Infant nutrition

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					INFANT NUTRITION
Megan Butterfield
Emily Hutchison
FCNS 331
                GENERAL GUIDELINES
 0 – 12 months: breast milk or cow protein based
  formula.
 4 – 6 months: introduction to solid foods.

 Diet Supplements:
     Vitamin D
     Iron
     Fluoride




       Infant Nutrition. (n.d.)
             NUTRITION REQUIREMENTS
 An infant’s requirement for calories is
  determined by size, rate of growth, activity, and
  energy needed for metabolic activities.
 Calories of an infants diet are provided by
  protein, fat, and carbohydrates.
 In terms of growth, 50% of an infant’s protein
  requirement is used within the first few months
  of life.
 40 – 50% of an infant’s calories are supplied from
  fat, which is a source of essential fatty acids.
 An infant’s dietary energy comes from
  carbohydrates.
   (Rarback, S.)
                       BREAST MILK
   Research has shown that breast milk is the best food
    for infants during the first 4 – 6 months of life.
   Infants are more likely to be protected from infection,
    illness, and food allergies when fed breast milk.
   Breast milk must be properly handled and stored to
    prevent spoiling.
     Do not store breast milk at room temperature.
     Breast milk must be refrigerated and properly labeled with
      baby’s name and the date/time collected.
     Breast milk must stored in durable, plastic bottles or
      containers.
     Breast milk can refrigerated for 3 - 5 days after collection.

   United States Department of Agriculture. (1998).
                      BREASTFEEDING
   There are many benefits of breastfeeding.
     Breastfeeding strengthens the bond between mother
      and child.
     Infants who are fed breast milk may have a better
      quality of movement.
     Breastfed children may also have better vision.




       Petryk, A., Harris, S. R., & Jongbloed, L. (2007).
           BREASTFEEDING CONTINUED
   Breastfeeding is also beneficial for mothers.
     Breastfeeding burns calories and helps to shrink the
      uterus, which helps moms get back into shape faster.
     Breastfeeding may also protect mothers from breast
      and ovarian cancer.
     A benefit for some mothers would be that
      breastfeeding is quicker and easy to prepare.
     Breastfeeding is also less expensive than bottle
      feeding.


       Feeding Your Infant. (2009).
                  INFANT FORMULA
 The brand of formula chosen to feed an infant is a
  decision made by the infant’s parents and doctor.
 Infant formula should contain iron in order to
  meet nutritional requirements.
     Iron-fortified infant formula is the best alternative to
      breast milk.
     Iron-fortified formula contains the proper balance of
      nutrients and can be easily digested by the baby.
     Some people do not use iron-fortified formula because
      they believe it causes intestinal problems and
      stomach aches, but current studies show that this is
      not true.
       United States Department of Agriculture.
        (1998).
           INFANT FORMULA CONTINUED
   The following milks and formulas are not
    recommended for infants younger than 12 months of
    age:
       Cow’s milk
       Evaporated cow’s milk
       Sweetened condensed milk
       Goat’s milk
       Soy milk
       Imitation milks (made from rice or nuts) or non-dairy
        creamer
       These milks do not contain the proper amounts of the
        nutrients that babies need and can be harmful to their
        health.
       United States Department of Agriculture. (1998).
      TIPS FOR HANDLING FORMULA
 Wash and disinfect all equipment before use.
 Wash and rinse formula can before opening in
  order to prevent contamination.
 Label bottles with infant’s name and date/time
  bottle was prepared.
 Refrigerate prepared bottles until ready to use
  and use within 48 hours.
 Do not let prepared bottles stand at room
  temperature to prevent spoiling.
 Infant formula should not be frozen.

 United States Department of Agriculture. (1998).
                     SOLID FOODS
   The order of introduction of solid foods is not
    important.
   Many recommend introducing one food at a time in
    order to recognize any food allergies.
   In most cases, iron fortified cereals are introduced
    first.
   Choking prevention is very important at this stage
    (Rarback, S.)
   There are many types of solid foods, which include:
    cereals, dairy products, cooked vegetables, chicken,
    rice, and pasta.
   Solid food ingredients that are largely avoided
    include: crisps, eggs, nuts and sugars.
   Caswell, H. (2007)
              PURCHASING
    COMMERCIALLY PREPARED BABY FOOD
   Commercially prepared baby foods are sanitary, safe,
    and nutritious.
   When purchasing baby food, check for “best if used
    by” date and do not purchase if date has passed or if
    seal is broken.
   Choose single-ingredient baby foods and ones
    containing simple ingredients.
   For infants 6 – 12 months, choose baby foods that
    progress in texture and thickness to challenge the
    infant to learn new mouth skills.
   Read the ingredient list and the nutrition label on the
    food package. Avoid baby foods containing salt and
    sugar.
   United States Department of Agriculture. (1998).
               NUTRITION LABELS
 When purchasing baby food, parents and
  caregivers must check the content of additional
  nutrients.
 Information about other vitamins and minerals is
  mandatory only when they are added to enrich
  and/or fortify food.




   United States Department of Agriculture. (1998).
           TIPS FOR SERVING
    COMMERCIALLY PREPARED BABY FOOD
   Serving
       Wash jar and lid and check for broken vacuum seal
        before serving.
       Do not tap jar to prevent breaking glass.
       Remove enough food for one serving to prevent
        contamination.
       Do not microwave baby food in jars because this
        could burn the baby’s mouth.
       Throw away any leftovers.
       Meats and vegetables can be mixed in baby food.

       United States Department of Agriculture. (1998).
      TIPS FOR STORING COMMERCIALLY
            PREPARED BABY FOOD
 Rotate baby food and check “use-by” dates.
 Store un-opened jars in a cool and dry place,
  preferably not in a refrigerator, vehicle, garage,
  or outside.
 Upon opening, label and date jar, store remaining
  food in the refrigerator, and use within 2 days.
 Refrigerator should be set at 40 degrees or cooler.




   United States Department of Agriculture. (1998).
                     WEANING
 Weaning is the transition from a milk-only diet to
  a diet of rich and solid foods.
 Weaning should typically not begin until a child
  is at least 6 months of age, but depending of the
  individual needs of the child, this could begin as
  early as 4 months.
 It is not recommended for premature infants or
  infants younger than 3 months to be given solid
  foods because it can lead to allergies later in life.
 Shepard, A. (2008, September 9).
              WEANING STAGE 1
 There are four stages of weaning.
 Stage 1: Have infant become accustom to the use
  of a spoon during feedings by mixing a teaspoon
  of food with formula. This allows new foods to be
  slowly introduced.




   Shepard, A. (2008, September 9).
                WEANING STAGE 2
   Stage 2: Prepare foods for infant that are mashed
    or pureed. Soft finger foods can also be
    introduced during this stage. The amount of food
    offered should be steadily increased by
    introducing new foods at one meal and then
    progressing to two or three meals.




   Shepard, A. (2008, September 9).
              WEANING STAGE 3
   Stage 3: Between 9 – 12 months, infants have
    acquired the skills necessary to feed themselves.
    They are now able to drink from a cup and eat
    small portions of a meal with a spoon.




   Shepard, A. (2008, September 9).
                 WEANING STAGE 4
   Stage 4: Infant should eat a diet rich in fruit,
    vegetables, and full fat dairy products.




   Shepard, A. (2008, September 9).
               FOOD FUSSINESS
 Eating problems are common concerns for
  parents, infants and toddlers.
 Fluctuations of weight can occur.

 Common problem is the fear of trying new foods.

 Key treatment is to continually expose child to
  new foods.
 Research indicates that parents who exert
  excessive control over what and how much
  children eat may contribute to childhood obesity
  later in life.
 Shepard, A. (2008, September 9).
             CHILDHOOD OBESITY
 Current research has shown that 17.5 % of
  children ages 6 – 10 are obese.
 It is suggested that if this trend continues, two
  thirds of all children will be obese by the year
  2050.
 Childhood obesity can lead to diseases in
  adulthood such as diabetes, coronary heart
  disease, physiological illness and some cancers.
 Shepard, A. (2008, September 9).
CHILDHOOD MALNOURISHMENT
 It has been recently reported that 24% of
  hospitalized children were undernourished or at
  risk of becoming so.
 Chronic illness, developmental delay, neglect,
  and poverty may lead to malnourishment in
  children.
 Premature infants are at a higher risk of
  malnourishment during weaning.
 With the current economic trend, many families
  are worried that they will become unable to feed
  their families a nutritional diet.
 Shepard, A. (2008, September 9).
        HELPFUL COMMUNITY RESOURCES
   Family Service Agency of DeKalb County: (815) 758-8616
      Agency Services: We provide mentoring programs to area youth as
       well as programs directed to teaching disability awareness.
   The Family Center of NIU: (815)753 -1684
      Agency Services: Unique Therapy Services for Families, Couples &
       Individuals in Northern Illinois.
   Moms Connected: (815) 756-8729
     Agency Services: “Moms Connected” meets once a month at the
      Evangelical Free Church for a speaker program, including breakfast
      and child care for children (by age).
   Children's Home + Aid: Healthy Families Illinois Program: (815)
    899-0137
      Agency Services: Assistance for expectant mothers & newborns,
       adoption, pregnancy & early parent counseling.
   American Red Cross: (815) 756-7339
      Agency Services: Assistance for victims of disaster; health & safety
       education.
             HELPFUL WEBSITES ON INFANT
                     NUTRITION
   “Infant Nutrition” is an article found at faqs.org and covers a variety of topics such
    as nutrition requirements, breastfeeding, formula feeding, solid food, self-feeding,
    and the benefits of breastfeeding.
        http://www.faqs.org/nutrition/Hea-Irr/Infant-Nutrition.html

   USDA article about proper nutrition of infants in child care settings. Gives tips on
    how to promote breastfeeding within centers. Also has articles about feeding infants
    and frequently asked questions about infants on specialized diets.
        http://healthymeals.nal.usda.gov/nal_display/index.php?info_center=14&tax_level=3&tax_subject=264
         &topic_id=1364&level3_id=5168

   Medline Plus – article that gives information about both infant and toddler nutrition.
    Discusses basic information, offers other sites to find more information, and
    additional research
        http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/infantandtoddlernutrition.html

   Infant Nutrition – contains information about caloric requirements, composition of
    diet, breastfeeding and formula facts, etc
        http://pedclerk.bsd.uchicago.edu/infantNutrition.html

   USDA website about an infant’s lifecycle and the nutrition infants need to be
    healthy. Contains links to other websites such as Medline Plus and an article from
    the University of Nebraska that talks about what everyone needs to know when
    feeding an infant. Another good article found on this website is from the University
    of Kentucky, which contains PDF files about nourishing a newborn and an infant.
        http://fnic.nal.usda.gov/nal_display/index.php?info_center=4&tax_level=2&tax_subject=257&topic_id=
         1352
    HELPFUL BOOKS ON INFANT NUTRITION
   Nutrition in the Infant: Problems and Practical Decisions
    by Victor R. Preedy, George Grimble, and Ronald Watson
    Dr. Paula’s Good Nutrition Guide for Babies, Toddlers, and
    Preschoolers by Paula Elbirt
   Infant Nutrition: A Holistic Guide for Health and Wellness
    for the Infant by J. Mark and D.C.
   The Everything Cooking for Baby And Toddler Book: 300
    Delicious, Easy Recipes to Get Your Child Off to a Healthy
    Start by Shana Priwer
   The Nutrition of the Infant by Ralph Vincent
   The Mother of All Baby Books: The Ultimate Guide to Your
    Baby’s First Year (U.S. Edition) by Ann Douglas
   Nutrition of the Infant: Problems and Practical Procedures
    by Victor R. Preedy, George Grimble, and Ronald Watson
                                    REFERENCES
Caswell, H. (2007). A Summary of the Infant Feeding Survey. British Nutrition Foundation, 33, 47 -
   52. Retrieved March 25, 2009, from http://web.ebscohost.com/ehost/
   pdf?vid=348hd=10985id9ab9566-44ba-440-ble9692c2003e1ac%40sessa-mgr108
Feeding Your Infant. (2009). Kidshealth. Retrieved April 16, 2009, from The Nemours Foundation Web
   site: http://kidshealt.org/parent/growth/feeding/feednewborn.html
Infant Nutrition. (n.d.). Retrieved April 14, 2009, from http://pedclerk.bsd.uchicago.edu/
    infantNutrition.html
Petryk, A., Harris, S. R., & Jongbloed, L. (2007). Breastfeeding and Neurodevelopment. Infants and
    Young Children, 20(2), 120 - 134. Retrieved March 25, 2009, from http://web.ebscohost.com/ehost/
    pdf?vid=48hidt1208sbt65094df9-b65d-4d4ae55-c98b3b70d650%40sessbnmgr107
Rarback, S. Nutrition Requirements. In Infant Nutrition. Retrieved April 14, 2009, from
   http://www.faqs.org/nutrition/Hea-Irr/Infant-Nutrition.html
Shepard, A. (2008, September 9). Nutrition in infancy and childhood: a healthy start means a healthy
   future. Primary Health Care, 19(1), 41 - 47. Retrieved March 25, 2008, from
   http://web.ebscohost.com/ehost/pdf?vid=188hid=109sid=gab9a566-44ba-44eQble9692c2003eac40
United States Department of Agriculture. (1998). Feeding Infants: A Guide for Use in the Child
   Nutrition Programs. Nutrition and Technical. (Original work published 1988) Retrieved April 14,
   2009, from http://www.fns.usda.gov/tn/resourses/feeding_infants.html

				
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