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Chapter 10 The Jefferson Era

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									  Chapter 10:
The Jefferson Era
     1800-1816
Chapter 10 Outline
Vocabulary (13 words)
Section 1: Jefferson takes office
Section 2: The Louisiana Purchase
Section 3: Foreign Powers
Section 4: The War of 1812
Chapter Summary
    Chapter 10 Vocabulary
Radical- people who take extreme political
positions.
John Marshall- Strong Federalist chief
Justice, served for over 30 years.
Marbury vs. Madison- case in which power
of judicial review was firmly placed in the
Supreme Court.
       Vocabulary (cont.)
Unconstitutional- violates (breaks) the
Constitution
Judicial Review- the Supreme Court has
the final say in interpreting the
Constitution.
Louisiana Purchase- territory bought from
France for $15 million (3 cents per acre.)
Doubled the size of the U.S.
        Vocabulary (cont)
Lewis & Clark expedition- 1803-
exploration of newly gained territory
Sacagawea- Native American who greatly
helped Lewis and Clark explore the land.
Impressment- kidnapping of American
sailors to work on British ships.
Embargo Act of 1807- Closed off trade
with foreign nations. Lost a lot of money
       Vocabulary (cont)
War Hawks- group of Americans who
wanted war with Britain in 1812.
Francis Scott Key- American lawyer who
wrote the Star Spangled Banner
Treaty of Ghent- ended the War of 1812.
         Section 1
When Jefferson became president in
1801, his party replaced Federalist
programs with its own.
               Election of 1800
Presidential     Political Party   Electoral Votes
Candidate
Thomas           Democratic-       73
Jefferson        Republicans
Aaron Burr       Democratic-       73
                 Republicans
John Adams       Federalist        65

Charles          Federalist        64
Pinckney
                Tie Breaker!
Tie breaker goes to the Federalist controlled
House of Representatives.
Alexander Hamilton now has to choose
between two Democratic Republicans!
He fears Burr is too unreliable
“If there be a man in the world I ought to hate, it
is Jefferson, but the public good must be [more
important than] every private consideration” -
Hamilton
July 11th 1804
The Duel
Given that duels were generally fought at short distances
(between 20 and 40 feet was typical), accuracy was not a major
problem.
Dueling pistols generally had quite large calibers: 0.45 in was
typical
A bullet fired from a dueling pistol had a muzzle velocity of
around 800 feet per second, which gave it lethality.
These factors, coupled with the primitive state of emergency
medicine at the time meant that dueling pistols could inflict very
severe gunshot wounds and therefore fatalities were common.
Burr would be charged for murder in both New York
and New Jersey.
Harsh criticism and hatred directed towards him would
end his political career and force him into a self-
imposed exile.
Hamilton's untimely death fatally weakened the
Federalist Party, which combined with the death of
George Washington five years earlier, was left without
a strong leader.
1st National Bank
Thomas Jefferson undoing
   Federalist programs
Ended the Alien and Sedition Acts.
Released prisoners of the Alien and
Sedition Acts.
Ended unpopular taxes- Whiskey tax.
Reduced government jobs.
Reduced the size of the military.
Used tariffs and land sales to reduce the
national debt.
John Marshall
1755- 1835
1st of 15 children   Chief Justice to the
                     Supreme Court.
                     Member of the Federalist
                     party.
                     Decided over 1000
                     cases.
                     Most important decision,
                     Marbury vs Madison.
                Marbury vs
                 Madison


William Marbury               James Madison
*Federalist                   *Democratic-Republican
•Made Justice of the Peace    *Secretary of State- in
by John Adams.                charge of appointing
•*Sued Madison after he was   judges.
denied his job.               *Denies William Marbury
                              his position as justice of the
                              peace for the District of
                              Columbia.
  Ruling
Supreme Court Rules Against William
Marbury.
Law in which Marbury sued was
Unconstitutional.
Supreme Court Grabs the power of
Judicial Review!
             Main Ideas
How was the tie between Jefferson and
Burr decided after the election of 1800?

What important power was gained from
Marbury vs Madison?
          Section 2
Jefferson purchased the Louisiana
Territory in 1803 and doubled the size of
the United States.
New Orleans,
Strategic port
needed for
traveling up the
Mississippi River.
      Louisiana Purchase
In 1802, Spain closed the port of New
Orleans to the United States.
Spain later gave it back to France, who
planned to create colonies.
Angry Americans wanted to go to war
against Spain and France.
Jefferson wanted to avoid war and offered
to buy the port of New Orleans from
France.
         Louisiana Purchase
Can Thomas Jefferson buy the land?
Does the Constitution say anything about the
President buying land?
No, A loose interpretation of the Constitution is
needed.
One similar to Hamilton’s views on the
Constitution.
Jefferson also favored an agricultural economy
and farmers needed land.
         Louisiana Purchase.
The French leader Napoleon Bonaparte offered
to sell the Louisiana territory for $15 million or 3
cents per acre.




France had piled up bills from its recent war
with Britain.
France was having trouble with other colonies
and another colony would not be a good move.
 Louisiana
 Explored!
Capt. Meriwether Lewis and Lt. William Clark
lead a crew of 40 explorers.
They meet native American guide,
Sacagawea, she helps them navigate through
the unknown land.
Zebulon Pike sets out and explores the
southern region of the new territory.
          Section 3
Jefferson tried to avoid involvement in the
problems of other nations.
“Our Country! In her relationships with
  foreign nations may she always be in the
  right; but our country, right or wrong.”
              -- Stephen Decatur, 1816
 Jefferson’s Foreign Policy
“[America is] kindly separated by nature
and a wide ocean from the exterminating
havoc [war] of one quarter of the globe.”
Jefferson advised the United Sates to
seek the friendship of all nations, but to
enter into entangling alliances with none.
Problems with England and France
  The U.S. manages to stay out of the war
  between England and France.
  The U.S. makes money selling to both
  countries.
  By 1805, England is angry that the U.S. is
  supplying France with food and supplies.
•England
creates a partial
blockade,
allowing U.S.
ships to deal
with other
countries (not
France!)
   Decisions…Decisions
France gets mad! They impose their own
rules.
This places U.S. in a difficult position.
If the U.S. obeys British rules, then France
can attack U.S. ships.
If the U.S. obeys French rules, then Britain
can attack U.S. ships.
Britain also begins to kidnap U.S. sailor,
impressment.
                               I don’t think they
You are going to                     care!
work for us, like it
     or not!
       Hey man, I’m not even
           British. I’m an
            American!




   Impressment - kidnapping of American
   sailors to work on British ships.
      Trade as a Weapon
Instead of declaring war, Jefferson asks
congress to stop all trade with foreign
nations.
Embargo Act of 1807- closes all trade to
and from foreign nations.
U.S. merchants lost a lot of money.
Later changed, to allow U.S. ships to trade
with any country except Britain or France.
    Native American unity
Since the Battle of Fallen Timbers native
Americans continued to lose land.
Chief Tecumseh believed that the reason
Natives kept losing land was because they
were divided into many different tribes.
He slowly began to unite the different
tribes of the Ohio valley.
Lost the Battle of Tippecanoe,
sets back efforts to unite the tribes.
     War Hawks
 The British begin to supply the
natives with weapons.
This further angers Americans,
increases hatred toward the British.
Americans who demanded war
were known as War Hawks. One
such American was Henry Clay.
They wanted Britain out of North
America!
The U.S. Declares War on Britain
on June 18, 1812.
           Main Ideas
How did the British and French interfere
with American shipping?
How did Jefferson respond to the
Interference?
Why did the War Hawks favor war?
           Section 4
Angered by Britain’s interference in the
nation’s affairs, the United States went to
war.

    Help
     !
Causes of the War of 1812
      The War begins
Britain really did not want to go to
war with the United States.
They were already involved in a
war with France.
Wars are expensive. $$$$
The War of 1812 is divided into 2
phases.
    The War of 1812
1812-1814 England focuses on its
war with France.
1814-1815 After defeating France,
Britain focuses its energy on the
U.S.
War officially ends with the Treaty
of Ghent.
        Stats before the War
                               Britain
    United States
                        Army- 48,163
Army- less than 7,000
men.                    Navy- War Ships: 11
                        •Frigates: 34
Navy- 16 ships          •Other vessels: 52
Experience- poorly      Experience- Highly
trained and equipped.   experienced. Recent
                        war with France has
                        toughened many
                        soldiers.
  The First phase of the War
The most important battle took place on
Lake Erie.
Oliver Hazard Perry took control of the U.S
infant fleet.
Defeated British attempts at controlling the
lake.
“We have met the enemy and they are
ours.”- Commodore Perry
       First Phase (cont)
Battle of the Thames- General Harrison
defeats British forces in Canada.
Ends British threat in the Northwest.
Chief Tecumseh dies in battle while
fighting on the British side.
Britain sets up
blockade 1812
Britain
captures
Washington
D.C. and
burns down
the White
House.- 1814
General
Jackson
defeats the
British in New
Orleans-1815
  Second Phase of the War
After defeating Napoleon in 1814, Britain
turns its attention to the U.S.
Francis Scott Key wrote the Star Spangled
banner during the British attack on Fort
McHenry.
British navy is defeated during the Battle
of Lake Champlain, September 1814.
Treaty of Ghent is signed on December
24, 1814. It ends the War.
      Battle of New
        Orleans
Unaware of the peace, Andrew Jackson's
 forces moved to New Orleans, in late
1814 to defend against a large-scale British
invasion.
 Jackson defeated the British at the Battle of
New Orleans on January 8, with over 2000
British casualties and fewer than 100 American
losses.
 It was hailed as a great victory, making Andrew
Jackson a national hero
          Legacy of War
Treaty of Ghent ends war, leaving no clear
winner.
No territory changed hands. Trade
disputes were not resolved.
Proved that the U.S. could hold its own
against the mighty British military.
Results of the War of 1812
Chapter Summary

								
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