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FACTORS AFFECTING PARTICIPATION AND PERFORMANCE Section A – Exercise and Training A1 – Reasons For Taking Part in Physical Activity 1 Physical Activity • Helps you feel and look good • Enhances your body shape (it helps you feel (internal) and look (external) good • Contributes to good health and the enjoyment of life 2 Physical Activity • Helps relieve stress/tension, and helps stop stress related illness (reduce worry, new outlook) 3 Physical Activity and being a member of any sporting club • Stimulates cooperation (working together towards a common goal) • Stimulates competition (competition is in all areas of life • Stimulates a physical challenge (seeking to attain a set goal) • Stimulates aesthetic appreciation (if you do more sport you appreciate outstanding performance) 4 Physical Activity • Stimulates friendships and social mixing (opportunity to meet people of a common interest) A2 – Health, Fitness, Exercise and Performance For more definitions refer to pages 156-158 of the course textbook (GCSE PE for Edexcel) Health ‘a state of complete mental, physical, and social well-being, not merely the absence of disease or infirmity’ Fitness ‘the ability to meet the demands of the environment’ Performance ‘how well a task is completed’ Exercise ‘a form of physical activity done primarily to improve one’s health and physical fitness’ Cardiovascular ‘ability to exercise the entire body for long periods of time’. It involves the heart, lungs, and blood Fitness vessels. Muscular ‘the amount of force a muscle can exert against a resistance’. This is improved by lifting heavy Strength weights (80%-100% of 1RM) Muscular ‘the ability to use voluntary muscles many times without getting tired’. This is improved by lifting Endurance lighter weights many times at speed Flexibility ‘the range of movement possible at a joint’. Improved by repetitive stretching of muscles, tendons and ligaments beyond their normal range of movement. Body ‘the percentage of body weight which is fat, muscle and bone’. Different sports have different Composition requirements. Training can alter a person’s body composition greatly. A3 – Skill Related Fitness Agility ‘the ability to change the position of the body quickly and to control the movement of the whole body; a combination of speed, balance, power and coordination’. Important for all dynamic activities, games players, gymnasts, skiers etc. Improved by practicing movements at pace, practising its components of speed, balance, power and coordination. Balance ‘the ability to keep the centre of mass of the body over the base of support both static and dynamic’. Static Balance is important for gymnasts/dancers; Dynamic Balance is important for games players, skiers, surfers, and sports that need repeated readjustment of body position. Improved by regular practice. Coordination ‘the ability to use two or more body parts together’. Important for all activities, trampolining, gymnastics, rackets sports golf etc. Improved by repetitive rehearsal of the skill. Power ‘the ability to do strength performances quickly’. Important for all explosive activities; jumping, throwing, sprinting etc. Improved by improving components of strength and speed. Reaction Time ‘the time between presentation of a stimulus and the onset of a movement’. Important for sprinters, team games (decision making). Improved by experience and selective attention. Speed ‘the rate an individual is able to perform a movement or cover a distance’. Important for sprinters, intermittent games which require a sudden change of pace. Improved by weights, sprinting and plyometrics. A4 – Principles of Training Overload ‘fitness can only be improved by training more than you normally do’. Making your systems (cardiovascular, skeletal, muscular) work hard in order for them to adapt and improve. Progression ‘start slowly and gradually increase the amount of exercise you do’. When your body adapts to the first overload it improves. If you do the same overload again on a better body it will not continue to improve. You must re-overload/progress the overload of the training programme. Specificity ‘you must do specific kinds of activity to improve specific body parts’. Putting regular stress on chosen muscle groups. Individual Needs: All training programmes must consider the individual needs of every single person. You must ask; what is their initial level of fitness? how old are they? are they male or female? why do they want to train or what is their motivation or aim? These things will all affect what you would put into their programme. Periodisation & Moderation: Training programmes change depending upon the time of year. This is called periodisation. Off Season Develop muscular strength and cardiovascular fitness base (the groundwork) Pre Season Intense training (sharpening up) Early Season Power and speed work, maintain intense pre-season load Peak Season Light, speed work, skill work, all the hard work done just gentle preparation Training Thresholds, Recovery Rates, and Training Target Zones: When you train the intensity of the session is the most vital. Intensity (how hard you are working) can be calculated in many different ways. One way is as a percentage of your maximum heart rate (MHR). Maximum heart rate is the maximum number of times your heart will beat in one minute when you are exercising at your hardest. For you, it is approximately 200 minus your age (220-15 = 205). 70% MHR is 70% of 205 which is approx 143 beats per minute. If you exercise at an intensity of below 70% of your MHR you are not overloading your body. You are working below your aerobic threshold. No adaptation to your aerobic system will take place. If you exercise above 70% of your MHR (jogging, gentle running) you are exercising aerobically (in the presence of oxygen). You are above your aerobic threshold and aerobic adaptations will take place. When you work at this intensity your respiration (they way in which you produce energy) will be aerobic respiration. You will always be exercising aerobically (with oxygen) as long as you are working above 70% of your MHR and below 85% of your MHR. This region is called your aerobic training zone. When you work at a greater intensity you get energy differently, your respiration changes. If you work at an intensity of more than 85% of your MHR (sprinting) you are working anaerobically (without oxygen). You are working above your anaerobic threshold and within your anaerobic training zone. Your body cannot get enough oxygen through the lungs and into the blood and you therefore work without it. Your respiration is anaerobic. When you exercise in this way you also produce lactic acid. This causes pain in the exercising muscles. Because of this any anaerobic respiration can only last for a short time. Although your body lets you exercise at this intensity by producing energy without oxygen, the lungs must get back the extra oxygen they would have got if you were resting. You have to repay your oxygen debt. Repayment of the oxygen debt starts as soon as you cease exercising. For the first minute or so after you stop exercising your heart rate will remain the same. It will not start to go down until after about 2 minutes. This is due to your heart still working hard to repay the oxygen debt. Oxygen Debt ‘the amount of oxygen consumed during recovery above that which would have been consumed at rest in the same time’ Aerobic Respiration Glucose + O2 - - - - energy + CO2 + water (making energy with oxygen) Anaerobic Respiration Glucose - - - energy - lactic acid + oxygen debt (making energy without oxygen) The F I T T Principle: When designing any training programme you must consider four things: Frequency Intensity Time Type Frequency (F) Intensity (I) • How often you train • How hard you train • Even spaced for recovery • 60-70% aerobic • 70-100% anaerobic Time (T) Type (T) • how long you train for • What activity you do when you train • progressively increase as you improve • Must be specific Reversibility: ‘any adaptation that takes place as a consequence of training will be reversed when you stop training’. You lose aerobic fitness quicker than anaerobic, and you lose all types of fitness quicker than you gain it. Applying all these principles to your training programme: To improve Cardiovascular Fitness To improve Muscular Strength Overload 70-85% (I), 12-60 min (T), 3/week 85-100% (I), very short (T) Progression Re-overload; go faster (I), go longer (T), go Increase weight, no. of reps, no. of sets more often (F) Specificity Must be appropriate activity (runners run, Must train specific muscles swimmers swim etc) Individual Needs Must consider initial level of fitness, age, sex Must consider initial level of fitness, age, sex and motivation and motivation F 3 times a week 3 times a week I 70-85% MHR 85-100% MHR T 12-60 minutes per session Very short, low repetitions T Must use large muscle groups, running, Heavy weight training swimming, cycling, rowing and skiing Thresholds Below anaerobic threshold, above aerobic Above anaerobic threshold within anaerobic threshold, within aerobic training zone training zone To improve Muscular Endurance To improve Flexibility Overload 75-90% (I), fast (I), slightly less loading than Stretching past normal range of movement muscular strength but more repetitions Progression Increase speed, increase no. of reps Re-overload, continuing to stretch past new maximum range of movement Specificity Must train specific muscles, tendons and Flexing the required joints, usually all joints – all ligaments round flexibility Individual Needs Must consider initial level of fitness, age, sex Must consider initial level of fitness, age, sex and motivation and motivation F 3 times a week Everyday I Fast reps, short reps Low T Longer time engaged in less intensive activity 30 minute sessions, using various types of compared to muscular strength stretching T Weight training, interval training All round flexibility Thresholds Anaerobic training zone Below anaerobic threshold A5 – Methods of Training Isometric & Isotonic Contractions: Isometric Isometric contractions occur when there is no movement of limb or joint. The muscles are still working Contraction although they remain the same length throughout contraction (handstand) Isotonic Isotonic contractions occur when the muscle either shortens (concentric) or lengthens (eccentric) Contraction during contraction (chin up – isotonic concentric on the way up; isotonic eccentric on the way down) Types of Training: Continuous Training Exercise without rest. Can improve aerobic and anaerobic fitness. Two types: • Slow, long, distance running, 60-80% MHR, 30-60 mins, used to help weight loss, aids rehabilitation • More intense (85-95% MHR), improves speed, strength and endurance Interval Training Alternating between intense exercise and rest. Can also be used for aerobic and anaerobic. You can vary: • The time of distance of the exercise period • The intensity of the period • The rest time between each bit of work • Activity during rest time Cardiovascular Fitness – longer exercise period, 70% MHR Anaerobic Endurance – shorter periods, 80-95% MHR Speed Training – 2-3 minute rest periods Circuit Training Performing selected activity in sequence. 6-12 stations. Can be designed to improve aerobic and anaerobic fitness. This will depend on: the intensity of the activity done at each station, the time spent at each station, the number of circuits completed. Typical activities are: sit ups, shuttle runs, press ups, burpees, dips, step ups, squat jumps Fartlek (speed play) Whole body activities over distances greater than competition distance. Variation of terrain Training and pace. Gives you the enjoyment of running fast within your own ability. Trains aerobic and anaerobic systems depending on the sequence of ‘legs’. Used by runners and games players. Weight Training Use of free or weight machines as a from of resistance training. Overload muscles in a safe, progressive, sports specific and individual manner. 3 times per week, overload, and re- overload, must be specific. Muscular Strength – 3 x 6 (95% 1RM) Muscular Endurance – 3 x 20-30 (50-70% 1RM) Muscular Power – 3 x 10-15 (60-80% 1RM) Cross Training Using a different but similar ‘mode’ of training. Runners cycling, cyclists swimming, swimmers running. Benefits are unclear. Helps relieve boredom etc The Exercise Session (3 parts): Warm up Gentle, whole body activity, with stretching in-between. Increases heart rate, increases breathing rate, and muscle temperature, making the body ready for activity. Warm up should be specific to the activity to follow. Reduces the risk of injury. Psychological preparation for the event to follow. Main activity Specific training, applying overload principles, developing the necessary skills, individual techniques, team skills / strategies by modified competitive games Cool down Often neglected, period of light exercise aids the removal of lactic acid, lowers blood pressure at the same rate it built up. Aerobic and Anaerobic Exercise: Aerobic ‘with oxygen’. If exercise is not too fast and is steady the heart can supply all the oxygen the muscles need. Anaerobic ‘without oxygen’. If the exercise is done in short fast bursts the heart cannot supply all the blood and the oxygen to the muscles as fast as the cells can use them. The Body and Exercise Immediate & Long Term effects of exercise and training on the muscles, bones and joints: Muscles Bones Tendons Immediate Muscle temperature increases, lactic acid is Stresses the joint, secretion of synovial fluid produced Long Term Muscles hold more oxygen and nutrients, and Ligaments become stronger and more flexible, become more efficient at using oxygen. bones become stronger, tendons become stronger. Immediate & Long Term effects of exercise and training on the Cardiovascular and Respiratory Systems: Cardiovascular System Respiratory System Immediate Heart rate increases, reddening of the skin, Oxygen uptake increases, tidal volume increases sweating, overheating, fatigue. Long Term Heart’s chambers get bigger, walls of heart become thicker and stronger, chambers become Increase in ability of lungs to take in oxygen, more efficient (empty fully), stroke volume increase in the number of alveoli in lungs, increases, resting heart rate lowers, arteries increases vital capacity. become larger and more elastic, blood quality is increased. Recovery Rate; When you stop exercising the heart rate slows and recovers back to its resting beat. The rate or speed of recovery is important. A trained athlete’s heart rate will return to their resting rate quicker than an untrained person. A6 – Diet, Health and Hygiene Diet: 100% Balanced Diet Important for Found in 50-60% Carbohydrates Energy, stored as Glycogen in the liver Starch – potatoes, bread, rice, pasts, cereals, sugars – chocolate, sweets 25-30% Fats Energy, warmth, good skin Meat, milk, cream, butter, cakes, cheeses 10-15% Proteins Repair, and growth Meat, eggs, cheese, any animal products Vitamins Control of chemical reactions. Growth and Fruit, vegetables, and artificial supplements repair, Helps resist disease Minerals Helps muscles and blood. Not found in body, Calcium for muscles, iron for blood, found in and can only come from food milk, meat, bananas. Must not have too much of one Fibre Adds bulk to food, helps move waste through Fruits, vegetables, nuts, cereals digestive system Water Essential for all life, makes up 2/3 of body Natural sources mass, helps control body temperature Using Carbohydrates, Fats and Proteins for Exercise: When you work hard, energy comes from glycogen stores made of carbohydrate and fats. These are limited and will run out. Extra is needed. When you work aerobically, with oxygen (MHR less than 70%), energy comes from fat. Long distance training teaches your body to use fat. Protein is hardly ever used as an energy source. For very short explosive bouts of activity carbohydrate is the only source of energy. Overweight, Overfat and Obese: Overweight ‘excess of optimum total body weight’ Overfat ‘excess of optimum percentage of body fat’ Obese ‘over standard weight for our height by more than 20%’ Remember being overweight is not a problem if the extra weight is muscle. Being overfat however, is a problem Body Type (Somatotypes): Classified by somatotyping. Every person has a three-figure body type. 1 figure (1-7) for Endomorphy (fat), 1 figure (1-7) for Mesomorphy (muscular), and 1 figure (1-7) for Ectomorphy (narrow frame). Look at the pictures in the textbook and make sure you know which body type is which. 7 means a lot of it. There is no consideration for height. So a 2-6-2, would be low amounts of fat, lots of muscular shape, and low in narrowness. Body type is genetically determined. However, it can be altered by training and diet. If you are too endomorphic you need to eat less fat, if you are too mesomorphic eat less carbohydrate, and if you are too ectomorphic eat extra fat and carbohydrate. Body type greatly affects what sport you will naturally be suited to. High endomorphics participate in short, powerful activities (weightlifters, props in rugby). Low flexibility, endurance, speed and agility. High mesomorphics participate in explosive contact sports (ice hockey, rugby). Low in extreme endurance. High ectomorphics participate in endurance activities (running, cycling). Low explosive strength. Sports Specific Diet: People take part in different sports have different diets depending upon the specific demands of their sport. Gymnasts and jockeys need to stay light and avoid fat, games players need lots of energy and eat extra amounts of carbohydrates, weight lifters need weight/mass and strength and eat lots of fat, carbohydrates and proteins. Eating – under-eating, over-eating and when to eat: Very unhealthy. If you use more energy than your eating provides you will lose weight. If sportspeople Under-eating under-eat they run out of energy. A person may eat so little they become anorexic, a mental illness which causes people not to eat. Boxers and jockeys often try to lose weight rapidly to ‘make the weight’. This can cause rapid loss of glycogen and fluid. Very unhealthy. If your body uses less energy than your eating provides you will gain weight. If Over-eating sportspeople over-eat they will carry excess/unwanted weight. Being too much overweight will put too much stress on the heart, bones, joints, and muscles. Long distance athletes eat extra carbohydrates 2-3 days before competition for extra energy – Carbohydrate Loading. Before exercise – last meal ¾hour before exercise, bread, cereal, avoiding fat products. Lots of fluids When to eat During exercise – continue fluid intake before you get thirsty. If you are thirsty, you’re dehydrated After exercise – lots of fluid to re-hydrate, eat carbohydrates after about 1 hour The Effects of Drugs on Health and Performance: Alcohol Smoking Increases the risk of coronary heart disease Impairs thinking, judgement, vision, hearing, Health (CHD) and cancer. Reduces appetite and causes vomiting, causes liver diseases, sense of taste and smell increases weight Reduces lung efficiency, reduces bloods ability Reduces coordination, causes dehydration, Performance to carry oxygen, lowers resistance to illness, lowers glycogen levels, damages immune raises blood pressure system, heat loss. Socially Unacceptable Drugs: Marijuana is the most common. Causes apathy (lack of interest), poor judgement, personality changes. Others include LSD, acid, speed, whiz and many more. These cause heart and brain damage. Performance Enhancing Drugs: These are drugs that help performance. They have either physical and/or psychological benefits. Sportspeople use drugs for a number of reasons. These include: to be the best, for money, due to the pressure of success, because they believe fellow competitors are, or because they are told to. There are four main types: stimulants, narcotics, steroids and diuretics There are many advantages for taking these drugs: alertness, painkilling, increased recovery and to lose weight quickly. However, there are even more dangers: insomnia, dehydration, kidney problems, irritability, high blood pressure, addictive, liver disease, kidney failure and heart failure. Blood Doping: An athlete will train at high altitude (increases the ability of the blood to carry oxygen) and have two pints of this ‘oxygen rich blood’ removed. It is then put back into the athlete immediately prior to competition giving them extra oxygen carrying capacity. This can improve performance by as much as 20%. Personal Hygiene: Skin – protects the body and resists infection, soap and water removes dirt and sweat. Wash hands before meals and after going to the toilet, shower daily, and after all physical activity, acne is a sign of blocked glands, needs regular cleaning and lots of sunlight. Clothing – change regularly, completely change for physical activity, washing sports clothes after sport. Nails – clean and cut regularly Hair – wash regularly, tied back if long. Teeth – clean after every meal, floss to remove excess plaque, regular dental checks. Food Preparation – clean surfaces, clean hands, clean equipment, correct storage, correct cooking. Feet – two common problems. Verrucaes and Athlete’s Foot: Verrucae Athlete’s Foot Explanation Warts on the feet Fungal infection Prevention Avoid contact in public places. Always dry feet carefully and completely Clean feet well Recognition Painful Itching between toes Treatment Prescribed liquid Anti-fungal cream/powder Online Revision from www.bbc.co.uk/schools/gcsebitesize/pe/ FACTORS AFFECTING PARTICIPATION AND PERFORMANCE Section B – Safety Aspects & Risk Assessment in Physical Activity B1 – Prevention of Injury You can prevent injury by: • Knowing the rules of the game, and knowing what you are not allowed to do. Obeying the rules is vital. Allows safe and enjoyable participation. Officials must be respected. They are there to ensure safety. • Correct equipment for safety, wearing the equipment correctly, use of protective equipment for safety such as shin pads, cricket pads, helmets. Condition of equipment must be good so that it actually does what it is meant to. Correct footwear is vital. Footwear is sports specific. Specialist spikes for different Track and Field events. Correct physical state with no jewellery, short fingernails, hair tied back etc. • Balanced competition is vital. The sides must be reasonably even. Balancing can be done by age, weight, sex, and skill level. • Warm up and cool down for physical and mental preparation. Training gives you good physical preparation. It allows you to be ‘fit’ to participate. Training prepares the body for the stresses it will be put under during competition. B2 – Sports Injuries There are many different types of injuries related to sport. Each ahs their own specific signs and symptoms and each are to be responded to or treated in a specific way. Fractures (a break to the bone) – there are two main types: Simple / Closed Bone breaks but stays under the skin Compound / Open Bone breaks and pierces the skin (damage nerves / blood cells) Signs – a recent fall or blow, snapping sound, deformity at site, swelling, signs of shock, lack of movement. If it is a compound fracture there may be heavy bleeding. Response – keep them still, steady, and comfortable, support the injured part, add a splint, reassure them, send for medical help. Joint Injuries: Dislocations (displacement of a bone at a joint) – This is when a bone at a joint is forced out of its normal position. The ligaments (sprained) and/or tendons (strained) around the joint will be damaged. Common in the shoulder, elbow, jaw, thumb and fingers. The signs and responses to a dislocation are the same for a fracture. The only difference is a dislocation is often accompanied by a severe sickening feeling and you often see the deformity caused by the dislocation under the skin. Other Joint Injuries (torn cartilage, twisted ligaments, inflammation of tendons): Injury Sign Response / Treatment Torn Cartilage Pain inside the knee, unable to straighten RICE Twisted Ligaments Pain, swelling, over-stretched in some way RICE Inflammation of Tendons Overuse of tendons, pain inside the elbow – Golfer’s Elbow RICE Overuse of tendons, pain outside the elbow – Tennis Elbow RICE Unconsciousness: Many causes, usually due to head injury, fainting, heart attack, stroke, asphyxia, and shock. The sign is simply no response / limp. Your response should follow: D R A B C D Danger Check for danger to both the injured person and the rescuer Send for medical help immediately R Response ‘squeeze and shout’, check their eyes, check for movement or any speech A Airway Put them in the recovery (lateral) position, clear the airway by tilting the head and check there are no obstructions in the throat B Breathing Look at their chest to see if it rises, listen and feel for their breathing C Circulation Check their pulse If the person is breathing place them in the recovery (lateral) position If the person is not breathing but there is a pulse start mouth-to-mouth resuscitation (EAR-Expired Air Resuscitation) If the person has no pulse start Cardio-Pulmonary Resuscitation (CPR) Concussion: Injury caused by a blow to the head or jaw. Signs are dizziness, shallow breathing, paleness, and temporary loss of memory. Your response is to steady the person, reassure them, ask the person if they can recall the incident. If they are unconscious put them in the recovery (lateral) position and proceed as above. Even after recovery the person should not continue participating. Soft Tissue Injuries (injuries to muscles, ligaments, tendons, cartilage and skin): Such injuries include: sprains, strains, cartilage damage / wear, cuts bruises, and blisters. Injury Explanation Sign Response Sprain Over-stretching or tear of a ligament caused by Pain and swelling RICE a sudden twist Strain Over-stretching or tear of a muscle or tendon Similar to sprain but not as RICE caused by excessive muscular effort serious Cuts Breaking of the skin Minor pain, blood Clean, dry, dress Grazes Top layer of skin removed Minor pain, blood Clean, dry, dress Blisters Damage to skin by heat or friction Lose covering of skin Do not burst. Clean, dry, dress Bruises Damage to capillaries under the skin Dark colour, swelling RICE Cramp Sudden muscular contraction caused by loss Pain Fluid, stretch, of fluid and salt massage R I C E: R I C E stands for Rest, Ice, Compression, Elevation R Rest Rest the injured part I Ice Apply ice to the injured part C Compression Compress by putting light pressure on the injured part E Elevation Elevate the injured part Emergency Procedures – Hypothermia & Dehydration: Hypothermia – occurs when the body temperature is below 35C. Signs are shivering, pale skin, slow pulse rate and may eventually become unconscious. Treatment involves warming the body at the same rate at which the heat was lost. So if they fell into a cold river, you warm them quickly, and if they lost their body temperature over a long period of time, you must warm them slowly. Dehydration – water is important to the body. Water is lost through sweat, urine, and water vapour as you breathe out. Dehydration means the person has a low glucose level, which causes signs of tiredness, nausea, and dizziness. Response is o take on fluid. Prevention is better than cure. Online Revision from www.bbc.co.uk/schools/communities/sosteacher/ FACTORS AFFECTING PARTICIPATION AND PERFORMANCE Section C – Applied Anatomy and Physiology C1 – The Circulatory System The Heart: Remember that right is left and left is right. There are 4 chambers within the heart. The left and right atriums are at the top and the left and right ventricles are at the bottom. The heart is a pump in a double circulatory system. Look at the diagram of the heart in your notes and make sure that you can label: septum (the partition that goes down the middle), superior / inferior vena cava, right atrium, tricuspid valve, right ventricle, pulmonary artery, pulmonary vein, left atrium, bicuspid valve, left ventricle, semi-lunar vales and the aorta. When you read the next section look at the diagram in your notes showing the whole circulatory system. The right atrium and the right ventricle work together to pump deoxygenated blood back to the lungs via the pulmonary artery. When oxygenated in the lungs (gaseous exchange) the reoxygenated blood is transported to the left atrium via the pulmonary veins. This is called pulmonary circulation. The left atrium and the left ventricle work together to pump oxygenated blood out of the aorta to the working muscles where cell respiration takes place. When it uses oxygen it returns to the right side of the heart via the vena cava. This is called systemic circulation. The heart does both of these jobs at the same time. It is a double circulatory system. The left heart is doing its bit at the same time as the right heart is doing its bit. The Blood Vessels: Remember – All arteries carry oxygenated blood from the heart to the muscles (except aorta) All veins carry deoxygenated blood from muscles back to heart (except pulmonary veins) Arteries Veins Capillaries Structure Thickest walls Thinner walls Very thin cells at end of Most elastic (more blood) Thinner muscle outer arteries Blood direction Carry blood from heart Carry blood to heart Blood pressure High pressure Lower pressure Thickness of vessel wall Thick vessel walls Thinner vessel walls Internal diameter Varies to allow flow Similar Very thin Presence of valves Na valves valves Semi-permeable Veins have valves due to the low pressure as blood id being carried to the heart. Valves ensure the blood flows in only one direction. The Heart and Exercise: Heart Rate ‘the number of times the heart beats in one minute’ (average of 72 bpm at rest and up to 220 bpm during strenuous exercise) Stroke Volume ‘the amount of blood pumped out of the heart in each contraction’ Cardiac Output ‘the amount of blood ejected from the heart in one minute’ Cardiac Out = Stroke Volume x Heart Rate Blood (transports O2 to muscles, spreads / regulates temperature, reduces the effect of lactic acid): You must learn what plasma, red blood cells, white blood cells, and platelets do. What is their function? 55% of blood is plasma which transports nutrients and salts in the blood (glucose – for energy, sodium chloride / salt, calcium, and amino acid). It also contains fibrinogen protein. 45% of blood is formed elements (3 parts) • Red blood cells – contain iron rich haemoglobin, which transports O2 from the lungs to the cells • White blood cells – act as a mobile guard protecting the body from disease • Platelets – are very important. Formed in the red bone marrow they will stick together when you cut yourself and bleed. Platelets make the blood clot. Training the Heart, Blood and Blood Vessels: Training will: increase the size of the heart chambers, make the chamber walls thicker, increase the amount and the quality of blood, increase the amount of blood pumped out of the heart in one beat (stroke volume) and therefore increase cardiac output, and make the arteries larger and more elastic. C2 – The Respiratory System The Lungs: The lungs take in oxygen from the air. The oxygen then goes into the blood, reacts with the glucose in the muscles and gives us energy and carbon dioxide. The lungs also remove this carbon dioxide at the same time. Look at the diagram and your notes and make sure you can label: larynx, trachea, bronchi, bronchioles and alveoli. Nasal Passage This filters (by the cilia – hairs in your nose), warms, and moistens the air Larynx (voice box) Protected by the epiglottis, produces sound as air passes over vocal chords Trachea (windpipe) Large flexible tube of rings of rigid cartilage Bronchi Bottom of the trachea where it branches out into two smaller left and right Bronchioles Bronchi branches out into bronchioles Alveoli Tiny air sacs at end bronchioles Look at the diagram and your notes and make sure you can label these five parts. Breathing: The lungs (protected by the rib cage at the sides and the top by the diaphragm at the bottom) are like two inflatable balloons. A pleural membrane (a smooth double skin) surrounds the lungs. These membranes slide across each other at the lungs expand (inspiration) and contract (expiration) reducing friction with the walls of the thorax. The diaphragm is a sheet of muscle that seals the bottom of the chest cavity. The diaphragm controls breathing. Inspiration Diaphragm contracts, descends and flattens. Intercostal muscles contract pulling ribs up. The lung space is now larger, lowering the pressure inside. High outside pressure therefore air rushes in. Expiration Diaphragm relaxes and is pushed up. Intercostal muscles relax causing the rubs to fall under their own weight. The space is now smaller and the pressure inside the lungs is increased pushing air out through both the nose and the mouth. Look at the diagram of the lungs and make sure you can label the ribs, the pleural membrane, the intercostals muscles and the diaphragm. Respiration and Exercise: The alveoli and the lung capillaries touch. The deoxygenated blood in the capillaries take oxygen from the alveoli and goes back to the heart via the pulmonary vein. When the blood leaves the heart (via the aorta) it reacts with the glucose in the body to give energy. Carbon dioxide and water are also produced. This is called cell respiration. Glucose + O2 - - - - - - - energy + CO2 + water The carbon dioxide is taken back to the lungs, into the alveoli, and breathed out through the mouth. Therefore the alveoli has lost oxygen, and gained carbon dioxide. This is called gaseous exchange. This process is repeated again and again in all of the many thousands of alveoli. Inhaled and Exhaled Air: The air you breathe in is different to the air you breathe out. Each has different amounts of oxygen, carbon dioxide and nitrogen. Inhaled air Exhaled Air (as you sleep / at rest) (when you are running) Nitrogen 78% 78% 78% Oxygen 21% 17% 12% Carbon Dioxide 0.04% 4% 9% When you are running (or any kind of full body activity) you use more oxygen and get rid of more carbon dioxide than you do when you are at rest or sleeping. Vital Capacity ‘is the largest volume of air that can be expired after the deepest possible inspiration’. If you do lots of training vital capacity will increase. Tidal Volume ‘is the volume of air that you can breathe in and out normally’. As soon as you start to exercise your tidal volume will start to increase. Don’t forget cardiovascular means heart, blood and blood vessels C3 – Bones Growth: ‘is the process in which cartilage turns to bone’. It takes place as you grow from birth, to repair bones after injury, to replace bones that wear out. Exercise helps the development and growth of bones. There are three stages of bone growth: Ossification • Before birth – skeleton made of cartilage • Young – cartilage changes to bone • Adulthood – hard bones (calcium / collagen) Look at the diagram and your notes and make sure that you can label: epiphysis, diaphysis, cartilage, periosteum, compact bone and cancellous bone. Functions of Bone: The skeleton has five functions / does 5 things: • Gives your body shape (framework) • Protects delicate organs • Gives the body a frame (holds muscles) • Produces blood (red cells in bone marrow) Bone Names & Types: Bone Name Where Found Type of Bone Cranium Skull Flat Sterum Breatsbone Flat Ribs Sides Flat Humerus Upper arm Long Ulna Lower arm (b) Long Radius Lower arm (f) Long Bone Name Where Found Type of Bone Femur Thigh Long Patella Knee irregular Tibia Shin Long Fibula Lower leg (b) Long Scapula Shoulder blade Flat Clavicle Collar bone Long Tarsal Ankle Short Metatarsal Ankles to toes Long Carpal Wrist Short Metacarpal Wrist to fingers Long Phalanges Fingers are toes Long Illium Pelvic girdle, the bits at either side that stick out. Long Bones Used for major movement Short Bones Used to grip and balance Flat Bones Used for protection Irregular Bones Give the body shape and protect Look at the diagram of the skeleton in your notes and make sure that you can label each of the bones listed above. Vertebral Column: Does 5 things (protects spinal cord, supports upper body, allows lots of movement, transmits force, helps posture). There are 33 vertebrae. In between each is a disc of cartilage. It is flexible and strong, yet prone to injury. There are 5 regions: • Cervical (7) – top one is atlas (allows nodding), second one is axis (rotation) • Thoracic (12) – supports the rib cage • Lumbar (5) – largest vertebrae that give attachment for back muscles • Sacral (5) – fused together join to the pelvis giving a strong base for support • Coccyx (4) – fused together, with no special use Look at the diagrams and your notes and make sure that you can label all five of these regions. C4 – Joints, Tendons and Ligaments Joint ‘a place where two or more bones meet – they allow movement’ Cartilage ‘tough, slippery, glassy material’. It acts as a shock absorber in and around the joint which ‘cushions’ the impact forces on the joint when you move. Cartilage also prevents the bones wearing from friction. They have 5 very important bits • Capsule – the casing that surrounds the joint Synovial Joints • Ligaments – bands of fibre that hold the joint in place • Hyaline Cartilage – hard slippery layer at head of bone • Synovial Membrane – layer inside capsule that gives fluid • Synovial Fluid – lubricates the joint to help movement Look at the diagram of a synovial joint and refer to your notes and make sure that you can label each of the joints components. There are 3 different • Ball and Socket – shoulder and hip joints types of Synovial Joints: • Pivot – between atlas and axis in neck • Hinge – elbow and knee joints Joint Movement (joints allow 5 different types of movement: Movement Explanation Practical Example Abduction Moving a bone away from the body Star jump (up) Adduction Moving a bone towards the body Star jump (down) Extension Angle between two bones is increased Kicking a football Flexion Angle between two bones is decreased Pulling leg backing preparation for kicking Rotation Bone moving freely around a joint Bowling a cricket ball Tendons and Ligaments: Tendons ‘attach muscle to bone, are strong and non-elastic’ They attach one end of a muscle to a fixed point (origin), and attach the other end of a muscle to the moving part of the body (insertion). Tendons allow muscles to move bones. Ligaments ‘attach bone to bone’ they also hold joints together, are tough and fibrous. Ligaments prevent dislocation. C5 – Muscles Muscle Types (3 types): Voluntary Move when you want them i.e. biceps Involuntary Not under your control i.e. bladder Cardiac Work automatically and constantly i.e. the heart Muscle Names & Functions: Muscle Where Function Example Triceps Back of upper arm Extends forearm at elbow Putting the shot Biceps Front of upper arm Rotate and bends forearm at elbow Curl Deltoid Back of the shoulder joint Moves shoulder in all directions Arm pull in swimming Pectorals Front of upper chest Moves the shoulder and the arm Arm pull in swimming Trapezius By neck on upper back Controls shoulder girdle Heading a ball Gluteals Lower back / backside Extends the hip joint Walking Quadriceps Front upper leg Extends leg at the knee Kicking Hamstrings Back of upper leg Flexes the knee joint Back stroke leg kick Gastrocnemius Back of lower leg Flexes knee, extends ankle Jumping Latissimus Dorsi Armpit to lower back Adducts arm Back stroke arm pull Abdominal Front / side of stomach Flex / rotates vertebral column Sit-ups Look at the diagram and your notes and make sure that you know where on the diagram each of these muscles are. How Muscles Work: Muscles work in pairs. They work antagonistically. When one muscle contracts across a joint (the primer mover) to bring to bones together, the opposite muscle relaxes and is pulled apart (antagonist). If the biceps contract and shorten, the triceps must relax and lengthen. The same applies for the hamstrings and quadriceps in the legs. Different Types of Muscle Fibres (2 types): Slow Twitch Fibres Fast Twitch Fibres • Good O2 supply • Work without oxygen • Work for long periods of time • Get tired very quickly • Take a long time to contract • Contract very quickly When you walk, Slow twitch Fibres work. If you increase your speed, more Slow Twitch Fibres work. When you go too fast for Slow Twitch Fibres, the fast twitch Fibres will start to work. You probably have 50% Slow Twitch Fibres and 50% Fast twitch Fibres, but this can be altered according to the type of training that you do. Muscle Tone ‘voluntary muscles in a sate of very slight tension, ready and waiting to be used’ Good muscle tone leads to good posture and helps overall fitness. Posture You must keep your body upright with your centre of gravity over the base of your support. You should look elegant, balanced, and comfortable. Good posture prevents curvature of the spine, helps body shape and self-esteem. Other Revision Guides Available approx £ 3.50 approx £ 7.00 approx £ 9.99 approx £ 4.50 ANALYSIS OF PERFORMANCE The Analysis of Performance provides a link between the application of skills (in the context of a practical activity) and the appreciation of the factors affecting participation and performance, which lead to an improvement in performance. You need to develop the skills of analysis and evaluation to enable you to apply informed knowledge to support your decision making. Your experiences in practical activities will provide the basis for such decisions and therefore the assessment is structured to support the decision making process required of the ‘reflective performer’. You will also need to utilise the knowledge and experience gained from a Personal Exercise Plan, to support the decision making process which is required to provide improvements in performance. Initially you will need to develop knowledge of the rules and regulations of an activity and in particular, an appreciation of the role of specific rules. You will also need to develop the observational and analytical skills necessary to acquire information by which to provide data for an informal evaluation of a performance, as well as a range of data recording skills, to enable you to use comparative data analysis. Evaluation of a performance will require you to recognise the relative strengths and weaknesses of the performance in the context of the activity. You should evaluate the performance against your knowledge of the perfect model, in order to identify areas for improvement. For improvements in performance to be realised, you will need to be able to apply your knowledge of tactics, training procedures and principles and related practices to develop strategies to support the improved performance. You will also have gained information from your Personal Exercise Plan. ASSESSMENT OF ANALYSIS OF PERFORMANCE The mark for the Analysis of Performance is given for your work on a chosen activity. The Analysis of Performance may be assessed through discussion about the practical activity selected. Your ability to analyse performance will be based on one activity, jointly selected by yourself and your PE Teacher. Each of the five elements of the decision making process will be equally assessed out of 4, giving a possible total mark out of 20. The five elements are as follows: • Rules (and their role in sport), regulations and terminology • Observation and analysis • Evaluation (interpreting the perfect model), and recognising strengths and weaknesses • Planning strategies, tactics, practices and training to improve performance; making use of your 6 week Personal Exercise Plan (PEP) • Understanding the principles and roles of leadership performance.
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