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Bones Joints Tendons Ligaments and Muscles

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					             Bones, Joints, Tendons, Ligaments and Muscles
   1. When contracting, the gastrocnemius muscle:
A Straightens the arm at the elbow
B Bends the leg at the knee
C Points the toes
D Flexes the abdomen

   2. Which of the following statements best describes a function of ligaments?
A They provide movement for the joint
B They provide stability for the joint
C They provide muscle attachment to bones
D They provide protection for the surface of bones

   3. Which of these pairs of muscles is an antagonistic pair
A Gastrocnemius / Hamstring
B Deltoid / Pectorals
C Bicep / Tricep
D Abdominals / Intercostals

   4. Ossification is
A The formation of bone from cartilage
B The area of growth within a bone
C The formation of cartilage from bone
D The outer skin surrounding a bone

   5. What type of joint allows all types of movement
A Ball and Socket
B Pivot
C Hinge
D Gliding

   6. What type of joint is formed by the tibia, fibia, femur and patella
A Ball and Socket
B Pivot
C Hinge
D Gliding

   7. When contracting, the hamstrings muscle:
A Straightens the arm at the elbow
B Bends the leg at the knee
C Points the toes
D Flexes the abdomen

   8. In the downward phase of the bicep curl which muscle is working eccentrically:
A Pectorals
B Deltoid
C Bicep
D Tricep


   9. Which of the following statements is an explanation of isometric exercise?
A Muscle contracting resulting in movement of the body.
B Muscle contracting resulting in no movement of the body.
C Muscle contraction occurring when running downhill.
D Muscle contraction occurring when running uphill.

                                           C. Nicklin
                                              2006
   10. Explain, in simple terms, what is meant by the term aerobic. With regard to respiration
       and give an example of a running event in which respiration is mostly aerobic.


   Releasing energy with the use of oxygen e.g. Marathon


   11. What type of muscle fibres would be used when an athlete is working aerobically?
       Slow twitch

   12. An athlete sprints a fast 100 metres race. The list below identifies changes which occur
       in the body from the start of the race to the end of the recovery period.

In the table below, list the changes that take place in their correct order. The first and
last events have been done for you. Each of the letters A to E should be used once only.

A She breathes quickly and respires aerobically
B The oxygen debt is repaid
C Her muscles ache (fatigue)
D Lactic acid forms in her muscles
E She begins anaerobic respiration in her muscles
F She breathes slowly and respires aerobically
                              ORDER OF EVENTS              LETTER
                                     1                        F
                                     2                        A
                                     3                        E
                                     4                       D
                                     5                        C
                                     6                        B
                                     7                        F


   13. What is the definition of a joint? The meeting of two or more bones

   14. What are the three types of muscle fibre? Cardiac; voluntary(striated, skeletal)
       involuntary (smooth)

   15. Give an example of each Heart Bicep stomach muscles

   16. Explain what is meant by the terms origin and insertion origin is were a muscle is
       attached to a stationary bone; insertion is were a muscle is attached to the boe it
       moves (or similar)

   17. What do you understand by the terms isotonic and isometric Isotonic = Muscle
       contracting resulting in movement of the body Isometric = Muscle contracting resulti ng
       in no movement of the body

Figure 2 is a picture of a striker shooting in football




                                              C. Nicklin
                                                 2006
18. The knee joint plays an important role in football. Name the two muscles, which are
    primarily responsible for the action of the knee joint shown in Figure 1.

19. Name the bones that make up the knee joint. Tibia;fibia,femur and patella

20. What are the four functions of the skeleton? Movement, Blood production support
    protection

21. What are the four types of bone? Long short flat irregular

22. What are the three types of joint? Fixed, slightly moveable freely moveable(synovial)

23. Give an example of each? Skull vertebrae elbow

24. What do tendons do? Attach muscle to bone

25. What do ligaments do? Attach bone to bone

26. Identify the types of movement performed that occur at the elbow during the
    preparation and the execution (catching and passing) of the chest pass. Flexion
    followed by extension

27. A standing sergeant jump (vertical jump test) is a frequently used fitness test. Identify
    the type of movement that would take place at the knee joint during the preparation
    and the execution of a sergeant jump. Flexion followed by extension

28. Identify two muscles used in both the preparation and execution of the movement
    (sergeant jump (vertical jump test) hamstrings and quadriceps




                                        C. Nicklin
                                           2006
29. Label the following diagram




                                  C. Nicklin
                                     2006
   30. What type of movement is shown in each of the diagrams below?
Add the appropriate number (1-6)
   1. Extension – Straightening or extending a limb.
   2. Flexion – Bending or flexing a limb.
   3. Abduction – Moving a limb away from the centre line of the body.
   4. Adduction – Moving a limb towards the centre line of the body.
   5. Rotation – A turning or rotational movement of a limb or body part.
   6. Circumduction – The ability of a limb to be moved in circles.

What type of movement is shown in each of the diagrams below? Add the
appropriate number (1-6) from above.




      3                                     4          6




                   2                        1          5




                                     C. Nicklin
                                        2006

				
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