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                                    Section A – Exercise and Training

                                      A1 – Reasons For Taking Part in Physical Activity

1         Physical Activity

•     Helps you feel and look good
•     Enhances your body shape (it helps you feel (internal) and look (external) good
•     Contributes to good health and the enjoyment of life

2         Physical Activity

•     Helps relieve stress/tension, and helps stop stress related illness (reduce worry, new outlook)

3         Physical Activity and being a member of any sporting club

•     Stimulates cooperation (working together towards a common goal)
•     Stimulates competition (competition is in all areas of life
•     Stimulates a physical challenge (seeking to attain a set goal)
•     Stimulates aesthetic appreciation (if you do more sport you appreciate outstanding performance)

4         Physical Activity

•     Stimulates friendships and social mixing (opportunity to meet people of a common interest)

                                       A2 – Health, Fitness, Exercise and Performance

                    For more definitions refer to pages 156-158 of the course textbook (GCSE PE for Edexcel)

        Health             ‘a state of complete mental, physical, and social well-being, not merely the absence of disease or

       Fitness             ‘the ability to meet the demands of the environment’

     Performance           ‘how well a task is completed’

       Exercise            ‘a form of physical activity done primarily to improve one’s health and physical fitness’

    Cardiovascular         ‘ability to exercise the entire body for long periods of time’. It involves the heart, lungs, and blood
       Fitness             vessels.

      Muscular             ‘the amount of force a muscle can exert against a resistance’. This is improved by lifting heavy
      Strength             weights (80%-100% of 1RM)

      Muscular             ‘the ability to use voluntary muscles many times without getting tired’. This is improved by lifting
     Endurance             lighter weights many times at speed

      Flexibility          ‘the range of movement possible at a joint’. Improved by repetitive stretching of muscles, tendons
                           and ligaments beyond their normal range of movement.

        Body               ‘the percentage of body weight which is fat, muscle and bone’. Different sports have different
     Composition           requirements. Training can alter a person’s body composition greatly.
                                                A3 – Skill Related Fitness

     Agility         ‘the ability to change the position of the body quickly and to control the movement of the whole
                     body; a combination of speed, balance, power and coordination’. Important for all dynamic activities,
                     games players, gymnasts, skiers etc. Improved by practicing movements at pace, practising its
                     components of speed, balance, power and coordination.

    Balance          ‘the ability to keep the centre of mass of the body over the base of support both static and dynamic’.
                     Static Balance is important for gymnasts/dancers; Dynamic Balance is important for games players,
                     skiers, surfers, and sports that need repeated readjustment of body position. Improved by regular

  Coordination       ‘the ability to use two or more body parts together’. Important for all activities, trampolining,
                     gymnastics, rackets sports golf etc. Improved by repetitive rehearsal of the skill.

     Power           ‘the ability to do strength performances quickly’. Important for all explosive activities; jumping,
                     throwing, sprinting etc. Improved by improving components of strength and speed.

 Reaction Time       ‘the time between presentation of a stimulus and the onset of a movement’. Important for sprinters,
                     team games (decision making). Improved by experience and selective attention.

     Speed           ‘the rate an individual is able to perform a movement or cover a distance’. Important for sprinters,
                     intermittent games which require a sudden change of pace. Improved by weights, sprinting and

                                                A4 – Principles of Training

   Overload         ‘fitness can only be improved by training more than you normally do’.

                    Making your systems (cardiovascular, skeletal, muscular) work hard in order for them to adapt and

 Progression        ‘start slowly and gradually increase the amount of exercise you do’.

                    When your body adapts to the first overload it improves. If you do the same overload again on a
                    better body it will not continue to improve. You must re-overload/progress the overload of the training

  Specificity       ‘you must do specific kinds of activity to improve specific body parts’.

                    Putting regular stress on chosen muscle groups.

Individual Needs:

All training programmes must consider the individual needs of every single person. You must ask; what is their initial
level of fitness? how old are they? are they male or female? why do they want to train or what is their motivation or aim?
These things will all affect what you would put into their programme.

Periodisation & Moderation:

Training programmes change depending upon the time of year. This is called periodisation.

        Off Season             Develop muscular strength and cardiovascular fitness base (the groundwork)
        Pre Season             Intense training (sharpening up)
        Early Season           Power and speed work, maintain intense pre-season load
        Peak Season            Light, speed work, skill work, all the hard work done just gentle preparation

Training Thresholds, Recovery Rates, and Training Target Zones:

When you train the intensity of the session is the most vital. Intensity (how hard you are working) can be calculated in
many different ways. One way is as a percentage of your maximum heart rate (MHR). Maximum heart rate is the
maximum number of times your heart will beat in one minute when you are exercising at your hardest. For you, it is
approximately 200 minus your age (220-15 = 205). 70% MHR is 70% of 205 which is approx 143 beats per minute.

If you exercise at an intensity of below 70% of your MHR you are not overloading your body. You are working below your
aerobic threshold. No adaptation to your aerobic system will take place. If you exercise above 70% of your MHR
(jogging, gentle running) you are exercising aerobically (in the presence of oxygen). You are above your aerobic
threshold and aerobic adaptations will take place. When you work at this intensity your respiration (they way in which
you produce energy) will be aerobic respiration.

You will always be exercising aerobically (with oxygen) as long as you are working above 70% of your MHR and below
85% of your MHR. This region is called your aerobic training zone.

When you work at a greater intensity you get energy differently, your respiration changes. If you work at an intensity of
more than 85% of your MHR (sprinting) you are working anaerobically (without oxygen). You are working above your
anaerobic threshold and within your anaerobic training zone. Your body cannot get enough oxygen through the lungs
and into the blood and you therefore work without it. Your respiration is anaerobic. When you exercise in this way you
also produce lactic acid. This causes pain in the exercising muscles. Because of this any anaerobic respiration can only
last for a short time.

Although your body lets you exercise at this intensity by producing energy without oxygen, the lungs must get back the
extra oxygen they would have got if you were resting. You have to repay your oxygen debt. Repayment of the oxygen
debt starts as soon as you cease exercising. For the first minute or so after you stop exercising your heart rate will
remain the same. It will not start to go down until after about 2 minutes. This is due to your heart still working hard to
repay the oxygen debt.

Oxygen Debt                             ‘the amount of oxygen consumed during recovery above that which would have
                                        been consumed at rest in the same time’

Aerobic Respiration                     Glucose + O2 - - - - energy + CO2 + water
(making energy with oxygen)

Anaerobic Respiration                   Glucose - - - energy - lactic acid + oxygen debt
(making energy without oxygen)

The F I T T Principle:

When designing any training programme you must consider four things:

         Frequency                       Intensity                        Time                           Type

                      Frequency (F)                                                  Intensity (I)
•    How often you train                                      •   How hard you train
•    Even spaced for recovery                                 •   60-70% aerobic
                                                              •   70-100% anaerobic

                          Time (T)                                                     Type (T)
•    how long you train for                                   •   What activity you do when you train
•    progressively increase as you improve                    •   Must be specific


‘any adaptation that takes place as a consequence of training will be reversed when you stop training’. You lose aerobic
fitness quicker than anaerobic, and you lose all types of fitness quicker than you gain it.

Applying all these principles to your training programme:

                          To improve Cardiovascular Fitness                    To improve Muscular Strength
     Overload        70-85% (I), 12-60 min (T), 3/week                  85-100% (I), very short (T)
    Progression      Re-overload; go faster (I), go longer (T), go      Increase weight, no. of reps, no. of sets
                     more often (F)
    Specificity      Must be appropriate activity (runners run,         Must train specific muscles
                     swimmers swim etc)
Individual Needs     Must consider initial level of fitness, age, sex   Must consider initial level of fitness, age, sex
                     and motivation                                     and motivation
        F            3 times a week                                     3 times a week
        I            70-85% MHR                                         85-100% MHR
        T            12-60 minutes per session                          Very short, low repetitions
        T            Must use large muscle groups, running,             Heavy weight training
                     swimming, cycling, rowing and skiing
    Thresholds       Below anaerobic threshold, above aerobic           Above anaerobic threshold within anaerobic
                     threshold, within aerobic training zone            training zone
                           To improve Muscular Endurance                              To improve Flexibility
   Overload          75-90% (I), fast (I), slightly less loading than    Stretching past normal range of movement
                     muscular strength but more repetitions
  Progression        Increase speed, increase no. of reps                Re-overload, continuing to stretch past new
                                                                         maximum range of movement
   Specificity       Must train specific muscles, tendons and            Flexing the required joints, usually all joints – all
                     ligaments                                           round flexibility
Individual Needs     Must consider initial level of fitness, age, sex    Must consider initial level of fitness, age, sex
                     and motivation                                      and motivation
       F             3 times a week                                      Everyday
       I             Fast reps, short reps                               Low
       T             Longer time engaged in less intensive activity      30 minute sessions, using various types of
                     compared to muscular strength                       stretching
       T             Weight training, interval training                  All round flexibility

  Thresholds         Anaerobic training zone                             Below anaerobic threshold

                                               A5 – Methods of Training

Isometric & Isotonic Contractions:

  Isometric        Isometric contractions occur when there is no movement of limb or joint. The muscles are still working
 Contraction       although they remain the same length throughout contraction (handstand)

  Isotonic         Isotonic contractions occur when the muscle either shortens (concentric) or lengthens (eccentric)
 Contraction       during contraction (chin up – isotonic concentric on the way up; isotonic eccentric on the way down)

Types of Training:

 Continuous Training        Exercise without rest. Can improve aerobic and anaerobic fitness. Two types:
                            •   Slow, long, distance running, 60-80% MHR, 30-60 mins, used to help weight loss, aids
                            •   More intense (85-95% MHR), improves speed, strength and endurance

   Interval Training        Alternating between intense exercise and rest. Can also be used for aerobic and anaerobic.
                            You can vary:
                            •    The time of distance of the exercise period
                            •    The intensity of the period
                            •    The rest time between each bit of work
                            •    Activity during rest time

                            Cardiovascular Fitness – longer exercise period, 70% MHR
                            Anaerobic Endurance – shorter periods, 80-95% MHR
                            Speed Training – 2-3 minute rest periods

   Circuit Training         Performing selected activity in sequence. 6-12 stations. Can be designed to improve aerobic
                            and anaerobic fitness. This will depend on: the intensity of the activity done at each station,
                            the time spent at each station, the number of circuits completed. Typical activities are: sit
                            ups, shuttle runs, press ups, burpees, dips, step ups, squat jumps

 Fartlek (speed play)       Whole body activities over distances greater than competition distance. Variation of terrain
       Training             and pace. Gives you the enjoyment of running fast within your own ability. Trains aerobic
                            and anaerobic systems depending on the sequence of ‘legs’. Used by runners and games

   Weight Training          Use of free or weight machines as a from of resistance training. Overload muscles in a safe,
                            progressive, sports specific and individual manner. 3 times per week, overload, and re-
                            overload, must be specific.

                            Muscular Strength – 3 x 6 (95% 1RM)
                            Muscular Endurance – 3 x 20-30 (50-70% 1RM)
                            Muscular Power – 3 x 10-15 (60-80% 1RM)
    Cross Training          Using a different but similar ‘mode’ of training. Runners cycling, cyclists swimming,
                            swimmers running. Benefits are unclear. Helps relieve boredom etc

The Exercise Session (3 parts):

    Warm up          Gentle, whole body activity, with stretching in-between. Increases heart rate, increases breathing
                     rate, and muscle temperature, making the body ready for activity. Warm up should be specific to the
                     activity to follow. Reduces the risk of injury. Psychological preparation for the event to follow.

  Main activity      Specific training, applying overload principles, developing the necessary skills, individual
                     techniques, team skills / strategies by modified competitive games

   Cool down         Often neglected, period of light exercise aids the removal of lactic acid, lowers blood pressure at the
                     same rate it built up.

Aerobic and Anaerobic Exercise:

       Aerobic             ‘with oxygen’. If exercise is not too fast and is steady the heart can supply all the oxygen the
                           muscles need.

      Anaerobic            ‘without oxygen’. If the exercise is done in short fast bursts the heart cannot supply all the
                           blood and the oxygen to the muscles as fast as the cells can use them.

The Body and Exercise

Immediate & Long Term effects of exercise and training on the muscles, bones and joints:

                                       Muscles                                           Bones Tendons

 Immediate        Muscle temperature increases, lactic acid is          Stresses the joint, secretion of synovial fluid

 Long Term        Muscles hold more oxygen and nutrients, and           Ligaments become stronger and more flexible,
                  become more efficient at using oxygen.                bones become stronger, tendons become

Immediate & Long Term effects of exercise and training on the Cardiovascular and Respiratory Systems:

                              Cardiovascular System                                    Respiratory System

 Immediate        Heart rate increases, reddening of the skin,          Oxygen uptake increases, tidal volume increases
                  sweating, overheating, fatigue.

 Long Term        Heart’s chambers get bigger, walls of heart
                  become thicker and stronger, chambers become          Increase in ability of lungs to take in oxygen,
                  more efficient (empty fully), stroke volume           increase in the number of alveoli in lungs,
                  increases, resting heart rate lowers, arteries        increases vital capacity.
                  become larger and more elastic, blood quality is

Recovery Rate;

When you stop exercising the heart rate slows and recovers back to its resting beat. The rate or speed of recovery is
important. A trained athlete’s heart rate will return to their resting rate quicker than an untrained person.
                                             A6 – Diet, Health and Hygiene


 100% Balanced Diet         Important for                                    Found in

50-60% Carbohydrates        Energy, stored as Glycogen in the liver          Starch – potatoes, bread, rice,         pasts,
                                                                             cereals, sugars – chocolate, sweets

        25-30% Fats         Energy, warmth, good skin                        Meat, milk, cream, butter, cakes, cheeses

   10-15% Proteins          Repair, and growth                               Meat, eggs, cheese, any animal products

         Vitamins           Control of chemical reactions. Growth and        Fruit, vegetables, and artificial supplements
                            repair, Helps resist disease

         Minerals           Helps muscles and blood. Not found in body,      Calcium for muscles, iron for blood, found in
                            and can only come from food                      milk, meat, bananas. Must not have too
                                                                             much of one

           Fibre            Adds bulk to food, helps move waste through      Fruits, vegetables, nuts, cereals
                            digestive system

          Water             Essential for all life, makes up 2/3 of body     Natural sources
                            mass, helps control body temperature

Using Carbohydrates, Fats and Proteins for Exercise:

When you work hard, energy comes from glycogen stores made of carbohydrate and fats. These are limited and will run
out. Extra is needed. When you work aerobically, with oxygen (MHR less than 70%), energy comes from fat. Long
distance training teaches your body to use fat. Protein is hardly ever used as an energy source. For very short explosive
bouts of activity carbohydrate is the only source of energy.

Overweight, Overfat and Obese:

        Overweight          ‘excess of optimum total body weight’

          Overfat           ‘excess of optimum percentage of body fat’

          Obese             ‘over standard weight for our height by more than 20%’

    Remember being overweight is not a problem if the extra weight is muscle. Being overfat however, is a problem

Body Type (Somatotypes):

Classified by somatotyping. Every person has a three-figure body type. 1 figure (1-7) for Endomorphy (fat), 1 figure (1-7)
for Mesomorphy (muscular), and 1 figure (1-7) for Ectomorphy (narrow frame). Look at the pictures in the textbook and
make sure you know which body type is which. 7 means a lot of it. There is no consideration for height. So a 2-6-2, would
be low amounts of fat, lots of muscular shape, and low in narrowness.

Body type is genetically determined. However, it can be altered by training and diet. If you are too endomorphic you need
to eat less fat, if you are too mesomorphic eat less carbohydrate, and if you are too ectomorphic eat extra fat and

Body type greatly affects what sport you will naturally be suited to. High endomorphics participate in short, powerful
activities (weightlifters, props in rugby). Low flexibility, endurance, speed and agility. High mesomorphics participate in
explosive contact sports (ice hockey, rugby). Low in extreme endurance. High ectomorphics participate in endurance
activities (running, cycling). Low explosive strength.

Sports Specific Diet:

People take part in different sports have different diets depending upon the specific demands of their sport. Gymnasts
and jockeys need to stay light and avoid fat, games players need lots of energy and eat extra amounts of carbohydrates,
weight lifters need weight/mass and strength and eat lots of fat, carbohydrates and proteins.
Eating – under-eating, over-eating and when to eat:

                  Very unhealthy. If you use more energy than your eating provides you will lose weight. If sportspeople
Under-eating      under-eat they run out of energy. A person may eat so little they become anorexic, a mental illness
                  which causes people not to eat. Boxers and jockeys often try to lose weight rapidly to ‘make the
                  weight’. This can cause rapid loss of glycogen and fluid.

                  Very unhealthy. If your body uses less energy than your eating provides you will gain weight. If
Over-eating       sportspeople over-eat they will carry excess/unwanted weight. Being too much overweight will put too
                  much stress on the heart, bones, joints, and muscles. Long distance athletes eat extra carbohydrates
                  2-3 days before competition for extra energy – Carbohydrate Loading.

                  Before exercise – last meal ¾hour before exercise, bread, cereal, avoiding fat products. Lots of fluids
When to eat       During exercise – continue fluid intake before you get thirsty. If you are thirsty, you’re dehydrated
                  After exercise – lots of fluid to re-hydrate, eat carbohydrates after about 1 hour

The Effects of Drugs on Health and Performance:

                                            Alcohol                                             Smoking

                       Increases the risk of coronary heart disease         Impairs thinking, judgement, vision, hearing,
      Health           (CHD) and cancer. Reduces appetite and               causes vomiting, causes liver diseases,
                       sense of taste and smell                             increases weight
                       Reduces lung efficiency, reduces bloods ability      Reduces coordination, causes dehydration,
   Performance         to carry oxygen, lowers resistance to illness,       lowers glycogen levels, damages immune
                       raises blood pressure                                system, heat loss.

Socially Unacceptable Drugs:

Marijuana is the most common. Causes apathy (lack of interest), poor judgement, personality changes. Others include
LSD, acid, speed, whiz and many more. These cause heart and brain damage.

Performance Enhancing Drugs:

These are drugs that help performance. They have either physical and/or psychological benefits. Sportspeople use drugs
for a number of reasons. These include: to be the best, for money, due to the pressure of success, because they believe
fellow competitors are, or because they are told to.

There are four main types: stimulants, narcotics, steroids and diuretics

There are many advantages for taking these drugs: alertness, painkilling, increased recovery and to lose weight quickly.
However, there are even more dangers: insomnia, dehydration, kidney problems, irritability, high blood pressure,
addictive, liver disease, kidney failure and heart failure.

Blood Doping:

An athlete will train at high altitude (increases the ability of the blood to carry oxygen) and have two pints of this ‘oxygen
rich blood’ removed. It is then put back into the athlete immediately prior to competition giving them extra oxygen
carrying capacity. This can improve performance by as much as 20%.

Personal Hygiene:

Skin – protects the body and resists infection, soap and water removes dirt and sweat. Wash hands before meals and
after going to the toilet, shower daily, and after all physical activity, acne is a sign of blocked glands, needs regular
cleaning and lots of sunlight.

Clothing – change regularly, completely change for physical activity, washing sports clothes after sport.

Nails – clean and cut regularly

Hair – wash regularly, tied back if long.

Teeth – clean after every meal, floss to remove excess plaque, regular dental checks.

Food Preparation – clean surfaces, clean hands, clean equipment, correct storage, correct cooking.
Feet – two common problems. Verrucaes and Athlete’s Foot:

                                          Verrucae                         Athlete’s Foot

    Explanation       Warts on the feet                     Fungal infection

    Prevention        Avoid contact in public places.       Always dry feet carefully and completely
                      Clean feet well
    Recognition       Painful                               Itching between toes

     Treatment        Prescribed liquid                     Anti-fungal cream/powder

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     Section B – Safety Aspects & Risk Assessment in Physical Activity

                                                B1 – Prevention of Injury

You can prevent injury by:

•    Knowing the rules of the game, and knowing what you are not allowed to do. Obeying the rules is vital. Allows safe
     and enjoyable participation. Officials must be respected. They are there to ensure safety.

•    Correct equipment for safety, wearing the equipment correctly, use of protective equipment for safety such as shin
     pads, cricket pads, helmets. Condition of equipment must be good so that it actually does what it is meant to.
     Correct footwear is vital. Footwear is sports specific. Specialist spikes for different Track and Field events. Correct
     physical state with no jewellery, short fingernails, hair tied back etc.

•    Balanced competition is vital. The sides must be reasonably even. Balancing can be done by age, weight, sex, and
     skill level.

•    Warm up and cool down for physical and mental preparation. Training gives you good physical preparation. It allows
     you to be ‘fit’ to participate. Training prepares the body for the stresses it will be put under during competition.

                                                   B2 – Sports Injuries

There are many different types of injuries related to sport. Each ahs their own specific signs and symptoms and each are
to be responded to or treated in a specific way.

Fractures (a break to the bone) – there are two main types:

Simple / Closed              Bone breaks but stays under the skin

Compound / Open              Bone breaks and pierces the skin (damage nerves / blood cells)

Signs – a recent fall or blow, snapping sound, deformity at site, swelling, signs of shock, lack of movement. If it is a
compound fracture there may be heavy bleeding.

Response – keep them still, steady, and comfortable, support the injured part, add a splint, reassure them, send for
medical help.

Joint Injuries:

Dislocations (displacement of a bone at a joint) – This is when a bone at a joint is forced out of its normal position. The
ligaments (sprained) and/or tendons (strained) around the joint will be damaged. Common in the shoulder, elbow, jaw,
thumb and fingers. The signs and responses to a dislocation are the same for a fracture. The only difference is a
dislocation is often accompanied by a severe sickening feeling and you often see the deformity caused by the dislocation
under the skin.

Other Joint Injuries (torn cartilage, twisted ligaments, inflammation of tendons):

           Injury                                                 Sign                                        Response /
Torn Cartilage                Pain inside the knee, unable to straighten                                        RICE

Twisted Ligaments             Pain, swelling, over-stretched in some way                                        RICE

Inflammation of Tendons       Overuse of tendons, pain inside the elbow – Golfer’s Elbow                        RICE
                              Overuse of tendons, pain outside the elbow – Tennis Elbow                         RICE


Many causes, usually due to head injury, fainting, heart attack, stroke, asphyxia, and shock. The sign is simply no
response / limp. Your response should follow: D R A B C
  D           Danger           Check for danger to both the injured person and the rescuer
                               Send for medical help immediately

  R          Response          ‘squeeze and shout’, check their eyes, check for movement or any speech

  A            Airway          Put them in the recovery (lateral) position, clear the airway by tilting the head and check
                               there are no obstructions in the throat

  B          Breathing         Look at their chest to see if it rises, listen and feel for their breathing

  C          Circulation       Check their pulse

If the person is breathing place them in the recovery (lateral) position

If the person is not breathing but there is a pulse start mouth-to-mouth resuscitation (EAR-Expired Air Resuscitation)

If the person has no pulse start Cardio-Pulmonary Resuscitation (CPR)


Injury caused by a blow to the head or jaw. Signs are dizziness, shallow breathing, paleness, and temporary loss of
memory. Your response is to steady the person, reassure them, ask the person if they can recall the incident. If they are
unconscious put them in the recovery (lateral) position and proceed as above. Even after recovery the person should not
continue participating.

Soft Tissue Injuries (injuries to muscles, ligaments, tendons, cartilage and skin):

Such injuries include: sprains, strains, cartilage damage / wear, cuts bruises, and blisters.

   Injury                         Explanation                                       Sign                         Response

   Sprain       Over-stretching or tear of a ligament caused by       Pain and swelling                            RICE
                a sudden twist
   Strain       Over-stretching or tear of a muscle or tendon         Similar to sprain but not as                 RICE
                caused by excessive muscular effort                   serious
      Cuts      Breaking of the skin                                  Minor pain, blood                       Clean, dry, dress

  Grazes        Top layer of skin removed                             Minor pain, blood                       Clean, dry, dress

  Blisters      Damage to skin by heat or friction                    Lose covering of skin                  Do not burst. Clean,
                                                                                                                 dry, dress
  Bruises       Damage to capillaries under the skin                  Dark colour, swelling                        RICE

  Cramp         Sudden muscular contraction caused by loss            Pain                                      Fluid, stretch,
                of fluid and salt                                                                                 massage

R I C E:

R I C E stands for Rest, Ice, Compression, Elevation

      R                 Rest                    Rest the injured part
      I                  Ice                    Apply ice to the injured part
      C              Compression                Compress by putting light pressure on the injured part
      E               Elevation                 Elevate the injured part
Emergency Procedures – Hypothermia & Dehydration:

Hypothermia – occurs when the body temperature is below 35C. Signs are shivering, pale skin, slow pulse rate and may
eventually become unconscious. Treatment involves warming the body at the same rate at which the heat was lost. So if
they fell into a cold river, you warm them quickly, and if they lost their body temperature over a long period of time, you
must warm them slowly.

Dehydration – water is important to the body. Water is lost through sweat, urine, and water vapour as you breathe out.
Dehydration means the person has a low glucose level, which causes signs of tiredness, nausea, and dizziness.
Response is o take on fluid. Prevention is better than cure.

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                       Section C – Applied Anatomy and Physiology

                                              C1 – The Circulatory System

The Heart:

Remember that right is left and left is right. There are 4 chambers within the heart. The left and right atriums are at the
top and the left and right ventricles are at the bottom. The heart is a pump in a double circulatory system.

Look at the diagram of the heart in your notes and make sure that you can label: septum (the partition that goes down
the middle), superior / inferior vena cava, right atrium, tricuspid valve, right ventricle, pulmonary artery, pulmonary vein,
left atrium, bicuspid valve, left ventricle, semi-lunar vales and the aorta.

When you read the next section look at the diagram in your notes showing the whole circulatory system.

The right atrium and the right ventricle work together to pump deoxygenated blood back to the lungs via the pulmonary
artery. When oxygenated in the lungs (gaseous exchange) the reoxygenated blood is transported to the left atrium via
the pulmonary veins. This is called pulmonary circulation.

The left atrium and the left ventricle work together to pump oxygenated blood out of the aorta to the working muscles
where cell respiration takes place. When it uses oxygen it returns to the right side of the heart via the vena cava. This is
called systemic circulation.

The heart does both of these jobs at the same time. It is a double circulatory system. The left heart is doing its bit at the
same time as the right heart is doing its bit.

The Blood Vessels:

Remember –

                     All arteries carry oxygenated blood from the heart to the muscles (except aorta)
                All veins carry deoxygenated blood from muscles back to heart (except pulmonary veins)

                                          Arteries                         Veins                        Capillaries

         Structure                    Thickest walls                   Thinner walls              Very thin cells at end of
                                 Most elastic (more blood)         Thinner muscle outer                   arteries
     Blood direction              Carry blood from heart           Carry blood to heart

     Blood pressure                    High pressure                  Lower pressure

Thickness of vessel wall             Thick vessel walls            Thinner vessel walls

     Internal diameter              Varies to allow flow                  Similar                        Very thin

    Presence of valves                   Na valves                         valves                    Semi-permeable

Veins have valves due to the low pressure as blood id being carried to the heart. Valves ensure the blood flows in only
one direction.

The Heart and Exercise:

      Heart Rate           ‘the number of times the heart beats in one minute’ (average of 72 bpm at rest and up to 220
                           bpm during strenuous exercise)

   Stroke Volume           ‘the amount of blood pumped out of the heart in each contraction’

   Cardiac Output          ‘the amount of blood ejected from the heart in one minute’

                           Cardiac Out = Stroke Volume x Heart Rate
Blood (transports O2 to muscles, spreads / regulates temperature, reduces the effect of lactic acid):

You must learn what plasma, red blood cells, white blood cells, and platelets do. What is their function?

55% of blood is plasma which transports nutrients and salts in the blood (glucose – for energy, sodium chloride / salt,
calcium, and amino acid). It also contains fibrinogen protein.

45% of blood is formed elements (3 parts)

•     Red blood cells – contain iron rich haemoglobin, which transports O2 from the lungs to the cells
•     White blood cells – act as a mobile guard protecting the body from disease
•     Platelets – are very important. Formed in the red bone marrow they will stick together when you cut yourself and
      bleed. Platelets make the blood clot.

Training the Heart, Blood and Blood Vessels:

Training will: increase the size of the heart chambers, make the chamber walls thicker, increase the amount and the
quality of blood, increase the amount of blood pumped out of the heart in one beat (stroke volume) and therefore
increase cardiac output, and make the arteries larger and more elastic.

                                                C2 – The Respiratory System

The Lungs:

The lungs take in oxygen from the air. The oxygen then goes into the blood, reacts with the glucose in the muscles and
gives us energy and carbon dioxide. The lungs also remove this carbon dioxide at the same time.

Look at the diagram and your notes and make sure you can label: larynx, trachea, bronchi, bronchioles and alveoli.

     Nasal Passage        This filters (by the cilia – hairs in your nose), warms, and moistens the air

    Larynx (voice box)    Protected by the epiglottis, produces sound as air passes over vocal chords

 Trachea (windpipe)       Large flexible tube of rings of rigid cartilage

        Bronchi           Bottom of the trachea where it branches out into two smaller left and right

      Bronchioles         Bronchi branches out into bronchioles

         Alveoli          Tiny air sacs at end bronchioles

Look at the diagram and your notes and make sure you can label these five parts.


The lungs (protected by the rib cage at the sides and the top by the diaphragm at the bottom) are like two inflatable
balloons. A pleural membrane (a smooth double skin) surrounds the lungs. These membranes slide across each other at
the lungs expand (inspiration) and contract (expiration) reducing friction with the walls of the thorax. The diaphragm is a
sheet of muscle that seals the bottom of the chest cavity. The diaphragm controls breathing.

     Inspiration     Diaphragm contracts, descends and flattens. Intercostal muscles contract pulling ribs up. The lung
                     space is now larger, lowering the pressure inside. High outside pressure therefore air rushes in.

     Expiration      Diaphragm relaxes and is pushed up. Intercostal muscles relax causing the rubs to fall under their
                     own weight. The space is now smaller and the pressure inside the lungs is increased pushing air out
                     through both the nose and the mouth.

Look at the diagram of the lungs and make sure you can label the ribs, the pleural membrane, the intercostals muscles
and the diaphragm.

Respiration and Exercise:

The alveoli and the lung capillaries touch. The deoxygenated blood in the capillaries take oxygen from the alveoli and
goes back to the heart via the pulmonary vein. When the blood leaves the heart (via the aorta) it reacts with the glucose
in the body to give energy. Carbon dioxide and water are also produced. This is called cell respiration.
                                      Glucose + O2 - - - - - - - energy + CO2 + water

The carbon dioxide is taken back to the lungs, into the alveoli, and breathed out through the mouth. Therefore the alveoli
has lost oxygen, and gained carbon dioxide. This is called gaseous exchange. This process is repeated again and again
in all of the many thousands of alveoli.

Inhaled and Exhaled Air:

The air you breathe in is different to the air you breathe out. Each has different amounts of oxygen, carbon dioxide and

                                        Inhaled air                                      Exhaled Air
                                                                   (as you sleep / at rest)      (when you are running)
Nitrogen                                    78%                             78%                          78%
Oxygen                                      21%                             17%                          12%
Carbon Dioxide                             0.04%                             4%                           9%

When you are running (or any kind of full body activity) you use more oxygen and get rid of more carbon dioxide than you
do when you are at rest or sleeping.

    Vital Capacity     ‘is the largest volume of air that can be expired after the deepest possible inspiration’.
                       If you do lots of training vital capacity will increase.

    Tidal Volume       ‘is the volume of air that you can breathe in and out normally’.
                       As soon as you start to exercise your tidal volume will start to increase.

                            Don’t forget cardiovascular means heart, blood and blood vessels

                                                        C3 – Bones


                       ‘is the process in which cartilage turns to bone’.
                       It takes place as you grow from birth, to repair bones after injury, to replace bones that wear out.
                       Exercise helps the development and growth of bones. There are three stages of bone growth:
                       •   Before birth – skeleton made of cartilage
                       •   Young – cartilage changes to bone
                       •   Adulthood – hard bones (calcium / collagen)

Look at the diagram and your notes and make sure that you can label: epiphysis, diaphysis, cartilage, periosteum,
compact bone and cancellous bone.

Functions of Bone:

The skeleton has five functions / does 5 things:

•    Gives your body shape (framework)
•    Protects delicate organs
•    Gives the body a frame (holds muscles)
•    Produces blood (red cells in bone marrow)

Bone Names & Types:

           Bone Name                                      Where Found                                  Type of Bone

             Cranium                                          Skull                                          Flat
              Sterum                                       Breatsbone                                        Flat
               Ribs                                           Sides                                          Flat
             Humerus                                       Upper arm                                        Long
               Ulna                                       Lower arm (b)                                     Long
              Radius                                      Lower arm (f)                                     Long
           Bone Name                                       Where Found                                 Type of Bone

              Femur                                              Thigh                                      Long
             Patella                                             Knee                                     irregular
               Tibia                                             Shin                                       Long
              Fibula                                        Lower leg (b)                                   Long
             Scapula                                       Shoulder blade                                    Flat
             Clavicle                                        Collar bone                                    Long
              Tarsal                                             Ankle                                      Short
            Metatarsal                                      Ankles to toes                                  Long
             Carpal                                              Wrist                                      Short
            Metacarpal                                     Wrist to fingers                                 Long
            Phalanges                                      Fingers are toes                                 Long
              Illium                     Pelvic girdle, the bits at either side that stick out.

     Long Bones             Used for major movement

     Short Bones            Used to grip and balance

      Flat Bones            Used for protection

    Irregular Bones         Give the body shape and protect

Look at the diagram of the skeleton in your notes and make sure that you can label each of the bones listed above.

Vertebral Column:

Does 5 things (protects spinal cord, supports upper body, allows lots of movement, transmits force, helps posture). There
are 33 vertebrae. In between each is a disc of cartilage. It is flexible and strong, yet prone to injury. There are 5 regions:

•    Cervical (7) – top one is atlas (allows nodding), second one is axis (rotation)
•    Thoracic (12) – supports the rib cage
•    Lumbar (5) – largest vertebrae that give attachment for back muscles
•    Sacral (5) – fused together join to the pelvis giving a strong base for support
•    Coccyx (4) – fused together, with no special use

Look at the diagrams and your notes and make sure that you can label all five of these regions.

                                           C4 – Joints, Tendons and Ligaments

       Joint             ‘a place where two or more bones meet – they allow movement’

     Cartilage           ‘tough, slippery, glassy material’.
                         It acts as a shock absorber in and around the joint which ‘cushions’ the impact forces on the joint
                         when you move. Cartilage also prevents the bones wearing from friction.

                            They have 5 very important bits

                            •    Capsule – the casing that surrounds the joint
    Synovial Joints         •    Ligaments – bands of fibre that hold the joint in place
                            •    Hyaline Cartilage – hard slippery layer at head of bone
                            •    Synovial Membrane – layer inside capsule that gives fluid
                            •    Synovial Fluid – lubricates the joint to help movement

Look at the diagram of a synovial joint and refer to your notes and make sure that you can label each of the joints

         There are 3 different              •     Ball and Socket – shoulder and hip joints
       types of Synovial Joints:            •     Pivot – between atlas and axis in neck
                                            •     Hinge – elbow and knee joints
Joint Movement (joints allow 5 different types of movement:

        Movement                           Explanation                                   Practical Example

        Abduction             Moving a bone away from the body             Star jump (up)
        Adduction              Moving a bone towards the body              Star jump (down)
        Extension            Angle between two bones is increased          Kicking a football
         Flexion             Angle between two bones is decreased          Pulling leg backing preparation for kicking
         Rotation              Bone moving freely around a joint           Bowling a cricket ball

Tendons and Ligaments:

       Tendons          ‘attach muscle to bone, are strong and non-elastic’
                        They attach one end of a muscle to a fixed point (origin), and attach the other end of a muscle to
                        the moving part of the body (insertion). Tendons allow muscles to move bones.

       Ligaments        ‘attach bone to bone’
                        they also hold joints together, are tough and fibrous. Ligaments prevent dislocation.

                                                     C5 – Muscles

Muscle Types (3 types):

       Voluntary        Move when you want them i.e. biceps

      Involuntary       Not under your control i.e. bladder

        Cardiac         Work automatically and constantly i.e. the heart

Muscle Names & Functions:

        Muscle                    Where                             Function                           Example

         Triceps        Back of upper arm             Extends forearm at elbow               Putting the shot
         Biceps         Front of upper arm            Rotate and bends forearm at elbow      Curl
         Deltoid        Back of the shoulder joint    Moves shoulder in all directions       Arm pull in swimming
        Pectorals       Front of upper chest          Moves the shoulder and the arm         Arm pull in swimming
        Trapezius       By neck on upper back         Controls shoulder girdle               Heading a ball
         Gluteals       Lower back / backside         Extends the hip joint                  Walking
      Quadriceps        Front upper leg               Extends leg at the knee                Kicking
      Hamstrings        Back of upper leg             Flexes the knee joint                  Back stroke leg kick
     Gastrocnemius      Back of lower leg             Flexes knee, extends ankle             Jumping
    Latissimus Dorsi    Armpit to lower back          Adducts arm                            Back stroke arm pull
       Abdominal        Front / side of stomach       Flex / rotates vertebral column        Sit-ups

Look at the diagram and your notes and make sure that you know where on the diagram each of these muscles are.

How Muscles Work:

Muscles work in pairs. They work antagonistically. When one muscle contracts across a joint (the primer mover) to bring
to bones together, the opposite muscle relaxes and is pulled apart (antagonist). If the biceps contract and shorten, the
triceps must relax and lengthen. The same applies for the hamstrings and quadriceps in the legs.

Different Types of Muscle Fibres (2 types):

                     Slow Twitch Fibres                                           Fast Twitch Fibres
•     Good O2 supply                                          •   Work without oxygen
•     Work for long periods of time                           •   Get tired very quickly
•     Take a long time to contract                            •   Contract very quickly
When you walk, Slow twitch Fibres work. If you increase your speed, more Slow Twitch Fibres work. When you go too
fast for Slow Twitch Fibres, the fast twitch Fibres will start to work. You probably have 50% Slow Twitch Fibres and 50%
Fast twitch Fibres, but this can be altered according to the type of training that you do.

     Muscle Tone           ‘voluntary muscles in a sate of very slight tension, ready and waiting to be used’
                           Good muscle tone leads to good posture and helps overall fitness.

        Posture            You must keep your body upright with your centre of gravity over the base of your support.
                           You should look elegant, balanced, and comfortable. Good posture prevents curvature of the
                           spine, helps body shape and self-esteem.

             Other Revision Guides Available

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                        ANALYSIS OF PERFORMANCE
The Analysis of Performance provides a link between the application of skills (in the
context of a practical activity) and the appreciation of the factors affecting participation and
performance, which lead to an improvement in performance.

You need to develop the skills of analysis and evaluation to enable you to apply informed
knowledge to support your decision making. Your experiences in practical activities will
provide the basis for such decisions and therefore the assessment is structured to support
the decision making process required of the ‘reflective performer’. You will also need to
utilise the knowledge and experience gained from a Personal Exercise Plan, to support the
decision making process which is required to provide improvements in performance.

Initially you will need to develop knowledge of the rules and regulations of an activity and
in particular, an appreciation of the role of specific rules. You will also need to develop the
observational and analytical skills necessary to acquire information by which to provide
data for an informal evaluation of a performance, as well as a range of data recording
skills, to enable you to use comparative data analysis.

Evaluation of a performance will require you to recognise the relative strengths and
weaknesses of the performance in the context of the activity. You should evaluate the
performance against your knowledge of the perfect model, in order to identify areas for
improvement. For improvements in performance to be realised, you will need to be able to
apply your knowledge of tactics, training procedures and principles and related practices to
develop strategies to support the improved performance. You will also have gained
information from your Personal Exercise Plan.


The mark for the Analysis of Performance is given for your work on a chosen activity. The
Analysis of Performance may be assessed through discussion about the practical activity

Your ability to analyse performance will be based on one activity, jointly selected by
yourself and your PE Teacher. Each of the five elements of the decision making process
will be equally assessed out of 4, giving a possible total mark out of 20. The five elements
are as follows:

•   Rules (and their role in sport), regulations and terminology

•   Observation and analysis

•   Evaluation (interpreting the perfect model), and recognising strengths and

•   Planning strategies, tactics, practices and training to improve performance;
    making use of your 6 week Personal Exercise Plan (PEP)

•   Understanding the principles and roles of leadership performance.

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