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BIOLOGY Cells Tissue Organs Organ Systems

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BIOLOGY Cells Tissue Organs Organ Systems Powered By Docstoc
					BIOLOGY – Cells, Tissue, Organs, Organ Systems

Key Terms
Cell                                         Organ system                              Benign tumour
Cell theory                                  organ                                     Malignant tumour
Prokaryotes                                  tissue                                    Metastasis
Eukaryotes                                   Stem cells
Cell specialization                          tumour

     1. ______________A theory that states that all Living things are made up of one or more cells and their products
     2. ______________simple single cell organism which does not have a nucleus or other membrane bound
         organelles
     3. Plant, animal cells are example of _____________ cell which have complex internal organization including
         bound organelles and nucleus.
     4. _____________is a basic unit of life
     5. ____________ Collection of similar cells that perform a particular, but limited, function
     6. _____________ is a collection of organs and structures that work together to perform a major vital body
         function.
     7. _____________A structure composed of different tissues working together to perform a complex body function
     8. ____________ a process that leads cells to perform particular function in the body
     9. Unspecialized cells are called _________________________.
     10. ___________________is a mass of disfunctional cells that have a grown from mutant parents
     11. _________________ harmless tumour
     12. ________________ Parts of these tumours can break off and spread throughout your body depositing new
         tumours, perhaps in vital organs.

Organelles

Chloroplast           ___________Organelle that controls directs the functions within the cell and contains DNA.
Nucleus               ___________Organelle that breaks down materials and releases energy into the cell.
Cytoplasm             ___________Organelle made of gel-like material that contains water and nutrients for the cell.
Golgi Bodies          ___________Organelle that forms the boundary of the cell and controls what comes in and goes out of
Lysosomes             the cell. Composed of double layer of phospholipids.
ribosomes             ___________Organelle found in cells that contain chlorophyll and use light energy to make food for
Centrioles            the cell.
Cell membrane         ____________ site of protein synthesis
Mitochondria          ___________ series of canals and tubules that carry substances (proteins) from one part of cell
Cell wall             to another
ER                    ___________ Modifies and packages proteins and that are sent to it from the rough ER.
                      ___________ Digest worn-out or non usable proteins, structures, and foreign substances
                      __________ very important during mitosis
                      __________ is a rigid structure around the cell that provides strengths, protection and support.
                      __________ organelle that store nutrients, waste and other substances used by the cell.


Mitosis: Use complete sentences along with a diagram to explain each of these terms. Be very specific and include
example where it is appropriate.
Centromere                                                    Interphase
Sister chromatids                                             G1 phase of the interphase
Chromosomes                                                   S phase of the interphase
DNA                                                           G2 phase of the interphase
Cell cycle                                                    apoptosis
Stages of Mitosis




Tissues
Epithelial tissue                                              Muscle tissue
Connective tissue                                              Nervous tissue
Above words can be sued more than once for the
following statements:

_______ Act as protective linings and coverings. In some locales, absorption and secretion are important functions of
these lining.
____________ is a tissue with unique capability to contract or shorten. Allows movement.
_________ serve as the complex telecommunications network of the body. These tissues act in a sensory capacity, to
receive, disseminate, and store information collected from receptors.
___________Provides support and protective structures

Skin is an example of _____________________tissue
Lining of kidneys is an example of ______________ tissue
Blood is an example of ___________________ tissue
Heart has this type of tissue _________________________
Brain has this type of tissue ____________________________
Short Answers
   1. State two similarities and two differences between plant and animal cells.
   2. Identify the type of cell shown below.
           a. Name all the numbered parts
           b. Describe the function of parts 2, 3, 6 and 10.


                                      2                      1




   3. Explain why the cells can be considered to be the “building block” of life.
   4. What are the two main functions of cells?
   5. Explain the importance of DNA/chromosome replication during the synthesis phase of interphase.
   6. Compare and contrast normal cell vs. cancerous cell.
                                            Normal Cell                           Cancer Cell
      Mitosis
      Number of divisions during life
      span
      Cell to cell adhesion
      Cell to cell interaction
      Apoptosis

   7.    List three factors that cause cancerous mutations
   8.    Explain what does angiogenesis mean?
   9.    List three common cancer treatments.
   10.   Describe the events in the cell cycle.
11. What stages of mitosis do you see in the following photo? Explain your thinking.




12.   Describe the meaning of the term apoptosis and state its importance
13.   Define the term “stem cell.”
14.   Compare and contrast embryonic stem cells and adult stem cells
15.   Explain the role of cell specialization in the development of tissue.

16. Fill the table below
    Organ System                            Organs Involved                     Basic Function
    Skeletal
    Muscle
    Digestive
    Respiratory
    Circulatory
    Nervous
    Endocrine
    Excretory
    Reproductive
    Immune

17. Explain how the respiratory, circulatory and nervous systems maintain homeostasis (balance) while you
    are playing outside on a sunny day.
18. The Male Reproductive System:
A. Testes                                               _____ Secretion of a fluid rich in carbohydrates
B. Epididymis                                           _____ Secretion of a fluid to neutralize traces of urine
C. Vas deferens                                         _____ Storage of sperm
D. Seminal vescicles                                    _____ Secretion of a lubricant
E. Prostate gland                                       _____ Production of sperm
F. Cowper’s gland                                       _____ Transport of sperm from their place of storage
                                                        in anticipation of ejaculation


   19. The Female Reproductive System:

A. Ovaries                                              _____ Birth canal and repository for sperm
B. Fallopian tubes                                      _____ Opening between vagina and uterus
C. Uterus                                               _____ Lining of the place where the fertilized egg gets
                                                        implanted
D. Cervix                                               _____ Production of eggs
E. Vagina                                               _____ Carries the egg to the place of implantation.
                                                        Fertilization of the egg takes place here.
F. Endometrium                                          _____ Place where a fertilized egg develops

   20. The reproductive hormones

A. Testosterone                                         ______ It is secreted as the follicle develops
B. FSH                                                  ______ Found in both males and females, but it is 60X
                                                        more in males than in females
C. LH                                                   ______ Its concentration is high during pregnancy
D. Estrogen                                             ______ It stimulates ovulation
E. Progesterone                                         ______ It stimulates the follicle to develop


   21. Use the following terms to describe the menstrual cycle.

Ovary                  Follicle              FSH                   Estrogen                Pituitary gland
Egg                    Corpus luteum         LH                    Progesterone            Menses
Follicular phase       Luteal phase          Unfertilized          Endometrium             Thickening
Ovulation              Fallopian tube        Implantation          Shedding

   22. Define the following terms:
          a. Meiosis
          b. Gonads
          c. Gametes
          d. Oogenesis
          e. Spermatogenesis
          f. Secondary sex characteristics

				
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