, O man, from whence thou hast received thy name—even from the earth,616 which
       takes nothing from any one, but gives freely to all, and supplies varied produce for the use of all
       living things. Hence humanity is called a particular and innate virtue in man, for it assists its partner.
           17. The very form of thy body and the uses of thy limbs teach thee this. Can one limb claim
       the duties of another? Can the eye claim for itself the duties of the ear; or the mouth the duties of
       the eye; or the hand the service of the feet; or the feet that of the hands? Nay, the hands themselves,
       both left and right, have different duties to do, so that if one were to change the use of either, one
       would act contrary to nature. We should have to lay aside the whole man before we could change
       the service of the various members: as if, for instance, we were to try to take food with the left
       hand, or to perform the duties of the left hand with the right, so as to remove the remains of
       food—unless, of course, need demanded it.
           18. Imagine for a moment, and give to the eye the power to withdraw the understanding from
       the head, the sense of hearing from the ears, the power of thought from the mind, the sense of smell
       from the nose, the sense of taste from the mouth, and then to assume them itself, would it not at
       once destroy the whole order of nature? Wherefore the Apostle says well: “If the whole body were
       an eye, where were the hearing? If the whole were hearing, where were the smelling?”617 So, then,
       we are all one body, though with many members, all necessary to the body. For no one member
       can say of another: “I have no need of thee.” For those members which seem to be more feeble are
       much more necessary and require greater care and attention. And if one member suffers, all the
       members suffer with it.618
           19. So we see how grave a matter it is to deprive another, with whom we ought rather to suffer,
       of anything, or to act unfairly or injuriously towards one to whom we ought to give a share in our

       614     Rom. viii. 29.
       615     Phil. ii. 6, 7.
       616     The text here runs as follows: “Considera, O homo, unde nomen sumseris; ab humo utique.”
       617     1 Cor. xii. 17.
       618     1 Cor. xii. 26.


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       services. This is a true law of nature, which binds us to show all kindly feeling, so that we should
       all of us in turn help one another, as parts of one body, and should never think of depriving another
       of anything, seeing it is against the law of nature even to abstain from giving help. We are born in
       such a way that limb combines with limb, and one works with another, and all assist each other in
       mutual service. But if one fails in its duty, the rest are hindered. If, for instance, the hand tears out
       the eye, has it not hindered the use of its work? If it were to wound the foot, how many actions
       would it not prevent? But how much worse is it for the whole man to be drawn aside from his duty
       than for one of the members only! If the whole body is injured in one member, so also is the whole
       community of the human race disturbed in one man. The nature of mankind is injured, as also is
       the society of the holy Church, which rises into one united body, bound together in oneness of faith
       and love. Christ the Lord, also, Who died for all, will grieve that the price of His blood was paid
       in vain.
            20. Why, the very law of the Lord teaches us that this rule must be observed, so that we may
       never deprive another of anything for the sake of our own advantage. For it says: “Remove not the
       bounds which thy fathers have set.”619 It bids a neighbour’s ox to be brought back if found
       wandering.620 It orders a thief to be put to death.621 It forbids the labourer to be deprived of his hire,622
       and orders money to be returned without usury.623 It is a mark of kindly feeling to help him who
       has nothing, but it is a sign of a hard nature to extort more than one has given. If a man has need
       of thy assistance because he has not enough of his own wherewith to repay a debt, is it not a wicked
       thing to demand under the guise of kindly feeling a larger sum from him who has not the means to
       pay off a less amount? Thou dost but free him from debt to another, to bring him under thy own
       hand; and thou callest that human kindliness which is but a further wickedness.
            21. It is in this very matter that we stand before all other living creatures, for they do not
       understand how to do good. Wild beasts snatch away, men share with others. Wherefore the Psalmist
       says: “The righteous showeth mercy and giveth.”624 There are some, however, to whom the wild
       beasts do good. They feed their young with what they get, and the birds satisfy their brood with
71     food; but to men alone has it been given to feed all as though they were their own. That is so in
       accordance with the claims of nature. And if it is not lawful to refuse to give, how is it lawful to
       deprive another? And do not our very laws teach us the same? They order those things which have
       been taken from others with injury to their persons or property to be restored with additional
       recompense; so as to check the thief from stealing by the penalty, and by the fine to recall him from
       his ways.
            22. Suppose, however, that some one did not fear the penalty, or laughed at the fine, would that
       make it a worthy thing to deprive another of his own? That would be a mean vice and suited only
       to the lowest of the low. So contrary to nature is it, that while want might seem to drive one to it,
       yet nature could never urge it. And yet we find secret theft among slaves, open robbery among the
       rich.



       619     Prov. xxii. 28.
       620     Ex. xxiii. 4.
       621     Ex. xxii. 2.
       622     Lev. xix. 13.
       623     Deut. xxiii. 19.
       624     Ps. xxxvii. [xxxvi.] 21.


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            23. But what so contrary to nature as to injure another for our own benefit? The natural feelings
       of our own hearts urge us to keep on the watch for all, to undergo trouble, to do work for all. It is
       considered also a glorious thing for each one at risk to himself to seek the quiet of all, and to think
       it far more thankworthy to have saved his country from destruction than to have kept danger from
       himself. We must think it a far more noble thing to labour for our country than to pass a quiet life
       at ease in the full enjoyment of leisure.



                                                      CHAPTER IV.

       As it has been shown that he who injures another for the sake of his own advantage will undergo
           terrible punishment at the hand of his own conscience, it is referred that nothing is useful to
           one which is not in the same way useful to all. Thus there is no place among Christians for the
           question propounded by the philosophers about two shipwrecked persons, for they must show
           love and humility to all.
           24. HENCE we infer625 that a man who guides himself according to the ruling of nature, so as to
       be obedient to her, can never injure another. If he injures another, he violates nature, nor will he
       think that what he has gained is so much an advantage as a disadvantage. And what punishment is
       worse than the wounds of the conscience within? What judgment harder than that of our hearts,
       whereby each one stands convicted and accuses himself of the injury that he has wrongfully done
       against his brother? This the Scriptures speak of very plainly, saying: “Out of the mouth of fools
       there is a rod for wrong-doing.”626 Folly, then, is condemned because it causes wrong-doing. Ought
       we not rather to avoid this, than death, or loss, or want, or exile, or sickness? Who would not think
       some blemish of body or loss of inheritance far less than some blemish of soul or loss of reputation?
           25. It is clear, then,627 that all must consider and hold that the advantage of the individual is the
       same as that of all, and that nothing must be considered advantageous except what is for the general
       good. For how can one be benefited alone? That which is useless to all is harmful. I certainly cannot
       think that he who is useless to all can be of use to himself. For if there is one law of nature for all,
       there is also one state of usefulness for all. And we are bound by the law of nature to act for the
       good of all. It is not, therefore, right for him who wishes the interests of another to be considered
       according to nature, to injure him against the law of nature.
           26. For if those who run in a race628 are, as one hears, instructed and warned each one to win
       the race by swiftness of foot and not by any foul play, and to hasten on to victory by running as
       hard as they can, but not to dare to trip up another or push him aside with their hand, how much
       more in the course of this life ought the victory to be won by us, without falseness to another and
       cheating?




       625     Cic. de Off. III. 5, § 25.
       626     Prov. xiv. 3.
       627     Cic. de Off. III. 6.
       628     Cic. de Off. III. 10, § 42.


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           27. Some ask629 whether a wise man ought in case of a shipwreck to take away a plank from an
       ignorant sailor? Although it seems better for the common good that a wise man rather than a fool
       should escape from shipwreck, yet I do not think that a Christian, a just and a wise man, ought to
       save his own life by the death of another; just as when he meets with an armed robber he cannot
       return his blows, lest in defending his life he should stain his love toward his neighbour. The verdict
       on this is plain and clear in the books of the Gospel. “Put up thy sword, for every one that taketh
       the sword shall perish with the sword.”630 What robber is more hateful than the persecutor who
       came to kill Christ? But Christ would not be defended from the wounds of the persecutor, for He
       willed to heal all by His wounds.
72         28. Why dost thou consider thyself greater than another, when a Christian man ought to put
       others before himself, to claim nothing for himself, usurp no honours, claim no reward for his
       merits? Why, next, art thou not wont to bear thy own troubles rather than to destroy another’s
       advantage? For what is so contrary to nature as not to be content with what one has or to seek what
       is another’s, and to try to get it in shameful ways. For if a virtuous life is in accordance with
       nature—for God made all things very good—then shameful living must be opposed to it. A virtuous
       and a shameful life cannot go together, since they are absolutely severed by the law of nature.



                                                     CHAPTER V.

       The upright does nothing that is contrary to duty, even though there is a hope of keeping it secret.
          To point this out the tale about the ring of Gyges was invented by the philosophers. Exposing
          this, he brings forward known and true examples from the life of David and John the Baptist.
            29. TO lay down here already the result of our discussion, as though we had already ended it,
       we declare it a fixed rule, that we must never aim at anything but what is virtuous.631 The wise man
       does nothing but what can be done openly and without falseness,632 nor does he do anything whereby
       he may involve himself in any wrong-doing, even where he may escape notice. For he is guilty in
       his own eyes, before being so in the eyes of others; and the publicity of his crime does not bring
       him more shame than his own consciousness of it. This we can show, not by the made-up stories
       which philosophers use, but from the true examples of good men.
            30. I need not, therefore, imagine a great chasm in the earth, which had been loosened by heavy
       rains, and had afterwards burst asunder, as Plato does.633 For he makes Gyges descend into that
       chasm, and to meet there that iron horse of the fable that had doors in its sides. When these doors
       were opened, he found a gold ring on the finger of a dead man, whose corpse lay there lifeless. He
       desiring the gold took away the ring. But when he returned to the king’s shepherds, to whose number
       he belonged, by chance having turned the stone inwards towards the palms of his hands, he saw
       all, yet was seen by none. Then when he turned the ring to its proper position, he was again seen


       629     Cic. de Off. 23, § 89.
       630     S. Matt. xxvi. 52.
       631     Cic. de Off. III. 7, § 33.
       632     Cic. de Off. III. 7, § 37.
       633     Cic. de Off. III. 9.


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       by all. On becoming conscious of this strange power, by the use of the ring he committed adultery
       with the queen, killed the king, and took possession of the kingdom after slaying all the rest, who
       he thought should be put to death, so that they might be no hindrance to him.
           31. Give, says Plato, this ring to a wise man, that when he commits a fault he may by its help
       remain unnoticed; yet he will be none the more free from the stain of sin than if he could not be
       hid. The hiding-place of the wise lies not in the hope of impunity but in his own innocency. Lastly,
       the law is not laid down for the just but for the unjust.634 For the just has within himself the law of
       his mind, and a rule of equity and justice. Thus he is not recalled from sin by fear of punishment,
       but by the rule of a virtuous life.
           32. Therefore, to return to our subject, I will now bring forward, not false examples for true,
       but true examples in place of false. For why need I imagine a chasm in the earth, and an iron horse
       and a gold ring found on the fingers of a dead man; and say that such was the power of this ring,
       that he who wore it could appear at his own will, but if he did not wish to be seen, he could remove
       himself out of the sight of those who stood by, so as to seem to be away. This story, of course, is
       meant to answer the question whether a wise man, on getting the opportunity of using that ring so
       as to be able to hide his crimes, and to obtain a kingdom,—whether, I say, a wise man would be
       unwilling to sin and would consider the stain of sin far worse than the pains of punishment, or
       whether he would use it for doing wickedness in the hope of not being found out? Why, I say,
       should I need the pretence of a ring, when I can show from what has been done that a wise man,
       on seeing he would not only be undetected in his sin, but would also gain a kingdom if he gave
       way to it, and who, on the other hand, noted danger to his own safety if he did not commit the
       crime, yet chose to risk his own safety so as to be free from crime, rather than to commit the crime
       and so gain the kingdom.
           33. When David fled from the face of King Saul,635 because the king was seeking him in the
       desert with three thousand chosen men to put him to death, he entered the king’s camp and found
       him sleeping. There he not only did him no injury, but actually guarded him from being slain by
73     any who had entered with him. For when Abishai said to him: “The Lord hath delivered thine enemy
       into thine hand this day, now therefore I will slay him,” he answered: “Destroy him not, for who
       can stretch forth his hand against the Lord’s anointed, and be guiltless?” And he added: “As the
       Lord liveth, unless the Lord shall smite him, or his day shall come to die, or he shall die in battle,
       and it be laid to me, the Lord forbid that I should stretch out my hand against the Lord’s anointed.”636
           34. Therefore he did not suffer him to be slain, but removed only his spear, which stood by his
       head, and his cruse of water. Then, whilst all were sleeping, he left the camp and went across to
       the top of the hill, and began to reproach the royal attendants, and especially their general Abner,
       for not keeping faithful watch over their lord and king. Next, he showed them where the king’s
       spear and cruse were which had stood at his head. And when the king called to him, he restored
       the spear, and said: “The Lord render to every man his righteousness and faithfulness, for the Lord
       delivered thee into my hand, but I would not avenge myself on the Lord’s anointed.”637 Even whilst
       he said this, he feared his plots and fled, changing his place in exile. However, he never put safety


       634     1 Tim. i. 9.
       635     1 Sam. [1 Kings] xxvi. 2.
       636     1 Sam. [1 Kings] xxvi. 8–10.
       637     1 Sam. [1 Kings] xxvi. 23.


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       before innocency, seeing that when a second opportunity was given him of killing the king, he
       would not use the chance that came to him, and which put in his reach certain safety instead of
       fear, and a kingdom instead of exile.
           35. Where was the use of the ring in John’s case,638 who would not have been put to death by
       Herod if he had kept silence? He could have kept silence before him so as to be both seen and yet
       not killed. But because he not only could not endure to sin himself to protect his own safety, but
       could not bear and endure even another’s sin, he brought about the cause of his own death. Certainly
       none can deny that he might have kept silence, who in the case of Gyges deny that he could have
       remained invisible by the help of the ring.
           36. But although that fable has not the force of truth, yet it has this much to go upon, that if an
       upright man could hide himself, yet he would avoid sin just as though he could not conceal himself;
       and that he would not hide his person by putting on a ring, but his life by putting on Christ. As the
       Apostle says: “Our life is hid with Christ in God.”639 Let, then, no one here strive to shine, let none
       show pride, let none boast. Christ willed not to be known here, He would not that His Name should
       be preached in the Gospel whilst He lived on earth. He came to lie hid from this world. Let us
       therefore likewise hide our life after the example of Christ, let us shun boastfulness, let us not desire
       to be made known. It is better to live here in humility, and there in glory. “When Christ,” it says,
       “shall appear, then shall we also appear with Him in glory.”640



                                                                CHAPTER VI.

       We ought not to allow the idea of profit to get hold of us. What excuses they make who get their
          gains by selling corn, and what answer ought to be made to them. In connection with this certain
          parables from the Gospels and some of the sayings of Solomon are set before our eyes.
            37. LET not, therefore, expediency get the better of virtue, but virtue of expediency. By
       expediency here I mean what is accounted so by people generally. Let love of money be destroyed,
       let lust die. The holy man says that he has never been engaged in business.641 For to get an increase
       in price is a sign not of simplicity but of cunning. Elsewhere it says: “He that seeketh a high price
       for his corn is cursed among the people.”642
            38. Plain and definite is the statement, leaving no room for debate, such as a disputatious kind
       of speaking is wont to give, when one maintains that agriculture is considered praiseworthy by all;
       that the fruits of the earth are easily grown; that the more a man has sown, the greater will be his
       meed of praise; further, that the richer returns of his active labours are not gained by fraud, and
       that carelessness and disregard for an uncultivated soil are wont to be blamed.


       638         S. Matt. xiv. 3.
       639         Col. iii. 3.
       640         Col. iii. 4.
       641         Ps. lxxi. 15 [LXX.]. “Sanctus in negotiationem introisse se negat,” says St. Ambrose, from Ps. lxxi. 15. According to the
           Septuagint, “οὐκ ἔγνων πραγματείας” which in the old Latin versions became “quoniam non cognovi negotiationes” (the Vulgate
           has “literaturam” for “negotiationes”).
       642         Prov. xi. 26.


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            39. I have ploughed, he says, carefully. I have sown freely. I have tilled actively. I have gathered
       good increase. I have stored it anxiously, saved it faithfully, and guarded it with care. Now in a
       time of famine I sell it, and come to the help of the hungry. I sell my own corn, not another’s. And
       for no more than others, nay, even at a less price. What fraud is there here, when many would come
74     to great danger if they had nothing to buy? Is industry to be made a crime? Or diligence to be
       blamed? Or foresight to be abused? Perhaps he may even say: Joseph collected corn in a time of
       abundance, and sold it when it was dear. Is any one forced to buy it at too dear a price? Is force
       employed against the buyer? The opportunity to buy is afforded to all, injury is inflicted on none.
            40. When this has been said, and one man’s ideas have carried him so far, another rises and
       says: Agriculture is good indeed, for it supplies fruits for all, and by simple industry adds to the
       richness of the earth without any cheating or fraud. If there is any error, the loss is the greater, for
       the better a man sows, the better he will reap. If he has sown the pure grain of wheat, he gathers a
       purer and cleaner harvest. The fruitful earth returns what she has received in manifold measure. A
       good field returns its produce with interest.
            41. Thou must expect payment for thy labour from the crops of the fruitful land, and must hope
       for a just return from the fruitfulness of the rich earth. Why dost thou use the industry of nature
       and make a cheat of it? Why dost thou grudge for the use of men what is grown for all? Why lessen
       the abundance for the people? Why make want thy aim? Why make the poor long for a barren
       season? For when they do not feel the benefits of a fruitful season, because thou art putting up the
       price, and art storing up the corn, they would far rather that nothing should be produced, than that
       thou shouldst do business at the expense of other people’s hunger. Thou makest much of the want
       of corn, the small supply of food. Thou groanest over the rich crops of the soil; thou mournest the
       general plenty, and bewailest the garners full of corn; thou art on the lookout to see when the crop
       is poor and the harvest fails. Thou rejoicest that a curse has smiled upon thy wishes, so that none
       should have their produce. Then thou rejoicest that thy harvest has come. Then thou collectest
       wealth from the misery of all, and callest this industry and diligence, when it is but cunning
       shrewdness and an adroit trick of the trade. Thou callest it a remedy, when it is but a wicked
       contrivance. Shall I call this robbery or only gain? These opportunities are seized as though seasons
       for plunder, wherein, like some cruel waylayer, thou mayest fall upon the stomachs of men. The
       price rises higher as though by the mere addition of interest, but the danger to life is increased too.
       For then the interest of the stored-up crops grows higher. As a usurer thou hidest up thy corn, as a
       seller thou puttest it up for auction. Why dost thou wish evil to all, because the famine will grow
       worse, as though no corn should be left, as though a more unfruitful year should follow? Thy gain
       is the public loss.
            42. Holy Joseph opened the garners to all; he did not shut them up. He did not try to get the full
       price of the year’s produce, but assigned it for a yearly payment. He took nothing for himself, but,
       so far as famine could be checked for the future, he made his arrangements with careful foresight.
            43. Thou hast read how the Lord Jesus in the Gospel speaks of that corn-dealer who was looking
       out for a high price, whose possessions brought him in rich fruits, but who, as though still in need,
       said: “What shall I do? I have no room where to bestow my goods. I will pull down my barns and
       build greater,”643 though he could not know whether in the following night his soul would not be


       643     S. Luke xii. 17.


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       demanded of him. He knew not what to do, he seemed to be in doubt, just as though he were in
       want of food. His barns could not take in the year’s supply, and yet he thought he was in need.
           44. Rightly, therefore, Solomon says: “He that withholdeth corn shall leave it for the nations,”644
       not for his heirs, for the gains of avarice have nothing to do with the rights of succession. That
       which is not rightfully got together is scattered as though by a wind by outsiders that seize it. And
       he added: “He who graspeth at the year’s produce is cursed among the people, but blessing shall
       be his that imparteth it.” Thou seest, then, what is said of him who distributes the corn, but not of
       him that seeks for a high price. True expediency does not therefore exist where virtue loses more
       than expediency gains.



                                                                CHAPTER VII.
75

       Strangers must never be expelled the city in a time of famine. In this matter the noble advice of a
           Christian sage is adduced, in contrast to which the shameful deed committed at Rome is given.
           By comparing the two it is shown that the former is combined with what is virtuous and useful,
           but the latter with neither.
           45. BUT they, too, who would forbid the city to strangers645 cannot have our approval. They
       would expel them at the very time when they ought to help, and separate them from the trade of
       their common parent. They would refuse them a share in the produce meant for all, and avert the
       intercourse that has already begun; and they are unwilling, in a time of necessity, to give those with
       whom they have enjoyed their rights in common, a share in what they themselves have. Beasts do
       not drive out beasts, yet man shuts out man. Wild beasts and animals consider food which the earth
       supplies to be common to all. They all give assistance to those like themselves; and man, who ought
       to think nothing human foreign to himself, fights against his own.
           46. How much better did he act who, having already reached an advanced age, when the city
       was suffering from famine, and, as is common in such cases, the people demanded that strangers
       should be forbidden the city, having the office of the prefectship646 of the city, which is higher than
       the rest, called together the officials and richer men, and demanded that they should take counsel
       for the public welfare. He said that it was as cruel a thing for the strangers to be expelled as for one
       man to be cast off by another, and to be refused food when dying. We do not allow our dogs to
       come to our table and leave them unfed, yet we shut out a man. How unprofitable, again, it is for
       the world that so many people perish, whom some deadly plague carries off. How unprofitable for
       their city that so large a number should perish, who were wont to be helpful either in paying
       contributions or in carrying on business. Another’s hunger is profitable to no man, nor to put off
       the day of help as long as possible and to do nothing to check the want. Nay more, when so many

       644         Prov. xi. 26. St. Ambrose cites the same verse each time, but the first time according to LXX. The second time he varies
           the commencement.
       645         Cic. de Off. III. 11, § 67.
       646         It is not certain to what date the famine mentioned by St. Ambrose is to be referred, nor is the name of the prefect of the
           city certainly known. The Præfectus Urbis was at this time the highest officer of the city, directly representing the emperor, and
           except to the latter there was no appeal from his decisions. Amongst other duties he exercised a supervision over the importation,
           exportation, and prices of provisions. As St. Ambrose, § 48, calls him “sanctissimus senex,” he was probably a Christian.


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       of the cultivators of the soil are gone, when so many labourers are dying, the corn supplies will fail
       for the future. Shall we then expel those who are wont to supply us with food, are we unwilling to
       feed in a time of need those who have fed us all along? How great is the assistance which they
       supply even at this time. “Not by bread alone does man live.”647 They are even our own family;
       many of them even are our own kindred. Let us make some return for what we have received.
           47. But perhaps we fear that want may increase. First of all, I answer, mercy never fails, but
       always finds means of help. Next, let us make up for the corn supplies which are to be granted to
       them, by a subscription. Let us put that right with our gold. And, again, must we not buy other
       cultivators of the soil if we lose these? How much cheaper is it to feed than to buy a working-man.
       Where, too, can one obtain, where find a man to take the place of the former? And suppose one
       finds him, do not forget that, with an ignorant man used to different ways, one may fill up the place
       in point of numbers, but not as regards the work to be done.
           48. Why need I say more? When the money was supplied corn was brought in. So the city’s
       abundance was not diminished, and yet assistance was given to the strangers. What praise this act
       won that holy man from God! What glory among men! He, indeed, had won an honoured name,
       who, pointing to the people of a whole province, could truly say to the emperor: All these I have
       preserved for thee; these live owing to the kindness of the senate; these thy council648 has snatched
       from death!
           49. How much more expedient was this than that which was done lately at Rome. There from
       that widely extended city were those expelled who had already passed most of their life in it. In
       tears they went forth with their children, for whom as being citizens they bewailed the exile, which,
       as they said, ought to be averted; no less did they grieve over the broken bonds of union, the severed
       ties of relationship. And yet a fruitful year had smiled upon us. The city alone needed corn to be
       brought into it. It could have got help, if it had sought corn from the Italians whose children they
       were driving out. Nothing is more shameful than to expel a man as a foreigner, and yet to claim
       his services as though he belonged to us. How canst thou expel a man who lives on his own produce?
       How canst thou expel him who supplies thee with food? Thou retainest thy servant, and thrustest
76     out thy kindred! Thou takest the corn, but showest no good feeling! Thou takest food by force, but
       dost not show gratitude!
           50. How wretched this is, how useless! For how can that be expedient which is not seemly. Of
       what great supplies from her corporations has Rome at times been deprived, yet she could not
       dismiss them and yet escape a famine, while waiting for a favourable breeze, and the provisions in
       the hoped-for ships.
           51. How far more virtuous and expedient was that first-mentioned management! For what is
       so seemly or virtuous as when the needy are assisted by the gifts of the rich, when food is supplied
       to the hungry, when daily bread fails none? What so advantageous as when the cultivators are kept
       for the land, and the country people do not perish?
           52. What is virtuous, then, is also expedient, and what is expedient is virtuous. On the other
       hand, what is not expedient is unseemly, and what is unseemly is also not expedient.




       647     Deut. viii. 3.
       648     tua curia. Ed. Med. has “tua cura.”


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                                                  CHAPTER VIII.

       That those who put what is virtuous before what is useful are acceptable to God is shown by the
          example of Joshua, Caleb, and the other spies.
           53. WHEN could our fathers ever have thrown off their servitude, unless they had believed that
       it was not only shameful but even useless to serve the king of Egypt?
           54. Joshua, also, and Caleb, when sent to spy out the land, brought back the news that the land
       was indeed rich, but that it was inhabited by very fierce nations.649 The people, terrified at the
       thought of war, refused to take possession of their land. Joshua and Caleb, who had been sent as
       spies, tried to persuade them that the land was fruitful. They thought it unseemly to give way before
       the heathen; they chose rather to be stoned, which is what the people threatened, than to recede
       from their virtuous standpoint. The others kept dissuading, the people exclaimed against it, saying
       they would have to fight against cruel and terrible nations; that they would fall in battle, and their
       wives and children would be left for a prey.650
           55. The anger of the Lord burst forth,651 so that He would kill all, but at the prayer of Moses He
       softened His judgment and put off His vengeance, knowing that He had already sufficiently punished
       those who were faithless, even if He spared them meanwhile and did not slay the unbelievers.
       However, He said652 they should not come to that land which they had refused, as a penalty for their
       unbelief; but their children and wives, who had not murmured, and who, owing to their sex and
       age, were guiltless, should receive the promised inheritance of that land. So the bodies of those of
       twenty years old and upwards fell in the desert. The punishment of the rest was put aside. But they
       who had gone up with Joshua, and had thought fit to dissuade the people, died forthwith of a great
       plague.653 Joshua and Caleb654 entered the land of promise together with those who were innocent
       by reason of age or sex.
           56. The better part, therefore, preferred glory to safety; the worse part safety to virtue. But the
       divine judgment approved those who thought virtue was above what is useful, whilst it condemned
       those who preferred what seemed more in accordance with safety than with what is virtuous.



                                                   CHAPTER IX.

       Cheating and dishonest ways of making money are utterly unfit for clerics whose duty is to serve
          all. They ought never to be involved in a money affair, unless it is one affecting a man’s life.
          For them the example of David is given, that they should injure none, even when provoked;
          also the death of Naboth, to keep them from preferring life to virtue.



       649     Num. xiii. 27, 28.
       650     Num. xiv. 3.
       651     Num. xiv. 11 ff.
       652     Num. xiv. 29.
       653     Num. xiv. 37.
       654     Josh. xiv. 6.


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            57. NOTHING is more odious than for a man to have no love for a virtuous life, but instead to be
       kept excited by an unworthy business in following out a low line of trade, or to be inflamed by an
       avaricious heart, and by day and by night to be eager to damage another’s property, not to raise the
       soul to the splendour of a virtuous life, and not to regard the beauty of true praise.
            58. Hence rise inheritances sought by cunning words and gained under pretence of being
       self-restrained and serious. But this is absolutely abhorrent to the idea of a Christian man. For
       everything gained by craft and got together by cheating loses the merit of openness. Even amongst
       those who have undertaken no duty in the ranks of the clergy it is considered unfitting to seek for
       the inheritance of another. Let those who are reaching the end of their life use their own judgment,
77     so that they may freely make their wills as they think best, since they will not be able to amend
       them later. For it is not honourable to divert the savings that belong to others or have been got
       together for them. It is further the duty of the priest or the cleric to be of use if possible to all and
       to be harmful to none.655
            59. If it is not possible to help one without injuring another, it is better to help neither than to
       press hard upon one. Therefore it is not a priest’s duty to interfere in money affairs. For here it must
       often happen that he who loses his case receives harm; and then he considers that he has been
       worsted through the action of the intervener. It is a priest’s duty to hurt no one, to be ready to help
       all. To be able to do this is in God’s power alone. In a case of life and death, without doubt it is a
       grave sin to injure him whom one ought to help when in danger. But it is foolish to gain others’
       hate in taking up money matters, though for the sake of a man’s safety great trouble and toil may
       often be undertaken. It is glorious in such a case to run risks. Let, then, this be firmly held to in the
       priestly duties, namely, to injure none, not even when provoked and embittered by some injury.656
       Good was the man who said: “If I have rewarded evil to those who did me good.”657 For what glory
       is it if we do not injure him who has not injured us? But it is true virtue to forgive when injured.
            60. What a virtuous action was that, when David wished rather to spare the king his enemy,
       though he could have injured him!658 How useful, too, it was, for it helped him when he succeeded
       to the throne. For all learnt to observe faith to their king and not to seize the kingdom, but to fear
       and reverence him. Thus what is virtuous was preferred to what was useful, and then usefulness
       followed on what was virtuous.
            61. But that he spared him was a small matter; he also grieved for him when slain in war, and
       mourned for him with tears, saying: “Ye mountains of Gilboa, let neither dew nor rain fall upon
       you; ye mountains of death, for there the shield of the mighty is cast away, the shield of Saul. It is
       not anointed with oil, but with the blood of the wounded and the fat of the warriors. The bow of
       Jonathan turned not back and the sword of Saul returned not empty. Saul and Jonathan were lovely
       and very dear, inseparable in life, and in death they were not divided. They were swifter than eagles,
       they were stronger than lions. Ye daughters of Israel, weep over Saul, who clothed you in scarlet
       with your ornaments, who put on gold upon your apparel. How are the mighty fallen in the midst
       of the battle! Jonathan was wounded even to death. I am distressed for thee, my brother Jonathan;


       655     Cic. de Off. III. 19, § 75.
       656     Cic. de Off. III. 15, § 64.
       657     Ps. vii. 4.
       658     1 Sam. [1 Kings] xxiv. 10.


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       very pleasant hast thou been unto me. Thy love came to me like the love of women. How have the
       mighty fallen and the longed-for weapons perished!659
            62. What mother could weep thus for her only son as he wept here for his enemy? Who could
       follow his benefactor with such praise as that with which he followed the man who plotted against
       his life? How affectionately he grieved, with what deep feeling he bewailed him! The mountains
       dried up at the prophet’s curse, and a divine power filled the judgment of him who spoke it. Therefore
       the elements themselves paid the penalty for witnessing the king’s death.
            63. And what, in the case of holy Naboth, was the cause of his death, except his regard for a
       virtuous life? For when the king demanded the vineyard from him, promising to give him money,
       he refused the price for his father’s heritage as unseemly, and preferred to shun such shame by
       dying. “The Lord forbid it me, that I should give the inheritance of my fathers unto thee;”660 that
       is, that such reproach may not fall on me, that God may not allow such wickedness to be attained
       by force. He is not speaking about the vines—nor has God care for vines or plots of ground—but
       he says it of his fathers’ rights. He could have received another or the king’s vineyards and been
       his friend, wherein men think there is no small usefulness so far as this world is concerned. But
       because it was base he thought it could not be useful, and so he preferred to endure danger with
       honour intact, rather than gain what was useful to his own disgrace. I am here again speaking of
       what is commonly understood as useful, not that in which there is the grace of virtuous life.
            64. The king could himself have taken it by force, but that he thought too shameless; then when
       Naboth was dead he grieved.661 The Lord also declared that the woman’s cruelty should be punished
       by a fitting penalty, because she was unmindful of virtue and preferred a shameful gain.662
            65. Every kind of unfair action is shameful. Even in common things, false weights and unjust
78     measures are accursed. And if fraud in the market or in business is punished, can it seem free from
       reproach if found in the midst of the performance of the duties of virtue? Solomon says: “A great
       and a little weight and divers measures are an abomination before the Lord.”663 Before that it also
       says: “A false balance is abomination to the Lord, but a just weight is acceptable to Him.”664



                                                              CHAPTER X.

       We are warned not only in civil law, but also in the holy Scriptures, to avoid fraud in every
          agreement, as is clear from the example of Joshua and the Gibeonites.
           66. IN everything, therefore, good faith is seemly, justice is pleasing, due measure in equity is
       delightful. But what shall I say about contracts, and especially about the sale of land, or agreements,
       or covenants? Are there not rules just for the purpose of shutting out all false deceit,665 and to make
       him whose deceit is found out liable to double punishment? Everywhere, then, does regard for what

       659     2 Sam. [2 Kings] i. 21–27.
       660     1 [3] Kings xxi. 3.
       661     This hardly agrees with 1 [3] Kings xxi. 16.
       662     1 [3] Kings xxi. 23.
       663     Prov. xx. 10.
       664     Prov. xi. 1.
       665     Cic. de Off. III. 15, § 61.


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       is virtuous take the lead; it shuts out deceit, it expels fraud. Wherefore the prophet David has rightly
       stated his judgment in general, saying: “He hath done no evil to his neighbour.”666 Fraud, then,
       ought to be wanting not only in contracts, in which the defects of those things which are for sale
       are ordered to be recorded (which contracts, unless the vendor has mentioned the defects, are
       rendered void by an action for fraud, although he has conveyed them fully to the purchaser), but it
       ought also to be absent in all else. Candour must be shown, the truth must be made known.
            67. The divine Scriptures have plainly stated (not indeed a legal rule of the lawyers but) the
       ancient judgment of the patriarchs on deceit, in that book of the Old Testament which is ascribed
       to Joshua the son of Nun. When the report had gone forth among the various peoples that the sea
       was dried up at the crossing of the Hebrews; that water had flowed from the rock; that food was
       supplied daily from heaven in quantities large enough for so many thousands of the people; that
       the walls of Jericho had fallen at the sound of the holy trumpets, being overthrown by the noise of
       the shouts of the people; also, that the king of Ai was conquered and had been hung on a tree until
       the evening; then the Gibeonites, fearing his strong hand, came with guile, pretending that they
       were from a land very far away, and by travelling so long had rent their shoes and worn out their
       clothing, of which they showed proofs that it was growing old. They said, too, that their reason for
       undergoing so much labour was their desire to obtain peace and to form friendship with the Hebrews,
       and began to ask Joshua to form an alliance with them. And he, being as yet ignorant of localities,
       and not knowing anything of the inhabitants, did not see through their deceit, nor did he enquire
       of God, but readily believed them.667
            68. So sacred was one’s plighted word held in those days that no one would believe that others
       could try to deceive. Who could find fault with the saints in this, namely, that they should consider
       others to have the same feelings as themselves, and suppose no one would lie because truth was
       their own companion? They know not what deceit is, they gladly believe of others what they
       themselves are, whilst they cannot suspect others to be what they themselves are not. Hence Solomon
       says: “An innocent man believeth every word.”668 We must not blame his readiness to believe, but
       should rather praise his goodness. To know nothing of aught that may injure another, this is to be
       innocent. And although he is cheated by another, still he thinks well of all, for he thinks there is
       good faith in all.
            69. Induced, therefore, by such considerations to believe them, he made an agreement, he gave
       them peace, and formed a union with them. But when he came to their country and the deceit was
       found out,—for though they lived quite close they pretended to be strangers,—the people of our
       fathers began to be angry at having been deceived. Joshua, however, thought the peace they had
       made could not be broken (for it had been confirmed by an oath), for fear that, in punishing the
       treachery of others, he should be breaking his own pledge. He made them pay the penalty, however,
       by forcing them to undertake the lowest kind of work. The judgment was mild indeed, but it was




       666     Ps. xv. [xiv.] 3.
       667     Josh. ix. 3 ff.
       668     Prov. xiv. 15.


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       a lasting one, for in their duties there abides the punishment of their ancient cunning, handed down
       to this day669 in their hereditary service.
79




                                                                CHAPTER XI.

       Having adduced examples of certain frauds found in a few passages of the rhetoricians, he shows
          that these and all others are more fully and plainly condemned in Scripture.
           70. I SHALL say nothing of the snapping of fingers, or the naked dancing of the heir, at entering
       on an inheritance.670 These are well-known things. Nor will I speak of the mass of fishes gathered
       up at a pretended fishing expedition to excite the buyer’s desires. For why did he show himself so
       eager for luxuries and delicacies as to allow a fraud of this character?
           71. What need is there for me to speak of that well-known story of the pleasant and quiet retreat
       at Syracuse and of the cunning of a Sicilian?671 For he having found a stranger, and knowing that
       he was anxious to buy an estate, asked him to his grounds for a meal. He accepted, and on the
       following day he came. There the sight of a great number of fishermen met his eyes, and a banquet
       laid out in the most splendid profusion. In the sight of the guests, fishers were placed in the
       garden-grounds, where no net had ever been laid before. Each one in turn presented to the guests
       what he had taken, the fish were placed upon the table, and caught the glance of those who sat
       there. The stranger wondered at the large quantity of fish and the number of boats there were. The
       answer given was, that this was the great water supply, and that great numbers of fish came there
       because of the sweetness of the water. To be brief, he drew on the stranger to be urgent in getting
       the grounds, he willingly allows himself to be induced to sell them, and seemingly with a heavy
       heart he receives the money.
           72. On the next day the purchaser comes to the grounds with his friends, but finds no boat there.
       On asking whether perhaps the fishermen were observing a festival on that day, he is told that, with
       the exception of yesterday, they were never wont to fish there; but what power had he to proceed
       against such a fraud, who had so shamefully grasped at such luxuries? For he who convicts another
       of a fault ought himself to be free from it. I will not therefore include such trifles as these under
       the power of ecclesiastical censure, for that altogether condemns every desire for dishonourable
       gain, and briefly, with few words, forbids every sharp and cunning action.
           73. And what shall I say of him who claims to be the heir or legatee, on the proof of a will672
       which, though falsified by others, yet was known to be so by him, and who tries to make a gain
       through another’s crime, though even the laws of the state convict him who knowingly makes use
       of a false will, as guilty of a wrong action. But the law of justice is plain, namely, that a good man
       ought not to go aside from the truth, nor to inflict an unjust loss on any one, nor to act at all
       deceitfully or to take part in any fraud.


       669       Josh. ix. 27.
       670       Cic. de Off. III. 19.
       671       Cic. de Off. III. 14. This story is related by Cicero as a clear example of downright fraud, against which in his time there
           was no remedy at law.
       672       Cic. de Off. III. 18.


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           74. What is clearer, however, on this point than the case of Ananias? He acted falsely as regards
       the price he got for his land, for he sold it and laid at the apostles’ feet part of the price, pretending
       it was the whole amount.673 For this he perished as guilty of fraud. He might have offered nothing
       and have acted so without committing a fraud. But as deceit entered into his action, he gained no
       favour for his liberality, but paid the penalty for his artifice.
           75. The Lord also in the Gospel rejected those coming to Him with guile, saying: “The foxes
       have holes,”674 for He bids us live in simplicity and innocency of heart. David also says: “Thou hast
       used deceit as a sharp razor,”675 pointing out by this the treacherous man, just as an implement of
       this kind is used to help adorn a man, yet often wounds him. If any one makes a show of favour
       and yet plans deceit after the example of the traitor, so as to give up to death him whom he ought
       to guard, let him be looked on in the light of that instrument which is wont to wound owing to the
       vice of a drunken mind and a trembling hand. Thus that man drunk with the wine of wickedness
       brought death on the high priest Ahimelech,676 through a terrible act of treachery, because he had
       received the prophet with hospitality when the king, roused by the stings of envy, was following
       him.



                                                     CHAPTER XII.
80

       We may make no promise that is wrong, and if we have made an unjust oath, we may not keep it.
          It is shown that Herod sinned in this respect. The vow taken by Jephtha is condemned, and so
          are all others which God does not desire to have paid to Him. Lastly, the daughter of Jephtha
          is compared with the two Pythagoreans and is placed before them.
           76. A MAN’S disposition ought to be undefiled and sound, so that he may utter words without
       dissimulation and possess his vessel in sanctification;677 that he may not delude his brother with
       false words nor promise aught dishonourable. If he has made such a promise it is far better for him
       not to fulfil it, rather than to fulfil what is shameful.678
           77. Often people bind themselves by a solemn oath, and, though they come to know that they
       ought not to have made the promise, fulfil it in consideration of their oath. This is what Herod did,
       as we mentioned before.679 For he made a shameful promise of reward to a dancer—and cruelly
       performed it. It was shameful, for a kingdom was promised for a dance; and it was cruel, for the
       death of a prophet is sacrificed for the sake of an oath. How much better perjury would have been
       than the keeping of such an oath, if indeed that could be called perjury which a drunkard had sworn
       to in his wine-cups, or an effeminate profligate had promised whilst the dance was going on. The




       673     Acts v. 2.
       674     S. Matt. viii. 20.
       675     Ps. lii. [li.] 2.
       676     1 Sam. [1 Kings] xxii. 9.
       677     1 Thess. iv. 6.
       678     Cic. de Off. III. 24, § 93.
       679     c. 5, § 35.


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       prophet’s head was brought in on a dish,680 and this was considered an act of good faith when it
       really was an act of madness!
           78. Never shall I be led to believe that the leader Jephtha made his vow otherwise than without
       thought,681 when he promised to offer to God whatever should meet him at the threshold of his
       house on his return. For he repented of his vow, as afterwards his daughter came to meet him. He
       rent his clothes and said: “Alas, my daughter, thou hast entangled me, thou art become a source of
       trouble unto me.”682 And though with pious fear and reverence he took upon himself the bitter
       fulfilment of his cruel task, yet he ordered and left to be observed an annual period of grief and
       mourning for future times. It was a hard vow, but far more bitter was its fulfilment, whilst he who
       carried it out had the greatest cause to mourn. Thus it became a rule and a law in Israel from year
       to year, as it says: “that the daughters of Israel went to lament the daughter of Jephtha the Gileadite
       four days in a year.”683 I cannot blame the man for holding it necessary to fulfil his vow, but yet it
       was a wretched necessity which could only be solved by the death of his child.
           79. It is better to make no vow than to vow what God does not wish to be paid to Him to Whom
       the promise was made. In the case of Isaac we have an example, for the Lord appointed a ram to
       be offered up instead of him.684 Therefore it is not always every promise that is to be fulfilled. Nay,
       the Lord Himself often alters His determination, as the Scriptures point out. For in the book called
       Numbers He had declared that He would punish the people with death and destroy them,685 but
       afterwards, when besought by Moses, He was reconciled again to them. And again, He said to
       Moses and Aaron: “Separate yourselves from among this congregation that I may consume them
       in a moment.”686 And when they separated from the assembly the earth suddenly clave asunder and
       opened her mouth and swallowed up Dathan and Abiram.
           80. That example of Jephtha’s daughter is far more glorious and ancient than that of the two
       Pythagoreans,687 which is accounted so notable among the philosophers. One of these, when
       condemned to death by the tyrant Dionysius, and when the day of his death was fixed, asked for
       leave to be granted him to go home, so as to provide for his family. But for fear that he might break
       his faith and not return, he offered a surety for his own death, on condition that if he himself were
       absent on the appointed day, his surety would be ready to die in his stead. The other did not refuse
       the conditions of suretyship which were proposed and awaited the day of death with a calm mind.
       So the one did not withdraw himself and the other returned on the day appointed. This all seemed
       so wonderful that the tyrant sought their friendship whose destruction he had been anxious for.
           81. What, then, in the case of esteemed and learned men is full of marvel, that in the case of a
       virgin is found to be far more splendid, far more glorious, as she says to her sorrowing father: “Do
       to me according to that which hath proceeded out of thy mouth.”688 But she asked for a delay of



       680     S. Mark vi. 28.
       681     Cic. de Off. III. 25.
       682     Judg. xi. 35.
       683     Judg. xi. 40.
       684     Gen. xxii. 13.
       685     Num. xiv. 12.
       686     Num. xvi. 21.
       687     Cic. de Off. III. 10, § 45.
       688     Judg. xi. 36.


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       two months in order that she might go about with her companions upon the mountains to bewail
       fitly and dutifully her virginity now given up to death. The weeping of her companions did not
81     move her, their grief prevailed not upon her, nor did their lamentations hold her back. She allowed
       not the day to pass, nor did the hour escape her notice. She returned to her father as though returning
       according to her own desire, and of her own will urged him on when he was hesitating, and acted
       thus of her own free choice, so that what was at first an awful chance became a pious sacrifice.



                                                  CHAPTER XIII.

       Judith, after enduring many dangers for virtue’s sake, gained very many and great benefits.
            82. SEE! Judith presents herself to thee as worthy of admiration. She approaches Holophernes,
       a man feared by the people, and surrounded by the victorious troops of the Assyrians. At first she
       makes an impression on him by the grace of her form and the beauty of her countenance. Then she
       entraps him by the refinement of her speech. Her first triumph was that she returned from the tent
       of the enemy with her purity unspotted.689 Her second, that she gained a victory over a man, and
       put to flight the people by her counsel.
            83. The Persians were terrified at her daring.690 And so what is admired in the case of those two
       Pythagoreans deserves also in her case our admiration, for she trembled not at the danger of death,
       nor even at the danger her modesty was in, which is a matter of greater concern to good women.
       She feared not the blow of one scoundrel, nor even the weapons of a whole army. She, a woman,
       stood between the lines of the combatants—right amidst victorious arms—heedless of death. As
       one looks at her overwhelming danger, one would say she went out to die; as one looks at her faith,
       one says she went but out to fight.
            84. Judith then followed the call of virtue, and as she follows that, she wins great benefits. It
       was virtuous to prevent the people of the Lord from giving themselves up to the heathen; to prevent
       them from betraying their native rites and mysteries, or from yielding up their consecrated virgins,
       their venerable widows, and modest matrons to barbarian impurity, or from ending the siege by a
       surrender. It was virtuous for her to be willing to encounter danger on behalf of all, so as to deliver
       all from danger.
            85. How great must have been the power of her virtue, that she, a woman, should claim to give
       counsel on the chiefest matters and not leave it in the hands of the leaders of the people! How great,
       again, the power of her virtue to reckon for certain upon God to help her! How great her grace to
       find His help!



                                                  CHAPTER XIV.




       689     Judith xii. 20.
       690     Judith xv. 1 ff.


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       How virtuous and useful was that which Elisha did. This is compared with that oft-recounted act
         of the Greeks. John gave up his life for virtue’s sake, and Susanna for the same reason exposed
         herself to the danger of death.
            86. WHAT did Elisha follow but virtue, when he brought the army of Syria who had come to
       take him as captive into Samaria, after having covered their eyes with blindness? Then he said: “O
       Lord, open their eyes that they may see.”691 And they saw. But when the king of Israel wished to
       slay those that had entered and asked the prophet to give him leave to do so, he answered that they
       whose captivity was not brought about by strength of hand or weapons of war must not be slain,
       but that rather he should help them by supplying food. Then they were refreshed with plenty of
       food. And after that those Syrian robbers thought they must never again return to the land of Israel.
            87. How much nobler was this than that which the Greeks once did!692 For when two nations
       strove one with the other to gain glory and supreme power, and one of them had the opportunity
       to burn the ships of the other secretly, they thought it a shameful thing to do so, and preferred to
       gain a less advantage honourably than a greater one in shameful wise. They, indeed, could not act
       thus without disgrace to themselves, and entrap by this plot those who had banded together for the
       sake of ending the Persian war. Though they could deny it in word, yet they could never but blush
       at the thought of it. Elisha, however, wished to save, not destroy, those who were deceived indeed,
       though not by some foul act, and had been struck blind by the power of the Lord. For it was seemly
       to spare an enemy, and to grant his life to an adversary when indeed he could have taken it, had he
       not spared it.
            88. It is plain, then, that whatever is seemly is always useful. For holy Judith by seemly disregard
       for her own safety put an end to the dangers of the siege, and by her own virtue won what was
82     useful to all in common. And Elisha gained more renown by pardoning than he would have done
       by slaying, and preserved those enemies whom he had taken for greater usefulness.
            89. And what else did John have in mind but what is virtuous, so that he could not endure a
       wicked union even in the king’s case, saying: “It is not lawful for thee to have her to wife.”693 He
       could have been silent, had he not thought it unseemly for himself not to speak the truth for fear
       of death, or to make the prophetic office yield to the king, or to indulge in flattery. He knew well
       that he would die as he was against the king, but he preferred virtue to safety. Yet what is more
       expedient than the suffering which brought glory to the saint.
            90. Holy Susanna, too, when threatened with the fear of false witness, seeing herself hard
       pressed on one side by danger, on the other by disgrace, preferred to avoid disgrace by a virtuous
       death rather than to endure and live a shameful life in the desire to save herself.694 So while she
       fixed her mind on virtue, she also preserved her life. But if she had preferred what seemed to her
       to be useful to preserve life, she would never have gained such great renown, nay, perhaps—and
       that would have been not only useless but even dangerous—she might even not have escaped the
       penalty for her crime. We note, therefore, that whatsoever is shameful cannot be useful, nor, again,



       691     2 [4] Kings vi. 20.
       692     Cic. de Off. III. 11, § 49.
       693     S. Matt. xiv. 4.
       694     Sus. v. 23.


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       can that which is virtuous be useless. For usefulness is ever the double of virtue, and virtue of
       usefulness.



                                                            CHAPTER XV.

       After mentioning a noble action of the Romans, the writer shows from the deeds of Moses that he
           had the greatest regard for what is virtuous.
            91. IT is related as a memorable deed of a Roman general,695 that when the physician of a hostile
       king came to him and promised to give him poison, he sent him back bound to the enemy. In truth,
       it is a noble thing for a man to refuse to gain the victory by foul acts, after he has entered on the
       struggle for power. He did not consider virtue to lie in victory, but declared that to be a shameful
       victory unless it was gained with honour.696
            92. Let us return to our hero Moses, and to loftier deeds, to show they were both superior as
       well as earlier. The king of Egypt would not let the people of our fathers go. Then Moses bade the
       priest Aaron to stretch his rod over all the waters of Egypt. Aaron stretched it out, and the water of
       the river was turned into blood.697 None could drink the water, and all the Egyptians were perishing
       with thirst; but there was pure water flowing in abundance for the fathers. They sprinkled ashes
       toward heaven, and sores and burning boils came upon man and beast.698 They brought down hail
       mingled with flaming fire, and all things were destroyed upon the land.699 Moses prayed, and all
       things were restored to their former beauty. The hail ceased, the sores were healed, the rivers gave
       their wonted draught.700
            93. Then, again, the land was covered with thick darkness for the space of three days, because
       Moses had raised his hand and spread out the darkness.701 All the first-born of Egypt died, whilst
       all the offspring of the Hebrews was left unharmed.702 Moses was asked to put an end to these
       horrors, and he prayed and obtained his request. In the one case it was a fact worthy of praise that
       he checked himself from joining in deceit; in the other it was noteworthy how, by his innate
       goodness, he turned aside from the foe those divinely ordered punishments. He was indeed, as it
       is written, gentle and meek.703 He knew that the king would not keep true to his promises, yet he
       thought it right and good to pray when asked to do so, to bless when wronged, to forgive when
       besought.
            94. He cast down his rod and it became a serpent which devoured the serpents of Egypt;704 this
       signifying that the Word should become Flesh to destroy the poison of the dread serpent by the

       695        This affair happened in the war which Pyrrhus waged against the Roman people. Caius Fabricius was the general who
           refused to take advantage of the base offer.
       696        Cic. de Off. III. 22.
       697        Ex. vii. 19.
       698        Ex. ix. 10.
       699        Ex. ix. 23.
       700        Ex. ix. 29.
       701        Ex. x. 22.
       702        Ex. xii. 29.
       703        Num. xii. 3.
       704        Ex. vii. 12.


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       forgiveness and pardon of sins. For the rod stands for the Word that is true—royal—filled with
       power—and glorious in ruling. The rod became a serpent; so He Who was the Son of God begotten
       of the Father became the Son of man born of a woman, and lifted, like the serpent, on the cross,
       poured His healing medicine on the wounds of man. Wherefore the Lord Himself says: “As Moses
       lifted up the serpent in the wilderness, so must the Son of Man be lifted up.”705
83          95. Again, another sign which Moses gave points to our Lord Jesus Christ. He put his hand into
       his bosom, and drew it out again, and his hand was become as snow. A second time he put it in and
       drew it out, and it was again like the appearance of human flesh.706 This signified first the original
       glory of the Godhead of the Lord Jesus, and then the assumption of our flesh, in which truth all
       nations and peoples must believe. So he put in his hand, for Christ is the right hand of God; and
       whosoever does not believe in His Godhead and Incarnation is punished as a sinner; like that king
       who, whilst not believing open and plain signs, yet afterwards, when punished, prayed that he might
       find mercy. How great, then, Moses’ regard for virtue must have been is shown by these proofs,
       and especially by the fact that he offered himself on behalf of the people, praying that God would
       either forgive the people or blot him out of the book of the living.707



                                                  CHAPTER XVI.

       After saying a few words about Tobit he demonstrates that Raguel surpassed the philosophers in
           virtue.
           96. TOBIT also clearly portrayed in his life true virtue, when he left the feast and buried the
       dead,708 and invited the needy to the meals at his own poor table. And Raguel is a still brighter
       example. For he, in his regard for virtue, when asked to give his daughter in marriage, was not
       silent regarding his daughter’s faults, for fear of seeming to get the better of the suitor by silence.
       So when Tobit the son of Tobias asked that his daughter might be given him, he answered that,
       according to the law, she ought to be given him as near of kin, but that he had already given her to
       six men, and all of them were dead.709 This just man, then, feared more for others than for himself,
       and wished rather that his daughter should remain unmarried than that others should run risks in
       consequence of their union with her.
           97. How simply he settled all the questions of the philosophers! They talk about the defects of
       a house, whether they ought to be concealed or made known by the vendor.710 Raguel was quite
       certain that his daughter’s faults ought not to be kept secret. And, indeed, he had not been eager to
       give her up—he was asked for her. We can have no doubt how much more nobly he acted than
       those philosophers, when we consider how much more important a daughter’s future is than some
       mere money affair.


       705     S. John iii. 14.
       706     Ex. iv. 6, 7.
       707     Ex. xxxii. 32.
       708     Tob. ii. 4.
       709     Tob. vii. 11.
       710     Cic. de Off. III. 13.


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                                                  CHAPTER XVII.

       With what virtuous feelings the fathers of old hid the sacred fires when on the point of going into
          captivity.
            98. LET us consider, again, that deed done at the time of the captivity, which has attained the
       highest degree of virtue and glory. Virtue is checked by no adversities, for it rises up among them,
       and prevails here rather than in prosperity. ’Mid chains or arms, ’mid flames or slavery (which is
       harder for freemen to bear than any punishment), ’midst the pains of the dying, the destruction of
       their country, the fears of the living, or the blood of the slain,—amidst all this our forefathers failed
       not in their care and thought for what is virtuous. Amidst the ashes and dust of their fallen country
       it glowed and shone forth brightly in pious efforts.
            99. For when our fathers were carried away into Persia,711 certain priests, who then were in the
       service of Almighty God, secretly buried in the valley the fire taken from the altar of the Lord.
       There was there an open pit, with no water in it, and not accessible for the wants of the people, in
       a spot unknown and free from intruders. There they sealed the hidden fire with the sacred mark
       and in secret. They were not anxious to bury gold or to hide up silver to preserve it for their children,
       but in their own great peril, thinking of all that was virtuous, they thought the sacred fire ought to
       be preserved so that impure men might not defile it, nor the blood of the slain extinguish it, nor the
       heaps of miserable ruins cover it.
            100. So they went to Persia, free only in their religion; for that alone could not be torn from
       them by their captivity. After a length of time,712 indeed, according to God’s good pleasure, He put
       it into the Persian king’s heart to order the temple in Judea to be restored, and the regular customs
       to be again rebuilt at Jerusalem. To carry out this work of his the Persian king appointed the priest
       Nehemiah. He took with him the grandchildren of those priests who on leaving their native soil
84     had hidden the sacred fire to save it from perishing. But on arriving, as we are told in the history
       of the fathers, they found not fire but water. And when fire was wanting to burn upon the altars,
       the priest Nehemiah bade them draw the water, to bring it to him, and to sprinkle it upon the wood.
       Then, O wondrous sight! though the sky had been overcast with clouds, suddenly the sun shone
       forth, a great fire flamed forth, so that all, wonder-stricken at such a clear sign of the favour of the
       Lord, were filled with joy. Nehemiah prayed; the priests sang a hymn of praise to God, when the
       sacrifice was completed. Nehemiah again bade the remainder of the water to be poured upon the
       larger stones. And when this was done a flame burst forth whilst the light shining from off the altar
       shone more brightly yet.
            101. When this sign became known, the king of Persia ordered a temple to be built on that spot
       where the fire had been hidden and the water afterwards found, to which many gifts were made.
       They who were with holy Nehemiah called it Naphthar,713—which means cleansing—by many it
       is called Nephi. It is to be found also in the history of the prophet Jeremiah,714 that he bade those
       who should come after him to take of the fire. That is the fire which fell on Moses’ sacrifice and


       711     2 Macc. i. 19.
       712     2 Macc. i. 20 ff.
       713     2 Macc. i. 36.
       714     2 Macc. ii. 1 ff.


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       consumed it, as it is written: “There came a fire out from the Lord and consumed upon the altar all
       the whole burnt-offering.”715 The sacrifice must be hallowed with this fire only. Therefore, also,
       fire went out from the Lord upon the sons of Aaron who wished to offer strange fire, and consumed
       them, so that their dead bodies were cast forth without the camp.716
            101. Jeremiah coming to a spot found there a house like a cave, and brought into it the tabernacle,
       the ark, and the altar of incense, and closed up the entrance. And when those who had come with
       him examined it rather closely to mark the spot, they could not discover nor find it. When Jeremiah
       understood what they wanted he said: “The spot will remain unknown until God shall gather His
       people together and be gracious to them. Then God shall reveal these things and the majesty of the
       Lord shall appear.”717



                                                  CHAPTER XVIII.

       In the narration of that event already mentioned, and especially of the sacrifice offered by Nehemiah,
           is typified the Holy Spirit and Christian baptism. The sacrifice of Moses and Elijah and the
           history of Noah are also referred to the same.
           102. WE form the congregation of the Lord. We recognize the propitiation of our Lord God,
       which our Propitiator wrought in His passion. I think, too, we cannot leave out of sight that fire
       when we read that the Lord Jesus baptizes with the Holy Spirit and with fire,718 as John said in his
       Gospel. Rightly was the sacrifice consumed, for it was for sin. But that fire was a type of the Holy
       Spirit Who was to come down after the Lord’s ascension, and forgive the sins of all, and Who like
       fire inflames the mind and faithful heart. Wherefore Jeremiah, after receiving the Spirit, says: “It
       became in my heart as a burning fire flaming in my bones, and I am vile and cannot bear it.”719 In
       the Acts of the Apostles, also, when the Holy Spirit descended upon the apostles and those others
       who were waiting for the Promise of the Father, we read that tongues as of fire were distributed
       among them.720 The soul of each one was so uplifted by His influence that they were supposed to
       be full of new wine,721 who instead had received the gift of a diversity of tongues.
           103. What else can this mean—namely, that fire became water and water called forth fire—but
       that spiritual grace burns out our sins through fire, and through water cleanses them? For sin is
       washed away and it is burnt away. Wherefore the Apostle says: “The fire shall try every man’s
       work of what sort it is.”722 And further on: “If any man’s work shall be burned, he shall suffer loss:
       but he himself shall be saved; yet so as by fire.”723



       715     Lev. ix. 24.
       716     Lev. x. 2.
       717     2 Macc. ii. 5.
       718     S. John i. 33.
       719     Jer. xx. 9.
       720     Acts ii. 3.
       721     Acts ii. 13.
       722     1 Cor. iii. 13.
       723     1 Cor. iii. 15.


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            104. This, then, we have stated, so as to prove that sins are burnt out by means of fire. We know
       now that this is in truth the sacred fire which then, as a type of the future remission of sins, came
       down upon the sacrifice.
            105. This fire is hidden in the time of captivity, during which sin reigns, but in the time of
       liberty it is brought forth. And though it is changed into the appearance of water, yet it preserves
       its nature as fire so as to consume the sacrifice. Do not wonder when thou readest that God the
       Father said: “I am a consuming fire.”724 And again: “They have forsaken Me, the fountain of living
       water.”725 The Lord Jesus, too, like a fire inflamed the hearts of those who heard Him, and like a
85     fount of waters cooled them. For He Himself said in His Gospel that He came to send fire on the
       earth726 and to supply a draught of living waters to those who thirst.727
            106. In the time of Elijah, also, fire came down when he challenged the prophets of the heathen
       to light up the altar without fire. When they could not do so, he poured water thrice over his victim,
       so that the water ran round about the altar; then he cried out and the fire fell from the Lord from
       heaven and consumed the burnt-offering.728
            107. Thou art that victim. Contemplate in silence each single point. The breath of the Holy
       Spirit descends on thee, He seems to burn thee when He consumes thy sins. The sacrifice which
       was consumed in the time of Moses was a sacrifice for sin, wherefore Moses said, as is written in
       the book of the Maccabees: “Because the sacrifice for sin was not to be eaten, it was consumed.”729
       Does it not seem to be consumed for thee when in the sacrament of baptism the whole outer man
       perishes? “Our old man is crucified,”730 the Apostle exclaims. Herein, as the example of the fathers
       teaches us, the Egyptian is swallowed up—the Hebrew arises renewed by the Holy Spirit, as he
       also crossed the Red Sea dryshod—where our fathers were baptized in the cloud and in the sea.731
            108. In the flood, too, in Noah’s time all flesh died, though just Noah was preserved together
       with his family.732 Is not a man consumed when all that is mortal is cut off from life? The outer
       man is destroyed, but the inner is renewed. Not in baptism alone but also in repentance does this
       destruction of the flesh tend to the growth of the spirit, as we are taught on the Apostle’s authority,
       when holy Paul says: “I have judged as though I were present him that hath so done this deed, to
       deliver him unto Satan for the destruction of the flesh, that the spirit may be saved in the day of
       our Lord Jesus Christ.”733
            109. We seem to have made a somewhat lengthy digression for the sake of regarding this
       wonderful mystery, in desiring to unfold more fully this sacrament which has been revealed to us,
       and which, indeed, is as full of virtue as it is full of religious awe.




       724     Deut. iv. 24.
       725     Jer. ii. 13.
       726     S. Luke xii. 49.
       727     S. John vii. 37, 38.
       728     1 [3] Kings xviii. 30 ff.
       729     2 Macc. ii. 11.
       730     Rom. vi. 6.
       731     1 Cor. x. 1, 2.
       732     Gen. vii. 23.
       733     1 Cor. v. 3, 5.


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                                                  CHAPTER XIX.

       The crime committed by the inhabitants of Gibeah against the wife of a certain Levite is related,
          and from the vengeance taken it is inferred how the idea of virtue must have filled the heart of
          those people of old.
           110. WHAT regard for virtue our forefathers had to avenge by a war the wrongs of one woman
       which had been brought on her by her violation at the hands of profligate men! Nay, when the
       people were conquered, they vowed that they would not give their daughters in marriage to the
       tribe of Benjamin! That tribe had remained without hope of posterity, had they not received leave
       of necessity to use deceit. And this permission does not seem to fail in giving fitting punishment
       for violation, since they were only allowed to enter on a union by a rape, and not through the
       sacrament of marriage. And indeed it was right that they who had broken another’s intercourse
       should themselves lose their marriage rites.
           111. How full of pitiful traits is this story! A man, it says,734 a Levite, had taken to himself a
       wife, who I suppose was called a concubine from the word “concubitus.” She some time afterwards,
       as is wont to happen, offended at certain things, betook herself to her father, and was with him four
       months. Then her husband arose and went to the house of his father-in-law, to reconcile himself
       with his wife, to win her back and take her home again. The woman ran to meet him and brought
       her husband into her father’s house.
           112. The maiden’s735 father rejoiced and went to meet him, and the man stayed with him three
       days, and they ate and rested. On the next day the Levite arose at daybreak, but was detained by
       his father-in-law, that he might not so quickly lose the pleasure of his company. Again on the next
       and the third day the maiden’s father did not suffer his son-in-law to start, until their joy and mutual
       regard was complete. But on the seventh day, when it was already drawing to a close, after a pleasant
       meal, having urged the approach of the coming night, so as to make him think he ought to sleep
       amongst friends rather than strangers, he was unable to keep him, and so let him go together with
       his daughter.
86         113. When some little progress736 was made, though night was threatening to come on, and they
       were close by the town of the Jebusites, on the slave’s request that his lord should turn aside there,
       he refused, because it was not a city of the children of Israel. He meant to get as far as Gibeah,
       which was inhabited by the people of the tribe of Benjamin. But when they arrived there was no
       one to receive them with hospitality, except a stranger of advanced age—When he had looked upon
       them he asked the Levite: Whither goest thou and whence dost thou come? On his answering that
       he was travelling and was making for Mount Ephraim and that there was no one to take him in, the
       old man offered him hospitality and prepared a meal.
           114. And when they were satisfied737 and the tables were removed, vile men rushed up and
       surrounded the house. Then the old man offered these wicked men his daughter, a virgin, and the
       concubine with whom she shared her bed, only that violence might not be inflicted on his guest.


       734     Judg. xix. 1–3.
       735     Judg. 4–9.
       736     Judg. xix. 10–21.
       737     Judg. xix. 22–26.


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       But when reason did no good and violence prevailed, the Levite parted from his wife, and they
       knew her and abused her all that night. Overcome by this cruelty or by grief at her wrong, she fell
       at the door of their host where her husband had entered, and gave up the ghost, with the last effort
       of her life guarding the feelings of a good wife so as to preserve for her husband at least her mortal
       remains.
            115. When this became known738 (to be brief) almost all the people of Israel broke out into war.
       The war remained doubtful with an uncertain issue, but in the third engagement the people of
       Benjamin were delivered to the people of Israel,739 and being condemned by the divine judgment
       paid the penalty for their profligacy. The sentence, further,740 was that none of the people of the
       fathers should give his daughter in marriage to them. This was confirmed by a solemn oath. But
       relenting at having laid so hard a sentence on their brethren, they moderated their severity so as to
       give them in marriage those maidens that had lost their parents, whose fathers had been slain for
       their sins, or to give them the means of finding a wife by a raid. Because of the villainy of so foul
       a deed, they who have violated another’s marriage rights were shown to be unworthy to ask for
       marriage. But for fear that one tribe might perish from the people, they connived at the deceit.
            116. What great regard our forefathers had for virtue is shown by the fact that forty thousand
       men drew the sword against their brethren of the tribe of Benjamin in their desire to avenge the
       wrong done to modesty, for they would not endure the violation of chastity. And so in that war on
       both sides there fell sixty-five thousand warriors, whilst their cities were burnt. And when at first
       the people of Israel were defeated, yet unmoved by fear at the reverses of the war, they disregarded
       the sorrow the avenging of chastity cost them. They rushed into the battle ready to wash out with
       their own blood the stains of the crime that had been committed.



                                                  CHAPTER XX.

       After the terrible siege of Samaria was ended in accordance with Elisha’s prophecy, he relates
           what regard the four lepers showed for what was virtuous.
           117. WHY need we wonder that the people of the Lord had regard for what was seemly and
       virtuous when even the lepers—as we read in the books of the Kings—showed concern for what
       is virtuous?
           118. There was a great famine in Samaria,741 for the army of the Syrians was besieging it. The
       king in his anxiety was making the round of the guards on the walls when a woman addressed him,
       saying: This woman persuaded me to give up my son—and I gave him up, and we boiled him and
       did eat him. And she promised that she would afterwards bring her son and that we should eat his
       flesh together, but now she hath hidden her son and will not bring him. The king was troubled
       because these women seemed to have fed not merely on human bodies, but on the bodies of their
       own children; and being moved by an example of such awful misery, threatened the prophet Elisha

       738     Judg. xx. 1 ff.
       739     Judg. xx. 48.
       740     Judg. xxi. 1 ff.
       741     2 [4] Kings vi. 25–31.


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       with death. For he believed it was in his power to break up the siege and to avert the famine; or
       else he was angry because the prophet had not allowed the king to smite the Syrians whom he had
       struck with blindness.742
           119. Elisha sat743 with the elders at Bethel, and before the king’s messenger came to him he
       said to the elders: “See ye how the son of that murderess hath sent to take away mine head?” Then
       the messenger entered and brought the king’s command threatening instant danger to his life. Him
       the prophet answered:744 “To-morrow about this time shall a measure of fine flour be sold for a
87     shekel, and two measures of barley for a shekel in the gate of Samaria.” Then when the messenger
       sent by the king would not believe it, saying: “If the Lord would rain abundance of corn from
       heaven, not even so would that come about,” Elisha said to him: “Because thou hast not believed,
       thou shalt see it with thine eyes, but shall not eat of it.”
           120. And suddenly745 in the camp of Syria was there heard, as it were, a sound of chariots and
       a loud noise of horses and the noise of a great host, and the tumult of some vast battle. And the
       Syrians thought that the king of Israel had called to his help in the battle the king of Egypt and the
       king of the Amorites, and they fled at dawn leaving their tents, for they feared that they might be
       crushed by the sudden arrival of fresh foes, and would not be able to withstand the united forces
       of the kings. This was unknown in Samaria, for they dared not go out of the town, being overcome
       with fear and also being weak through hunger.
           121. But there were four lepers746 at the gate of the city to whom life was a misery, and to die
       would be gain. And they said one to another: “Behold we sit here and die. If we enter into the city,
       we shall die with hunger; if we remain here, there are no means of living at hand for us. Let us go
       to the Syrian camp, either they will quickly kill us or grant us the means of safety.” So they went
       and entered into the camp, and behold, all was forsaken by the enemy. Entering747 the tents, first
       of all on finding food they satisfied their hunger, then they laid hold of as much gold and silver as
       they could. But whilst they were intent on the booty alone, they arranged to announce to the king
       that the Syrians had fled, for they thought this more virtuous than to withhold the information and
       keep for themselves the plunder gained by deceit.
           122. At this information the people748 went forth and plundered the Syrian camp. The supplies
       of the enemy produced an abundance, and brought about cheapness of corn according to the prophet’s
       word: “A measure of fine flour for a shekel, and two measures of barley for a shekel.” In this
       rejoicing of the people, that officer on whose hand the king leaned died, being crushed and trodden
       under foot by the people as the crowds kept hurrying to go out or returned with great rejoicing.



                                                  CHAPTER XXI.




       742     2 [4] Kings vi. 22.
       743     2 [4] Kings vi. 32.
       744     2 [4] Kings vii. 1, 2.
       745     2 [4] Kings vii. 6, 7.
       746     2 [4] Kings vii. 3, 4.
       747     2 [4] Kings vii. 8, 9.
       748     2 [4] Kings vii. 16–20.


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       Esther in danger of her life followed the grace of virtue; nay, even a heathen king did so, when
          death was threatened to a man most friendly to him. For friendship must ever be combined with
          virtue, as the examples of Jonathan and Ahimelech show.
             123. WHY did Queen Esther749 expose herself to death and not fear the wrath of a fierce king?
       Was it not to save her people from death, an act both seemly and virtuous? The king of Persia
       himself also, though fierce and proud, yet thought it seemly to show honour to the man who had
       given information about a plot which had been laid against himself,750 to save a free people from
       slavery, to snatch them from death, and not to spare him who had pressed on such unseemly plans.
       So finally he handed over to the gallows751 the man that stood second to himself, and whom he
       counted chief among all his friends, because he considered that he had dishonoured him by his
       false counsels.
             124. For that commendable friendship which maintains virtue is to be preferred most certainly
       to wealth, or honours, or power. It is not wont to be preferred to virtue indeed, but to follow after
       it.752 So it was with Jonathan,753 who for his affection’s sake avoided not his father’s displeasure
       nor the danger to his own safety. So, too, it was with Ahimelech, who, to preserve the duties of
       hospitality, thought he must endure death rather than betray his friend when fleeing.754



                                                     CHAPTER XXII.

       Virtue must never be given up for the sake of a friend. If, however, one has to bear witness against
           a friend, it must be done with caution. Between friends what candour is needed in opening the
           heart, what magnanimity in suffering, what freedom in finding fault! Friendship is the guardian
           of virtues, which are not to be found but in men of like character. It must be mild in rebuking
           and averse to seeking its own advantage; whence it happens that true friends are scarce among
           the rich. What is the dignity of friendship? The treachery of a friend, as it is worse, so it is also
           more hateful than another’s, as is recognized from the example of Judas and of Job’s friends.
           125. NOTHING, then, must be set before virtue; and that it may never be set aside by the desire
       for friendship, Scripture also gives us a warning on the subject of friendship. There are, indeed
88     various questions raised among philosophers;755 for instance whether a man ought for the sake of
       a friend to plot against his country or not, so as to serve his friend? Whether it is right to break
       one’s faith, and so aid and maintain a friend’s advantage?
           126. And Scripture also says: “A maul, and a sword, and a sharp arrow, so is a man that beareth
       false witness against his friend.”756 But note what it adds. It blames not witness given against a

       749     Esther iv. 16.
       750     Esther vi. 10.
       751     Esther vii. 9, 10.
       752     Cic. de Off. III. 10, § 43.
       753     1 Sam. [1 Kings] xx. 27.
       754     1 Sam. [1 Kings] xxii. 17.
       755     Cic. de Off. III. 10.
       756     Prov. xxv. 18.


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       friend, but false witness. For what if the cause of God or of one’s country compels one to give
       witness? Ought friendship to take a higher place than our religion, or our love for our fellow-citizens?
       In these matters, however, true witness is required so that a friend may not be assailed by the
       treachery of a friend, by whose good faith he ought to be acquitted. A man, then, ought never to
       please a friend who desires evil, or to plot against one who is innocent.
           127. Certainly, if it is necessary to give witness, then, when one knows of any fault in a friend,
       one ought to rebuke him secretly—if he does not listen, one must do it openly. For rebukes are
       good,757 and often better than a silent friendship. Even if a friend thinks himself hurt, still rebuke
       him; and if the bitterness of the correction wounds his mind, still rebuke him and fear not. “The
       wounds of a friend are better than the kisses of flatterers.”758 Rebuke, then, thy erring friend; forsake
       not an innocent one. For friendship ought to be steadfast759 and to rest firm in true affection. We
       ought not to change our friends in childish fashion at some idle fancy.
           128. Open thy breast to a friend that he may be faithful to thee, and that thou mayest receive
       from him the delight of thy life. “For a faithful friend is the medicine of life and the grace of
       immortality.”760 Give way to a friend as to an equal, and be not ashamed to be beforehand with thy
       friend in doing kindly duties. For friendship knows nothing of pride. So the wise man says: “Do
       not blush to greet a friend.”761 Do not desert a friend in time of need, nor forsake him nor fail him,
       for friendship is the support of life. Let us then bear our burdens as the Apostle has taught:762 for
       he spoke to those whom the charity of the same one body had embraced together. If friends in
       prosperity help friends, why do they not also in times of adversity offer their support? Let us aid
       by giving counsel, let us offer our best endeavours, let us sympathize with them with all our heart.
           129. If necessary, let us endure for a friend even hardship. Often enmity has to be borne for the
       sake of a friend’s innocence; oftentimes revilings, if one defends and answers for a friend who is
       found fault with and accused. Do not be afraid of such displeasure, for the voice of the just says:
       “Though evil come upon me, I will endure it for a friend’s sake.”763 In adversity, too, a friend is
       proved, for in prosperity all seem to be friends. But as in adversity patience and endurance are
       needed, so in prosperity strong influence is wanted to check and confute the arrogance of a friend
       who becomes overbearing.
           130. How nobly Job when he was in adversity said: “Pity me, my friends, pity me.”764 That is
       not a cry as it were of misery, but rather one of blame. For when he was unjustly reproached by
       his friends, he answered: “Pity me, my friends,” that is, ye ought to show pity, but instead ye assail
       and overwhelm a man with whose sufferings ye ought to show sympathy for friendship’s sake.
           131. Preserve, then, my sons, that friendship ye have begun with your brethren, for nothing in
       the world is more beautiful than that. It is indeed a comfort in this life to have one to whom thou
       canst open thy heart,765 with whom thou canst share confidences, and to whom thou canst entrust
       the secrets of thy heart. It is a comfort to have a trusty man by thy side, who will rejoice with thee

       757     Cic. de Off. I. 17.
       758     Prov. xxvii. 6.
       759     Cic. de Amic. 19, § 67.
       760     Ecclus. vi. 16.
       761     Ecclus. xxii. 25.
       762     Gal. vi. 2.
       763     Ecclus. xxii. 26.
       764     Job xix. 21.
       765     Cic. de Amic. 6, § 22.


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       in prosperity, sympathize in troubles, encourage in persecution. What good friends those Hebrew
       children were whom the flames of the fiery furnace did not separate from their love of each other!766
       Of them we have already spoken. Holy David says well: “Saul and Jonathan were lovely and
       pleasant, inseparable in their life, in death they were not divided.”767
            132. This is the fruit of friendship; and so faith768 may not be put aside for the sake of friendship.
       He cannot be a friend to a man who has been unfaithful to God. Friendship is the guardian of pity
       and the teacher of equality, so as to make the superior equal to the inferior, and the inferior to the
       superior.769 For there can be no friendship between diverse characters,770 and so the good-will of
89     either ought to be mutually suited to the other. Let not authority be wanting to the inferior if the
       matter demands it, nor humility to the superior. Let him listen to the other as though he were of
       like position—an equal, and let the other warn and reprove like a friend, not from a desire to show
       off, but with a deep feeling of love.
            134. Let not thy warning be harsh, nor thy rebuke bitter,771 for as friendship ought to avoid
       flattery, so, too, ought it to be free from arrogance. For what is a friend but a partner in love,772 to
       whom thou unitest and attachest thy soul, and with whom thou blendest so as to desire from being
       two to become one; to whom thou entrustest thyself as to a second self, from whom thou fearest
       nothing, and from whom thou demandest nothing dishonourable for the sake of thine own advantage.
       Friendship is not meant as a source of revenue,773 but is full of seemliness, full of grace. Friendship
       is a virtue, not a way of making money. It is produced, not by money, but by esteem; not by the
       offer of rewards, but by a mutual rivalry in doing kindnesses.
            134. Lastly, the friendships of the poor are generally better than those of the rich,774 and often
       the rich are without friends, whilst the poor have many. For true friendship cannot exist where there
       is lying flattery. Many try fawningly to please the rich, but no one cares to make pretence to a poor
       man. Whatsoever is stated to a poor man is true, his friendship is free from envy.
            135. What is more precious than friendship which is shared alike by angels and by men?
       Wherefore the Lord Jesus says: “Make to yourselves friends of the mammon of unrighteousness,
       that they may receive you into eternal habitations.”775 God Himself makes us friends instead of
       servants, as He Himself says: “Ye are My friends if ye do whatsoever I command you.”776 He gave
       us a pattern of friendship to follow. We are to fulfil the wish of a friend, to unfold to him our secrets
       which we hold in our own hearts, and are not to disregard his confidences. Let us show him our
       heart and he will open his to us. Therefore He says: “I have called you friends, for I have made
       known unto you all things whatsoever I have heard of My Father.”777 A friend, then, if he is a true



       766     Dan. iii. 16 ff.
       767     2 Sam. [2 Kings] i. 23.
       768     Cic. de Off. III. 10, § 44.
       769     Cic. de Amic. 19, § 69.
       770     Cic. de Amic. 14, § 50.
       771     Cic. de Off. I. 38, § 137.
       772     Cic. de Amic. 21, § 80.
       773     Cic. de Amic. 15, § 51.
       774     Cic. Lact. 15, § 53.
       775     S. Luke xvi. 9.
       776     S. John xv. 14.
       777     S. John xv. 15.


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       one, hides nothing; he pours forth his soul as the Lord Jesus poured forth the mysteries of His
       Father.
           136. So he who does the will of God is His friend and is honoured with this name. He who is
       of one mind with Him, he too is His friend. For there is unity of mind in friends, and no one is more
       hateful than the man that injures friendship. Hence in the traitor the Lord found this the worst point
       on which to condemn his treachery, namely, that he gave no sign of gratitude and had mingled the
       poison of malice at the table of friendship. So He says: “It was thou, a man of like mind, My guide
       and Mine acquaintance, who ever didst take pleasant meals with Me.”778 That is: it could not be
       endured, for thou didst fall upon Him Who granted grace to thee. “For if My enemy had reproached
       Me I could have borne it,779 and I would have hid Myself from him who hated Me.” An enemy can
       be avoided; a friend cannot, if he desires to lay a plot. Let us guard against him to whom we do not
       entrust our plans; we cannot guard against him to whom we have already entrusted them. And so
       to show up all the hatefulness of the sin He did not say: Thou, My servant, My apostle; but thou,
       a man of like mind with Me; that is: thou art not My but thy own betrayer, for thou didst betray a
       man of like mind with thyself.
           137. The Lord Himself, when He was displeased with the three princes who had not deferred
       to holy Job, wished to pardon them through their friend, so that the prayer of friendship might win
       remission of sins. Therefore Job asked and God pardoned. Friendship helped them whom arrogance
       had harmed.780
           138. These things I have left with you, my children, that you may guard them in your minds—you
       yourselves will prove whether they will be of any advantage. Meanwhile they offer you a large
       number of examples, for almost all the examples drawn from our forefathers, and also many a word
       of theirs, are included within these three books; so that, although the language may not be graceful,
       yet a succession of old-time examples set down in such small compass may offer much instruction.



       INTRODUCTION TO THE THREE BOOKS OF ST. AMBROSE ON THE HOLY SPIRIT.
91




           THE three books on the Holy Spirit are, as St. Ambrose says himself, a sequel to those on the
       Faith, and the two treatises together have been sometimes quoted as if one, with the title, De
       Trinitate. But we see from Gratian’s letter to St. Ambrose, and from the reply, that each treatise is
       separate, and the De Spiritu Sancto was written some years later, A.D. 381.
           In the first book St. Ambrose commences by allegorizing the history of Gideon and the fleece,
       seeing in the drying of the fleece and the moistening of the threshing-floor a type of the Holy Spirit
       leaving the Jews and being poured out on the Gentiles. Passing to his more immediate subject, he
       proves that the Holy Spirit is above the whole Creation and is truly God, alleging as a special
       argument that the sin against the Holy Spirit can never be forgiven, here or hereafter. He shows
       how the Holy Spirit is in Scripture called the Spirit of God; that He spake by the prophets and

       778     Ps. liv. [lv.] 13, 14.
       779     Ps. liv. [lv.] 12.
       780     Job xlii. 7, 8.


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       apostles; that He sanctifies men, and is typified by the mystical ointment spoken of in Scripture.
       Next, St. Ambrose treats of His oneness with the other two Persons of the Holy Trinity, and shows
       that His mission in no way detracts from this oneness, but that there is in all the Divine Persons a
       perfect unity of peace, love, and other virtues.
            The second book commences with a treatment of the history of Samson in the same way as that
       of Gideon in Book I. Samson always succeeded so long as the Holy Spirit was with him, but fell
       into misfortune so soon as he was forsaken. It is shown that the power of the Holy Spirit is the same
       as that of the Father and the Son, and that there is an agreement in design and working, and in
       vivifying man. He is Creator and therefore to be worshipped, and He worked with the Father and
       the Son in founding the Church, and in conclusion is proved the unity of operation in the Three
       Persons.
            The third book continues the same argument, showing that the mission of prophets and apostles,
       and even of the Son Himself, is to be referred to the Spirit, yet without any subjection on the part
       of the Son, seeing that the Spirit also receives His mission from the Father and the Son. The Godhead
       of the Holy Spirit is next taken up and proved, when occasion is taken also to show that there are
       not three Gods or three Lords, for the Three Divine Persons are one in holiness and nature; and the
       work is concluded with a summary of some of the principal arguments.
            There can be but little doubt that this is the work, and St. Ambrose the author, bitterly attacked
       by St. Jerome; the whole passage may be read in the Apology of Rufinus, p. 470, in vol. iii. of this
       series. St. Ambrose is compared to a daw decked in another bird’s plumage, and charged with
       writing “bad things in Latin taken from good things in Greek,” and St. Jerome even took the trouble
       to translate a work of St. Didymus on the Holy Spirit (from the preface to which the above extracts
       are taken), in order that those who did not know Greek might, St. Jerome hoped, recognize the
       plagiarisms.
            Rufinus vigorously defends St. Ambrose, and, pointing out many inconsistencies in his opponent,
       says: “The saintly Ambrose wrote his book on the Holy Spirit not in words only but with his own
       blood, for he offered his life-blood to his persecutors, and shed it within himself, though God
       preserved his life for future labours.”781
            The truth is that St. Ambrose being a good Greek scholar, and having undertaken to write on
92     the Holy Spirit, studied what others had written before him, and made use of what had been urged
       by SS. Basil, Didymus, and others. The opinion of the great St. Augustine concerning this treatise
       may be set against that of St. Jerome. “St. Ambrose when treating of the deep subject of the Holy
       Spirit, and showing that He is equal with the Father and the Son, yet makes use of a simple style
       of discourse; inasmuch as his subject required no the embellishments of language, but proofs to
       move the minds of his readers.”782




       781     See vol. iii. p. 471, of this series.
       782     De doct. Christ. IV. c. 21.


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93     THREE BOOKS OF ST. AMBROSE, BISHOP OF MILAN, ON THE HOLY
                               SPIRIT.


                                       TO THE EMPEROR GRATIAN.


                                                     BOOK I.

       The choice of Gideon was a figure of our Lord’s Incarnation, the sacrifice of a kid, of the satisfaction
          for sins in the body of Christ; that of the bullock, of the abolition of profane rites; and in the
          three hundred soldiers was a type of the future redemption through the cross. The seeking of
          various signs by Gideon was also a mystery, for by the dryness and moistening of the fleece
          was signified the falling away of the Jews and the calling of the Gentiles, by the water received
          in a basin the washing of the apostles’ feet. St. Ambrose prays that his own pollution may be
          washed away, and praises the loving-kindness of Christ. The same water sent forth by the Son
          of God effects marvellous conversions; it cannot, however, be sent by any other, since it is the
          pouring forth of the Holy Spirit, Who is subject to no external power.
           1. WHEN Jerubbaal, as we read, was beating out wheat783 under an oak, he received a message
       from God in order that he might bring the people of God from the power of strangers into liberty.
       Nor is it a matter of wonder if he was chosen for grace, seeing that even then, being appointed
       under the shadow of the holy cross and of the adorable Wisdom in the predestined mystery of the
       future Incarnation, he was bringing forth the visible grains of the fruitful corn from their hiding
       places, and was [mystically] separating the elect of the saints from the refuse of the empty chaff.
       For these elect, as though trained with the rod of truth, laying aside the superfluities of the old man
       together with his deeds, are gathered in the Church as in a winepress. For the Church is the winepress
       of the eternal fountain, since from her wells forth the juice of the heavenly Vine.
           2. And Gideon, moved by that message, when he heard that, though thousands of the people
       failed, God would deliver His own from their enemies by means of one man,784 offered a kid, and
       according to the word of the Angel, laid its flesh and the unleavened cakes upon the rock, and
       poured the broth upon them. And as soon as the Angel touched them with the end of the staff which
       he bore, fire burst forth out of the rock, and so the sacrifice which he was offering was consumed.785
       By which it seems clear that that rock was a figure of the Body of Christ, for it is written: “They
       drank of that rock that followed them, and that rock was Christ.”786 Which certainly refers not to
       His Godhead, but to His Flesh, which watered the hearts of the thirsting people with the perpetual
       stream of His Blood.


       783     Judg. vi. 11.
       784     Judg. vi. 14.
       785     Judg. vi. 19–21.
       786     1 Cor. x. 4.


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            3. Even at that time was it declared in a mystery that the Lord Jesus in His Flesh would, when
       crucified, do away the sins of the whole world, and not only the deeds of the body, but the desires
       of the soul. For the flesh of the kid refers to sins of deed, the broth to the enticements of desire as
       it is written: “For the people lusted an evil lust, and said, Who shall give us flesh to eat?”787 That
       the Angel then stretched forth his staff, and touched the rock, from which fire went out,788 shows
       that the Flesh of the Lord, being filled with the Divine Spirit, would burn away all the sins of human
       frailty. Wherefore, also, the Lord says: “I am come to send fire upon the earth.”789
            4. Then the man, instructed and foreknowing what was to be, observes the heavenly mysteries,
       and therefore, according to the warning, slew the bullock destined by his father to idols, and himself
       offered to God another bullock seven years old.790 By doing which he most plainly showed that
94     after the coming of the Lord all Gentile sacrifices should be done away, and that only the sacrifice
       of the Lord’s passion should be offered for the redemption of the people. For that bullock was, in
       a type, Christ, in Whom, as Esaias said, dwelt the fulness of the seven gifts of the Spirit.791 This
       bullock Abraham also offered when he saw the day of the Lord and was glad.792 He it is Who was
       offered at one time in the type of a kid, at another in that of a sheep, at another in that of a bullock.
       Of a kid, because He is a sacrifice for sin; of a sheep, because He is an unresisting victim; of a
       bullock, because He is a victim without blemish.
            5. Holy Gideon then saw the mystery beforehand. Next he chose out three hundred for the
       battle, so as to show that the world should be freed from the incursion of worse enemies, not by
       the multitude of their number, but by the mystery of the cross. And yet, though he was brave and
       faithful, he asked of the Lord yet fuller proofs of future victory, saying: “If Thou wilt save Israel
       by mine hand, O Lord, as Thou hast said, behold I will put a fleece of wool on the threshing-floor,
       and if there shall be dew on the fleece and dryness on all the ground, I shall know that Thou wilt
       deliver the people by my hand according to Thy promise. And it was so.”793 Afterwards he asked
       in addition that dew should descend on all the earth and dryness be on the fleece.
            6. Some one perhaps will enquire whether he does not seem to have been wanting in faith,
       seeing that after being instructed by many signs he asked still more. But how can he seem to have
       asked as if doubting or wanting in faith, who was speaking in mysteries? He was not then doubtful,
       but careful that we should not doubt. For how could he be doubtful whose prayer was effectual?
       And how could he have begun the battle without fear, unless he had understood the message of
       God? for the dew on the fleece signified the faith among the Jews, because the words of God come
       down like the dew.
            7. So when the whole world was parched with the drought of Gentile superstition, then came
       that dew of the heavenly visits on the fleece. But after that the lost sheep of the house of Israel794
       (whom I think that the figure of the Jewish fleece shadowed forth), after that those sheep, I say,795
       “had refused the fountain of living water,” the dew of moistening faith dried up in the breasts of

       787     Num. xi. 4.
       788     Judg. vi. 21.
       789     S. Luke xii. 49.
       790     Judg. vi. 26.
       791     Isa. xi. 2.
       792     S. John viii. 56.
       793     Judg. vi. 36.
       794     S. Matt. xv. 24.
       795     Jer. ii. 13.


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       the Jews, and that divine Fountain turned away its course to the hearts of the Gentiles. Whence it
       has come to pass that now the whole world is moistened with the dew of faith, but the Jews have
       lost their prophets and counsellors.
            8. Nor is it strange that they should suffer the drought of unbelief, whom the Lord deprived of
       the fertilising of the shower of prophecy, saying: “I will command My clouds that they rain not
       upon that vineyard.”796 For there is a health-giving shower of salutary grace, as David also said:
       “He came down like rain upon a fleece, and like drops that drop upon the earth.”797 The divine
       Scriptures promised us this rain upon the whole earth, to water the world with the dew of the Divine
       Spirit at the coming of the Saviour. The Lord, then, has now come, and the rain has come; the Lord
       has come bringing the heavenly drops with Him, and so now we drink, who before were thirsty,
       and with an interior draught drink in that Divine Spirit.
            9. Holy Gideon, then, foresaw this, that the nations of the Gentiles also would drink by the
       reception of faith, and therefore he enquired more diligently, for the caution of the saints is necessary.
       Insomuch that also Joshua the son of Nun, when he saw the captain of the heavenly host, enquired:
       “Art thou for us, or for our adversaries?”798 lest, perchance, he might be deceived by some stratagem
       of the adversary.
            10. Nor was it without a reason that he put the fleece neither in a field nor in a meadow, but in
       a threshing-floor, where is the harvest of the wheat: “For the harvest is plenteous, but the labourers
       are few;”799 because that, through faith in the Lord, there was about to be a harvest fruitful in virtues.
            11. Nor, again, was it without a reason that he dried the fleece of the Jews, and put the dew
       from it into a basin, so that it was filled with water, yet he did not himself wash his feet in that dew.
       The prerogative of so great a mystery was to be given to another. He was being waited for Who
       alone could wash away the filth of all. Gideon was not great enough to claim this mystery for
       himself, but “the Son of Man came not to be ministered unto, but to minister.”800 Let us, then,
       recognize in Whom these mysteries are seen to be accomplished. Not in holy Gideon, for they were
95     still at their commencement. Therefore the Gentiles were surpassed, for dryness was still upon the
       Gentiles, and therefore did Israel surpass them, for then did the dew remain on the fleece.
            12. Let us come now to the Gospel of God. I find the Lord stripping Himself of His garments,
       and girding Himself with a towel, pouring water into a basin, and washing the disciples’ feet.801
       That heavenly dew was this water, this was foretold, namely, that the Lord Jesus Christ would wash
       the feet of His disciples in that heavenly dew. And now let the feet of our minds be stretched out.
       The Lord Jesus wills also to wash our feet, for He says, not to Peter alone, but to each of the faithful:
       “If I wash not thy feet thou wilt have no part with Me.”802
            13. Come, then, Lord Jesus, put off Thy garments, which Thou didst put on for my sake; be
       Thou stripped that Thou mayest clothe us with Thy mercy. Gird Thyself for our sakes with a towel,
       that Thou mayest gird us with Thy gift of immortality. Pour water into the basin, wash not only
       our feet but also the head, and not only of the body, but also the footsteps of the soul. I wish to put


       796     Isa. v. 6.
       797     Ps. lxxii. [lxxi.] 6.
       798     Josh. v. 13.
       799     S. Luke x. 2.
       800     S. Matt. xx. 28.
       801     S. John xiii. 4.
       802     S. John xiii. 8.


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       off all the filth of our frailty, so that I also may say: “By night I have put off my coat, how shall I
       put it on? I have washed my feet, how shall I defile them?”803
           14. How great is that excellence! As a servant, Thou dost wash the feet of Thy disciples; as
       God, Thou sendest dew from heaven. Nor dost Thou wash the feet only, but also invitest us to sit
       down with Thee, and by the example of Thy dignity dost exhort us, saying: “Ye call Me Master
       and Lord, and ye do well, for so I am. If, then, I the Lord and Master have washed your feet, ye
       ought also to wash one another’s feet.”804
           15. I, then, wish also myself to wash the feet of my brethren, I wish to fulfil the commandment
       of my Lord, I will not be ashamed in myself, nor disdain what He Himself did first. Good is the
       mystery of humility, because while washing the pollutions of others I wash away my own. But all
       were not able to exhaust this mystery. Abraham was, indeed, willing to wash feet,805 but because
       of a feeling of hospitality. Gideon, too, was willing to wash the feet of the Angel of the Lord who
       appeared to him,806 but his willingness was confined to one; he was willing as one who would do
       a service, not as one who would confer fellowship with himself. This is a great mystery which no
       one knew. Lastly, the Lord said to Peter: “What I do thou knowest not now, but shalt know
       hereafter.”807 This, I say, is a divine mystery which even they who wash will enquire into. It is not,
       then, the simple water of the heavenly mystery whereby we attain to be found worthy of having
       part with Christ.
           16. There is also a certain water which we put into the basin of our soul, water from the fleece
       and from the Book of Judges; water, too, from the Book of Psalms.808 It is the water of the message
       from heaven. Let, then, this water, O Lord Jesus, come into my soul, into my flesh, that through
       the moisture of this rain809 the valleys of our minds and the fields of our hearts may grow green.
       May the drops from Thee come upon me, shedding forth grace and immortality. Wash the steps of
       my mind that I may not sin again. Wash the heel810 of my soul, that I may be able to efface the
       curse, that I feel not the serpent’s bite811 on the foot of my soul, but, as Thou Thyself hast bidden
       those who follow Thee, may tread on serpents and scorpions812 with uninjured foot. Thou hast
       redeemed the world, redeem the soul of a single sinner.
           17. This is the special excellence of Thy loving-kindness, wherewith Thou hast redeemed the
       whole world one by one. Elijah was sent to one widow;813 Elisha cleansed one;814 Thou, O Lord
       Jesus, hast at this day cleansed a thousand. How many in the city of Rome, how many at Alexandria,

       803         Cant. v. 3.
       804         S. John xiii. 13, 14.
       805         Gen. xviii. 4.
       806         Whence this statement is derived cannot be ascertained. Possibly it is merely an assumption of St. Ambrose founded on
           his estimate of Gideon’s character.
       807         S. John xiii. 7.
       808         Ps. xxiii. [xxii.] 2.
       809         Ps. lxxv. [lxxiv.] 11.
       810         “Alia est iniquitas nostra, alia calcanei nostri, in quo Adam dente serpentis est vulneratus et obnoxiam hereditatem
           successionis humanæ suo vulnere dereliquit, ut omnes illo vulnere claudicemus.” St. Aug. Exp. Psal. xlviii. 6, and St. Ambrose,
           Enar. in Ps. xlviii. 9: “Unde reor uniquitatem calcanei magis lubricum deliquendi quam reatum aliquem nostri esse delicti.”
           This lubricum delinquendi, the wound of Adam’s heel, seems to have been understood of concupiscence, which has the nature
           of sin, and is called sin by St. Paul.
       811         Gen. iii. 15.
       812         S. Luke x. 19.
       813         1 [3] Kings xvii. 9.
       814         2 [4] Kings v. 14.


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       how many at Antioch, how many also at Constantinople! For even Constantinople has received the
       word of God, and has received evident proofs of Thy judgment. For so long as she cherished the
       Arians’ poison in her bosom, disquieted by neighbouring wars, she echoed with hostile arms around.
       But so soon as she rejected those who were alien from the faith she received as a suppliant the
       enemy himself, the judge of kings, whom she had always been wont to fear, she buried him when
96     dead, and retains him entombed.815 How many, then, hast Thou cleansed at Constantinople, how
       many, lastly, at this day in the whole world!
           18. Damasus cleansed not, Peter cleansed not, Ambrose cleansed not, Gregory cleansed not;816
       for ours is the ministry, but the sacraments are Thine. For it is not in man’s power to confer what
       is divine, but it is, O Lord, Thy gift and that of the Father, as Thou hast spoken by the prophets,
       saying: “I will pour out of My Spirit upon all flesh, and their sons and their daughters shall
       prophesy.”817 This is that typical dew from heaven, this is that gracious rain, as we read: “A gracious
       rain, dividing for His inheritance.”818 For the Holy Spirit is not subject to any foreign power or law,
       but is the Arbiter of His own freedom, dividing all things according to the decision of His own will,
       to each, as we read, severally as He wills.819



                                                               CHAPTER I.

       St. Ambrose commences his argument by complimenting the Emperor, both for his faith and for
           the restitution of the Basilica to the Church; then having urged that his opponents, if they affirm
           that the Holy Spirit is not a servant, cannot deny Him to be above all, adds that the same Spirit,
           when He said, “All things serve Thee,” showed plainly that He was distinct from creatures;
           which point he also establishes by other evidence.
           19. THE Holy Spirit, then, is not amongst but above all things. For (since you, most merciful
       Emperor, are so fully instructed concerning the Son of God as to be able yourself to teach others)
       I will not detain you longer, as you desire and claim to be told something more exactly [concerning
       Him], especially since you lately showed yourself to be so pleased by an argument of this nature,
       as to command the Basilica to be restored to the Church without any one urging you.
           20. So, then, we have received the grace of your faith and the reward of our own; for we cannot
       say otherwise than that it was of the grace of the Holy Spirit, that when all were unconscious of it,
       you suddenly restored the Basilica. This is the gift, I say, this the work of the Holy Spirit, Who
       indeed was at that time preached by us, but was working in you.
           21. And I do not regret the losses of the previous time, since the sequestration of that Basilica
       resulted in the gain of a sort of usury. For you sequestrated the Basilica, that you might give proof

       815         Athanaricus, king or judex of the West Goths in Dacia, defeated in 369 by the Emperor Valens. Subsequently, in 380,
           being defeated by the Huns and some Gothic chiefs, he was forced to take refuge in Constantinople, when he was received with
           all the honour due to his rank. He died the next year.
       816         Damasus of Rome, Peter of Alexandria, Gregory of Constantinople, and St. Ambrose himself. Peter had died by this time,
           but the fact was probably not yet known at Milan.
       817         Joel ii. 28.
       818         Ps. lxviii. [lxvii.] 9.
       819         1 Cor. xii. 11.


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       of your faith. And so your piety fulfilled its intention, which had sequestered that it might give
       proof, and so gave proof as to restore. I did not lose the fruit, and I have your judgment, and it has
       been made clear to all that, with a certain diversity of action, there was in you no diversity of
       opinion. It was made clear, I say, to all, that it was not of yourself that you sequestrated, that it was
       of yourself when you restored it.
            22. Now let us establish by evidence what we have said. The first point in the discussion is that
       all things serve. Now it is clear that all things serve, since it is written: “All things serve Thee.”820
       This the Spirit said through the prophet. He did not say, We serve, but, “serve Thee,” that you might
       believe that He Himself is excepted from serving. So, then, since all things serve, and the Spirit
       does not serve, the Holy Spirit is certainly not included amongst all things.
            23. For if we say that the Holy Spirit is included amongst all things, certainly when we read
       that the Spirit searches the deep things of God,821 we deny that God the Father is over all. For since
       the Spirit is of God, and is the Spirit of His mouth, how can we say that the Holy Spirit is included
       amongst all things, seeing that God, Whose is the Spirit, is over all, possessing certainly fulness of
       perfection and perfect power.
            25. But lest the objectors should think that the Apostle was in error, let them learn whom he
       followed as his authority for his belief. The Lord said in the Gospel: “When the Paraclete is come,
       Whom I will send to you from My Father, even the Spirit of Truth which proceedeth from the
       Father, He shall bear witness of Me.”822 So the Holy Spirit both proceeds from the Father, and bears
       witness of the Son. For the witness Who is both faithful and true bears witness of the Father, than
       which witness nothing is more full for the expression of the Divine Majesty, nothing more clear as
       to the Unity of the Divine Power, since the Spirit has the same knowledge as the Son, Who is the
       witness and inseparable sharer of the Father’s secrets.
97          26. He excludes, then, the fellowship and number of creatures from the knowledge of God, but
       by not excluding the Holy Spirit, He shows that He is not of the fellowship of creatures. So that
       the passage which is read in the Gospel: “For no man hath seen God at any time, save the
       Only-begotten Son Who is in the bosom of the Father He hath declared Him,” also pertains to the
       exclusion of the Holy Spirit. For how has He not seen God Who searches even the deep things of
       God? How has He not seen God Who knows the things which are of God? How has He not seen
       God Who is of God? So, since it is laid down that no one has seen God at any time, whereas the
       Holy Spirit has seen Him, clearly the Holy Spirit is excepted. He, then, is above all Who is excluded
       from all.



                                                    CHAPTER II.

       The words, “All things were made by Him,” are not a proof that the Holy Spirit is included amongst
          all things, since He was not made. For otherwise it could be proved by other passages that the



       820     Ps. cxix. [cxviii.] 91.
       821     1 Cor. ii. 10.
       822     S. John xv. 26.


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             Son, and even the Father Himself, must be numbered amongst all things, which would be similar
             irreverence.
            27. THIS seems, gracious Emperor, to be a full account of our right feeling, but to the impious
       it does not seem so. Observe what they are striving after. For the heretics are wont to say that the
       Holy Spirit is to be reckoned amongst all things, because it is written of God the Son: “All things
       were made by Him.”823
            28. How utterly confused is a course of argument which does not hold to the truth, and is
       involved in an inverted order of statements. For this argument would be of value for the statement
       that the Holy Spirit is amongst all things, if they proved that He was made. For Scripture says that
       all things which were made were made by the Son; but since we are not taught that the Holy Spirit
       was made, He certainly cannot be proved to be amongst all things Who was neither made as all
       things are, nor created. To me this testimony is of use for establishing each point; firstly, that He
       is proved to be above all things, because He was not made; and secondly, that because He is above
       all things, He is seen not to have been made, and is not to be numbered amongst those things which
       were made.
            29. But if any one, because the Evangelist stated that all things were made by the Word, making
       no exception of the Holy Spirit (although the Spirit of God speaking in John said: “All things were
       made by Him,” and said not we were all things which were made; whilst the Lord Himself distinctly
       showed that the Spirit of God spoke in the Evangelists, saying, “For it will not be you that speak,
       but the Spirit of your Father that speaketh in you”),824 yet if any one, as I said, does not except the
       Holy Spirit in this place, but numbers Him amongst all, he consequently does not except the Son
       of God in that passage where the Apostle says: “Yet to us there is one God the Father, of Whom
       are all things, and we by Him.”825 But that he may know that the Son is not amongst all things, let
       him read what follows, for when he says: “And one Lord Jesus Christ, by Whom are all things,”826
       he certainly excepts the Son of God from all, who also excepted the Father.
            30. But it is equal irreverence to detract from the dignity of the Father, or the Son, or the Holy
       Spirit. For he believes not in the Father who does not believe in the Son, nor does he believe in the
       Son of God who does not believe in the Spirit, nor can faith stand without the rule of truth. For he
       who has begun to deny the oneness of power in the Father and the Son and the Holy Spirit certainly
       cannot prove his divided faith in points where there is no division. So, then, since complete piety
       is to believe rightly, so complete impiety is to believe wrongly.
            31. Therefore they who think that the Holy Spirit ought to be numbered amongst all things,
       because they read that all things were made by the Son, must needs also think that the Son is to be
       numbered amongst all things, because they read: “All things are of God.”827 But, consequently,
       they also do not separate the Father from all things, who do not separate the Son from all creatures,
       since, as all things are of the Father, so, too, all things are by the Son. And the Apostle, because of
       his foresight in the Spirit, used this very expression, lest he should seem to the impious who had


       823      S. John i. 3.
       824      S. Matt. x. 20.
       825      1 Cor. viii. 6.
       826      1 Cor. viii. 6.
       827      2 Cor. v. 18.


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       heard that the Son had said, “That which My Father hath given Me is greater than all,”828 to have
       included the Son amongst all.



                                                    CHAPTER III.
98

       The statement of the Apostle, that all things are of the Father by the Son, does not separate the
          Spirit from Their company, since what is referred to one Person is also attributed to each. So
          those baptized in the Name of Christ are held to be baptized in the Name of the Father and of
          the Holy Spirit, if, that is, there is belief in the Three Persons, otherwise the baptism will be
          null. This also applies to baptism in the Name of the Holy Spirit. If because of one passage the
          Holy Spirit is separated from the Father and the Son, it will necessarily follow from other
          passages that the Father will be subordinated to the Son. The Son is worshipped by angels, not
          by the Spirit, for the latter is His witness, not His servant. Where the Son is spoken of as being
          before all, it is to be understood of creatures. The great dignity of the Holy Spirit is proved by
          the absence of forgiveness for the sin against Him. How it is that such sin cannot be forgiven,
          and how the Spirit is one.
           32. BUT perhaps some one may say that there was a reason why the writer said that all things
       were of the Father, and all things through the Son,829 but made no mention of the Holy Spirit, and
       would obtain the foundation of an argument from this. But if he persists in his perverse interpretation,
       in how many passages will he find the power of the Holy Spirit asserted, in which Scripture has
       stated nothing concerning either the Father or the Son, but has left it to be understood?
           40. Where, then, the grace of the Spirit is asserted, is that of God the Father or of the
       Only-begotten Son denied? By no means; for as the Father is in the Son, and the Son in the Father,
       so, too, “the love of God is shed abroad in our hearts by the Holy Spirit, Who hath been given
       us.”830 And as he who is blessed in Christ is blessed in the Name of the Father, and of the Son, and
       of the Holy Spirit, because the Name is one and the Power one; so, too, when any divine operation,
       whether of the Father, or of the Son, or of the Holy Spirit, is treated of, it is not referred only to the
       Holy Spirit, but also to the Father and the Son, and not only to the Father, but also to the Son and
       the Spirit.
           41. Then, too, the Ethiopian eunuch of Queen Candace, when baptized in Christ, obtained the
       fulness of the sacrament. And they who said that they knew not of any Holy Spirit, although they
       said that they had been baptized with John’s baptism, were baptized afterwards, because John
       baptized for the remission of sins in the Name of the coming Jesus, not in his own. And so they
       knew not the Spirit, because in the form in which John baptized they had not received baptism in
       the Name of Christ. For John, though he did not baptize in the Spirit, nevertheless preached Christ
       and the Spirit. And then, when he was questioned whether he were perchance himself the Christ,
       he answered: “I baptize you with water, but a stronger than I shall come, Whose shoes I am not


       828     S. John x. 29.
       829     1 Cor. viii. 6.
       830     Rom. v. 5.


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       worthy to bear, He shall baptize you with the Holy Spirit and with fire.”831 They therefore, because
       they had been baptized neither in the Name of Christ nor with faith in the Holy Spirit, could not
       receive the sacrament of baptism.
           42. So they were baptized in the Name of Jesus Christ,832 and baptism was not repeated in their
       case, but administered differently, for there is but one baptism. But where there is not the complete
       sacrament of baptism, there is not considered to be a commencement nor any kind of baptism. But
       baptism is complete if one confess the Father, the Son, and the Holy Spirit. If you deny One you
       overthrow the whole. And just as if you mention in words One only, either the Father, or the Son,
       or the Holy Spirit, and in your belief do not deny either the Father, the Son, or the Holy Spirit, the
       mystery of the faith is complete, so, too, although you name the Father, Son, and Holy Spirit, and
       lessen the power of either the Father, the Son, or the Holy Spirit, the whole mystery is made empty.
       And, lastly, they who had said: “We have not heard if there be any Holy Spirit, were baptized
       afterwards in the Name of the Lord Jesus Christ.”833 And this was an additional abundance of grace,
       for now through Paul’s preaching they knew the Holy Spirit.
           43. Nor ought it to seem opposed to this, that although subsequently mention is not made of
       the Spirit, He is yet believed in, and what had not been mentioned in words is expressed in belief.
       For when it is said, “In the Name of our Lord Jesus Christ,” the mystery is complete through the
       oneness of the Name, and the Spirit is not separated from the baptism of Christ, since John baptized
       unto repentance, Christ in the Spirit.
99         44. Let us now consider whether as we read that the sacrament of baptism in the Name of Christ
       was complete, so, too, when the Holy Spirit alone is named, anything is wanting to the completeness
       of the mystery. Let us follow out the argument that he who has named One has signified the Trinity.
       If you name Christ, you imply both God the Father by Whom the Son was anointed, and the Son
       Himself Who was anointed, and the Holy Spirit with Whom He was anointed. For it is written:
       “This Jesus of Nazareth, Whom God anointed with the Holy Spirit.”834 And if you name the Father,
       you denote equally His Son and the Spirit of His mouth, if, that is, you apprehend it in your heart.
       And if you speak of the Spirit, you name also God the Father, from Whom the Spirit proceeds, and
       the Son, inasmuch as He is also the Spirit of the Son.
           45. Wherefore that authority may also be joined to reason Scripture indicates that we can also
       be rightly baptized in the Spirit, when the Lord says: “But ye shall be baptized in the Holy Spirit.”835
       And in another place the Apostle says: “For we were all baptized in the body itself into one Spirit.”836
       The work is one, for the mystery is one; the baptism one, for there was one death on behalf of the
       world; there is, then, a oneness of working, a oneness of setting forth, which cannot be separated.

       831         S. Matt. iii. 11; S. Luke iv. 16; S. John i. 26, 27.
       832         This passage has given rise to the question whether St. Ambrose taught, as some others certainly did (probably on his
           authority), that baptism in the Name of Christ alone, without mention of the other Persons, is valid. But it is difficult to believe
           that St. Ambrose meant more than to refer to the passage in the Acts as implying Christian baptism. He says just below that
           baptism is not complete unless one confess the Father, Son, and Holy Spirit, which would seem to imply the full formula, and
           he would hardly dissent from St. Basil, who distinctly asserts [De Sp. Sanct. XII.] that baptism without mention of the Three
           Persons is invalid; and St. Augustine [De Bapt. lib. vi. c. xxv. 47] says that it is more easy to find heretics who reject baptism
           altogether, than such as omit the right form. Compare also St. Ambrose on St. Luke vi. 67; De Mysteriis, IV. 20; De Sacramentis,
           II. 5 and 7, especially the latter when he says: In uno nomine…hoc est in nomine Patris et Filii, et Spiritus Sancti.
       833         Acts xix. 5 ff.
       834         Acts x. 38.
       835         Acts i. 5.
       836         1 Cor. xii. 13.


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           46. But if in this place the Spirit be separated from the operation of the Father and the Son,
       because it is said, All things are of God, and all things are through the Son,837 then, too, when the
       Apostle says of Christ, “Who is over all, God blessed for ever,”838 He set Christ not only above all
       creatures, but (which it is impious to say) above the Father also. But God forbid, for the Father is
       not amongst all things, is not amongst a kind of crowd of His own creatures. The whole creation
       is below, over all is the Godhead of the Father, the Son, and the Holy Spirit. The former serves,
       the latter rules; the former is subject, the latter reigns; the former is the work, the latter the author
       of the work; the former, without exception, worships, the latter is worshipped by all without
       exception.
           47. Lastly, of the Son it is written: “And let all the angels of God worship Him.”839 You do not
       find, Let the Holy Spirit worship. And farther on: “To which of the angels said He at any time, Sit
       thou on My right hand till I make thine enemies the footstool of thy feet? Are they not all,” says
       he, “ministering spirits who are sent to minister?”840 When he says All, does he include the Holy
       Spirit? Certainly not, because Angels and the other Powers are destined to serve in ministering and
       obedience to the Son of God.
           48. But in truth the Holy Spirit is not a minister but a witness of the Son, as the Son Himself
       said of Him: “He shall bear witness of Me.”841 The Spirit, then, is a witness of the Son. He who is
       a witness knows all things, as God the Father is a witness. For so you read in later passages, for
       our salvation was confirmed to us by God bearing witness by signs and wonders and by manifold
       powers and by distributions of the Holy Spirit.842 He who divides as he will is certainly above all,
       not amongst all, for to divide is the gift of the worker, not an innate part of the work itself.
           49. If the Son is above all, through Whom our salvation received its commencement, so that it
       might be preached, certainly God the Father also, Who testifies and gives confirmation concerning
       our salvation by signs and wonders, is excepted from all. In like manner the Spirit, Who bears
       witness to our salvation by His diversities of gifts, is not to be numbered with the crowd of creatures,
       but to be reckoned with the Father and the Son; Who, when He divides, is not Himself divided by
       cutting off Himself, for being indivisible He loses nothing when He gives to all, as also the Son,
       when the Father receives the kingdom,843 loses nothing, nor does the Father, when He gives that
       which is His to the Son, suffer loss. We know, then, by the testimony of the Son that there is no
       loss in the division of spiritual grace; for He Who breathes where He wills844 is everywhere free
       from loss. Concerning which power we shall speak more fully farther on.
           50. In the meanwhile, since our intention is to prove in due order that the Spirit is not to be
       reckoned amongst all things, let us take the Apostle, whose words they call in question, as an
       authority for this position. For what “all things” would be, whether visible or invisible, he himself
       declared when he said: “For in Him were all things created in the heavens and in earth.”845 You see


       837     1 Cor. viii. 6.
       838     Rom. ix. 5.
       839     Heb. i. 6.
       840     Heb. i. 14.
       841     S. John xv. 26.
       842     Heb. ii. 3, 4.
       843     1 Cor. xv. 24.
       844     S. John iii. 8.
       845     Col. i. 16.


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       that “all things” is spoken of things in the heavens, and of things in earth, for in the heavens are
       also invisible things which were made.
100         51. But that no one should be ignorant of this he added those of whom he was speaking: “Whether
       thrones or dominions or principalities or powers, all things were created by Him and in Him, and
       He is before all, and in Him all things consist.”846 Does he, then, include the Holy Spirit here amongst
       creatures? Or when he says that the Son of God is before all things, is he to be supposed to have
       said that He is before the Father? Certainly not; for as here he says that all things were created by
       the Son, and that all things in the heavens consist in Him, so, too, it cannot be doubted that all things
       in the heavens have their strength in the Holy Spirit, since we read: “By the word of the Lord were
       the heavens established and all the strength of them by the Spirit of His mouth.”847 He, then, is
       above all, from Whom is all the strength of things in heaven and things on earth. He, then, Who is
       above all things certainly does not serve; He Who serves not is free; He Who is free has the
       prerogative of lordship.
            52. If I were to say this at first it would be denied. But in the same manner as they deny the less
       that the greater may not be believed, so let us set forth lesser matters first that either they may show
       their perfidy in lesser matters, or, if they grant the lesser matters, we may infer greater from the
       lesser.
            53. I think, most merciful Emperor, that they are most fully confuted who dare to reckon the
       Holy Spirit amongst all things. But that they may know that they are pressed not only by the
       testimony of the apostles, but also by that of our Lord; how can they dare to reckon the Holy Spirit
       amongst all things, since the Lord Himself said: “He who shall blaspheme against the Son of Man,
       it shall be forgiven him; but he who shall blaspheme against the Holy Ghost shall never be forgiven,
       either here or hereafter.”848 How, then, can any one dare to reckon the Holy Spirit amongst creatures?
       Or who will so blind himself as to think that if he have injured any creature he cannot be forgiven
       in any wise? For if the Jews because they worshipped the host of heaven were deprived of divine
       protection, whilst he who worships and confesses the Holy Spirit is accepted of God, but he who
       confesses Him not is convicted of sacrilege without forgiveness: certainly it follows from this that
       the Holy Spirit cannot be reckoned amongst all things, but that He is above all things, an offence
       against Whom is avenged by eternal punishment.
            54. But observe carefully why the Lord said: “He who shall blaspheme against the Son of Man
       it shall be forgiven him, but he who shall blaspheme against the Holy Ghost shall never be forgiven,
       either here or hereafter.”849 Is an offence against the Son different from one against the Holy Spirit?
       For as their dignity is one, and common to both, so too is the offence. But if any one, led astray by
       the visible human body, should think somewhat more remissly than is fitting concerning the Body
       of Christ (for it ought not to appear of little worth to us, seeing it is the palace of chastity, and the
       fruit of the Virgin), he incurs guilt, but he is not shut out from pardon, which he may attain to by
       faith. But if any one should deny the dignity, majesty, and eternal power of the Holy Spirit, and
       should think that devils are cast out not in the Spirit of God, but in Beelzebub, there can be no



       846     Col. i. 16, 17.
       847     Ps. xxxiii. [xxxii.] 6.
       848     S. Matt. xii. 32.
       849     S. Matt. xii. 32.


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       attaining of pardon there where is the fulness of sacrilege; for he who has denied the Spirit has
       denied also the Father and the Son, since the same is the Spirit of God Who is the Spirit of Christ.



                                                     CHAPTER IV.

       The Holy Spirit is one and the same Who spake in the prophets and apostles, Who is the Spirit of
          God and of Christ; Whom, further, Scripture designates the Paraclete, and the Spirit of life and
          truth.
           55. BUT no one will doubt that the Spirit is one, although very many have doubted whether God
       be one. For many heretics have said that the God of the Old Testament is one, and the God of the
       New Testament is another. But as the Father is one Who both spake of old, as we read, to the fathers
       by the prophets, and to us in the last days by His Son;850 “and as the Son is one, Who according to
       the tenour of the Old Testament was offended by Adam,851 seen by Abraham,852 worshipped by
       Jacob;853 so, too, the Holy Spirit is one, who energized in the prophets,854 was breathed upon the
       apostles,855 and was joined to the Father and the Son in the sacrament of baptism.856 For David says
       of Him: “And take not Thy Holy Spirit from me.”857 And in another place he said of Him: “Whither
       shall I go from Thy Spirit?”858
           56. That you may know that the Spirit of God is the same as the Holy Spirit, as we read also in
101    the Apostle: “No one speaking in the Spirit of God says Anathema to Jesus and no one can say,
       Lord Jesus, but in the Holy Spirit,”859 the Apostle calls Him the Spirit of God. He called Him also
       the Spirit of Christ, as you read: “But ye are not in the flesh but in the Spirit, if so be that the Spirit
       of God dwelleth in you.”860 And farther on: “But if the Spirit of Him Who raised Jesus from the
       dead dwelleth in you.”861 The same is, then, the Spirit of God, Who is the Spirit of Christ.
           57. The same is also the Spirit of Life, as the Apostle says: “For the law of the Spirit of Life in
       Christ Jesus hath delivered me from the law of sin and death.”862
           58. Him, then, Whom the Apostle called the Spirit of Life, the Lord in the Gospel named the
       Paraclete, and the Spirit of Truth, as you find: “And I will ask the Father, and He will give you
       another Comforter [Paraclete], that He may be with you for ever, even the Spirit of Truth, Whom
       this world cannot receive; because it seeth Him not, neither knoweth Him.”863 You have, then, the


       850     Heb. i. 1, 2.
       851     Gen. iii. 17.
       852     Gen. xviii. 22, 23.
       853     Gen. xxviii. 17.
       854     2 Pet. i. 21.
       855     S. John xx. 22.
       856     S. Matt. xxviii. 19.
       857     Ps. li. [l.] 11.
       858     Ps. cxxxix. [cxxxviii.] 7.
       859     1 Cor. xii. 3.
       860     Rom. viii. 9.
       861     Rom. viii. 11.
       862     Rom. viii. 2.
       863     S. John xiv. 16, 17.


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       Paraclete Spirit, called also the Spirit of Truth, and the invisible Spirit. How, then, do some think
       that the Son is visible in His Divine Nature, when the world cannot see even the Spirit?
           59. Receive now the saying of the Lord, that the same is the Holy Spirit Who is the Spirit of
       Truth, for you read in the end of this book: “Receive the Holy Spirit.”864 And Peter teaches that the
       same is the Holy Spirit Who is the Spirit of the Lord, when he says: “Ananias, why has it seemed
       good to thee to tempt and to lie to the Holy Spirit?”865 And immediately after he says again to the
       wife of Ananias: “Why has it seemed good to you to tempt the Spirit of the Lord?”866 When he says
       “to you,” he shows that he is speaking of the same Spirit of Whom he had spoken to Ananias. He
       Himself is, then, the Spirit of the Lord Who is the Holy Spirit.
           60. And the Lord Himself made clear that the same Who is the Spirit of the Father is the Holy
       Spirit, when according to Matthew He said that we ought not to take thought in persecution what
       we should say: “For it is not ye that speak, but the Spirit of your Father that speaketh in you.”867
       Again He says according to St. Luke: “Be not anxious how ye shall answer or speak, for the Holy
       Spirit of God shall teach you in that hour what ye ought to say.”868 So, although many are called
       spirits, as it is said: “Who maketh His Angels spirits,” yet the Spirit of God is but one.
           61. Both apostles and prophets received that one Spirit, as the vessel of election, the Doctor of
       the Gentiles, says: “For we have all drunk of one Spirit;”869 Him, as it were, Who cannot be divided,
       but is poured into souls, and flows into the senses, that He may quench the burning of this world’s
       thirst.



                                                   CHAPTER V.

       The Holy Spirit, since He sanctifies creatures, is neither a creature nor subject to change. He is
          always good, since He is given by the Father and the Son; neither is He to be numbered amongst
          such things as are said to fail. He must be acknowledged as the source of goodness. The Spirit
          of God’s mouth, the amender of evils, and Himself good. Lastly, as He is said in Scripture to
          be good, and is joined to the Father and the Son in baptism, He cannot possibly be denied to
          be good. He is not, however, said to progress, but to be made perfect in goodness, which
          distinguishes Him from all creatures.
           62. THE Holy Spirit is not, then, of the substance of things corporeal, for He sheds incorporeal
       grace on corporeal things; nor, again, is He of the substance of invisible creatures, for they receive
       His sanctification, and through Him are superior to the other works of the universe. Whether you
       speak of Angels, or Dominions, or Powers, every creature waits for the grace of the Holy Spirit.
       For as we are children through the Spirit, because “God sent the Spirit of His Son into our hearts
       crying, Abba, Father; so that thou art now not a servant but a son;”870 in like manner, also, every

       864     S. John xx. 22.
       865     Acts v. 3.
       866     Acts v. 9.
       867     S. Matt. x. 20.
       868     S. Luke xii. 11, 12.
       869     1 Cor. xii. 13.
       870     Gal. iv. 6, 7.


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       creature is waiting for the revelation of the sons of God, whom in truth the grace of the Holy Spirit
       made sons of God. Therefore, also, every creature itself shall be changed by the revelation of the
       grace of the Spirit, “and shall be delivered from the bondage of corruption into the liberty of the
       glory of the children of God.”871
            63. Every creature, then, is subject to change, not only such as has been changed by some sin
       or condition of the outward elements, but also such as can be liable to corruption by a fault of
       nature, though by careful discipline it be not yet so; for, as we have shown in a former treatise,872
       the nature of Angels evidently can be changed. It is certainly fitting to judge that such as is the
       nature of one, such also is that of others. The nature of the rest, then, is capable of change, but the
102    discipline is better.
            64. Every creature, therefore, is capable of change, but the Holy Spirit is good and not capable
       of change, nor can He be changed by any fault, Who does away the faults of all and pardons their
       sins. How, then, is He capable of change, Who by sanctifying works in others a change to grace,
       but is not changed Himself.
            65. How is He capable of change Who is always good? For the Holy Spirit, through Whom the
       things that are good are ministered to us, is never evil. Whence two evangelists in one and the same
       place, in words in differing from each other, have made the same statement, for you read in Matthew:
       “If you, being evil, know how to give good gifts to your children; how much more shall your Father,
       Who is in heaven, give good things to them that ask Him.”873 But according to Luke you will find
       it thus written: “How much more shall your heavenly Father give the Holy Spirit to them that ask
       Him?”874 We observe, then, that the Holy Spirit is good in the Lord’s judgment by the testimony
       of the evangelists, since the one has put good things in the place of the Holy Spirit, the other has
       named the Holy Spirit in the place of good things. If, then, the Holy Spirit is that which is good,
       how is He not good?
            66. Nor does it escape our notice that some copies have likewise, according to St. Luke: “How
       much more shall your heavenly Father give a good gift to them that ask Him.” This good gift is the
       grace of the Spirit, which the Lord Jesus shed forth from heaven, after having been fixed to the
       gibbet of the cross, returning with the triumphal spoils of death deprived of its power, as you find
       it written: “Ascending up on high He led captivity captive, and gave good gifts to men.”875 And
       well does he say “gifts,” for as the Son was given, of Whom it is written: “Unto us a Child is born,
       unto us a Son is given;”876 so, too, is the grace of the Spirit given. But why should I hesitate to say
       that the Holy Spirit also is given to us, since it is written: “The love of God is shed forth in our
       hearts by the Holy Spirit, Who is given to us.”877 And since captive breasts certainly could not
       receive Him, the Lord Jesus first led captivity captive, that our affections being set free, He might
       pour forth the gift of divine grace.



       871     Rom. viii. 19, 21.
       872     De Fid. III. 3.
       873     S. Matt. vii. 11.
       874     S. Luke xi. 13.
       875     Ps. lxviii. [lxvii.] 18.
       876     Isa. ix. 6.
       877     Rom. v. 5.


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            67. And He said well “led captivity captive.” For the victory of Christ is the victory of liberty,
       which won grace for all, and inflicted wrong on none. So in the setting free of all no one is captive.
       And because in the time of the Lord’s passion wrong alone had no part, which had made captive
       all of whom it had gained possession, captivity itself turning back upon itself was made captive,
       not now attached to Belial but to Christ, to serve Whom is liberty. “For he who is called in the Lord
       as a servant is the Lord’s freedman.”878
            68. But to return to the point. “All,” says He, “have gone aside, all together are become
       unprofitable. There is none that doeth good, not even one.”879 If they except the Holy Spirit, even
       they themselves confess that He is not amongst all; if they do not except Him, then they, too,
       acknowledge that He has gone aside amongst all.
            69. But let us consider whether He has goodness in Himself, since He is the Source and Principle
       of goodness. For as the Father and the Son have, so too the Holy Spirit also has goodness. And the
       Apostle also taught this when he said: “Now the fruit of the Spirit is peace, love, joy, patience,
       goodness.”880 For who doubts that He is good Whose fruit is goodness. For “a good tree brings forth
       good fruit.”881
            70. And so if God be good, how shall He Who is the Spirit of His mouth not be good, Who
       searcheth even the deep things of God? Can the infection of evil enter into the deep things of God?
       And from this it is seen how foolish they are who deny that the Son of God is good, when they
       cannot deny that the Spirit of Christ is good, of Whom the Son of God says: “Therefore said I that
       He shall receive of Mine.”882
            71. Or is the Spirit not good, Who of the worst makes good men, does away sin, destroys evil,
       shuts out crime, pours in good gifts, makes apostles of persecutors, and priests of sinners? “Ye
       were,” it is said, “sometime darkness, but now are ye light in the Lord.”883
            72. But why do we put them off? And if they ask for statements since they do not deny facts,
       let them hear that the Holy Spirit is good, for David said: “Let Thy good Spirit lead me forth in the
       right way.”884 For what is the Spirit but full of goodness? Who though because of His nature He
       cannot be attained to, yet because of His goodness can be received by us, filling all things His
       power, but only partaken of by the just, simple in substance, rich in virtues, present to each, dividing
103    of His own to every one, and Himself whole everywhere.
            73. And with good cause did the Son of God say: “Go and baptize all nations in the Name of
       the Father, and of the Son, and of the Holy Spirit,”885 not disdaining association with the Holy Spirit.
       Why, then, do some take it ill that He Whom the Lord disdained not in the sacrament of baptism,
       should be joined in our devotion with the Father and the Son?
            74. Good, then, is the Spirit, but good, not as though acquiring but as imparting goodness. For
       the Holy Spirit does not receive from creatures but is received; as also He is not sanctified but
       sanctifies; for the creature is sanctified, but the Holy Spirit sanctifies. In which matter, though the


       878     1 Cor. vii. 22.
       879     Ps. xiv. [xiii.] 3.
       880     Gal. v. 22.
       881     S. Matt. vii. 17.
       882     S. John xvi. 15.
       883     Eph. v. 8.
       884     Ps. cxliii. [cxlii.] 10.
       885     S. Matt. xxviii. 19.


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       word is used in common, there is a difference in the nature. For both the man who receives and
       God Who gives sanctity are called holy, as we read: “Be ye holy, for I am holy.”886 Now sanctification
       and corruption cannot share the same nature, and therefore the grace of the Holy Spirit and the
       creature cannot be of one substance.
           75. Since, then, the whole invisible creation (whose substance some rightly believe to be
       reasonable and incorporeal), with the exception of the Trinity, does not impart but acquires the
       grace of the Spirit, and does not share in it but receives it, the whole commonalty of creation is to
       be separated from association with the Holy Spirit. Let them then believe that the Holy Spirit is
       not a creature; or, if they think Him a creature, why do they associate Him with the Father? If they
       think Him a creature, why do they join Him with the Son of God? But if they do not think that He
       should be separated from the Father and the Son, they do not consider Him to be a creature, for
       where the sanctification is one the nature is one.



                                                     CHAPTER VI.

       Although we are baptized with water and the Spirit, the latter is much superior to the former, and
           is not therefore to be separated from the Father and the Son.
            76. THERE are, however, many who, because we are baptized with water and the Spirit, think
       that there is no difference in the offices of water and the Spirit, and therefore think that they do not
       differ in nature. Nor do they observe that we are buried in the element of water that we may rise
       again renewed by the Spirit. For in the water is the representation of death, in the Spirit is the pledge
       of life, that the body of sin may die through the water, which encloses the body as it were in a kind
       of tomb, that we, by the power of the Spirit, may be renewed from the death of sin, being born
       again in God.
            77. And so these three witnesses are one, as John said: “The water, the blood, and the Spirit.”887
       One in the mystery, not in nature. The water, then, is a witness of burial, the blood is a witness of
       death, the Spirit is a witness of life. If, then, there be any grace in the water, it is not from the nature
       of water, but from the presence of the Holy Spirit.
            78. Do we live in the water or in the Spirit? Are we sealed in the water or in the Spirit. For in
       Him we live and He Himself is the earnest of our inheritance, as the Apostle says, writing to the
       Ephesians: “In Whom believing ye were sealed with the Holy Spirit of promise, Who is an earnest
       of our inheritance.”888 So we were sealed by the Holy Spirit, not by nature, but by God, for it is
       written: “He Who anointed us is God, Who also sealed us, and gave the earnest of the Spirit in our
       hearts.”
            79. We were then sealed with the Spirit by God. For as we die in Christ, in order to be born
       again, so, too, we are sealed with the Spirit, that we may possess His brightness and image and
       grace, which is undoubtedly our spiritual seal. For although we were visibly sealed in our bodies,


       886     Lev. xix. 2.
       887     1 John v. 8.
       888     Eph. i. 13, 14.


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       we are in truth sealed in our hearts, that the Holy Spirit may portray in us the likeness of the heavenly
       image.
           80. Who, then, can dare to say that the Holy Spirit is separated from the Father and the Son,
       since through Him we attain to the image and likeness of God, and through Him, as the Apostle
       Peter says, are partakers of the divine nature? In which there is certainly not the inheritance of
       carnal succession, but the spiritual connection of the grace of adoption. And in order that we may
       know that this seal is rather on our hearts than on our bodies, the prophet says: “The light of Thy
       countenance has been impressed upon us, O Lord, Thou hast put gladness in my heart.”889



                                                   CHAPTER VII.
104

       The Holy Spirit is not a creature, seeing that He is infinite, and was shed upon the apostles dispersed
          through all countries, and moreover sanctifies the Angels also, to whom He makes us equal.
          Mary was full of the same likewise, so too, Christ the Lord, and so far all things high and low.
          And all benediction has its origin from His operation, as was signified in the moving of the
          water at Bethesda.
           81. SINCE then, every creature is confined within certain limits of its own nature, and inasmuch
       as those invisible operations, which cannot be circumscribed by place and bounds, yet are closed
       in by the property of their own substance; how can any one dare to call the Holy Spirit a creature,
       Who has not a limited and circumscribed power? because He is always in all things and everywhere,
       which assuredly is the property of Divinity and Lordship, for: “The earth is the Lord’s and the
       fulness thereof.”890
           81. And so, when the Lord appointed His servants the apostles, that we might recognize that
       the creature was one thing and the grace of the Spirit another, He appointed them to different places,
       because all could not be everywhere at once. But He gave the Holy Spirit to all, to shed upon the
       apostles though separated the gift of indivisible grace. The persons, then, were different, but the
       accomplishment of the working was in all one, because the Holy Spirit is one of Whom it is said:
       “Ye shall receive power, even the Holy Spirit coming upon you, and ye shall be witnesses to Me
       in Jerusalem and in all Judea and Samaria, and unto the ends of the earth.”891
           82. The Holy Spirit, then, is uncircumscribed and infinite, Who infused Himself into the minds
       of the disciples throughout the separate divisions of distant regions, and the remote bounds of the
       whole world, Whom nothing is able to escape or to deceive. And therefore holy David says: “Whither
       shall I go from Thy Spirit, or whither shall I flee from Thy face.”892 Of what Angel does the Scripture
       say this? of what Dominion? of what Power? of what Angel do we find the power diffused over
       many? For Angels were sent to few, but the Holy Spirit was poured upon whole peoples. Who,
       then, can doubt that that is divine which is shed upon many at once and is not seen; but that that is
       corporeal which is seen and held by individuals?

       889     Ps. iv. 6, 7.
       890     Ps. xxiv. [xxiii.] 1.
       891     Acts i. 8.
       892     Ps. cxxxix. [cxxviii.] 7.


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            83. But in like manner as the Spirit sanctifying the apostles is not a partaker of human nature;
       so, too, He sanctifying Angels, Dominions, and Powers, has no partnership with creatures. But if
       any think that the holiness of the Angels is not spiritual, but some other kind of grace belonging to
       the property of their nature, they will forsooth judge Angels to be inferior to men. For since
       themselves also confess that they would not dare to compare Angels to the Holy Spirit, and they
       cannot deny that the Holy Spirit is shed upon men; but the sanctification of the Spirit is a divine
       gift and favour, men who possess a better kind of sanctification will certainly be found to be preferred
       to the Angels. But since Angels come down to men to assist them, it must be understood that the
       nature of Angels is higher as it receives more of the grace of the Spirit, and that the favour awarded
       to us and to them comes from the same author.
            84. But how great is that grace which makes even the lower nature of the lot of men equal to
       the gifts received by Angels, as the Lord Himself promised, saying: “Ye shall be as the Angels in
       heaven.” Nor is it difficult, for He Who made those Angels in the Spirit will by the same grace
       make men also equal to the Angels.
            85. But of what creature can it be said that it fills all things, as is written of the Holy Spirit: “I
       will pour My Spirit upon all flesh.”893 This cannot be said of an Angel. Lastly, Gabriel himself,
       when sent to Mary, said: “Hail, full of grace,”894 plainly declaring the grace of the Spirit which was
       in her, because the Holy Spirit had come upon her, and she was about to have her womb full of
       grace with the heavenly Word.
            86. For it is of the Lord to fill all things, Who says: “I fill heaven and earth.”895 If, then, it is the
       Lord Who fills heaven and earth, Who can judge the Holy Spirit to be without a share in the dominion
       and divine power, seeing that He has filled the world, and what is beyond the whole world, filled
       Jesus the Redeemer of the whole world? For it is written: “But Jesus, full of the Holy Spirit, departed
       from Jordan.”896 Who, then, except one who possessed the same fulness could fill Him Who fills
       all things?
            87. But lest they should object that this was said according to the flesh, though He alone from
       Whose flesh went forth virtue to heal all, was more than all; yet, as the Lord fills all things, so, too,
       we read of the Spirit: “For the Spirit of the Lord filled the whole world.”897 And you find it said of
       all who had consorted with the Apostles that, “filled with the Holy Spirit they spoke the word of
       God with boldness.”898 You see that the Spirit gives both fulness and boldness, Whose operation
105    the archangel announces to Mary, saying: “The Holy Spirit shall come on thee.”899
            88. You read, too, in the Gospel that the Angel descended at the appointed time into the pool
       and troubled the water, and he who first went down into the pool was made whole.900 What did the
       Angel declare in this type but the descent of the Holy Spirit, which was to come to pass in our day,
       and should consecrate the waters when invoked by the prayers of the priest? That Angel, then, was
       a herald of the Holy Spirit, inasmuch as by means of the grace of the Spirit medicine was to be


       893     Joel ii. 28.
       894     S. Luke i. 28.
       895     Jer. xxiii. 24.
       896     S. Luke iv. 1.
       897     Wisd. i. 7.
       898     Acts iv. 31.
       899     S. Luke i. 35.
       900     S. John v. 4.


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       applied to our infirmities of soul and mind. The Spirit, then, has the same ministers as God the
       Father and Christ. He fills all things, possesses all things, works all and in all in the same manner
       as God the Father and the Son work.
           89. What, then, is more divine than the working of the Holy Spirit, since God Himself testifies
       that the Holy Spirit presides over His blessings, saying: “I will put My Spirit upon thy seed and
       My blessings upon thy children.”901 For no blessing can be full except through the inspiration of
       the Holy Spirit. Wherefore, too, the Apostle found nothing better to wish us than this, as He himself
       said: “We cease not to pray and make request for you that ye may be filled with the knowledge of
       His will, in all wisdom and spiritual understanding walking worthily of God.”902 He taught, then,
       that this was the will of God, that rather by walking in good works and words and affections, we
       should be filled with the will of God, Who puts His Holy Spirit in our hearts. Therefore if he who
       has the Holy Spirit is filled with the will of God, there is certainly no difference of will between
       the Father and the Son.



                                                   CHAPTER VIII.

       The Holy Spirit is given by God alone, yet not wholly to each person, since there is no one besides
          Christ capable of receiving Him wholly. Charity is shed abroad by the Holy Spirit, Who,
          prefigured by the mystical ointment, is shown to have nothing common with creatures; and He,
          inasmuch as He is said to proceed from the mouth of God, must not be classed with creatures,
          nor with things divisible, seeing He is eternal.
           90. OBSERVE at the same time that God gives the Holy Spirit. For this is no work of man, nor
       gift of man; but He Who is invoked by the priest is given by God, wherein is the gift of God and
       the ministry of the priest. For if the Apostle Paul judged that he was not able to give the Holy Spirit
       himself by his own authority, and considered himself so far unequal to this office that he wished
       us to be filled by God with the Spirit,903 who is sufficient to dare to arrogate to himself the conferring
       of this gift? So the Apostle uttered this wish in prayer, and did not claim a right by any authority
       of his own; he desired to obtain, he did not presume to command. Peter, too, says that he is not
       capable of compelling or restraining the Holy Spirit. For he spoke thus: “Wherefore if God has
       granted them the same grace as to us, who was I that I could resist God?”904
           91. But perchance they would not be moved by the example of apostles, and so let us use divine
       utterances; for it is written: “Jacob is My servant, I will uphold him; Israel is My elect, My soul
       hath upheld him, I put My Spirit upon him.”905 The Lord also said by Isaiah: “The Spirit of the Lord
       is upon Me, because He hath anointed Me.”906



       901     Isa. xliv. 3.
       902     Col. i. 9.
       903     Eph. v. 18.
       904     Acts xi. 17.
       905     Isa. xlii. 1.
       906     Isa. lxi. 1.


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            92. Who, then, can dare to say that the substance of the Holy Spirit is created, at Whose shining
       in our hearts we behold the beauty of divine truth, and the distance between the creature and the
       Godhead, that the work may be distinguished from its Author? Or of what creature has God so
       spoken as to say: “I will pour out of My Spirit”?907 He said not Spirit, but “of My Spirit,” for we
       are not able to receive the fulness of the Holy Spirit, but we receive as much as our Master divides
       to us of His own according to His will.908 For as the Son of God thought it not robbery that He
       should be equal to God, but emptied Himself, that we might be able to receive Him in our minds;
       but He emptied Himself not that He was void of His own fulness, but in order that He, Whose
       fulness I could not endure, might infuse Himself into me according to the measure of my capacity,
       in like manner also the Father says that He pours out of the Spirit upon all flesh; for He did not
       pour Him forth wholly, but that which He poured forth abounded for all.
            93. There was therefore a pouring out upon us of the Spirit, but upon the Lord Jesus, when He
       was in the form of man, the Spirit abode, as it is written: “Upon Whom thou shalt see the Spirit
       descending from heaven, and abiding upon Him, He it is Who baptizeth in the Holy Spirit.”909
106    Around us is the liberality of the Giver in abundant provision, in Him abides for ever the fulness
       of the Spirit. He shed forth then what He deemed to be sufficient for us, and what was shed forth
       is not separated nor divided; but He has a unity of fulness wherewith He may enlighten the sight
       of our hearts according to what our strength is capable of. Lastly, we receive so much as the
       advancing of our mind acquires, for the fulness of the grace of the Spirit is indivisible, but is shared
       in by us according to the capacity of our own nature.
            94. God, then, sheds forth of the Spirit, and the love of God is also shed abroad through the
       Spirit; in which point we ought to recognize the unity of the operation and of the grace. For as God
       shed forth of the Holy Spirit, so also “the love of God is shed abroad in our hearts through the Holy
       Spirit;”910 in order that we may understand that the Holy Spirit is not a work, Who is the dispenser
       and plenteous Fount of the divine love.
            95. In like manner that you may believe that that which is shed abroad cannot be common to
       the creatures but peculiar to the Godhead, the name of the Son is also poured forth, as you read:
       “Thy Name is as ointment poured forth.”911 Of which saying nothing can surpass the force. For as
       ointment closed up in a vase keeps in its perfume, so long as it is confined in the narrow space of
       that vase, though it cannot reach many, it yet preserves its strength. But when the ointment has
       been poured out of that vase wherein it was enclosed, it spreads far and wide; so, too, the Name of
       Christ before His coming amongst the people of Israel was enclosed in the minds of the Jews as in
       some vase. For “God is known in Judah, His Name is great in Israel;”912 that is, the Name which
       the vases of the Jews held confined in their narrow limits.
            96. Even then that Name was indeed great, when it remained in the narrow limits of the weak
       and few, but it had not yet poured forth its greatness throughout the hearts of the Gentiles, and to
       the ends of the whole world. But after that He by His coming had shone throughout the whole
       world, He spread abroad that divine Name of His throughout all creatures, not filled up by any

       907     Joel ii. 28.
       908     Phil. ii. 6.
       909     S. John i. 33.
       910     Rom. v. 5.
       911     Cant. i. 3.
       912     Ps. lxxvi. [lxxv.] 1.


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       addition (for fulness admits not of increase), but filling up the empty spaces, that His Name might
       be wonderful in all the world. The pouring forth, then, of His Name signifies a kind of abundant
       exuberance of graces and copiousness of heavenly goods, for whatever is poured forth flows over
       from abundance.
            97. So as wisdom which proceeds from the mouth of God cannot be said to be created, nor the
       Word Which is uttered from His heart, nor the power in which is the fulness of the eternal Majesty;
       so, too, the Spirit which is poured forth from the mouth of God cannot be considered to be created,
       since God Himself has shown their unity to be such that He speaks of His pouring forth of His
       Spirit. By which we understand that the grace of God the Father is the same as that of the Holy
       Spirit, and that without any division or loss it is divided to the hearts of each. That, then, which is
       shed abroad of the Holy Spirit is neither severed, nor comprehended in any corporeal parts, nor
       divided.
            98. For how can it be credible that the Spirit should be divided by any parcelling out? John says
       of God: “Hereby know we that He abides in us by the Spirit which He hath given us.”913 But that
       which abides always is certainly not changed, therefore if it suffers no change it is eternal. And so
       the Holy Spirit is eternal, but the creature is liable to fault, and therefore subject to change. But that
       which is subject to change cannot be eternal, and there cannot therefore be anything in common
       between the Spirit and the creature, because the Spirit is eternal, but every creature is temporal.
            99. But the Apostle also shows that the Holy Spirit is eternal, for: “If the blood of bulls and of
       goats, and the sprinkling the ashes of an heifer sanctifieth to the purifying of the flesh, how much
       more the blood of Christ, Who through the eternal Spirit offered Himself without spot to God?”914
       Therefore the Spirit is eternal.



                                                    CHAPTER IX.

       The Holy Spirit is rightly called the ointment of Christ, and the oil of gladness; and why Christ
          Himself is not the ointment, since He was anointed with the Holy Spirit. It is not strange that
          the Spirit should be called Ointment, since the Father and the Son are also called Spirit. And
          there is no confusion between them, since Christ alone suffered death, Whose saving cross is
          then spoken of.
           100. NOW many have thought that the Holy Spirit is the ointment of Christ. And well it is said
       ointment, because He is called the oil of gladness, the joining together of many graces giving a
107    sweet fragrance. But God the Almighty Father anointed Him the Prince of priests, Who was, not
       like others anointed in a type under the Law, but was both according to the Law anointed in the
       body, and in truth was full with the virtue of the Holy Spirit from the Father above the Law.
           101. This is the oil of gladness, of which the prophet says: “God, even Thy God, hath anointed
       Thee with the oil of gladness above Thy fellows.”915 Lastly, Peter says that Jesus was anointed with
       the Spirit, as you read: “Ye know that word which went through all Judea beginning from Galilee

       913     1 John iii. 24.
       914     Heb. ix. 13, 14.
       915     Ps. xlv. [xliv.] 8.


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       after the baptism which John preached, even Jesus of Nazareth, how God anointed Him with the
       Holy Spirit.”916 The Holy Spirit is, then, the oil of gladness.
           102. And well did he say oil of gladness, lest you should think Him a creature; for it is the
       nature of this sort of oil that it will by no means mingle with moisture of another kind. Gladness,
       too, does not anoint the body, but brightens the inmost heart, as the prophet said: “Thou hast put
       gladness in my heart.”917 So as he loses his pains who wishes to mix oil with moister matter, because
       since the nature of oil is lighter than others, when the others settle, it rises and is separated. How
       do those wretched pedlars think that the oil of gladness can by their tricks be mingled with other
       creatures, since of a truth corporeal things cannot be mingled with in corporeal, nor things created
       with uncreated?
           102. And well is that called oil of gladness wherewith Christ was anointed; for neither was
       usual nor common oil to be sought for Him, wherewith either wounds are dressed or heat assuaged;
       since the salvation of the world did not seek alleviation for His wounds, nor the eternal might of
       His wearied Body demand refreshment.
           103. Nor is it wonderful if He have the oil of gladness, Who made those about to die rejoice,
       put off sadness from the world, destroyed the odour of sorrowful death. And so the Apostle says:
       “For we are the good odour of Christ to God;”918 certainly showing that he is speaking of spiritual
       things. But when the Son of God Himself says: “The Spirit of the Lord is upon Me, because He
       hath anointed Me,”919 He points out the ointment of the Spirit. Therefore the Spirit is the ointment
       of Christ.
           104. Or since the Name of Jesus is as ointment poured out, if they wish to understand Christ
       Himself, and not the Spirit of Christ to be expressed under the name of ointment, certainly when
       the Apostle Peter says that the Lord Jesus was anointed with the Holy Spirit, it is without doubt
       plain that the Spirit also is called ointment.
           105. But what wonder, since both the Father and the Son are said to be Spirit. Of which we
       shall speak more fully when we begin to speak of the Unity of the Name. Yet since most suitable
       place occurs here, that we may not seem to have passed on without a conclusion, let them read that
       both the Father is called Spirit, as the Lord said in the Gospel, “for God is Spirit;”920 and Christ is
       called Spirit, for Jeremiah said: “The Spirit before our face, Christ the Lord.”921
           106. So, then, both the Father is Spirit and Christ is Spirit, for that which is not a created body
       is spirit, but the Holy Spirit is not commingled with the Father and the Son, but is distinct from the
       Father and from the Son. For the Holy Spirit did not die, Who could not die because He had not
       taken flesh upon Him, and the eternal Godhead was incapable of dying, but Christ died according
       to the flesh.
           107. For of a truth He died in that which He took of the Virgin, not in that which He had of the
       Father, for Christ died in that nature in which He was crucified. But the Holy Spirit could not be
       crucified, Who had not flesh and bones, but the Son of God was crucified, Who took flesh and
       bones, that on that cross the temptations of our flesh might die. For He took on Him that which He

       916     Acts x. 37, 38.
       917     Ps. iv. 7.
       918     2 Cor. ii. 15.
       919     S. Luke iv. 18.
       920     S. John iv. 24.
       921     Lam. iv. 20.


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       was not that He might hide that which He was; He hid that which He was that He might be tempted
       in it, and that which He was not might be redeemed, in order that He might call us by means of that
       which He was not to that which He was.
            108. O the divine mystery of that cross, on which weakness hangs, might is free, vices are
       nailed, and triumphal trophies raised. So that a certain saint said: “Pierce my flesh with nails for
       fear of Thee;”922 he says not with nails of iron, but of fear and faith. For the bonds of virtue are
       stronger than those of punishment. Lastly, his faith bound Peter, when he had followed the Lord
       as far as the hall of the high priest, whom no one had bound, and punishment loosened not him,
       whom faith bound. Again, when he was bound by the Jews, prayer loosed him, punishment did not
108    hold him, because he had not gone back from Christ.
            109. Therefore do you also crucify sin, that you may die to sin; he who dies to sin lives to God;
       do you live to Him Who spared not His own Son, that in His body He might crucify our passions.
       For Christ died for us, that we might live in His revived Body. Therefore not our life but our guilt
       died in Him, “Who,” it is said, “bare our sins in His own Body on the tree; that being set free from
       our sins we might live in righteousness, by the wound of Whose stripes we are healed.”923
            110. That wood of the cross is, then, as it were a kind of ship of our salvation, our passage, not
       a punishment, for there is no other salvation but the passage of eternal salvation. Whilst expecting
       death I do not feel it; whilst thinking little of punishment I do not suffer; whilst careless of fear I
       know it not.
            111. Who, then, is He by the wound of Whose stripes we are healed but Christ the Lord? of
       Whom the same Isaiah prophesied His stripes were our healing,924 of Whom Paul the Apostle wrote
       in his epistle: “Who knew no sin, but was made sin for us.”925 This, indeed, was divine in Him, that
       His Flesh did no sin, nor did the creature of the body take in Him sin. For what wonder would it
       be if the Godhead alone sinned not, seeing It had no incentives to sin? But if God alone is free from
       sin, certainly every creature by its own nature can be, as we have said, liable to sin.



                                                   CHAPTER X.

       That the Spirit forgives sin is common to Him with the Father and the Son, but not with the Angels.
           112. TELL me, then, whoever you are who deny the Godhead of the Holy Spirit. The Spirit could
       not be liable to sin, Who rather forgives sin. Does an Angel forgive? Does an Archangel? Certainly
       not, but the Father alone, the Son alone, and the Holy Spirit alone. Now no one is unable to avoid
       that which he has power to forgive.
           113. But perhaps some one will say that the Seraph said to Isaiah: “Behold, this hath touched
       thy lips, and shall take away thine iniquities, and purge away thy sins.”926 Shall take away, he says,
       and shall purge, not I will take away, but that fire from the altar of God, that is, the grace of the


       922     Ps. cxix. [cxviii.] 120.
       923     1 Pet. ii. 24.
       924     Is. liii. 5.
       925     2 Cor. v. 21.
       926     Is. vi. 7.


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       Spirit. For what else can we piously understand to be on the altar of God but the grace of the Spirit?
       Certainly not the wood of the forests, nor the soot and coals. Or what is so in accordance with piety
       as to understand according to the mystery that it was revealed by the mouth of Isaiah that all men
       should be cleansed by the passion of Christ, Who as a coal according to the flesh burnt up our sins,
       as you read in Zechariah: “Is not this a brand cast forth from the fire? And that was Joshua clothed
       in filthy garments.”927
            114. Lastly, that we may know that this mystery of the common redemption was most clearly
       revealed by the prophets, you have also in this place: “Lo, it hath taken away thy sins;”928 not that
       Christ put aside His sins Who did no sin, but that in the flesh of Christ the whole human race should
       be loosed from their sins.
           115. But even if the Seraph had taken away sin, it would have been as one of the ministers of
       God appointed to this mystery. For thus said Isaiah: “For one of the Seraphim was sent to me.”929



                                                     CHAPTER XI.

       The Spirit is sent to all, and passes not from place to place, for He is not limited either by time or
          space. He goes forth from the Son, as the Son from the Father, in Whom He ever abides: and
          also comes to us when we receive. He comes also after the same manner as the Father Himself,
          from Whom He can by no means be separated.
            116. THE Spirit, also, is indeed said to be sent, but the Seraph to one, the Spirit to all. The Seraph
       is sent to minister, the Spirit works a mystery. The Seraph performs what is commanded, the Spirit
       divides as He wills. The Seraph passes from place to place, for he does not fill all things, but is
       himself filled by the Spirit. The Seraph comes down with a certain mode of passage according to
       his nature, but we cannot think this of the Spirit, of Whom the Son of God says: “When the Paraclete
       shall come, even the Spirit of Truth, Whom I send unto you, Who proceedeth from the Father.”930
            117. For if the Spirit proceeds from a place and passes to a place, both the Father Himself will
       be found in a place, and the Son likewise. If He goes forth from a place, Whom the Father or the
       Son sends, certainly the Spirit passing from a place, and making progress, seems to leave, according
109    to those impious interpretations, both the Father and the Son like some material body.
            118. I am saying this with reference to those who say that the Spirit comes down by movement.
       But neither the Father, Who is above all not only of corporeal nature, but also of the invisible
       creation, is circumscribed in any place; nor is the Son, Who, as the Worker of all creation, is above
       every creature, enclosed by the places or times of His own works; nor is the Spirit of Truth as being
       the Spirit of God, circumscribed by any corporeal limits, Who since He is incorporeal is far above
       the whole rational creation through the ineffable fulness of His Godhead, having over all things
       the power of breathing where He wills, and of inspiring as He wills.931


       927     Zech. iii. 2, 3.
       928     Ibid. 4.
       929     Is. vi. 6.
       930     S. John xv. 26.
       931     S. John iii. 8.


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            119. The Spirit is not, then, sent as it were from a place, nor does He proceed as from a place,
       when He proceeds from the Son, as the Son Himself, when He says, “I came forth from the Father,
       and am come into the world,”932 destroys all fancies, which can be reckoned as from place to place.
       In like manner, also, when we read that God is within or without, we certainly do not either enclose
       God within anybody or separate Him from anybody, but weighing these things in a deep and
       ineffable estimation, we comprehend the hiddenness of the divine nature.
            120. Lastly, Wisdom so says that she came forth from the mouth of the Most High,933 as not to
       be external to the Father, but with the Father; for “the Word was with God;”934 and not only with
       God but also in God; for He says: “I am in the Father and the Father is in Me.”935 But neither when
       He goes forth from the Father does He retire from a place, nor is He separated as a body from a
       body; nor when He is in the Father is He as if a body enclosed as it were in a body. The Holy Spirit
       also, when He proceeds from the Father and the Son, is not separated from the Father nor separated
       from the Son. For how could He be separated from the Father Who is the Spirit of His mouth?
       Which is certainly both a proof of His eternity, and expresses the Unity of this Godhead.
            121. He exists then, and abides always, Who is the Spirit of His mouth, but He seems to come
       down when we receive Him, that He may dwell in us, that we may not be alien from His grace. To
       us He seems to come down, not that He does come down, but that our mind ascends to Him. Of
       which we would speak more fully did we not remember that in the former treatise936 there was set
       forth that the Father said: “Let us go down and confound their language,”937 and that the Son said:
       “He that loveth Me will keep My saying, and My Father will love him, and We will come to Him
       and make Our abode with Him.”938
            122. The Spirit, then, so comes as does the Father, for where the Father is there is also the Son,
       and where the Son is there is the Holy Spirit. The Holy Spirit, therefore, is not to be supposed to
       come separately. But He comes not from place to place, but from the disposition of the order to the
       safety of redemption, from the grace of giving life to that of sanctification, to translate us from
       earth to heaven, from wretchedness to glory, from slavery to a kingdom.
            123. The Spirit comes, then, as the Father comes. For the Son said, “I and the Father will come,
       and will make Our abode with Him.”939 Does the Father come in a bodily fashion? Thus, then,
       comes the Spirit in Whom, when He comes, is the full presence of the Father and the Son.
            124. But who can separate the Spirit from the Father and the Son, since we cannot even name
       the Father and the Son without the Spirit? “For no one saith Lord Jesus, except in the Holy Spirit?”940
       If, then, we cannot call Jesus Lord except in the Holy Spirit, we certainly cannot proclaim Him
       without the Spirit. But if the Angels also proclaim Jesus to be Lord, Whom no one can proclaim
       except in the Spirit, then in them also the office of the Holy Spirit operates.
            125. We have proved, then, that the presence and the grace of the Father, the Son, and the Holy
       Spirit are one, which is so heavenly and divine that the Son gives thanks therefore to the Father,

       932     Ibid. xvi. 28.
       933     Eccles. xxiv. 5.
       934     S. John i. 1.
       935     Ibid. xiv. 10.
       936     De Fide, V. 7.
       937     Gen. xi. 7.
       938     S. John xiv. 23.
       939     S. John xiv. 23.
       940     1 Cor. xii. 3.


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       saying, “I give thanks to Thee, O Father, Lord of heaven and earth, because Thou hast hidden these
       things from the wise and prudent, and hast revealed them unto babes.”941



                                                  CHAPTER XII.
110

       The peace and grace of the Father, the Son, and the Holy Spirit are one, so also is Their charity
          one, which showed itself chiefly in the redemption of man. Their communion with man is also
          one.
            126. THEREFORE since the calling is one, the grace is also one. Lastly, it is written: “Grace unto
       you and peace from God our Father, and from the Lord Jesus Christ.”942 You see, then, that we are
       told that the grace of the Father and the Son is one, and the peace of the Father and the Son is one,
       but this grace and peace is the fruit of the Spirit, as the Apostle taught us himself, saying: “But the
       fruit of the Spirit is love, joy, peace, patience.”943 And peace is good and necessary that no one be
       troubled with doubtful disputations, nor be shaken by the storm of bodily passions, but that his
       affections may remain quietly disposed as to the worship of God, with simplicity of faith and
       tranquillity of mind.
            127. As to peace we have proved the point; but as to grace the prophet Zechariah says, that God
       promised to pour upon Jerusalem the spirit of grace and mercy,944 and the Apostle Peter says:
       “Repent and be baptized every one of you in the Name of the Lord Jesus Christ for the remission
       of sins, and ye shall receive the grace of the Holy Spirit.”945 So grace comes also of the Holy Spirit
       as of the Father and the Son. For how can there be grace without the Spirit, since all divine grace
       is in the Spirit?
            128. Nor do we read only of the peace and grace of the Father, the Son, and the Holy Spirit,
       but also, faithful Emperor, of the love and communion. For of love it has been said: “The grace of
       our Lord Jesus Christ, and the love of God.”946 We have heard of the love of the Father. The same
       love which is the Father’s is also the Son’s. For He Himself said: “He that loveth Me shall be loved
       of My Father, and I will love him.”947 And what is the love of the Son, but that He offered Himself
       for us, and redeemed us with His own blood.948 But the same love is in the Father, for it is written:
       “God so loved the world, that He gave His Only-begotten Son.”949
            129. So, then, the Father gave the Son, and the Son gave Himself. Love is preserved and due
       affection is not wronged, for affection is not wronged where there is no distress in the giving up.
       He gave one Who was willing, He gave One Who offered Himself, the Father did not give the Son
       to punishment but to grace. If you enquire into the merit of the deed, enquire into the description


       941     S. Matt. xi. 25.
       942     Rom. i. 7.
       943     Gal. v. 22.
       944     Zech. xii. 10.
       945     Acts ii. 38.
       946     2 Cor. xiii. 14.
       947     S. John xiv. 21.
       948     Eph. v. 2.
       949     S. John iii. 16.


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       of the affection. The vessel of election shows plainly the unity of this divine love, because both the
       Father gave the Son and the Son gave Himself. The Father gave, Who “spared not His own Son,
       but gave Him up for us all.”950 And of the Son he also says: “Who gave Himself for me.”951 “Gave
       Himself,” he says. If it be of grace, what do I find fault with. If it be that He suffered wrong, I owe
       the more.
           130. But learn that in like manner as the Father gave the Son, and the Son gave Himself, so,
       too, the Holy Spirit gave Him. For it is written: “Then was Jesus led by the Spirit into the wilderness
       to be tempted by the devil.”952 So, too, the loving Spirit gave the Son of God. For as the love of the
       Father and the Son is one, so, too, we have shown that this love of God is shed abroad by the Holy
       Spirit, and is the fruit of the Holy Spirit, because “the fruit of the Spirit is love, joy, peace,
       patience.”953
           131. And that there is communion between the Father and the Son is plain, for it is written:
       “And our communion is with the Father and with His Son Jesus Christ.”954 And in another place:
       “The communion of the Holy Spirit be with you all.”955 If, then, the peace of the Father, the Son,
       and the Holy Spirit is one, the grace one, the love one, and the communion one, the working is
       certainly one, and where the working is one, certainly the power cannot be divided nor the substance
       separated. For, if so, how could the grace of the same working agree?



                                                  CHAPTER XIII.

       St. Ambrose shows from the Scriptures that the Name of the Three Divine Persons is one, and first
           the unity of the Name of the Son and of the Holy Spirit, inasmuch as each is called Paraclete
           and Truth.
            132. WHO, then, would dare to deny the oneness of Name, when he sees the oneness of the
       working. But why should I maintain the unity of the Name by arguments, when there is the plain
       testimony of the Divine Voice that the Name of the Father, the Son, and the Holy Spirit is one? For
       it is written: “Go, baptize all nations in the Name of the Father, and of the Son, and of the Holy
       Spirit.”956 He said, “in the Name,” not “in the Names.” So, then, the Name of the Father is not one,
111    that of the Son another, and that of the Holy Spirit another, for God is one; the Names are not more
       than one, for there are not two Gods, or three Gods.
            132. And that He might reveal that the Godhead is one and the Majesty one, because the Name
       of the Father, the Son, and the Holy Spirit is one, and the Son did not come in one Name and the
       Holy Spirit in another, the Lord Himself said: “I am come in My Father’s Name, and ye did not
       receive Me, if another shall come in his own name ye will receive him.”957

       950     Rom. viii. 32.
       951     Gal. ii. 20.
       952     S. Matt. iv. 1.
       953     Gal. v. 22.
       954     1 John i. 3.
       955     2 Cor. xiii. 14.
       956     S. Matt. xxviii. 19.
       957     S. John v. 43.


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            133. And Scripture makes clear that that which is the Father’s Name, the same is also that of
       the Son, for the Lord said in Exodus: “I will go before thee in My Name, and will call by My Name
       the Lord before thee.”958 So, then, the Lord said that He would call the Lord by His Name. The
       Lord, then, is the Name of the Father and of the Son.
            134. But since the Name of the Father and of the Son is one, learn that the same is the Name
       of the Holy Spirit also, since the Holy Spirit came in the Name of the Son, as it is written: “But the
       Paraclete, even the Holy Spirit, Whom the Father will send in My Name, He shall teach you all
       things.”959 But He Who came in the Name of the Son came also certainly in the Name of the Father,
       for the Name of the Father and of the Son is one. Thus it comes to pass that the Name of the Father
       and of the Son is also that of the Holy Spirit. For there is no other Name given under heaven wherein
       we must be saved.960
            155. At the same time He showed that the oneness of the Divine Name must be taught, not the
       difference, since Christ came in the oneness of the Name, but Antichrist will come in his own name,
       as it is written: “I am come in My Father’s Name, and ye did not receive Me, if another shall come
       in his own name, ye will receive him.”961
            156. We are, then, clearly taught by these passages that there is no difference of Name in the
       Father, the Son, and the Holy Spirit; and that that which is the Name of the Father is also the Name
       of the Son, and likewise that which is the Name of the Son is also that of the Holy Spirit, when the
       Son also is called Paraclete, as is the Holy Spirit. And therefore does the Lord Jesus say in the
       Gospel: “I will ask My Father, and He shall give you another Paraclete, to be with you for ever,
       even the Spirit of Truth.”962 And He said well “another,” that you might not suppose that the Son
       is also the Spirit, for oneness is of the Name, not a Sabellian confusion of the Son and of the Spirit.963
            157. So, then, the Son is one Paraclete, the Holy Spirit another Paraclete; for John called the
       Son a Paraclete, as you find: “If any man sin, we have a Paraclete [Advocate] with the Father, Jesus
       Christ.”964 So in like manner as there is a oneness of name, so, too, is there a oneness of power, for
       where the Paraclete Spirit is, there is also the Son.
            158. For as the Lord says in this place that the Spirit will be forever with the faithful, so, too,
       does He elsewhere show that He will Himself be forever with the apostles, saying: “Lo, I am with
       you always, even to the end of the world.”965 Therefore the Son and the Spirit are one, the Name
       of the Trinity is one, and the Presence one and indivisible.
            159. But as we show that the Son is called the Paraclete, so, too, do we show that the Spirit is
       called the Truth. Christ is the Truth, the Spirit is the Truth, for you find in John’s epistle: “For the
       Spirit is Truth.”966 Not only, then, is the Spirit called the Spirit of Truth, but also the Truth, as the
       Son is also declared to be the Truth, Who says: “I am the Way, the Truth, and the Life.”967


       958       Ex. xxxiii. 19.
       959       S. John xiv. 26.
       960       Acts iv. 12.
       961       S. John v. 43.
       962       S. John xiv. 16.
       963       The Sabellians, anxious to maintain the Unity of God, denied the distinction of Persons, identifying the Father and the
           Son. See D. Chr. B. III. 568, and Blunt, Dict. of Sects, etc., sub voc.
       964       1 John ii. 1.
       965       S. Matt. xxviii. 20.
       966       1 John v. 7.
       967       S. John xiv. 6.


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                                                   CHAPTER XIV.

       Each Person of the Trinity is said in the sacred writings to be Light. The Spirit is designated Fire
          by Isaiah, a figure of which Fire was seen in the bush by Moses, in the tongues of fire, and in
          Gideon’s pitchers. And the Godhead of the same Spirit cannot be denied, since His operation
          is the same as that of the Father and of the Son, and He is also called the light and fire of the
          Lord’s countenance.
            160. BUT why should I argue that as the Father is light, so, too, the Son is light, and the Holy
       Spirit is light? Which certainly pertains to the power of God. For God is Light, as John said: “For
       God is Light, and in Him is no darkness.”968
            161. But the Son, too, is Light, because “the Life was the Light of men.”969 And the Evangelist,
       that he might show that he was speaking of the Son of God, says of John the Baptist: “He was not
112    light, but [was sent] to be a witness of the Light. That was the true Light, which lighteth every man
       that cometh into this world.”970 So, then, since God is Light, and the Son of God the true Light,
       without doubt the Son of God is true God.
            162. And you find elsewhere that the Son of God is Light: “The people that sat in darkness and
       in the shadow of death have seen a great light.”971 But, which is still more clear, it is said: “For with
       Thee is the fount of Life, and in Thy light we shall see light,”972 which means that with Thee, O
       God the Father Almighty, Who art the Fount of Life, in Thy Son Who is the Light, we shall see
       the light of the Holy Spirit. As the Lord Himself shows, saying: “Receive ye the Holy Spirit,”973
       and elsewhere: “Virtue went out from Him.”974
            163. But who can doubt that the Father is Light, when we read of His Son that He is the
       Brightness of eternal Light? For of Whom but of the Father is the Son the Brightness, Who both
       is always with the Father, and always shines, not with unlike but with the same radiance.
            164. And Isaiah shows that the Holy Spirit is not only Light but also Fire, saying: “And the
       light of Israel shall be for a fire.”975 So the prophets called Him a burning Fire, because in those
       three points we see more intensely the majesty of the Godhead; since to sanctify is of the Godhead,
       to illuminate is the property of fire and light, and the Godhead is wont to be pointed out or seen in
       the appearance of fire: “For our God is a consuming Fire,” as Moses said.976
            165. For he himself saw the fire in the bush, and had heard God when the voice from the flame
       of fire came to him saying: “I am the God of Abraham, and the God of Isaac, and the God of
       Jacob.”977 The voice came from the fire, and the voice was in the bush, and the fire did no harm.
       For the bush was burning but was not consumed, because in that mystery the Lord was showing
       that He would come to illuminate the thorns of our body, and not to consume those who were in

       968     1 John i. 5.
       969     S. John i. 8.
       970     S. John i. 9.
       971     Isa. ix. 2.
       972     Ps. xxxvi. [xxxv.] 9.
       973     S. John xx. 22.
       974     S. Luke vi. 19.
       975     Isa. x. 17.
       976     Deut. iv. 24.
       977     Ex. iii. 6.


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       misery, but to alleviate their misery; Who would baptize with the Holy Spirit and with fire, that He
       might give grace and destroy sin.978 So in the symbol of fire God keeps His intention.
            166. In the Acts of the Apostles, also, when the Holy Spirit had descended upon the faithful,
       the appearance of fire was seen, for you read thus: “And suddenly there was a sound from heaven,
       as though the Spirit were borne with great vehemence, and it filled all the house where they were
       sitting, and there appeared unto them cloven tongues like as of fire.”979
            167. For the same reason was it that when Gideon was about to overcome the Midianites, he
       commanded three hundred men to take pitchers, and to hold lighted torches inside the pitchers, and
       trumpets in their right hands. Our predecessors have preserved the explanation received from the
       apostles, that the pitchers are our bodies, fashioned of clay, which know not fear if they burn with
       the fervour of the grace of the Spirit, and bear witness to the passion of the Lord Jesus with a loud
       confession of the Voice.
            168. Who, then, can doubt of the Godhead of the Holy Spirit, since where the grace of the Spirit
       is, there the manifestation of the Godhead appears. By which evidence we infer not a diversity but
       the unity of the divine power. For how can there be a severance of power, where the effect of the
       working in all is one?
            169. What, then, is that fire? Not certainly one made up of common twigs, or roaring with the
       burning of the reeds of the woods, but that fire which improves good deeds like gold, and consumes
       sins like stubble. This is undoubtedly the Holy Spirit, Who is called both the fire and light of the
       countenance of God; light as we said above: “The light of Thy countenance has been sealed upon
       us, O Lord.”980 What is, then, the light that is sealed, but that of the seal of the Spirit, believing in
       Whom, “ye were sealed,” he says, “with the Holy Spirit of promise.”981
            170. And as there is a light of the divine countenance, so, too, does fire shine forth from the
       countenance of God, for it is written: “A fire shall burn in His sight.”982 For the grace of the day of
       judgment shines beforehand, that forgiveness may follow to reward the service of the saints. O the
       great fulness of the Scriptures, which no one can comprehend with human genius! O greatest proof
       of the Divine Unity! For how many things are pointed out in these two verses!



                                                   CHAPTER XV.
113

       The Holy Spirit is Life equally with the Father and the Son, in truth whether the Father be mentioned,
          with Whom is the Fount of Life, or the Son, that Fount can be none other than the Holy Spirit.
           171. WE have said that the Father is Light, the Son is Light, and the Holy Spirit is Light; let us
       also learn that the Father is Life, the Son Life, and the Holy Spirit Life. For John said: “That which
       was from the beginning, that which we have heard, and which we have seen, and have beheld with
       our eyes, and our hands have handled concerning the Word of Life; and the Life appeared, and we


       978     S. Matt. iii. 11.
       979     Acts ii. 2, 3.
       980     Ps. iv. 6.
       981     Eph. i. 13.
       982     Ps. l. [xlix.] 3.


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       saw and testify, and declare to you of that Life which was with the Father.”983 He said both Word
       of Life and Life that he might signify both the Father and the Son to be Life. For what is the Word
       of Life but the Word of God? And by this phrase both God and the Word of God are shown to be
       Life. And as it is said the Word of Life, so, too, the Spirit of Life. Therefore, as the Word of Life
       is Life, so, too, the Spirit of Life is Life.
            172. Learn now that as the Father is the Fount of Life, so, too, many have stated that the Son
       is signified as the Fount of Life;984 so that, he says, with Thee, Almighty God, Thy Son is the Fount
       of Life. That is the Fount of the Holy Spirit,985 for the Spirit is Life, as the Lord says: “The words
       which I speak unto you are Spirit and Life,”986 for where the Spirit is, there also is Life; and where
       Life is, is also the Holy Spirit.
            173. Many, however, consider that in this passage the Father only is signified by the Fount. Let
       them, however, notice what the Scripture relates: “With Thee is the Well of Life.” That is, the Son
       is with the Father; since the Word was with God, Who was in the beginning, and was with God.
            174. But whether in this place one understands the Fount to be the Father or the Son, we certainly
       do not understand a fount of that water which is created, but the Fount of that divine grace, that is,
       of the Holy Spirit, for He is the living water. Wherefore the Lord said: “If thou knowest the gift of
       God, and Who He is that saith to thee, Give me to drink, thou wouldst have asked Him, and He
       would have given thee living water.”987
            175. This was the water for which the soul of David thirsted. The hart desires the fountain of
       these waters,988 not thirsting for the poison of serpents. For the water of the grace of the Spirit is
       living, that it may purify the inner parts of the mind, and wash away every sin of the soul, and
       purify the transgression of hidden faults.



                                                              CHAPTER XVI.

       The Holy Spirit is that large river by which the mystical Jerusalem is watered. It is equal to its
          Fount, that is, the Father and the Son, as is signified in holy Scripture. St. Ambrose himself
          thirsts for that water, and warns us that in order to preserve it within us, we must avoid the
          devil, lust, and heresy, since our vessels are frail, and that broken cisterns must be forsaken,
          that after the example of the Samaritan woman and of the patriarchs we may find the water of
          the Lord.
           176. BUT lest perchance any one should speak against as it were the littleness of the Spirit, and
       from this should endeavour to establish a difference in greatness, arguing that water seems to be
       but a small part of a Fount, although examples taken from creatures seem by no means suitable for


       983        1 John i. 1, 2.
       984        Ps. xxxvi. [xxxv.] 9.
       985        In these words St. Ambrose appears plainly to set forth the procession of the Holy Spirit from the Son, though he admits
           that some consider the Father to be the Fount of Life, but he argues even in this case the Son was with Him.
       986        S. John vi. 64.
       987        S. John iv. 10.
       988        Ps. xlii. [xli.] 3.


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       application to the Godhead; yet lest they should judge anything injuriously from this comparison
       taken from creatures, let them learn that not only is the Holy Spirit called Water, but also a River,
       as we read: “From his belly shall flow rivers of living water. But this He said of the Spirit, Whom
       they were beginning to receive, who were about to believe in Him.”989
            177. So, then, the Holy Spirit is the River, and the abundant River, which according to the
       Hebrews flowed from Jesus in the lands, as we have received it prophesied by the mouth of Isaiah.990
       This is the great River which flows always and never fails. And not only a river, but also one of
       copious stream and overflowing greatness, as also David said: “The stream of the river makes glad
       the city of God.”991
            178. For neither is that city, the heavenly Jerusalem, watered by the channel of any earthly
       river, but that Holy Spirit, proceeding from the Fount of Life, by a short draught of Whom we are
       satiated, seems to flow more abundantly among those celestial Thrones, Dominions and Powers,
       Angels and Archangels, rushing in the full course of the seven virtues of the Spirit. For if a river
       rising above its banks overflows, how much more does the Spirit, rising above every creature, when
       He touches the as it were low-lying fields of our minds, make glad that heavenly nature of the
114    creatures with the larger fertility of His sanctification.
            179. And let it not trouble you that either here it is said “rivers,”992 or elsewhere “seven Spirits,”993
       for by the sanctification of these seven gifts of the Spirit, as Isaiah said,994 is signified the fulness
       of all virtue; the Spirit of wisdom and understanding, the Spirit of counsel and strength, the Spirit
       of knowledge and godliness, and the Spirit of the fear of God. One, then, is the River, but many
       the channels of the gifts of the Spirit. This River, then, goes forth from the Fount of Life.
            180. And here, again, you must not turn aside your thoughts to lower things, because there
       seems to be some difference between a Fount and a River, and yet the divine Scripture has provided
       that the weakness of human understanding should not be injured by the lowliness of the language.
       Set before yourself any river, it springs from its fount, but is of one nature, of one brightness and
       beauty. And do you assert rightly that the Holy Spirit is of one substance, brightness, and glory
       with the Son of God and with God the Father. I will sum up all in the oneness of the qualities, and
       shall not be afraid of any question as to difference of greatness. For in this point also Scripture has
       provided for us; for the Son of God says: “He that shall drink of the water which I will give him,
       it shall become in him a well of water springing up unto everlasting life.”995 This well is clearly the
       grace of the Spirit, a stream proceeding from the living Fount. The Holy Spirit, then, is also the
       Fount of eternal life.
            181. You observe, then, from His words that the unity of the divine greatness is pointed out,
       and that Christ cannot be denied to be a Fount even by heretics, since the Spirit, too, is called a
       Fount. And as the Spirit is called a river, so, too, the Father said: “Behold, I come down upon you



       989     John vii. 38, 39.
       990     Is. lxvi. 12.
       991     Ps. xlvi. [xlv.] 4.
       992     S. John vii. 38.
       993     Rev. v. 6.
       994     Isa. xi. 2.
       995     S. John iv. 14.


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       like a river of peace, and like a stream overflowing the glory of the Gentiles.”996 And who can doubt
       that the Son of God is the River of life, from Whom the streams of eternal life flowed forth?
           182. Good, then, is this water, even the grace of the Spirit. Who will give this Fount to my
       breast? Let it spring up in me, let that which gives eternal life flow upon me. Let that Fount overflow
       upon us, and not flow away. For Wisdom says: “Drink water out of thine own vessels, and from
       the founts of thine own wells, and let thy waters flow abroad in thy streets.”997 How shall I keep
       this water that it flow not forth, that it glide not away? How shall I preserve my vessel, lest any
       crack of sin penetrating it, should let the water of eternal life exude? Teach us, Lord Jesus, teach
       us as Thou didst teach Thine apostles, saying: “Lay not up for yourselves treasures upon the earth,
       where rust and moth destroy, and where thieves break through and steal.”998
           182. For He intimates that the thief is the unclean spirit, who cannot find entrance into those
       who walk in the light of good works, but if he has caught any one in the darkness of earthly desires,
       and in the midst of the enjoyment of earthly pleasures, he spoils them of all the flower of eternal
       virtue. And therefore the Lord says: “Lay up for yourselves treasures in heaven, where neither rust
       nor moth destroy, and where thieves do not break through and steal. For where thy treasure is, there
       will thy heart be also.”
           183. Our rust is wantonness, our rust is lust, our rust is luxury, which dim the keen vision of
       the mind with the filth of vices. Again, our moth is Arius, our moth is Photinus, who rend the holy
       vesture of the Church with their impiety, and desiring to separate the indivisible unity of the divine
       power, gnaw the precious veil of faith with sacrilegious tooth. The water is spilt if Arius has
       imprinted his tooth, it flows away if Photinus has planted his sting in any one’s vessel. We are but
       of common clay, we quickly feel vices. But no one says to the potter, “Why hast Thou made me
       thus?”999 For though our vessel be but common, yet one is in honour, another in dishonour.1000 Do
       not then lay open thy pool, dig not with vices and crimes, lest any one say: “He hath opened a pool
       and digged it, and is fallen into the pit which he made.”1001
           184. If you seek Jesus, forsake the broken cisterns, for Christ was wont to sit not by a pool but
       by a well. There that Samaritan woman1002 found Him, she who believed, she who wished to draw
       water. Although you ought to have come in early morning, nevertheless if you come later, even at
       the sixth hour, you will find Jesus wearied with His journey. He is weary, but it is through thee,
       because He has long sought thee, thy unbelief has long wearied Him. Yet He is not offended if thou
       only comest, He asks to drink Who is about to give. But He drinks not the water of a stream flowing
115    by, but thy salvation; He drinks thy good dispositions, He drinks the cup, that is, the Passion which
       atoned for thy sins, that thou drinking of His sacred blood mightest quench the thirst of this world.
           185. So Abraham gained God after he had dug the well.1003 So Isaac, while walking by the well,
       received that wife1004 who was coming to him as a type of the Church. Faithful he was at the well,


       996     Isa. lxvi. 12.
       997     Prov. v. 15, 16.
       998     S. Matt. vi. 19.
       999     Rom. ix. 20.
       1000    Rom. ix. 21.
       1001    Ps. vii. 15.
       1002    S. John iv. 6.
       1003    Gen. xxi. 30.
       1004    Gen. xxiv. 62.


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       unfaithful at the pool. Lastly, too, Rebecca, as we read, found him who sought her at the well, and
       the harlots washed themselves in the blood in the pool of Jezebel.1005



                                                    BOOK II.

                                                 INTRODUCTION.

       The Three Persons of the Godhead were not unknown to the judges of old nor to Moses, for the
          equality of the Son with the Father, as well as of the Three Persons amongst Themselves, is
          laid down both elsewhere and by him. Samson also enjoyed the assistance of the Holy Spirit,
          his history is touched upon and shown to be in some points typical of the Church and her
          mysteries. When the Holy Spirit left Samson he fell into various calamities, and St. Ambrose
          explains the spiritual significance of his shorn locks.
           1. EVEN in reading the first book of the ancient history it is made clear both that the sevenfold
       grace of the Spirit shone forth in the judges themselves of the Jews, and that the mysteries of the
       heavenly sacraments were made known by the Spirit, of Whose eternity Moses was not ignorant.
       Then, too, at the very beginning of the world, and indeed before its beginning, he conjoined Him
       with God, Whom he knew to be eternal before the beginning of the world. For if any one takes
       good heed he will recognize in the beginning both the Father, the Son, and the Spirit. For of the
       Father it is written: “In the beginning God created the heaven and the earth.”1006 Of the Spirit it is
       said: “The Spirit was borne upon the waters.”1007 And well in the beginning of creation is there set
       forth the figure of baptism whereby the creature had to be purified. And of the Son we read that
       He it is Who divided light from darkness, for there is one God the Father Who speaks, and one God
       the Son Who acts.
           2. But, again, that you may not think that there was assumption in the bidding of Him Who
       spoke, or inferiority on the part of Him Who carried out the bidding, the Father acknowledges the
       Son as equal to Himself in the execution of the work, saying: “Let Us make man after Our image
       and likeness.”1008 For the common image and the working and the likeness can signify nothing but
       the oneness of the same Majesty.
           3. But that we may more fully recognize the equality of the Father and the Son, as the Father
       spoke, the Son made, so, too, the Father works and the Son speaks. The Father works, as it is written:
       “My Father worketh hitherto.”1009 You find it said to the Son: “Say the word and he shall be
       healed.”1010 And the Son says to the Father: “I will that where I am, they too shall be with Me.”1011
       The Father did what the Son said.


       1005    1 [3] Kings xxii. 36.
       1006    Gen. i. 1.
       1007    Gen. i. 4.
       1008    Gen. i. 26.
       1009    S. John v. 17.
       1010    S. Matt. viii. 8.
       1011    S. John xvii. 24.


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            4. But neither was Abraham ignorant of the Holy Spirit; he saw Three and worshipped One,
       for there is one God, one Lord, and one Spirit. And so there is a oneness of honour, because there
       is a oneness of power.
            5. And why should I speak of all one by one? Samson, born by the divine promise, had the
       Spirit accompanying him, for we read: “The Lord blessed him, and the Spirit of the Lord began to
       be with him in the camp.”1012 And so foreshadowing the future mystery, he demanded a wife of the
       aliens, which, as it is written, his father and mother knew not of, because it was from the Lord. And
       rightly was he esteemed stronger than others, because the Spirit of the Lord guided him, under
       Whose guidance he alone put to flight the people of the aliens, and at another time inaccessible to
       the bite of the lion, he, unconquerable in his strength, tore him asunder with his hands. Would that
       he had been as careful to preserve grace, as strong to overcome the beast!
            6. And perhaps this was not only a prodigy of valour, but also a mystery of wisdom, an utterance
116    of prophecy. For it does not seem to have been without a purpose that, as he was going to his
       marriage, a roaring lion met him, which he tore asunder with his hands, in whose body, when about
       to enjoy the wished-for wedlock, he found a swarm of bees, and took honey from its mouth, which
       he gave to his father and mother to eat. The people of the Gentiles which believed had honey, the
       people which was before savage is now the people of Christ.
            7. Nor is the riddle without mystery, which he set forth to his companions: “Out of the eater
       came forth meat, and out of the strong came forth sweetness.”1013 And there was a mystery up to
       the point of the three days in which its answer was sought in vain, which could not be made known
       except by the faith of the Church, on the seventh day, the time of the Law being completed, after
       the Passion of the Lord. For thus you find that the apostles did not understand, “because Jesus was
       not yet glorified.”1014
            8. “What,” answer they, “is sweeter than honey, and what is stronger than a lion?” To which
       he replied: “If ye had not farmed with my heifer, you would not have found out my riddle.”1015 O
       divine mystery! O manifest sacrament! we have escaped from the slayer, we have overcome the
       strong one. The food of life is now there, where before was the hunger of a miserable death. Dangers
       are changed into safety, bitterness into sweetness. Grace came forth from the offence, power from
       weakness, and life from death.
            9. There are, however, who think on the other hand that the wedlock could not have been
       established unless the lion of the tribe of Judah had been slain; and so in His body, that is, the
       Church, bees were found who store up the honey of wisdom, because after the Passion of the Lord
       the apostles believed more fully. This lion, then, Samson as a Jew slew, but in it he found honey,
       as in the figure of the heritage which was to be redeemed, that the remnant might be saved according
       to the election of grace.1016
            10. “And the Spirit of the Lord,” it is said, “came upon him, and he went down to Ascalon, and
       smote thirty men of them.”1017 For he could not fail to carry off the victory who saw the mysteries.



       1012    Judg. xiii. 25.
       1013    Judg. xiv. 14.
       1014    S. John vii. 39.
       1015    Judg. xiv. 18.
       1016    Rom. xi. 5.
       1017    Judg. xiv. 19.


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       And so in the garments they receive the reward of wisdom, the badge of intercourse, who resolve
       and answer the riddle.
           11. Here, again, other mysteries come up, in that his wife is taken away, and for this foxes set
       fire to the sheaves of the aliens. For their own cunning often deceives those who contend against
       divine mysteries. Wherefore it is said again in the Song of Songs: “Take us the little foxes which
       destroy the vineyards, that our vineyards may flourish.”1018 He said well “little,” because the larger
       could not destroy the vineyards, though to the strong even the devil is weak.
           12. So, then, he (to sum up the story briefly, for the consideration of the whole passage is
       reserved for its own season) was unconquered so long as he kept the grace of the Spirit, as was the
       people of God chosen by the Lord, that Nazarite under the Law. Samson, then, was unconquered,
       and so invincible as to be able to smite a thousand men with the jawbone of an ass;1019 so full of
       heavenly grace that when thirsty he found even water in the jawbone of an ass, whether you consider
       this as a miracle, or turn it to a mystery, because in the humility of the people of the Gentiles there
       would be both rest and triumph according to that which is written: “He that smiteth thee on the
       cheek, turn to him also the other.”1020 For by this endurance of injuries, which the sacrament of
       baptism teaches, we triumph over the stings of anger, that having passed through death we may
       attain to the rest of the resurrection.
           13. Is that, then, Samson who broke ropes twisted with thongs, and new cords like weak threads?
       Is that Samson who did not feel the bonds of his hair fastened to the beam, so long as he had the
       grace of the Spirit? He, I say, after the Spirit of God departed from him, was greatly changed from
       that Samson Who returned clothed in the spoils of the aliens, but fallen from his greatness on the
       knees of a woman, caressed and deceived, is shorn of his hair.1021
           14. Was, then, the hair of his head of such importance that, so long as it remained, his strength
       should endure unconquered, but when his head was shorn the man should suddenly lose all his
       strength? It is not so, nor may we think that the hair of his head has such power. There is the hair
       of religion and faith; the hair of the Nazarite perfect in the Law, consecrated in sparingness and
       abstinence, with which she (a type of the Church), who poured ointment on the feet of the Lord,
117    wiped the feet of the heavenly Word, for then she knew Christ also after the flesh. That hair it is
       of which it is said: “Thy hair is as flocks of goats,”1022 growing on that head of which it is said:
       “The head of the man is Christ,”1023 and in another place: “His head is as fine gold, and his locks
       like black pine-trees.”1024
           15. And so, also, in the Gospel our Lord, pointing out that some hairs are seen and known, says:
       “But even the hairs of your head are all numbered,”1025 implying, indeed, acts of spiritual virtues,
       for God does not take care for our hair. Though, indeed, it is not absurd to believe that literally,
       seeing that according to His divine Majesty nothing can be hidden from Him.



       1018    Cant. ii. 15.
       1019    Judg. xv. 15.
       1020    S. Matt. v. 39.
       1021    Judg. xvi. 7, 11, 19.
       1022    Cant. iv. 1.
       1023    1 Cor. xi. 3.
       1024    Cant. v. 11.
       1025    S. Matt. x. 30.


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           16. But what does it profit me, if God Himself knows all my hairs? That rather abounds and
       profits me, if the watchful witness of good works reward me with the gift of eternal life. And, in
       fine, Samson himself, declaring that these hairs are not mystical, says: “If I be shorn my strength
       will depart from me.”1026 So much concerning the mystery, let us now consider the order of the
       passage.



                                                    CHAPTER I.

       The Spirit is the Lord and Power; and in this is not inferior to the Father and the Son.
           17. ABOVE, you read that “the Lord blessed him, and the Spirit of the Lord began to go with
       him.”1027 Farther on it is said: “And the Spirit of the Lord came upon him.”1028 Again he says: “If I
       be shaven, my strength will depart from me.”1029 After he was shaven, see what the Scripture says:
       “The Lord,” he says, “departed from him.”1030
           18. You see, then, that He Who went with him, Himself departed from him. The Same is, then,
       the Lord, Who is the Spirit of the Lord, that is, he called the Spirit of God, Lord, as also the Apostle
       says: “The Lord is the Spirit, now where the Spirit of the Lord is, there is liberty.” You find, then,
       the Holy Spirit called the Lord; for the Holy Spirit and the Son are not one Person [unus] but one
       Substance [unum].
           19. In this place he used the word Power, and implied the Spirit. For as the Father is Power, so,
       too, the Son is Power, and the Holy Spirit is Power. Of the Son you have read that Christ is “the
       Power of God and the Wisdom of God.”1031 We read, too, that the Father is Power, as it is written:
       “Ye shall see the Son of Man sitting at the right hand of the Power of God.”1032 He certainly named
       the Father Power, at Whose right hand the Son sits, as you read: “The Lord said unto My Lord, Sit
       Thou on My right hand.”1033 And the Lord Himself named the Holy Spirit Power, when He said:
       “Ye shall receive Power when the Holy Spirit cometh upon you.”1034



                                                    CHAPTER II.

       The Father, the Son, and the Holy Spirit are One in counsel.




       1026    Judg. xvi. 17.
       1027    Judg. xiii. 25.
       1028    Judg. xiv. 6.
       1029    Judg. xvi. 17.
       1030    Judg. xvi. 20.
       1031    1 Cor. i. 24.
       1032    S. Matt. xxvi. 64.
       1033    Ps. cx. [cix.] 1.
       1034    Acts i. 8.


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           20. FOR the Spirit Himself is Power, as you read: “The Spirit of Counsel and of Power (or
       might).”1035 And as the Son is the Angel of great counsel, so, too, is the Holy Spirit the Spirit of
       Counsel, that you may know that the Counsel of the Father, the Son, and the Holy Spirit is One.
       Counsel, not concerning any doubtful matters, but concerning those foreknown and determined.
           21. But that the Spirit is the Arbiter of the Divine Counsel, you may know even from this. For
       when above1036 we showed that the Holy Spirit was the Lord of baptism, and read that baptism is
       the counsel of God, as you read, “But the Pharisees despised the counsel of God, not being baptized
       of Him,”1037 it is quite clear that as there can be no baptism without the Spirit, so, too, the counsel
       of God is not without the Spirit.
           22. And that we may know more completely that the Spirit is Power, we ought to know that
       He was promised when the Lord said: “I will pour out of My Spirit upon all flesh.”1038 He, then,
       Who was promised to us is Himself Power, as in the Gospel the same Son of God declared when
       He said: “And I will send the promise of the Father upon you, but do you remain in the city until
       ye be endued with power from on high.”1039
           23. And the Evangelist so far shows that the Spirit is Power, that St. Luke relates that He came
       down with great power, when he says: “And suddenly there was a sound from heaven, as though
       the Spirit were borne with great power.”1040
           24. But, again, that you may not suppose that this is to be referred to bodily things and perceptible
118    to the senses, learn that the Spirit so descended as Christ is to descend, as you find: “They shall see
       the Son of Man coming in the clouds with great power and majesty.”1041
           25. For how should not the power and might be one, when the work is one, the judgment one,
       the temple one, the life-giving one, the sanctification one, and the kingdom also of the Father, Son,
       and Holy Spirit one?



                                                    CHAPTER III.

       As to know the Father and the Son is life, so is it life to know the Holy Spirit; and therefore in the
           Godhead He is not to be separated from the Father.
           26. LET them say, then, wherein they think that there is an unlikeness in the divine operation.
       Since as to know the Father and the Son is life, as the Lord Himself declared, saying: “This is life
       eternal to know Thee the only true God, and Jesus Christ, Whom Thou hast sent,”1042 so, too, to
       know the Holy Spirit is life. For the Lord said: “If ye love Me, keep My commandments, and I will
       ask the Father and He shall give you another Paraclete, that He may abide with you for ever, even


       1035    Isa. xi. 2.
       1036    Book I. vi.
       1037    S. Luke vii. 30.
       1038    Joel ii. 28.
       1039    S. Luke xxiv. 49.
       1040    Acts ii. 2.
       1041    S. Matt. xxiv. 30.
       1042    S. John xvii. 3.


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       the Spirit of Truth, Whom the world cannot receive, because it seeth Him not, neither knoweth
       Him, but ye know Him, for He is with you, and in you.”1043
           27. So, then, the world had not eternal life, because it had not received the Spirit; for where the
       Spirit is, there is eternal life; for the Spirit Himself it is Who effects eternal life. Wherefore I wonder
       why the Arians stir the question as to the only true God. For as it is eternal life to know the only
       true God, so, too, is it eternal life to know Jesus Christ; so, again, it is eternal life to know the Holy
       Spirit, Whom, as also the Father, the world does not see, and, as also the Son, does not know. But
       he who is not of this world has eternal life, and the Spirit, Who is the Light of eternal life, remains
       with him for ever.
           28. If the knowledge of the only true God confers the same benefit as the knowledge of the Son
       and of the Spirit, why do you sever the Son and the Spirit from the honour of the true God, when
       you do not sever Him from conferring the benefit? For of necessity you must either believe that
       this is the greatest gift of the only true Godhead, and will confess the only true Godhead as of the
       Father, so also of the Son and of the Holy Spirit; or if you say that he, too, can give life eternal who
       is not true God, it will happen that you derogate rather from the Father, Whose work you do not
       consider to be the chief work of the only true Godhead, but one to be compared to the work of a
       creature.



                                                     CHAPTER IV.

       The Holy Spirit gives life, not in a different way from the Father and the Son, nor by a different
          working.
           29. AND what wonder is it the Spirit works Life, Who quickens as does the Father and as does
       the Son? And who can deny that quickening is the work of the Eternal Majesty? For it is written:
       “Quicken Thy servant.”1044 He, then, is quickened who is a servant, that is, man, who before had
       not life, but received the privilege of having it.
           30. Let us then see whether the Spirit is quickened, or Himself quickens. Now it is written:
       “The letter killeth, but the Spirit giveth life.”1045 So, then, the Spirit quickens.
           31. But that you may understand that the quickening of the Father, Son, and Holy Spirit is no
       separate work, read how there is a oneness of quickening also, since God Himself quickens through
       the Spirit, for Paul said: “He Who raised up Christ from the dead shall also quicken your mortal
       bodies because of His Spirit Who dwelleth in you.”



                                                     CHAPTER V.




       1043    S. John xvii. 14, 15.
       1044    Ps. cxix. [cxviii.] 17.
       1045    Rom. viii. 11.


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       The Holy Spirit, as well as the Father and the Son, is pointed out in holy Scripture as Creator, and
          the same truth was shadowed forth even by heathen writers, but it was shown most plainly in
          the Mystery of the Incarnation, after touching upon which, the writer maintains his argument
          from the fact that worship which is due to the Creator alone is paid to the Holy Spirit.
            32. BUT who can doubt that the Holy Spirit gives life to all things; since both He, as the Father
       and the Son, is the Creator of all things; and the Almighty Father is understood to have done nothing
       without the Holy Spirit; and since also in the beginning of the creation the Spirit moved upon the
       water.
            33. So when the Spirit was moving upon the water, the creation was without grace; but after
       this world being created underwent the operation of the Spirit, it gained all the beauty of that grace,
119    wherewith the world is illuminated. And that the grace of the universe cannot abide without the
       Holy Spirit the prophet declared when he said: “Thou wilt take away Thy Spirit, and they will fail
       and be turned again into their dust. Send forth Thy Spirit, and they shall be made, and Thou wilt
       renew all the face of the earth.”1046 Not only, then, did he teach that no creature can stand without
       the Holy Spirit, but also that the Spirit is the Creator of the whole creation.
            34. And who can deny that the creation of the earth is the work of the Holy Spirit, Whose work
       it is that it is renewed? For if they desire to deny that it was created by the Spirit, since they cannot
       deny that it must be renewed by the Spirit, they who desire to sever the Persons must maintain that
       the operation of the Holy Spirit is superior to that of the Father and the Son, which is far from the
       truth; for there is no doubt that the restored earth is better than it was created. Or if at first, without
       the operation of the Holy Spirit, the Father and the Son made the earth, but the operation of the
       Holy Spirit was joined on afterwards, it will seem that that which was made required His aid, which
       was then added. But far be it from any one to think this, namely, that the divine work should be
       believed to have a change in the Creator, an error brought in by Manicheus.1047
            35. But do we suppose that the substance of the earth exists without the operation of the Holy
       Spirit, without Whose work not even the expanse of the sky endures? For it is written: “By the
       Word of the Lord were the heavens established, and all the strength of them by the Spirit of His
       Mouth.”1048 Observe what he says, that all the strength of the heavens is to be referred to the Spirit.
       For how should He Who was moving1049 before the earth was made, be resting when it was being
       made?
            36. Gentile writers, following ours as it were through shadows, because they could not imbibe
       the truth of the Spirit, have pointed out in their verses that the Spirit within nourishes heaven and
       earth, and the glittering orbs of moon and stars.1050 So they deny not that the strength of creatures
       exists through the Spirit, are we who read this to deny it? But you think that they refer to a Spirit
       produced of the air. If they declared a Spirit of the air to be the Author of all things, do we doubt
       that the Spirit of God is the Creator of all things?

       1046        Ps. civ. [ciii.] 29, 30.
       1047        Manes, or Manicheus, born about A.D. 240, seems to have desired to blend Christianity and Zoroastrianism. The fundamental
            point of his teaching was the recognition of a good and an evil creator. For a full account, see art. “Manicheans,” in Dict. Ch.
            Biog.
       1048        Ps. xxxiii. [xxxii.] 6.
       1049        Gen. i. 1.
       1050        Virg. Æn. VI. 724.


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            37. But why do I delay with matters not to the purpose? Let them accept a plain proof that there
       can be nothing which the Holy Spirit can be said not to have made; and that it cannot be doubted
       that all subsists through His operation, whether Angels, Archangels, Thrones, or Dominions; since
       the Lord Himself, Whom the Angels serve, was begotten by the Holy Spirit coming upon the Virgin,
       as, according to Matthew, the Angel said to Joseph: “Joseph, thou son of David, fear not to take
       Mary thy wife, for that which shall be born of her is of the Holy Spirit.”1051 And according to Luke,
       he said to Mary: “The Holy Spirit shall come upon thee.”1052
            38. The birth from the Virgin was, then, the work of the Spirit. The fruit of the womb is the
       work of the Spirit, according to that which is written: “Blessed art thou among women, and blessed
       is the Fruit of thy womb.”1053 The flower from the root is the work of the Spirit, that flower, I say,
       of which it was well prophesied: “A rod shall go forth from the root of Jesse, and a flower shall
       rise from his root.”1054 The root of Jesse the patriarch is the family of the Jews, Mary is the rod,
       Christ the flower of Mary, Who, about to spread the good odour of faith throughout the whole
       world, budded forth from a virgin womb, as He Himself said: “I am the flower of the plain, a lily
       of the valley.”1055
            39. The flower, when cut, keeps its odour, and when bruised increases it, nor if torn off does it
       lose it; so, too, the Lord Jesus, on the gibbet of the cross, neither failed when bruised, nor fainted
       when torn; and when He was cut by that piercing of the spear, being made more beautiful by the
       colour of the outpoured Blood, He, as it were, grew comely again, not able in Himself to die, and
       breathing forth upon the dead the gift of eternal life. On this flower, then, of the royal rod the Holy
       Spirit rested.
            40. A good rod, as some think, is the Flesh of the Lord, which, raising itself from its earthly
       root to heaven, bore around the whole world the sweet-smelling fruits of religion, the mysteries of
       the divine generation, pouring grace on the altars of heaven.
            41. So, then, we cannot doubt that the Spirit is Creator, Whom we know as the Author of the
120    Lord’s Incarnation. For who can doubt when you find in the commencement of the Gospel that the
       generation of Jesus Christ was on this wise: “When Mary was espoused to Joseph, before they
       came together she was found with child of [ex] the Holy Spirit.”1056
            42. For although most authorities read “de Spiritu,” yet the Greek from which the Latins
       translated have “ἐχ πνεύματος ἁγίου,” that is, “ex Spiritu Sancto.” For that which is “of” [ex] any
       one is either of his substance or of his power. Of his substance, as the Son, Who says: “I came forth
       of the Mouth of the Most High;”1057 as the Spirit, “Who proceedeth from the Father;”1058 of Whom
       the Son says: “He shall glorify Me, for He shall receive of Mine.”1059 But of the power, as in the
       passage: “One God the Father, of Whom are all things.”1060

       1051        S. Matt. i. 20.
       1052        S. Luke i. 35.
       1053        S. Luke i. 42.
       1054        Isa. xi. 1.
       1055        Cant. ii. 1.
       1056        S. Matt. i. 18.
       1057        Ecclus. xxiv. 3.
       1058        S. John xv. 20.
       1059        S. John xvi. 14.
       1060        1 Cor. viii. 6. The argument from the exact force of prepositions is often urged by the Fathers, as by St. Athanasius and
            St. Basil among the Greeks. The Latins also use it, as St. Ambrose here, but occasionally the same Greek prepositions are



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           43. How, then, was Mary with child of the Holy Spirit? If as of her substance, was the Spirit,
       then, changed into flesh and bones? Certainly not. But if the Virgin conceived as of His operation
       and power, who can deny that the Holy Spirit is Creator?
           44. How is it, too, that Job plainly set forth the Spirit as his Creator, saying: “The Spirit of God
       hath made me”?1061 In one short verse he showed Him to be both Divine and Creator. If, then, the
       Spirit is Creator, He is certainly not a creature, for the Apostle has separated the Creator and the
       creature, saying: “They served the creature rather than the Creator.”1062
           45. He teaches that the Creator is to be served by condemning those who serve the creature,
       whereas we owe our service to the Creator. And since he knew the Spirit to be the Creator, he
       teaches that we ought to serve Him, saying: “Beware of the dogs, beware of the evil workers, beware
       of the concision, for we are the circumcision who serve the Spirit of God.”1063
           46. But if any one disputes because of the variations of the Latin codices, some of which heretics
       have falsified, let him look at the Greek codices, and observe that it is there written: “οἱ πνεύματι
       Θεοῦ λατρεύοντες,” which is, being translated, “who serve the Spirit of God.”
           47. So, then, when the same Apostle says that we ought to serve the Spirit, who asserts that we
       must not serve the creature, but the Creator; without doubt he plainly shows that the Holy Spirit is
       Creator, and is to be venerated with the honour due to the eternal Godhead; for it is written: “Thou
       shalt worship the Lord thy God, and Him only shalt thou serve.”1064



                                                               CHAPTER VI.

       To those who object that according to the words of Amos the Spirit is created, the answer is made
           that the word is there understood of the wind, which is often created, which cannot be said of
           the Holy Spirit, since He is eternal, and cannot be dissolved in death, or by an heretical
           absorption into the Father. But if they pertinaciously contend that this passage was written of
           the Holy Spirit, St. Ambrose points out that recourse must be had to a spiritual Interpretation,
           for Christ by His coming established the thunder, that is, the force of the divine utterances, and
           by Spirit is signified the human soul as also the flesh assumed by Christ. And since this was
           created by each Person of the Trinity, it is thence argued that the Spirit, Who has before been
           affirmed to be the Creator of all things, was the Author of the Incarnation of the Lord.
           48. NOR does it escape my notice that heretics have been wont to object that the Holy Spirit
       appears to be a creature, because many of them use as an argument for establishing their impiety
       that passage of Amos, where he spoke of the blowing of the wind, as the words of the prophet made


            variously rendered, which destroys the force of the argument. With regard to the two prepositions ex and de St. Augustine gives
            a very good explanation, De Natura Bon, c. 27: “Ex ipso [of Him] does not always mean the same as de ipso [from Him]. That
            which is from Him can be said to be of Him, but not everything which is of Him is rightly said to be from Him. Of Him are the
            heavens and the earth, for He made them, but not from Him, because not of His substance.” But neither the Vulgate nor even
            St. Ambrose himself is quite consistent in this matter.
       1061        Job xxxiii. 4.
       1062        Rom. i. 25.
       1063        Phil. iii. 2, 3.
       1064        S. Matt. iv. 10.


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       clear. For you read thus: “Behold, I am He that establish the thunders, and create the wind [spirit],1065
       and declare unto man his Christ, that make light and mist, and ascend upon high places, the Lord
       God Almighty is His Name.”1066
           49. If they make an argument of this, that he said “spirit” was created, Esdras taught us that
       spirit is created, saying in the fourth book: “And upon the second day Thou madest the spirit of the
       firmament,”1067 yet, that we may keep to our point, is it not evident that in what Amos said the order
       of the passage shows that the prophet was speaking of the creation of this world?
           50. He begins as follows: “I am the Lord that establish the thunders and create the wind [spirit].”
       The order of the words itself teaches us; for if he had wished to speak of the Holy Spirit, he would
       certainly not have put the thunders in the first place. For thunder is not more ancient than the Holy
121    Spirit; though they be ungodly, they still dare not say that. And then when we see what follows
       concerning light and mist, is it not plain that what is said is to be understood of the creation of this
       world? For we know by every-day experience, that when we have storms on this earth, thunders
       come first, blasts of wind follow on, the sky grows black with mists, and light shines again out of
       the darkness. For the blasts of wind are also called “spirits,” as it is written: “Fire and brimstone
       and the spirit of storm.”1068
           51. And that you might know that he called this “spirit,” he says: “establishing thunders and
       creating the wind [spirit].” For these are often created, when they take place. But the Holy Spirit
       is eternal, and if any one dares to call Him a creature, still he cannot say that He is daily created
       like the blast of the wind. Then, again, Wisdom herself, speaking after the mystery of the assumed
       Body, says: “The Lord created Me.”1069 Although prophesying of things to come, yet, because the
       coming of the Lord was predestined, it is not said “creates” but “created Me;” that men might
       believe that the Body of Jesus was begotten of the Virgin Mary, not often, but once only.
           52. And so, as to that which the prophet declared as it were of the daily working of God in the
       thunder and the creation of the wind, it would be impious to understand any such thing of the Holy
       Spirit, Whom the ungodly themselves cannot deny to exist from before the world. Whence with
       pious asseveration we testify that He always exists, and abides ever. For neither can He Who before
       the world was moving upon the waters begin to be visible after the world’s creation; or else it would
       be allowable to suppose that there are many Holy Spirits, Who come into being by as it were a
       daily production. Far be it from any one to pollute himself with such impiety as to say that the Holy
       Spirit is frequently or ever created. For I do not understand why He should be frequently created;
       unless perchance they believe that He dies frequently and so is frequently created. But how can the
       Spirit of life die? If, then, He cannot die, there is no reason why He should be often created.
           53. But they who think otherwise fall into this sacrilege, that they do not distinguish the Holy
       Spirit; who think that the Word Which was sent forth returns to the Father, and the Spirit Which
       was sent forth is reabsorbed into God, so that there should be a reabsorption1070 and a kind of

       1065        Spiritus is Latin for wind and spirit. See note on § 63 of this book.
       1066        Amos iv. 13.
       1067        2 [4] Esdras vi. 41.
       1068        Ps. xi. [x.] 6.
       1069        Prov. viii. 22.
       1070        St. Ambrose would seem to be alluding to a certain party amongst the Sabellians, who, to avoid the charge of being
            Patripassians, maintained that Christ before His Incarnation was one with the Father, from Whom He then emanated, in Whom
            after His Passion He was again reabsorbed. Cf. De Fide, V. 162.


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       alternation of one changing himself into various forms; whereas the distinction between the Father,
       Son, and Holy Spirit always abiding and unchangeable, preserves the Unity of its power.
           54. But if any one thinks that the word of the prophet is to be explained with reference to the
       Holy Spirit, because it is said, “declaring unto men His Christ,”1071 he will explain it more easily
       of the Lord’s Incarnation. For if it troubles you that he said Spirit, and therefore you think that this
       cannot well be explained of the mystery of the taking of human nature, read on in the Scriptures
       and you will find that all agrees most excellently with Christ, of Whom it is thoroughly fitting to
       think that He established the thunders by His coming, that is, the force and sound of the heavenly
       Scriptures, by the thunder, as it were, of which our minds are struck with astonishment, so that we
       learn to be afraid, and pay respect to the heavenly oracles.
           55. Lastly, in the Gospel the brothers of the Lord were called Sons of Thunder; and when the
       voice was uttered of the Father, saying, “I have both glorified it and will glorify it again,”1072 the
       Jews said that it thundered on Him. For although they could not receive the grace of the truth, yet
       they confessed unwillingly, and in their ignorance were speaking mysteries, so that there resulted
       a great testimony of the Father to the Son. And in the Book of Job, too, the Scripture says: “And
       who knows when He will make the power of His thunder?”1073 Certainly if these words pertained
       to the thunders of the heavens, he would have said that their force was already made, not about to
       be made.
           56. Therefore he referred the thunders to the words of the Lord, the sound of which went out
       into all the earth, and we understand the word “spirit” in this place of the soul, which He took
       endowed with reason and perfect;1074 for Scripture often designates the soul of man by the word
       spirit, as you read: “Who creates the spirit of man within him.”1075 So, too, the Lord signified His
122    Soul by the word Spirit, when He said: “Into Thy hands I commend My Spirit.”1076
           57. And that you might know that he spoke of the coming down of Jesus, he added that He
       declared His Christ to men, for in His baptism He declared Him, saying: “Thou art My beloved
       Son, in Whom I am well pleased.”1077 He declared Him on the mount, saying: “This is My beloved
       Son, hear ye Him.”1078 He declared Him in His Passion, when the sun hid itself, and sea and earth
       trembled. He declared Him in the Centurion, who said: “Truly this was the Son of God.”1079
           58. We ought, then, to take this whole passage either to be simply to be understood of that state
       in which we here live and breathe, or of the mystery of the Lord’s Body; for if here it had been
       stated that the Holy Spirit was created, undoubtedly Scripture would elsewhere have declared the
       same, as we often read of the Son of God, Who according to the flesh was both made and created.
           59. But it is fitting that we should consider His Majesty in the very fact of His taking flesh for
       us, that we may see His divine power in the very taking of the Body. For as we read that the Father


       1071        Amos iv. 13.
       1072        S. John xii. 28.
       1073        Job xxvi. 14 [LXX.].
       1074        It has been generally held that our Lord’s Soul was from the first endowed with all the fulness of which a human soul is
            capable, having, for instance, perfect knowledge of all things past, present, and to come: the only limit being that a finite nature
            cannot possess the infinite attributes of the Godhead.
       1075        Zech. xii. 1.
       1076        S. Luke xxiii. 46.
       1077        S. Matt. iii. 17.
       1078        S. Mark ix. 7.
       1079        S. Mark xv. 39.


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       created the mystery of the Lord’s Incarnation, the Spirit too created it; and so too we read that
       Christ Himself created His own Body. For the Father created it, as it is written: “The Lord created
       Me,”1080 and in another place, “God sent His Son, made of a woman, made under the law.”1081 And
       the Spirit created the whole mystery, according to that which we read, for “Mary was found with
       child of the Holy Spirit.”1082
           60. You find, then, that the Father created and the Spirit created; learn, too, that the Son of God
       also created, when Solomon says: “Wisdom hath made herself a house.”1083 How, then, can the
       Holy Spirit Who created the mystery of the Lord’s Incarnation, which is above all created things,
       be Himself a creature?
           61. As we have shown above1084 generally that the Holy Spirit is our Creator according to the
       flesh in the outer man, let us now show that He is our Creator also according to the mystery of
       grace. And as the Father creates, so too does the Son create, and so too the Holy Spirit creates, as
       we read in the words of Paul: “For it is the gift of God, not of works, lest any one should boast. For
       we are His workmanship created in Christ Jesus in good works.”1085



                                                                   CHAPTER VII.

       The Holy Spirit is no less the author of spiritual creation or regeneration than the Father and the
          Son. The excellence of that creation, and wherein it consists. How we are to understand holy
          Scripture, when it attributes a body or members to God.
           62. SO, then, the Father creates in good works, and the Son also, for it is written: “But as many
       as received Him, to them gave He power to become the sons of God, even to them who believe on
       His Name; who were born not of blood, nor of the will of the flesh, nor of the will of man, but of
       God.”1086
           63. In like manner the Lord Himself also testifies that we are born again of the Spirit according
       to grace, saying: “That which is born of the flesh is flesh, because it is born of flesh; and that which
       is born of the Spirit is spirit, because God is Spirit. Marvel not that I said unto you, Ye must be
       born again. The Spirit breatheth1087 where He willeth, and thou hearest His voice, but knowest not
       whence He cometh or whither He goeth, so is every one who is born of the Spirit.”

       1080         Prov. viii. 12.
       1081         Gal. iv. 4.
       1082         S. Matt. i. 18.
       1083         Prov. ix. 1.
       1084         Ch. V.
       1085         Eph. ii. 8 ff.
       1086         S. John i. 12, 13.
       1087         It has been thought well in translating this verse to keep the words “spirit” and “breath” as suiting the argument of St.
            Ambrose. But there can be little doubt that the ordinary translation is the correct one. Bp. Westcott has the following note: “In
            Hebrew, Syriac, and Latin the words [for spirit and wind] are identical, and Wiclif and the Rhemish version keep “spirit” in both
            cases, after the Latin. But at present the retention of one word in both places could only create confusion, since the separation
            between the material emblem and the power which it was used to describe is complete. The use of the correlative verb (πνεῖ,
            ch. vi. 18; Rev. vii. 1; Matt. vii. 25, 27; Luke xii. 55; Acts xxvii. 40) and of the word sound (voice) is quite decisive for the literal
            use of the noun (πνεῦμα), and still at the same time the whole of the phraseology is inspired by the higher meaning. Perhaps



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           64. It is then clear that the Holy Spirit is also the Author of the grace of the Spirit, since we are
       created according to God, that we may be made the sons of God. So when He has taken us into His
       kingdom by the adoption of holy regeneration, do we deny Him that which is His? He has made
       us heirs of the new birth from above, do we claim the heritage and reject its Author? But the benefit
       cannot remain when its Author is shut out; the Author is not without the gift, nor the gift without
       the Author. If you claim the grace, believe the power; if you reject the power, do not ask for the
123    grace. He who has denied the Spirit has at the same time denied the gift. For if the Author be of no
       account how can His gifts be precious? Why do we grudge the gifts we ourselves receive, diminish
       our hopes, repudiate our dignity, and deny our Comforter?
           65. But we cannot deny Him. Far be it from us to deny that which is so great, since the Apostle
       says: “But ye brethren, like Isaac, are the children of promise, but as then, he that is born after the
       flesh persecutes him that is after the Spirit.”1088 Again certainly is understood from what has gone
       before, is born after the Spirit. He then who is born after the Spirit is born after God. Now we are
       born again when we are renewed in our inward affections and lay aside the oldness of the outer
       man. And so the Apostle says again: “But be ye renewed in the spirit of your mind, and put on the
       new man which is created according to God in truth and righteousness and holiness.”1089 Let them
       hear how the Scripture has signified the unity of the divine operation. He who is renewed in the
       spirit of his mind has put on the new man, which is created according to God.
           66. That more excellent regeneration is then the work of the Holy Spirit; and the Spirit is the
       Author of that new man which is created after the image of God, which no one will doubt to be
       better than this outer man of ours. Since the Apostle has pointed out that the one is heavenly, the
       other earthly, when he says: “As is the heavenly, such also are the heavenly.”1090
           67. Since, then, the grace of the Spirit makes that to be heavenly which it can create earthy, we
       ought to observe by reason though we be without instances. For in a certain place holy Job says:
       “As the Lord liveth, Who thus judgeth me, and the Almighty, Who hath brought my soul to bitterness
       (for the Spirit of God which is in my nostrils).”1091 He certainly did not here signify by His Spirit
       the vital breath and bodily breathing passages, but signifies the nostrils of the inner man within
       him, wherewith he gathered in the fragrance of eternal life, and drew in the grace of the heavenly
       ointment as with a kind of twofold sense.
           68. For there are spiritual nostrils, as we read, which the spouse of the Word has, to whom it
       is said: “And the smell of thy nostrils;”1092 and in another place: “The Lord smelled a smell of
       sweetness.”1093 There are, then, as it were, inward members of a man, whose hands are considered
       to be in action, his ears in hearing, his feet in a kind of progress in a good work. And so from what
       is done we gather as it were figures of the members, for it is not suitable for us to imagine anything
       in the inner man after a fleshly manner.


            also the unusual word (πνεῦμα, 1 Kings xviii. 45; xix. 11; 2 Kings iii. 17) is employed to suggest this. The comparison lies
            between the obvious physical properties of the wind and the mysterious action of that spiritual influence to which the name
            “spirit,” “wind,” was instinctively applied. The laws of both are practically unknown, both are unseen, the presence of both is
            revealed in their effects.”—Westcott on S. John iii. 8.
       1088         Gal. iv. 28, 29.
       1089         Eph. iv. 23, 24.
       1090         1 Cor. xv. 48.
       1091         Job xxvii. 2, 3.
       1092         Cant. vii. 8.
       1093         Gen. viii. 21.


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           69. And there are some who suppose that God is fashioned after a bodily manner, when they
       read of His hand or finger, and they do not observe that these things are written not because of any
       fashion of a body, since in the Godhead are neither members nor parts, but are expressions of the
       oneness of the Godhead, that we may believe that it is impossible for either the Son or the Holy
       Spirit to be separated from God the Father; since the fulness of the Godhead dwells as it were bodily
       in the substance of the Trinity. For this reason, then, is the Son also called the Right Hand of the
       Father, as we read: “The Right Hand of the Lord hath done mighty things, the Right Hand of the
       Lord hath exalted me.”1094



                                                   CHAPTER VIII.

       St. Ambrose examines and refutes the heretical argument that because God is said to be glorified
           in the Spirit, and not with the Spirit, the Holy Spirit is therefore inferior to the Father. He shows
           that the particle in can be also used of the Son and even of the Father, and that on the other
           hand with may be said of creatures without any infringement on the prerogatives of the Godhead;
           and that in reality these prepositions simply imply the connection of the Three Divine Persons.
            70. BUT what wonder is it if foolish men question about words, when they do so even about
       syllables? For some think that a distinction should be made and that God should be praised in the
       Spirit, but not with the Spirit, and consider that the greatness of the Godhead is to be estimated
       from one syllable or some custom, arguing that if they consider that God should be glorified in the
       Spirit, they point to some office of the Holy Spirit, but that if they say that God receives glory or
       power with the Spirit, they seem to imply some association and communion of the Father, the Son,
       and the Holy Spirit.
            71. But who can separate what is incapable of separation? who can divide that association which
       Christ shows to be inseparable? “Go,” says He, “baptize all nations in the Name of the Father and
124    of the Son and of the Holy Spirit.”1095 Has He changed either a word or a syllable here concerning
       the Father or the Son or the Holy Spirit? Certainly not. But He says, in the Name of the Father and
       of the Son and of the Holy Spirit. The expression is the same for the Spirit as for the Father and
       for Himself. From which is inferred not any office of the Holy Spirit, but rather a sharing of honour
       or of working when we say “in the Spirit.”
            72. Consider, too, that this opinion of yours tends to the injury of the Father and the Son, for
       the latter did not say, “with the Name of the Father and of the Son, and of the Holy Spirit,” but in
       the Name, and yet not any office but the power of the Trinity is expressed in this syllable,
            73. Lastly, that you may know that it is not a syllable which prejudices faith, but faith which
       commends a syllable, Paul also speaks in Christ. Christ is not less, because Paul spoke in Christ,
       as you find: “We speak before God in Christ.”1096 As, then, the Apostle says that we speak in Christ,
       so, too, is that which we speak in the Spirit; as the Apostle himself said: “No man saith Lord Jesus,


       1094    Ps. cxviii. [cxvii.] 16.
       1095    S. Matt. xxviii. 19.
       1096    2 Cor. ii. 17.


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       except in the Holy Spirit.”1097 So, then, in this place not any subjection of the Holy Spirit, but a
       connection of grace is signified.
           74. And that you may know that distinction does not depend upon a syllable, he says also in
       another place: “And these indeed were you, but ye are washed, but ye are sanctified, but ye are
       justified in the Name of the Lord Jesus Christ, and in the Spirit of our God.”1098 How many instances
       of this I can bring forward. For it is written: “Ye are all one in Christ Jesus,”1099 and elsewhere: “To
       those sanctified in Christ Jesus,”1100 and again: “That we might be the righteousness of God in
       Him,”1101 and in another place: “Should fall from the chastity which is in Christ Jesus.”1102
           75. But what am I doing? For while I say that like things are written of the Son as of the Spirit,
       I am rather leading on to this, not that because it is written of the Son, therefore it would appear to
       be reverently written of the Holy Spirit, but that because the same is written of the Spirit, therefore
       men allege that the Son’s honour is lessened because of the Spirit. For say they, Is it written of God
       the Father?
           76. But let them learn that it is also said of God the Father: “In the Lord I will praise the word;”1103
       and elsewhere: “In God we will do mighty deeds;”1104 and “My remembrance shall be ever in
       Thee;”1105 and “In Thy Name will we rejoice;”1106 and again in another place: “That his deeds may
       be manifested, that they are wrought in God;”1107 and Paul: “In God Who created all things;”1108 and
       again: “Paul and Silvanus and Timotheus to the Church of the Thessalonians in God the Father and
       the Lord Jesus Christ;”1109 and in the Gospel: “I in the Father and the Father in Me,” and “the Father
       that dwelleth in Me.”1110 It is also written: “He that glorieth let him glory in the Lord;”1111 and in
       another place: “Our life is hid with Christ in God.”1112 Did he here ascribe more to the Son than to
       the Father in saying that we are with Christ in God? or does our state avail more than the grace of
       the Spirit, so that we can be with Christ and the Holy Spirit cannot? And when Christ wills to be
       with us, as He Himself said: “Father, I will that they whom Thou hast given Me be with Me where
       I am,”1113 would He disdain to be with the Spirit? For it is written: “Ye coming together and my
       spirit with the power of the Lord Jesus.”1114 Do we then come together in the power of the Lord,
       and dare to say that the Lord Jesus would not be willing to come together with the Spirit Who does
       not disdain to come together with us?



       1097    1 Cor. xii. 3.
       1098    1 Cor. vi. 11.
       1099    Gal. iii. 28.
       1100    1 Cor. i. 2.
       1101    2 Cor. v. 21.
       1102    2 Cor. xi. 3.
       1103    Ps. lvi. [lv.] 4.
       1104    Ps. lx. [lix.] 12.
       1105    Ps. lxxi. [lxx.] 6.
       1106    Ps. lxxxix. [lxxxviii.] 16.
       1107    S. John iii. 21.
       1108    Eph. iii. 9.
       1109    2 Thess. i. 2.
       1110    S. John xiv. 10.
       1111    2 Cor. x. 17.
       1112    Col. iii. 3.
       1113    S. John xvii. 24.
       1114    1 Cor. v. 4.


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            77. So the Apostle thinks that it makes no difference which particle you use. For each is a
       conjunctive particle, and conjunction does not cause separation, for if it divided it would not be
       called a conjunction.
            78. What, then, moves you to say that to God the Father or to His Christ there is glory, life,
       greatness, or power, in the Holy Spirit, and to refuse to say with the Holy Spirit? Is it that you are
       afraid of seeming to join the Spirit with the Father and the Son? But hear what is written of the
       Spirit: “For the law of the Spirit is life in Christ Jesus.”1115 And in another place God the Father
       says: “They shall worship Thee, and in Thee they shall make supplication.”1116 God the Father says
       that we ought to pray in Christ; and do you think that it is any derogation to the Spirit if the glory
       of Christ is said to be in Him?
            79. Hear that what you are afraid to acknowledge of the Spirit, the Apostle did not fear to claim
125    for himself; for he says: “To be dissolved and to be with Christ is much better.”1117 Do you deny
       that the Spirit, through Whom the Apostle was made worthy of being with Christ, is with Christ?
            80. What, then, is the reason that you prefer saying that God or Christ is glorified in the Spirit
       rather than with the Spirit? Is it because if you say in the Spirit, the Spirit is declared to be less than
       Christ? Although your making the Lord greater or less is a matter which can be refuted, yet since
       we read, “For Christ was made sin for us, that we might be the righteousness of God in Him,”1118
       He is found chiefest in Whom we are found most low. So, too, elsewhere you read, “For in Him
       all things consist,”1119 that is, in His power. And the things which consist in Him cannot be compared
       to Him, because they receive from His power the substance whereby they consist.
            81. Do you then understand that God so reigns in the Spirit that the power of the Spirit, as a
       kind of source of substance, imparts to God the origin of His rule? But this is impious. And so our
       predecessors1120 spoke of the unity of power of the Father, the Son, and the Holy Spirit, when they
       said that the glory of Christ was with the Spirit, that they might declare their inseparable connection.
            82. For how is the Holy Spirit separated from the Son, since “the Spirit Himself beareth witness
       with our spirit that we are sons of God, and if sons, also heirs, heirs, indeed, of God and joint-heirs
       with Christ.”1121 Who, then, is so foolish as to wish to dissever the eternal conjunction of the Spirit
       and Christ, when the Spirit by Whom we are made joint-heirs with Christ conjoins even what is
       severed.
            83. “If so be,” he says, “we suffer with Him, that we may be also glorified together.”1122 If we
       then shall be glorified together with Christ through the Spirit, how do we refuse to admit that the
       Spirit Himself is glorified together with Christ? Do we dissociate the life of Christ and of the Holy
       Spirit when the Spirit says that we shall live together with the Son of God? For the Apostle says:
       “If we be dead with Christ we believe that we shall also live with Him;” and then again: “For if we
       suffer with Him we shall also live with Him, and not only shall we live with Him, but shall be also
       glorified with Him, and not only be glorified but shall also reign with Him.”1123

       1115    Rom. viii. 2.
       1116    Isa. xlv. 14 [LXX.].
       1117    Phil. i. 23.
       1118    2 Cor. v. 21.
       1119    Col. i. 17.
       1120    See St. Basil, De Sp. Sancto, III. 29.
       1121    Rom. viii. 16, 17.
       1122    Rom. viii. 16, 17.
       1123    2 Tim. ii. 11, 12.


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           84. No division, then, is implied in those particles, for each is a particle of conjunction. And
       lastly, we often find in holy Scripture the one inserted and the other understood, as it is written: “I
       will enter into Thy house in whole burnt-offerings,”1124 that is, “with whole burnt-offerings;” and
       in another place: “He brought them forth in silver and gold,”1125 that is, “with silver and gold.” And
       elsewhere the Psalmist says: “Wilt Thou not go forth with us in our hosts?”1126 for that which is
       really meant, “with our hosts.” So, then, in the use of the expression no lessening of honour can be
       implied, and nothing ought to be deduced derogatory to the honour of the Godhead, it is necessary
       that with the heart man should believe unto righteousness, and that out of the faith of the heart
       confession should be made in the mouth unto salvation. But they who believe not with the heart
       spread what is derogatory with their mouth.



                                                   CHAPTER IX.

       A passage of St. Paul abused by heretics, to prove a distinction between the Divine Persons, is
          explained, and it is proved that the whole passage can be rightly said of each Person, though
          it refers specially to the Son. It is then proved that each member of the passage is applicable
          to each Person, and as to say, of Him are all things is applicable to the Father, so may all things
          are through Him and in Him also be said of Him.
            85. ANOTHER similar passage is that which they say implies difference, where it is written: “But
       to us there is one Father, of Whom are all things and we unto Him, and one Lord Jesus Christ,
       through Whom are all things, and we through Him.”1127 For they pretend that when it is said “of
       Him,” the matter is signified, when “through Him,” either the instrument of the work or some office,
       but when it is said “in Him,” either the place or the time in which all things that are made are seen.
            86. So, then, their desire is to prove that there is some difference of substance, being anxious
       to make a distinction between as it were the instrument, and the proper worker or author, and also
       between time or place and the instrument. But is the Son, then, alien as regards His Nature from
       the Father, because an instrument is alien from the worker or author? or is the Son alien from the
       Spirit, because either time or place is not of the same class as an instrument?
126         87. Compare now our assertions. They will have it that matter is of God as though of the nature
       of God, as when you say that a chest is made of wood or a statue of stone; that after this fashion
       matter has come forth from God, and that the same matter has been made by the Son as if by some
       sort of instrument; so that they declare that the Son is not so much the Artificer as the instrument
       of the work; and that all things have been made in the Spirit, as if in some place or time; they
       attribute each part severally to each Person severally and deny that all are in common.
            88. But we show that all things are so of God the Father, that God the Father has suffered no
       loss because all things are either through Him or in Him, and yet all things are not of Him as if of
       matter; then, too, that all things are through the Lord the Son, so that He is not deprived of the

       1124    Ps. lxvi. [lxv.] 13.
       1125    Ps. cv. [civ.] 37.
       1126    Ps. xliv. [xliii.] 10.
       1127    1 Cor. viii. 6.


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       attribute that all things are of the Son and in Him; and that all things are in the Spirit, so that we
       may teach that all things are through the Spirit, and all things from the Spirit.
            89. For these particles, like those of which we have spoken before, imply each other. For the
       Apostle did not so say, All things are of God, and all things are through the Son, as to signify that
       the substance of the Father and the Son could be severed, but that he might teach that by a distinction
       without confusion the Father is one, the Son another. Those particles, then, are not as it were in
       opposition to each other, but are as it were allied and agreed, so as often to suit even one Person,
       as it is written: “For of Him, and through Him, and in Him are all things.”1128
            90. But if you really consider whence the passage is taken you will have no doubt that it is said
       of the Son. For the Apostle says, according to the prophecy of Isaiah, “Who hath known the mind
       of the Lord, or who hath been His counsellor?”1129 And he adds: “For of Him and in Him are all
       things.” Which Isaiah had said of the Artificer of all, as you read: “Who hath measured out the
       water with his hand, and the heaven with a span, and all the earth with his closed hand? Who hath
       placed the mountains in scales and the hills in a balance? Who hath known the mind of the Lord,
       or who hath been His counsellor?”1130
            91. And the Apostle added: “For of Him, and through Him, and in Him are all things.” What
       is “of Him”? That the nature of everything is of His will, and He is the Author of all things which
       have come into being. “Through Him” means what? That the establishment and continuance of all
       things is His gift. What is “in Him”? That all things by a wonderful kind of longing and unspeakable
       love look upon the Author of their life, and the Giver of their graces and functions, according to
       that which is written: “The eyes of all look unto Thee,” and “Thou openest Thine hand and fillest
       every living creature with Thy good pleasure.”1131
            92. And of the Father, too, you may rightly say “of Him,” for of Him was the operative Wisdom,
       Which of His own and the Father’s will gave being to all things which were not. “Through Him,”
       because all things were made through His Wisdom. “In Him,” because He is the Fount of substantial
       Life, in Whom we live and move and have our being.
            93. Of the Spirit also, as being formed by Him, strengthened by Him, established in Him, we
       receive the gift of eternal life.
            94. Since, then, these expressions seem suitable either to the Father or the Son or the Holy
       Spirit, it is certain that nothing derogatory is spoken of in them, since we both say that many things
       are of the Son, and many through the Father, as you find it said of the Son: “That we may be
       increased through all things in Him, Who is Christ the Head, from Whom,” says he, “the whole
       body, framed and knit together through every joint of the supply for the measure of every part,
       maketh increase of the body unto the building up of itself in love.”1132 And again, writing to the
       Colossians of those who have not the knowledge of the Son of God, he says: “Because they hold
       not the Head, from Whom all the body being supplied and joined together through joints and bands,
       increaseth to the increase of God.”1133 For we said above that Christ is the Head of the Church. And



       1128    Rom. xi. 36.
       1129    Isa. xl. 13.
       1130    Isa. xl. 12.
       1131    Ps. cxlv. [cxliv.] 15, 16.
       1132    Eph. iv. 15, 16.
       1133    Col. ii. 19.


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       in another place you read: “Of His fulness have all we received.”1134 And the Lord Himself said:
       “He shall take of Mine and show it unto you.”1135 And before, He said: “I perceive that virtue is
       gone out of Me.”1136
           95. In like manner that you may recognize the Unity, it is also said of the Spirit: “For he that
       soweth in the Spirit shall of the Spirit reap eternal life.”1137 And John says: “Hereby we know that
       He is in us because He hath given us of His Spirit.”1138 And the Angel says: “That Which shall be
127    born of her is of the Holy Spirit.”1139 And the Lord says: “That which is born of the Spirit is Spirit.”1140
           96. So, then, as we read that all things are of the Father, so, too, that all things can be said to
       be of the Son, through Whom are all things; and we are taught by proof that all things are of the
       Spirit in Whom are all things.
           97. Now let us consider whether we can teach that anything is through the Father. But it is
       written: “Paul the servant of Christ through the will of God;”1141 and elsewhere: “Wherefore thou
       art now not a servant but a son, and if a son an heir also through God;”1142 and again: “As Christ
       rose from the dead by the glory of God.”1143 And elsewhere God the Father says to the Son: “Behold
       proselytes shall come to Thee through Me.”1144
           98. You will find many other passages, if you look for things done through the Father. Is, then,
       the Father less because we read that many things are in the Son and of the Son, and find in the
       heavenly Scriptures very many things done or given through the Father?
           99. But in like manner we also read of many things done through the Spirit, as you find: “But
       God hath revealed them to us through His Spirit;”1145 and in another place: “Keep the good deposit
       through the Holy Spirit;”1146 and to the Ephesians: “to be strengthened through His Spirit;”1147 and
       to the Corinthians: “To another is given through the Spirit the word of wisdom;”1148 and in another
       place: “But if through the Spirit ye mortify the deeds of the flesh, ye shall live;”1149 and above: “He
       Who raised Christ from the dead shall also quicken your mortal bodies through the indwelling of
       His Spirit in you.”1150
           100. But perhaps some one may say, Show me that we can read expressly that all things are of
       the Son, or that all things are of the Spirit. But I reply, Let them also show that it is written that all
       things are through the Father. But since we have proved that these expressions suit either the Father
       or the Son or the Holy Spirit, and that no distinction of the divine power can arise from particles
       of this kind, there is no doubt but that all things are of Him through Whom all things are; and that

       1134    S. John i. 16.
       1135    S. John xvi. 14.
       1136    S. Luke viii. 46.
       1137    Gal. vi. 8.
       1138    1 John iv. 13.
       1139    S. Matt. i. 20.
       1140    S. John iii. 6.
       1141    1 Cor. i. 1.
       1142    Gal. iv. 7.
       1143    Rom. vi. 4.
       1144    Isa. liv. 15 [LXX.].
       1145    1 Cor. ii. 10.
       1146    1 Tim. vi. 20.
       1147    Eph. iii. 16.
       1148    1 Cor. xii. 8.
       1149    Rom. viii. 13.
       1150    Rom. viii. 11.


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       all things are through Him through Whom all are; and that we must understand that all things are
       through Him or of Him in Whom all are. For every creature exists both of the will, and through the
       operation and in the power of the Trinity, as it is written: “Let Us make man after Our image and
       likeness;”1151 and elsewhere: “By the word of the Lord were the heavens established, and all their
       power by the Spirit of His mouth.”1152



                                                    CHAPTER X.

       Being about to prove that the will, the calling, and the commandment of the Trinity is one, St.
          Ambrose shows that the Spirit called the Church exactly as the Father and the Son did, and
          proves this by the selection of SS. Paul and Barnabas, and especially by the mission of St. Peter
          to Cornelius. And by the way he points out how in the Apostle’s vision the calling of the Gentiles
          was shadowed forth, who having been before like wild beasts, now by the operation of the Spirit
          lay aside that wildness. Then having quoted other passages in support of this view, he shows
          that in the case of Jeremiah cast into a pit by Jews, and rescued by Abdemelech, is a type of
          the slighting of the Holy Spirit by the Jews, and of His being honoured by the Gentiles.
            101. AND not only is the operation of the Father, Son, and Holy Spirit everywhere one but also
       there is one and the same will, calling, and giving of commands, which one may see in the great
       and saving mystery of the Church. For as the Father called the Gentiles to the Church, saying: “I
       will call her My people which was not My people, and her beloved who was not beloved;”1153 and
       elsewhere: “My house shall be called a house of prayer for all nations,”1154 so, too, the Lord Jesus
       said that Paul was chosen by Him to call forth and gather together the Church, as you find it said
       by the Lord Jesus to Ananias: “Go, for he is a chosen vessel unto Me to bear My name before all
       nations.”1155
            102. As, then, God the Father called the Church, so, too, Christ called it, and so, too, the Spirit
       called it, saying: “Separate Me Paul and Barnabas for the work to which I have called them.” “So,”
       it is added, “having fasted and prayed, they laid hands on them and sent them forth. And they, being
       sent forth by the Holy Spirit, went down to Seleucia.”1156 So Paul received the apostleship by the
       will not only of Christ, but also of the Holy Spirit, and hastened to gather together the Gentiles.
128         103. And not only Paul, but also, as we read in the Acts of the Apostles, Peter. For when he
       had seen in his prayer heaven opened and a certain vessel tied at the four corners, as it were a sheet
       in which were all kinds of four-footed beasts and wild beasts and fowls of the air, “a voice came
       to him saying, Arise, Peter, kill and eat. And Peter said, Be it far from me, Lord, I have never eaten
       anything common or unclean. And again a voice came to him, saying, What God hath cleansed
       call not thou common. And this was done three times, and the vessel was received back into


       1151    Gen. i. 26.
       1152    Ps. xxxiii. 6.
       1153    Hos. ii. 23.
       1154    Isa. lvi. 7.
       1155    Acts ix. 15.
       1156    Acts xiii. 2 ff.


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       heaven.”1157 And so when Peter was silently thinking over this with himself, and the servants of
       Cornelius appointed by the Angel had come to him, the Spirit said to him, “Lo, men are seeking
       thee, rise therefore, and go down and go with them; doubt not, for I have sent thee.”1158
           104. How clearly did the Holy Spirit express His own power! First of all in that He inspired
       him who was praying, and was present to him who was entreating; then when Peter, being called,
       answered, “Lord,” and so was found worthy of a second message, because he acknowledged the
       Lord. But the Scripture declares Who that Lord was, for He Whom he had answered spoke to him
       when he answered. And the following words show the Spirit clearly revealed, for He Who formed
       the mystery made known the mystery.
           105. Notice, also, that the appearance of the mystery three times repeated expressed the operation
       of the Trinity. And so in the mysteries1159 the threefold question is put, and the threefold answer
       made, and no one can be cleansed but by a threefold confession. For which reason, also, Peter in
       the Gospel is asked three times whether he loves the Lord, that by the threefold answer the bonds
       of the guilt he had contracted by denying the Lord might be loosed.
           106. Then, again, because the Angel is sent to Cornelius, the Holy Spirit speaks to Peter: “For
       the eyes of the Lord are over the faithful of the earth.”1160 Nor is it without a purpose that when He
       had said before, “What God hath cleansed call not thou common,”1161 the Holy Spirit came upon
       the Gentiles to purify them, when it is manifest that the operation of the Spirit is a divine operation.
       But Peter, when sent by the Spirit, did not wait for the command of God the Father, but
       acknowledged that that message was from the Spirit Himself, and the grace that of the Spirit Himself,
       when he said: “If, then, God has granted them the same grace as to us, who was I that I should resist
       God?”
           107. It is, then, the Holy Spirit Who has delivered us from that Gentile impurity. For in those
       kinds of four-footed creatures and wild beasts and birds there was a figure of the condition of man,
       which appears clothed with the bestial ferocity of wild beasts unless it grows gentle by the
       sanctification of the Spirit. Excellent, then, is that grace which changes the rage of beasts into the
       simplicity of the Spirit: “For we also were aforetime foolish, unbelieving, erring, serving divers
       lusts and pleasures. But now by the renewing of the Spirit we begin to be heirs of Christ, and
       joint-heirs with the Angels.”1162
           108. Therefore the holy prophet David, seeing in the Spirit that we should from wild beasts
       become like the dwellers in heaven, says, “Rebuke the wild beasts of the wood,”1163 evidently
       signifying, not the wood disturbed by the running of wild beasts, and shaken with the roaring of
       animals, but that wood of which it is written: “We found it in the fields of the wood.”1164 In which,
       as the prophet said: “The righteous shall flourish as the palm-tree, and shall be multiplied as the


       1157         Acts x. 11 ff.
       1158         Acts x. 19, 20.
       1159         The “mysteries” are the sacrament of baptism, and the “three-fold question” those which preceded baptism, viz.: Dost
            thou believe in God the Father Almighty? Dost thou believe in our Lord Jesus Christ, and in His cross? and Dost thou believe
            in the Holy Spirit? with the answer, “I believe,” to each, as mentioned by the author of De Sacramentis, II. 7 (written probably
            in the 5th or 6th century).
       1160         Ps. ci. [c.] 6.
       1161         Acts x. 15.
       1162         Tit. iii. 3–7.
       1163         Ps. lxviii. [lxvii.] 30.
       1164         Ps. cxxxii. [cxxxi] 6.


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       cedar which is in Libanus.”1165 That wood which, shaken in the tops of the trees spoken of in
       prophecy, shed forth the nourishment of the heavenly Word. That wood into which Paul entered
       indeed as a ravening wolf, but went forth as a shepherd, for “their sound is gone out into all the
       earth.”1166
            109. We then were wild beasts, and therefore the Lord said: “Beware of false prophets, which
       come in sheep’s clothing, but inwardly are ravening wolves.”1167 But now, through the Holy Spirit,
       the rage of lions, the spots of leopards, the craft of foxes, the rapacity of wolves, have passed away
       from our feelings; great, then, is the grace which has changed earth to heaven, that the conversation
       of us, who once were wandering as wild beasts in the woods, might be in heaven.1168
            110. And not only in this place, but also elsewhere in the same book, the Apostle Peter declared
129    that the Church was built by the Holy Spirit. For you read that he said: “God, Which knoweth the
       hearts of men, bare witness, giving them the Holy Spirit, even as also to us; and He made no
       distinction between us and them, purifying their hearts by faith.”1169 In which is to be considered,
       that as Christ is the Cornerstone, Who joined together both peoples into one, so, too, the Holy Spirit
       made no distinction between the hearts of each people, but united them.
            111. Do not, then, like a Jew, despise the Son, Whom the prophets foretold; for you would
       despise also the Holy Spirit, you would despise Isaiah, you would despise Jeremiah, whom he who
       was chosen of the Lord raised with rags and cords from the pit of that Jewish abode.1170 For the
       people of the Jews, despising the word of prophecy, had cast him into the pit. Nor was there found
       any one of the Jews to draw the prophet out, but one Ethiopian Abdemelech, as the Scripture
       testifies.
            112. In which account is a very beautiful figure, that is to say, that we, sinners of the Gentiles,
       black beforehand through our transgressions, and aforetime fruitless, raised from the depth the
       word of prophecy which the Jews had thrust down, as it were, into the mire of their mind and
       carnality. And therefore it is written: “Ethiopia shall stretch out her hand unto God.”1171 In which
       is signified the appearance of holy Church, who says in the Song of Songs: “I am black and comely,
       O daughters of Jerusalem;”1172 black through sin, comely through grace; black by natural condition,
       comely through redemption, or certainly, black with the dust of her labours. So she is black while
       fighting, is comely when she is crowned with the ornaments of victory.
            113. And fittingly is the prophet raised by cords, for the faithful writer said: “The lines are
       fallen unto me in pleasant places.”1173 And fittingly with rags; for the Lord Himself, when those
       who had been first invited to the marriage made excuse, sent to the partings of the highways, that
       as many as were found, both bad and good, should be invited to the marriage. With these rags, then,
       He lifted the word of prophecy from the mire.



       1165    Ps. xcii. [xci.] 12.
       1166    Ps. xix. [xviii.] 4.
       1167    S. Matt. vii. 15.
       1168    Phil. iii. 20.
       1169    Acts xv. 8, 9.
       1170    Jer. xxxviii. 11.
       1171    Ps. lxviii. [lxvii.] 31.
       1172    Cant. i. 5.
       1173    Ps. xvi. [xv.] 6.


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                                                                  CHAPTER XI.

       We shall follow the example of Abdemelech, if we believe that the Son and Holy Spirit know all
          things. This knowledge is attributed in Scripture to the Spirit, and also to the Son. The Son is
          glorified by the Spirit, as also the Spirit by the Son. Also, inasmuch as we read that the Father,
          the Son, and the Spirit say and reveal the same things, we must acknowledge in Them a oneness
          of nature and knowledge. Lastly, that the Spirit searcheth the deep things of God is not a mark
          of ignorance, since the Father and the Son are likewise said to search, and Paul, although
          chosen by Christ, yet was taught by the Spirit.
            114. AND you, too, shall be Abdemelech,1174 that is, chosen by the Lord, if you raise the Word
       of God from the depth of Gentile ignorance; if you believe that the Son of God is not deceived,
       that nothing escapes His knowledge, that He is not ignorant of what is going to be. And the Holy
       Spirit also is not deceived, of Whom the Lord says: “But when He, the Spirit of Truth, shall come,
       He shall lead you into all truth.”1175 He Who says all passes by nothing, neither the day nor the hour,
       neither things past nor things to come.
            115. And that you may know that He both knows all things, and foretells things to come, and
       that His knowledge is one with that of the Father and the Son, hear what the Truth of God says
       concerning Him: “For He shall not speak from Himself, but what things He shall hear shall He
       speak, and He shall declare unto you the things that are to come.”1176
            116. Therefore, that you may observe that He knows all things, when the Son said: “But of that
       day and hour knoweth no one, not even the Angels of heaven,”1177 He excepted the Holy Spirit. But
       if the Holy Spirit is excepted from ignorance, how is the Son of God not excepted?
            117. But you say that He numbered the Son of God also with the Angels. He numbered the Son
       indeed, but He did not number the Spirit also. Confess, then, either that the Holy Spirit is greater
       than the Son of God, so as to speak now not only as an Arian, but even as a Photinian,1178 or
       acknowledge to what you ought to refer it that He said that the Son knew not. For as man He could
       [in His human nature] be numbered with creatures Who were created.
            118. But if you are willing to learn that the Son of God knows all things, and has foreknowledge
130    of all, see that those very things which you think to be unknown to the Son, the Holy Spirit received
       from the Son. He received them, however, through Unity of Substance, as the Son received from
       the Father. “He,” says He, “shall glorify Me, for He shall receive of Mine and shall declare it unto
       you. All things whatsoever the Father hath are Mine, therefore said I, He shall receive of Mine,
       and shall declare it unto you.”1179 What, then, is more clear than this Unity? What things the Father
       hath pertain to the Son; what things the Son hath the Holy Spirit also has received.



       1174        Ebedmelech means “servant of the king.”
       1175        S. John xvi. 13.
       1176        S. John xvi. 13.
       1177        S. Mark xiii. 32.
       1178        There is some little difficulty in ascertaining exactly what were the tenets of Photinus, but it would appear that St. Ambrose
            considered that he held our Lord to be mere man, and so was worse than the Arians. See Dict. Chr. Biog. art. “Photinus,” and
            Blunt, Dict. of Sects and Heresies, art. “Photinians.”
       1179        S. John xvi. 14, 15.


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            119. Yet learn that the Son knows the day of judgment. We read in Zechariah: “And the Lord
       my God shall come, and all the saints with Him. In that day there shall not be light, but cold and
       frost, and it shall be one day, and that day is known unto the Lord.”1180 This day, then, was known
       unto the Lord, Who shall come with His saints, to enlighten us by His second Advent.
            120. But let us continue the point which we have commenced concerning the Spirit. For in the
       passage we have brought forward you find that the Son says of the Spirit: “He shall glorify Me.”
       So, then, the Spirit glorifies the Son, as the Father also glorifies Him, but the Son of God also
       glorifies the Spirit, as we said above. He, then, is not weak who is the cause of the mutual glory
       through the Unity of the Eternal Light, nor is He inferior to the Spirit, of Whom this is true that He
       is glorified by the Spirit.
            122. And you too shall be chosen, if you believe that the Spirit spoke that which the Father
       spoke, and which the Son spoke. Paul, in fine, was therefore chosen because he so believed and so
       taught, since, as it is written, God “hath revealed to us by His Spirit that which eye hath not seen,
       nor ear heard, nor hath entered into the heart of man, the things which God hath prepared for them
       that love Him.”1181 And therefore is He called the Spirit of revelation, as you read: “For God giveth
       to those who thus prepare themselves the Spirit of wisdom and revelation, that He may be known.”1182
            123. There is, then, a Unity of knowledge, since, as the Father, Who gives the Spirit of revelation,
       reveals, so also the Son reveals, for it is written: “No one knoweth the Son save the Father, neither
       doth any one know the Father save the Son, and he to whom the Son shall will to reveal Him.”1183
       He said more concerning the Son, not because He has more than the Father, but lest He should be
       supposed to have less. And not unfittingly is the Father thus revealed by the Son, for the Son knows
       the Father even as the Father knows the Son.
            124. Learn now that the Spirit too knows God the Father, for it is written that, “As no one
       knoweth the things of a man, save the spirit which is in him, so too the things of God no one knoweth
       save the Spirit of God.” “No one,” he says, “knoweth save the Spirit of God.”1184 Is, then, the Son
       of God excluded? Certainly not, since neither is the Spirit excluded, when it is said: “And none
       knoweth the Father, save the Son.”
            125. Therefore the Father, Son, and Holy Spirit are of one nature and of one knowledge. And
       the Spirit is not to be numbered with all things which were made by the Son, since He knew the
       Father, Whom (as it is written) who can know save the Son? But the Holy Spirit knows also. What
       then? When the totality of created things is spoken of, it follows that the Holy Spirit is not included.
            126. Now I should like them to answer what it is in man which knows the things of a man.
       Certainly that must be reasonable which surpasses the other powers of the soul, and by which the
       highest nature of man is estimated. What, then, is the Spirit, Who knows the deep things of God,
       and through Whom Almighty God is revealed? Is He inferior in the fulness of the Godhead Who
       is proved even by this instance to be of one substance with the Father? Or is He ignorant of anything
       Who knows the counsels of God, and His mysteries which have been hidden1185 from the beginning?



       1180    Zech. xiv. 5, 6, 7 [LXX.].
       1181    1 Cor. ii. 9, 10.
       1182    Isa. lxiv. 4.
       1183    S. Matt. xi. 27.
       1184    1 Cor. ii. 11.
       1185    1 Cor. ii. 7 ff.


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       What is there that He knows not Who knows all things that are of God? For “the Spirit searcheth
       even the deep things of God.”1186
            127. But lest you should think that He searches things unknown, and so searches that He may
       learn that which He knows not, it is stated first that God revealed them to us through His Spirit,
       and at the same time in order that you may learn that the Spirit knows the things which are revealed
       to us through the Spirit Himself, it is said subsequently: “For who among men knoweth the things
       of a man, save the spirit of the man which is in him? so, too, the things of God knoweth no one
       save the Spirit of God.”1187 If, then, the spirit of a man knows the things of a man, and knows them
131    before it searches, can there be anything of God which the Spirit of God knows not? Of Whom the
       Apostle said not without a purpose, “The things of God knoweth no one, save the Spirit of God;”
       not that He knows by searching, but knows by nature; not that the knowledge of divine things is
       an accident in Him, but is His natural knowledge.
            128. But if this moves you that He said “searcheth,” learn that this is also said of God, inasmuch
       as He is the searcher of hearts and reins. For Himself said: “I am He that searcheth the heart and
       reins.”1188 And of the Son of God you have also in the Epistle to the Hebrews: “Who is the Searcher
       of the mind and thoughts.”1189 Whence it is clear that no inferior searches the inward things of his
       superior, for to know hidden things is of the divine power alone. The Holy Spirit, then, is a searcher
       in like manner as the Father, and the Son is a searcher in like manner, by the proper signification
       of which expression this is implied, that evidently there is nothing which He knows not, Whom
       nothing escapes.
            129. Lastly, he was chosen by Christ, and taught by the Spirit. For as he himself witnesses,
       having obtained through the Spirit knowledge of the divine secrets, he shows both that the Holy
       Spirit knows God, and has revealed to us the things which are of God, as the Son also has revealed
       them. And he adds: “But we received, not the spirit of this world, but the Spirit which is of God,
       that we might know the things that are given to us by God, which we also speak, not in persuasive
       words of man’s wisdom, but in manifestation of the Spirit and in the power of God.”1190



                                                  CHAPTER XII.

       After proof that the Spirit is the Giver of revelation equally with the Father and the Son, it is
           explained how the same Spirit does not speak of Himself; and it is shown that no bodily organs
           are to be thought of in Him, and that no inferiority is to be supposed from the fact of our reading
           that He hears, since the same would have to be attributed to the Son, and indeed even to the
           Father, since He hears the Son. The Spirit then hears and glorifies the Son in the sense that He
           revealed Him to the prophets and apostles, by which the Unity of operation of the Three Persons
           is inferred; and, since the Spirit does the same works as the Father, the substance of each is
           also declared to be the same.

       1186    1 Cor. ii. 10.
       1187    1 Cor. ii. 11.
       1188    Jer. xvii. 10.
       1189    Heb. iv. 12.
       1190    1 Cor. ii. 12, 13.


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            130. IT has then been proved that like as God has revealed to us the things which are His, so
       too the Son, and so too the Spirit, has revealed the things of God. For our knowledge proceeds from
       one Spirit, through one Son to one Father; and from one Father through one Son to one Holy Spirit
       is delivered goodness and sanctification and the sovereign right of eternal power. Where, then,
       there is a manifestation of the Spirit, there is the power of God, nor can there be any distinction
       where the work is one. And therefore that which the Son says the Father also says, and that which
       the Father says the Son also says, and that which the Father and the Son say the Holy Spirit also
       says.
            131. Whence also the Son of God said concerning the Holy Spirit: “He shall not speak from
       Himself,”1191 that is, not without the participation of the Father and Myself. For the Spirit is not
       divided and separated, but speaks what He hears. He hears, that is to say, by unity of substance and
       by the property of knowledge. For He receives not hearing by any orifices of the body, nor does
       the divine voice resound with any carnal measures, nor does He hear what He knows not; since
       commonly in human matters hearing produces knowledge, and yet not even in men themselves is
       there always bodily speech or fleshly hearing. For “he that speaketh in tongues,” it is said, “speaketh
       not to men but to God, for no one heareth, but in the Spirit he speaketh mysteries.”1192
            132. Therefore if in men hearing is not always of the body, do you require in God the voices
       of man’s weakness, and certain organs of fleshly hearing, when He is said to hear in order that we
       may believe that He knows? For we know that which we have heard, and we hear before