Vol. 38, No. 6 393 Medical Student Education The Art of Observation: Impact of a Family Medicine and Art Museum Partnership on Student Education Nancy C. Elder, MD, MSPH; Barbara Tobias, MD; Amber Lucero-Criswell, MA; Linda Goldenhar, PhD Background and Objectives: Compared to verbal communication, teaching the skill of observation is often shortchanged in medical education. Through a family medicine-art museum collaboration, we developed an elective course for second-year medical students titled the “Art of Observation” (AOO). To evaluate the course’s effect on clinical skills, we performed a qualitative evaluation of former students during their clinical rotations. Methods: In the spring of 2005, all students who had completed the AOO course in 2003 or 2004 were invited to take part in an online evaluation consisting of eight journaling survey questions. Students were instructed to answer the survey questions with speciﬁc examples. Question areas included the most memorable experience, the course’s inﬂuence on the doctor-patient relationship, usefulness during clinical years of medical school, and skills unique to AOO. The anonymous data were analyzed qualitatively, coding the responses to categories derived from the data, leading to the formation of themes. Results: Of the 19 students eligible, 17 participated. We found three important themes: (1) the AOO positively inﬂuenced clinical skills, (2) both art museum exercises and a clinical preceptorship were necessary to achieve those skills, and (3) the AOO led to a sense of personal development as a physician. In addition, students told us that the training in observation and description skills they learned were unique to the AOO. Conclusions: This collaboration between a department of family medicine and an art museum produced a course that facilitated observational skills used in successful doctor-patient relationships. (Fam Med 2006;38(6):393-8.) “There is no more difﬁcult art to acquire than the art In recent years, medical schools around the country of observation, and for some men it is quite as difﬁcult have begun adding observation skills training to their to record an observation in brief and plain language.” curriculum. Several schools are now offering courses William Osler, Aphorisms From Bedside Teachings using the visual arts to facilitate students learning and Writings. the skill of observation. These courses have differing The doctor-patient relationship is a cornerstone of goals and, as such, have been structured differently. a positive therapeutic outcome for patients.1 This rela- Goals for medical school courses using artwork include tionship is based on understanding and communication improving descriptive dermatology skills,5 improving between the patient and physician. Communication observation and interpretation skills,6-10 cultivating is a complex process, which depends on both verbal multicultural sensitivity,11 and providing a space for and nonverbal skills. In medical education, the verbal reﬂection, contemplation, and insight.12 Some involve communication skills of question asking, listening, and looking at slides of artwork in a classroom,10 while talking are emphasized more, and often separated from, others go to art museums,5,8 and yet others incorporate the nonverbal skill of observation.2,3 Even within the drawing.9 The courses last from a few hours to a full patient-centered model of care, talking and listening semester. activities are stressed.4 In 2001, the Department of Family Medicine at the University of Cincinnati, in conjunction with the Cincinnati Art Museum, began an elective course for second-year medical students, titled the “Art of Obser- vation” (AOO). The primary goal of the course is to From the Department of Family Medicine (Drs Elder and Tobias) and Ofﬁce of the Dean (Dr Goldenhar), University of Cincinnati; and Cincinnati Art improve communication and observational skills used Museum, Cincinnati, Ohio (Ms Lucero-Criswell). in the patient-doctor relationship by guided instruction 394 June 2006 Family Medicine in observation, description, interpretation, and reﬂec- tion of the visual arts. However, as a course that teaches Table 1 clinical skills in a preclinical year, the standard end-of- course evaluation was unable to gauge the effectiveness Art of Observation Course Description of the course in meeting its objectives. Therefore, we performed an evaluation of previous AOO students at Course objectives: the end of their third or fourth year of medical school. • Apply observational skills learned in the visual arts sessions to the clinical setting. We used qualitative methods since they offer a rich • Contrast the terms description and interpretation as they apply to understanding of the effect of educational components the visual arts and the clinical encounter. on student outcomes.13-15 This paper’s purpose was to • Identify one’s own biases and perceptions as integral elements of interpretation through examination of the cultural, ethnic, age, and describe the objectives and methods of our AOO course gender context of subjects depicted in photographs and portraiture. and the results of a qualitative online journaling survey • Understand how the physician’s interpretation of the patient’s mood, on the course’s inﬂuence on the doctor-patient relation- affect, position, and body language impacts the clinical encounter. • Using the visual arts as a model, describe how the components of ship. It also describes the skills and insights from the observation and interpretation form the basis for response and course that students found useful in subsequent clinical reﬂection in the clinical setting. rotations in medical school. Course meetings: • Six 2-hour sessions at the Cincinnati Art Museum. Methods • Two 1-hour discussion sessions at the University of Cincinnati. Course Description • Seven to nine 4-hour clinical sessions observing the family physician faculty in their practices. The AOO is an 8-month elective for second-year medical students. Class size is limited to 12 students Course curriculum: per year, and 8–12 students take the course each year. • Months 1–3: Description • Art Museum: exercises focusing on observing and describing The details of the course are shown in Table 1. paintings, sculptures, or other artwork using both representa- tional and abstract work. Participants • Clinical preceptorship: students write descriptions of the patients and the doctor-patient encounter and sketch a picture of one All students who completed the course in 2003 or patient each session. 2004 were contacted in late spring of 2005 to take part • Discussion session: informal discussion of their clinical in an online structured journaling survey to qualita- observation notebooks, which have been reviewed by the course faculty. tively evaluate the AOO course. These students were chosen because they had completed 9 or more months • Months 4–6: Interpretation of clinical rotations in medical school after the AOO • Art Museum: exercises focusing on observing and interpreting paintings and photographs, stressing descriptive justiﬁcation for course and thus could address the role, if any, of the interpretation; photographs are chosen to address racial, age, course on their clinical education. Our institutional re- gender, and socioeconomic differences among people. view board reviewed and approved this study. Students • Clinical preceptorship: students write descriptions and interpretations of the patients and the doctor-patient encounter. who completed the evaluation received a gift card to • Discussion session: informal discussion of their clinical a bookstore. observation notebooks, which have been reviewed by the course faculty. Data Collection • Months 7–9: Response Drawing on the course objectives and the medi- • Art Museum: exercises focusing on observing and responding cal literature on the effectiveness of medical school to paintings, photographs, and sculpture, stressing the emotional and psychological state of the subjects in the art, the artist, and courses using the visual arts,5,8-12 the course directors the observer of the art. (two family physicians, one museum curator), together • Clinical preceptorship: students write descriptions and with a medical education evaluator, developed a series interpretations of the patients and the doctor-patient encounter and comment on their emotional responses to the patient and the of eight journaling survey questions that were posed to encounter. the students on a secure Web page via the College of Medicine’s dean’s ofﬁce. Results from this Web page • Final wrap-up session: review the course experience and watch the video “Wit,” a patient’s experience with cancer and the health care went only to the medical education evaluator, who system. de-identiﬁed the responses before collating them and sending them to the course directors. Students were instructed to answer the survey questions with speciﬁc Data Analysis examples and stories in a journaling mode. Question The three course directors served as data analysts, areas about the course included the most memorable with one family physician serving as primary analyst. experience, inﬂuence on and understanding biases in The student responses were read independently by the the doctor-patient relationship, inﬂuence on second year analysts, who then met to discuss initial issues, ideas, of medical school, usefulness during clinical years of and themes. From this discussion, using NVivo 2.0 medical school, skills or insights unique to AOO, and software, the primary analyst sorted the interview data inﬂuence on experiencing art-related activities. into coding categories derived from the data, explicitly Medical Student Education Vol. 38, No. 6 395 checking them against other categories and the origi- Watching my mentor’s interactions with patients helped nal data and then searched for patterns and themes. me to realize the different levels of the patient-doctor During coding, categories were added or modiﬁed as relationship and greater appreciate different types of needed as we drew on the original transcripts for mean- communication . . . physical, vocal. ingful segments of text.16 All the analysts then read and discussed the coding categories and the original Ten students discussed how they developed skills data and developed themes related to the acquisition through the exercises at the Art Museum. One student, of clinical skills from the course. for example, felt that her descriptive abilities improved from those exercises: Results Of the 19 students who had taken the course during One way this course was extremely helpful was in their second year of medical school, 17 completed the learning the process of studying paintings, photos, etc. online journaling survey. The 17 respondents included So many times during the clinical years you are asked 11 women and six men. One woman and one man did to describe something without interpreting it. not participate. There were nine current fourth-year students and eight current third-year students partici- Self-reﬂection and Personal Development pating. Students commented that the course allowed them to reﬂect on their role as a physician and the challenges Main Themes they face as they assume this role. Seven students com- We found three important themes in our students’ mented on personal growth; one student, for example, evaluations relating to learning skills for the doctor- commented on understanding an emotional response patient relationship: (1) how the AOO inﬂuenced clini- she had to a patient: cal education, (2) which part of the course was felt to be most responsible for the inﬂuence, and (3) how the There was one patient I went to see with one of the AOO impacted self-reﬂection and personal develop- preceptors. During the time period we were allowed ment as a physician. In addition, we noted (4) how the to reﬂect, I realized she made me feel uncomfortable course affected the second year of medical education because she seemed like one of the “cool kids” from and (5) what educational beneﬁts of the AOO course high school. I thought it was important to learn to the students believed were unique to the AOO and not acknowledge the effect your patients have on you and covered elsewhere in the medical school curriculum. why they have that effect. Inﬂuence on Clinical Education Eight students commented on an awareness of chal- Table 2 describes the main inﬂuence the AOO course lenges in being a doctor, such as the challenge of sepa- had on students’ clinical education. Only two students rating response, interpretation, and description. did not feel there was much effect—one student re- ﬂected that there was no inﬂuence on the doctor-patient To reﬂect on a painting and then describe the painting relationship and the other no inﬂuence on clinical skills. to the rest of the group based solely on the observa- The other students felt they gained understanding of tions we made—it was difﬁcult not to project our own important concepts such as physician biases and the thoughts as to the meaning of the painting and focus doctor-patient relationship, as well as speciﬁc clinical solely on the physical being. I think that it is in our na- skills. These skills included observation, nonverbal ture as physicians to latch on to one cardinal symptom and verbal communication, and description skills, as a patient gives us and then jump to a diagnosis (a.k.a., well as an ability to see the patient as a whole person. label a patient), often times before we have fully and While most of these skills were speciﬁcally addressed artfully observed all aspects of the patient. in the curriculum, some, such as verbal communica- tion, were not. Effect on Preclinical Education The AOO course had little perceived educational Importance of Course Components beneﬁt during the actual year it was taken. Two students Students shared with us that both the clinical precep- felt that they didn’t “think it had much inﬂuence at all torship with the family physician faculty as well as the during the second year of school.” However, a number art museum experience played a role in the skills they of students felt the course helped them by assisting them gained. Eight students mentioned speciﬁc examples of in setting life and school priorities (10 students) and how the role modeling observed during preceptorship served as a needed change of pace from academic life affected their education. For example: (eight students). Frequently mentioned was the mental health break the students got from the course. 396 June 2006 Family Medicine Table 2 Impact of Art of Observation Course on Clinical Education Number of Students Type of Impact Category of Impact Mentioning Awareness and Awareness of physician biases 12 Understanding Sample quote: I still remember my encounter with the ﬁrst patient I saw on the ﬁrst day . . . she had an unusual way of dressing, styling her hair, and wearing her makeup, in addition to many piercings on her face. The more I tried not to stereotype her and look beyond the physical appearance, the more I realized that observing the physical appearance is a crucial part of what a doctor does. I began to realize the important difference between observing as a professional doctor in order to help the patient versus making judgments based on one’s appearance and allowing that to affect interactions with and treatment of the patient. Awareness and Understanding the doctor-patient relationship 6 Understanding Sample quote: I strongly believe that the Art of Observation gave me a different insight into the patient-doctor relationship. It has made me look deeper into the patient and [his/her] illness, which is a skill I will deﬁnitely carry through my career. Clinical Skills Observation skills 9 Sample quote: A patient I have now has dysphonia/dysphagia/expressive aphasia and paraplegia. She sometimes attempts “yes” or “no” but mostly regards and acknowledges me through eye contact and expression. I may not have picked up on her communication or ability to do so if I had not been challenged to pay attention to these subtleties in the elective. I was better able to facilitate the doctor-patient relationship, having been perceptive enough to relate to the patient. Clinical Skills Nonverbal communication skills 7 Sample quote: I found it particularly helpful in our third-year psych clerkship, where part of your exam and diagnosis depend on your observations and impressions, and they don’t have time to teach it during the clerkship. I found myself remembering our discussion about noticing details of clothing and face. Even on other services, it ALWAYS helps to really stop and look at your patient and their room, everything they are doing, reading, inhaling, infusing, etc. It helps both with treatment and with establishing rapport. Clinical Skills Verbal communication 5 Sample quote: I think that really listening to patients and their families is important for the doctor-patient relationship and that if they don’t think the doctor is truly concerned about them, they will not be as open with the doctor. Clinical Skills Ability to see patient as a whole 4 Sample quote: The AOO taught me to look at the whole patient and to not make assumptions based on what I see at ﬁrst glance. I am now conscious of taking a step back looking at all the details and information and assessing the whole patient without any preconceived biases. Clinical Skills Descriptive abilities 3 Sample quote: One way this course was extremely helpful was in learning the process of studying paintings, photos, etc. So many times during the clinical years, you are asked to describe something without interpreting it. For example, it is important to be able to describe a person’s overall appearance without saying “They looked like a COPDer.” This is not an easy thing and takes a skilled observer. It also helped enormously with radiology. One of the main goals of radiology is to be able to initially describe what you see without interpreting it. Quite simply, it reminded me that I need to get out at the museum just reminded me that it was not only of the hospital and do something besides health and “OK” to think outside of the box but that it is vitally science whenever possible, which was wonderful for important. my mental health. I was a much better student during my second year. Unique Qualities of Course While several courses in medical school aim to For others, the course and its time for self-reﬂection teach students skills in the doctor-patient relationship, helped some students set personal priorities. our student participants felt that there were deﬁnite skills they learned only in the AOO course. In addi- I don’t mean this in the superﬁcial sense of it just tion to the obvious exposure to art and art museums being nice to take a study break, but it really went to mentioned by eight students, students also felt that the a deeper level of allowing us the time and space to skills they gained in description (three students) and explore the human side of ourselves. . . . I guess being understanding of the doctor-patient relationship (four Medical Student Education Vol. 38, No. 6 397 students) were unique to the AOO course. For example, Our student evaluation also conﬁrmed for us the im- one student felt that: portance of combining a clinical preceptorship with the art museum exercises. As students took their museum No other course takes the time to really focus so much exercises in description, interpretation, and response on seeing your patients and interpreting what that directly to a clinical encounter, they could immediately means to them and you. It is something from which practice these skills in a medical setting, and the stu- every person would beneﬁt, especially physicians. dents could also bring their clinical experiences back to their observation of artwork (Figure 1). In addition, seven students noted the importance of The use of arts in education has been described as personal growth offered in this course. One student “anecdotal and unsystematic,” and the need for a con- noted that: ceptual framework has been stressed.12 While ours is just an individual course, and not a school-wide cur- In medical school there is little time allowed for ob- riculum, our synergistic model (Figure 1 and Table 1) servation and self-reﬂection in any sort of structured provides a framework of integration of the arts with format. The Art of Observation did that for us. clinical skills. Descriptions of other courses using the visual arts often use those components in isola- Discussion tion.5,6,8,21 We designed this course to build on a base of The humanities in medical education have blos- observation and description, which must be mastered somed in the last 2 decades, as physicians and those to accurately interpret and to communicate responses involved in medical student education have discovered and reﬂections.5,8,10 Integrating clinical experiences the beneﬁts of using literature and, more recently, the with the visual arts is a key to the assimilation of all visual arts in training health care providers.17-19 Only by these skills. performing an evaluation of our course after students Responding to art, and reﬂection on that response, had signiﬁcant clinical experience in their third and has been a part of art appreciation for a long time. fourth year of medical school, and by using a qualitative Our students commented on the importance of having method, could we adequately assess the effects of our time and structure for this activity relating to both art course and determine which components of our course and clinical observations; for many, the AOO, “went were necessary to achieve our goals. We believe our to a deeper level of allowing us the time and space experience in collaboration between a department of to explore the human side of ourselves.” We began family medicine and an art museum has produced an these reflection exercises with artwork, where all elective course for second-year medical students that could safely observe, discuss, and reﬂect on the same has achieved its clinical objectives (Table 1), while also piece. That made it easier to move it into the clinical offering students a time for self-reﬂection, personal setting, where initially the students observed doctor- growth, and an enhanced appreciation of art. patient interactions with their preceptors. Then, as we Our qualitative evaluation revealed three important learned in these interviews, they later responded to ﬁndings. First, description and interpretation are not and reﬂected on patients and relationships during their systematically taught elsewhere in our curriculum. clinical rotations. This self-awareness, sensitivity, and Second, improving observation skills within the doc- self-reﬂection are skills that lead to improved doctor- tor-patient relationship require both a visual arts and patient communication.4 We are encouraged that our an integrated clinical component. Third, time and student participants continued to ﬁnd these activities guidance for personal reﬂection and growth are seen useful to them clinically. by medical students as vital to their education. There are limitations to our study, however. First, Many of our student participants noted that important the AOO is an elective, and students with an interest components of communication were covered only in in such topics are most likely to enjoy and learn from the AOO course. The need for improved communica- such activities. Second, more women than men took tion education in medical school has been highlighted the elective, and the possibility of gender bias exists. in recent years,2,20 speciﬁcally noting that “Students However, our qualitative evaluation asked for stories develop communication skills by observing others and speciﬁc experiences that allow us to understand and then practicing these skills.”2 However, actually what speciﬁc skill set these students gleaned from the teaching students how to observe is not mentioned. course and what components of the course were im- Our course ﬁlls that gap for many students who take it. portant for learning those skills. These evaluation data While clinical clerkships are a typical place to observe are important, even when coming from a self-selected and practice communication skills, communications group of students. training across multiple courses and years is more likely A third limitation is that our “interview” with the to be effective.2,20 The capacity for self-reﬂection, as students was online, not allowing any clarifying ques- provided in our AOO course, also increases the likeli- tions or prompts. This was done to improve the response hood of effective communication.2,4 from the students, who often needed to do the survey 398 June 2006 Family Medicine during their “free time” on weekends and evenings. We achieved a 90% response rate with this method. Figure 1 Fourth, we also were not able to conﬁrm our analysis with our participants, since half of them had graduated Interactions of Components of by the time the analysis was complete. While this would the Art of Observation Course have strengthened the analysis, we believe having mul- tiple analysts, including a medical education evaluator, Clinical Preceptorship Art Museum did add to the credibility of the analysis. Patients Paintings, portraiture ↑ ↑ Conclusions Doctor and staff Photographs Doctor-patient relationship Sculpture While the medical and lay literature contains many Artifacts reports of the use of visual arts in medical education, ↑ almost all are descriptions of their course, with no Exercises ↑ evaluative component.5-11,21,22 A call for “incorporat- Art museum exercises ing outcome assessments as a component of arts-re- Written clinical observations lated programs for medical students” has been made.12 Sketching and drawing Medical education has also been challenged to improve Group discussions the communication skills necessary for improving ↑ the doctor-patient relationship.2,20 We believe that our evaluation data show that the AOO course, designed and implemented to improve the observation, descrip- Reﬂection tion, interpretation, and response skills of medical Response Interpretation students, meets many of these challenges. This course Description is an example of how medicine continues to be informed Observation by the arts. Skills Corresponding Author: Address correspondence to Dr Elder, University of Cincinnati, Department of Family Medicine, PO Box 670582, Cincinnati, OH 45267-0582. 513-558-1436. Fax: 513-558-3266. eldernc@fammed. uc.edu. REFERENCES 12. Rodenhauser P, Strickland MA, Gambala CT. Arts-related activities across US medical schools: a follow-up study. Teach Learn Med 1. Stewart M. Toward a global deﬁnition of patient-centered care. BMJ 2004;16(3):233-9. 2001;322(7284):444-5. 13. Britten N. Making sense of qualitative research: a new series. Med Educ 2. Haq C, Steele DJ, Marchand L, Seibert C, Brody D. Integrating the 2005;39(1):5-6. art and science of medical practice: innovations in teaching medical 14. Crabtree B, Miller W. Doing qualitative research, second edition. communication skills. Fam Med 2004;36(Suppl):S43-S50. Thousand Oaks, Calif: Sage, 1999. 3. Wagner PJ, Lentz L, Heslop SD. 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