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Practical Pharmaceutical Inorganic Chemistry

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                <p>ISBN: 978-81-909042-1-6</p>
<p><strong>Introduction</strong></p>
<p>Medicines are required to meet quality and safety standards. A list of
possible impurities can be compiled from knowledge of the raw materials
used, the method of manufacture and the stability of the product. The
standard, therefore, include a description, solubility, physical
constants, identification tests, tests to ascertain the contamination and
or decomposition, and assay.</p>
<p>The first year Pharm.D syllabus for practicals in Pharmaceutical
Inorganic Chemistry is divided into different sections as detailed below
and focuses on some important aspects of a monograph of a drug substance
and other relevant information.</p>
<ol>
<li>Limit tests for certain anions and metallic impurities: Chlorides,
Sulphates, Iron, Heavy metals, Arsenic and modified limit test for
Chlorides, and Sulphates.</li>
<li>Quantitative methods (Assay): Ammonium Chloride (Acid - base
titration), Ferrous Sulphate (Cerimetry), Copper Sulphate (Iodometry),
Calcium Gluconate (Complexometry), Hydrogen Peroxide (Permanganometry),
Sodium Benzoate (Non - aqueous titration), Sodium Chloride (modified
Volhard’s method), Potassium Iodide (Oxidimetry - titration with
potassium Iodate), Barium as Barium Sulphate (Gravimetry), and Sodium
Antimony Gluconate or Antimony Potassium Tartrate (Oxidimetry - titration
with Iodine solution).</li>
<li>Estimation of Mixtures (any two): Sodium Hydroxide and Sodium
Carbonate, Boric Acid and Borax, and Oxalic Acid and Sodium Oxalate.</li>
<li>Tests for Identity (any three): Sodium Bicarbonate, Barium Sulphate,
Ferrous Sulphate, and Potassium Chloride.</li>
<li>Tests for Purity (any two): Swelling power of Bentonite, Acid
neutralising capacity in Aluminium Hydroxide Gel, Ammonium salts in
Potash Alum, and presence of Iodates in Potassium Iodide.</li>
</ol>
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<p>Preparations (any two): Boric Acid, Potash Alum, Calcium Lactate, and
Magnesium Sulphate.</p>
<p><strong><br> </strong></p>
<h2>CONTENTS</h2>

<p><strong>Chapter</strong></p>
<p><strong>Experiments</strong></p>
<p><strong>Page Number</strong></p>
<p><strong>1</strong></p>
<p><strong>Limit tests</strong></p>
<p>�</p>

<p>1.1</p>
<p>Chlorides</p>
<p>�</p>

<p>1.2</p>
<p>Sulphates</p>
<p>�</p>

<p>1.3</p>
<p>Iron</p>
<p>�</p>

<p>1.4</p>
<p>Heavy metals</p>
<p>�</p>

<p>1.5</p>
<p>Arsenic</p>
<p>�</p>

<p>1.6</p>
<p>Modified limit test for chlorides and sulphates</p>
<p>�</p>
<p><strong>2</strong></p>
<p><strong>Quantitative Analysis</strong></p>
<p>Introduction to Volumetric analysis</p>
<p>�</p>

<p>2.1</p>
<p>Assay of Ammonium Chloride (Acid -base titration)</p>
<p>�</p>

<p>2.2</p>
<p>Assay of Ferrous Sulphate (Cerimetry)</p>
<p>�</p>

<p>2.3</p>
<p>Assay of Copper Sulphate (Iodometry)</p>
<p>�</p>

<p>2.4</p>
<p>Assay of Calcium Gluconate (Complexometry)</p>
<p>�</p>

<p>2.5</p>
<p>Assay of Hydrogen Peroxide (Permanganometry)</p>
<p>�</p>

<p>2.6</p>
<p>Assay of Sodium Benzoate (Non-aqueous titration)</p>
<p>�</p>

<p>2.7</p>
<p>Assay of Sodium Chloride (Modified Volhard’s method)</p>
<p>�</p>

<p>2.8</p>
<p>Antimony Sodium Tartrate (Oxidimetry - titration with iodine
solution).</p>
<p>�</p>

<p>2.9</p>
<p>Sodium Antimony Gluconate (Oxidimetry - titration with iodine
solution).</p>
<p>�</p>

<p>2.10</p>
<p>Assay of Potassium Iodide (Oxidimetry - titration with potassium
iodate),</p>
<p>�</p>

<p>2.11</p>
<p>Assay for Barium as Barium Sulphate (Gravimetry)</p>
<p>�</p>
<p><strong>3</strong></p>
<p><strong>Estimation of Mixtures </strong></p>
<p>�</p>

<p>3.1</p>
<p>Sodium hydroxide and Sodium Carbonate</p>
<p>�</p>

<p>3.2</p>
<p>Boric Acid and Borax</p>
<p>�</p>

<p>3.3</p>
<p>Oxalic Acid and Sodium Oxalate</p>
<p>�</p>
<p><strong>4</strong></p>
<p><strong>Tests for Identity </strong></p>
<p>�</p>

<p>4.1</p>
<p>Sodium Bicarbonate</p>
<p>�</p>

<p>4.2</p>
<p>Barium Sulphate</p>
<p>�</p>

<p>4.3</p>
<p>Ferrous Sulphate</p>
<p>�</p>

<p>4.4</p>
<p>Potassium Chloride.</p>
<p>�</p>
<p><strong>5</strong></p>
<p><strong>Test for Purity </strong></p>
<p>�</p>

<p>5.1</p>
<p>Swelling power of Bentonite</p>
<p>�</p>

<p>5.2</p>
<p>Acid neutralising capacity of Aluminium Hydroxide Gel</p>
<p>�</p>

<p>5.3</p>
<p>Ammonium salts in Potash Alum</p>
<p>�</p>

<p>5.4</p>
<p>Adsorption power of Heavy Kaolin</p>
<p>�</p>

<p>5.5</p>
<p>Presence of Iodates in Potassium Iodide</p>
<p>�</p>
<p><strong>6</strong></p>

<h3>Preparations</h3>
<p>�</p>

<p>6.1</p>
<p>Boric Acid</p>
<p>�</p>

<p>6.2</p>
<p>Potash Alum</p>
<p>�</p>

<p>6.3</p>
<p>Calcium Lactate</p>
<p>�</p>

<p>6.4</p>
<p>Magnesium Sulphate</p>
<p>�</p>

<p>�</p>
<p><strong>Appendix I</strong> (Preparation of Volumetric Solution)</p>
<p>�</p>

<p>�</p>
<p><strong>Appendix II</strong> (Reagents and Standard Solutions)</p>
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