In this Issue - Snyderville Basin Water Reclamation District

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In this Issue - Snyderville Basin Water Reclamation District Powered By Docstoc
					In this Issue

 2   Introduction -
     Endocrine Disrupting Chemicals
     and Pharmaceuticals and
     Personal Care Products: A
     Closer Look at Occurrence,
     Relevance, and Treatment

 3   Project Updates

 6   Feature Story -
     Occurrence and Impact of
     Endocrine Disrupting Chemicals
     in Water and Wastewater

12   What’s New

                              March 9th, 2008 - The Associated Press                                                                  and EDCs in Reclaimed Water,” pp. 5; and
                              reports that a vast array of pharmaceuticals                                                            “Carollo Studies the Fate of EDCs and
                              — including antibiotics, anti-convulsants,                                                              PPCPs Through Advanced Wastewater
                              mood stabilizers, and sex hormones                                                                      Membrane Systems and the Biological
                              — have been detected in the drinking                                                                    Impact of Effluent on Aquatic Organisms,”
                              water supplies of at least 41 million                                                                   pp. 10) and an example of what one
                              Americans.                                                                                              wastewater utility is doing to manage
                                                                                                                                      EDCs in their effluent (“Testing and
                              Recent press releases and media                                                                         Design of Advanced Treatment Facilities
                              attention have raised substantial                                                                       to Remove EDCs/PPCPs in Park City, UT,”
                              concerns among the public, politicians,                                                                    pp. 3). Finally, our What’s New section
                              and regulators about the potential                                                                              tackles the question all this new
                              implications of the presence of endocrine                                                                            information raises: “What Does
                              disrupting chemicals (EDCs) and            Our research team is investigating the                                        It All Mean?,” pp. 12.
                              pharmaceuticals and personal care          occurrence, fate, treatment, and significance of
                              products (PPCPs) in water for human        trace organic compounds in water and wastewater.                                       It is our intent
                              health and the environment. As a                                                                                                      that this
                              result, the water and wastewater community         related microcontaminants. Supplementing                                           Special Edition
                              faces many questions, including:                   this overview of EDC occurrence and                                                 of Research
                                                                                 effects are four Project Updates highlighting                                   Solutions provides
                              1. Are there potential human health and/           some current Carollo-led projects that are          you with a snapshot of some of the latest
                                  or aquatic impacts from these trace            advancing our understanding of how best             information on EDCs that may be useful for
                                  contaminants?                                  to mitigate EDCs in water, wastewater,              water and wastewater utility managers as
                              2. What is the appropriate level of                and reuse water. This includes both on-             they go forward in assessing whether or not
                                  treatment?                                     going research into the efficacy of various         this is an issue for your utility, and if so, how
                              3. What technologies can we use?                   treatment methods (“Removal of NDMA,                you might approach managing it.
                              4. How much will it cost?                          EDCs, and PPCPs from South Delta Water,”
                                                                                 pp. 4; “Filtration and Destruction of PPCPs         — Andrew Salveson, Special Editor
                              This special edition of Research Solutions
                              was put together by Carollo, working with
                              some of its research partners in emerging               What are “pharmaceutically active compounds”?
                              contaminants, to provide water and
                              wastewater utility managers with up-to-                 Pharmaceuticals include human and veterinary drugs, both prescription and
                              date information on the important issues of             over-the-counter medications. Examples of anthropogenic pharmaceuticals that
                              occurrence, impact, and treatment of these              have been measured in the environment include antibiotics, antidepressants,
                              chemicals as it pertains to drinking water,             heart medications, anti-convulsants, pain relievers, oral contraceptives, and x-ray
                              wastewater, and reclaimed water.                        contrast media. The term “pharmaceutically-active compounds” (PhACs) is
                                                                                      sometimes used in recognition of the fact that both the parent compounds and/or
                              In this issue’s Feature Story (“Occurrence              their biologically active degradation products may be found in the environment.
                              and Impact of Endocrine Disrupting
re s e ar ch so l ut io n s

                              Chemicals in Water and Wastewater,”                     PhACs and personal care products (PCPs) are often grouped together under the
                              pp. 6), Dr. Shane Snyder distills and                   acronym “PPCPs.” Most PPCPs are active ingredients or preservatives in cosmetics,
                              simplifies the confusing mountain of data               toiletries, fragrances, sunscreen lotions, and insect repellents. Endocrine disrupting
                              published on EDCs to help readers better                chemicals (EDCs) are substances that can interfere with the actions of hormones
                              understand where they have been observed,               in the body. Hundreds of chemicals have been identified to be EDCs or potential
          2                   what we know and don’t know about their                 EDCs, including industrial chemicals, pesticides, PPCPs, combustion byproducts
                              effects on the environment and in humans,               (natural and anthropogenic), metals, inorganic ions, organic substances naturally
                              and how Federal and State regulators                    found in plants and fungi, and hormones excreted by humans and other animals.
                              currently approach managing EDCs and

Testing and Design of Advanced Treatment
Facilities to Remove EDCs/PPCPs in Park City, UT
Background and Design Objectives                 Results            KEY TEAm mEmbERS
                                                                                                  For each removal technique, sampling
Snyderville Basin Water Reclamation              and Project                                      of treated and untreated effluent was
                                                                    clint Rogers
District (SBWRD) in Park City, UT,                                                                designed to quantify and compare EDC
                                                 Direction          (
                                                                                                  concentrations, estrogenic activity (by
operates two wastewater treatment                Bench- and         craig Ashcroft, P.E.
facilities, East Canyon and Silver Creek.                                                         E-Screen bioassay), and water quality
Measurable concentrations of EDCs and                                                             parameters (biological oxygen demand
                                                 testing of GAC contactors was conducted
PPCPs were found in both the influent and                                                         [BOD], total suspended solids [TSS],
                                                 at East Canyon using tertiary effluent from
effluent from these facilities; SBWRD is                                                          total organic carbon [TOC], ultraviolet
                                                 the existing granular media filters. Three
concerned about the potential hormonal                                                            transmittance at 254 nm [UVT], and/
                                                 GAC columns were dosed at a filter loading
impacts of treated effluent on sensitive fish                                                     or coliform counts). In an attempt to
                                                 rate of 3.5 gpm/ft2, which matches the rate
species. As part of a design project currently                                                    reduce the cost of analytical chemistry
                                                 of the full-scale filters, and sampled once a
underway to upgrade and expand both                                                               and focus on some of the EDC compounds
                                                 week over a 6-week study period. Samples
facilities, Carollo was asked to look for ways                                                    that may contribute most to the potential
                                                 were also sent to labs for bench-scale testing
to incorporate EDC/PPCP treatment.                                                                estrogenicity of fish, only the first phase of
                                                 of advanced oxidation processes (ozone,
                                                                                                  an analytical quantification method (USGS
                                                 ozone/peroxide, UV, and UV/peroxide).
Carollo conducted bench- and pilot-scale                                                          Method 2, LC/MS APCI positive-ion mode
                                                 Applied Process Technology, Inc. (Pleasant
studies of three EDC/PPCP treatment                                                               only) was used for pilot and bench-scale
                                                 Hill, CA) performed testing on the plant
technologies: granular activated carbon                                                           analyticals. This narrowed the spectrum
                                                 effluents using three different ozone doses
(GAC) adsorption, ozone/peroxide                                                                  of possible EDC/PPCP tests to just six
                                                 (5, 10, 15 ppm) and two ozone/peroxide
advanced oxidation, and ultraviolet light                                                         compounds: Carbamazepine, Estrone,
                                                 doses (peroxide:ozone molar ratios of 0.35
(UV)/peroxide advanced oxidation.                                                                 Estradiol, Ethinyl Estradiol-17 alpha,
                                                 and 0.70 at an ozone dose of 5 ppm). UV
Reverse osmosis membranes were not                                                                Progesterone, and Testosterone. Results are
                                                 and UV/peroxide testing was performed
considered due to budget and concentrate                                                          summarized as follows:
                                                 by Dr. Karl Linden at Duke University
disposal limitations. Carollo evaluated the      (Durham, NC) [he is now at University
treatment effectiveness of each technology                                                        •	 Plant effluent concentrations for the six
                                                 of Colorado-Boulder]. Plant effluent was
and estimated the cost of full-scale                                                                   EDCs of interest ranged from 146 to
                                                 treated at a UV fluence of 80, 200, and
implementation.                                                                                        <1 ng/L.
                                                 400 mJ/cm2 and for each fluence three
                                                                                                  •	   Estrogenic activity of the plant effluent
                                                 different doses of peroxide (2, 5, 10 ppm)
Expansion plans for East Canyon are to                                                                 as measured by E-screen is typically
                                                 were added.
increase plant capacity from 4 to 7.2 mgd.                                                             1 ng/L of estradiol equivalents.
The plant currently uses both biological                                                          •	   EDCs and estrogenic activity in GAC
and chemical processes to meet a total                                                                 treated effluent were below detection or
phosphorous limit of 0.1 mg/L. Chemical                                                                were reduced by an order of magnitude.
phosphorous removal is accomplished by                                                            •	   The lowest ozone dose of 5 ppm,
dosing coagulant upstream of a tertiary                                                                without any peroxide addition, reduced
filter. In order to improve the reliability                                                            estrogenic activity below the detection
of this filtration process and treat to the                                                            limit.
eventual total maximum daily load (TMDL)                                                          •	   Although there were some
target of 0.05 mg/L, MF membranes will                                                                 inconsistencies in the data, a trend of
replace the existing granular media filters.                                                           estrogenic activity removal was seen at a
Rather than demolishing the existing filters,                                                          UV fluence of 400 mJ/cm2 with peroxide
Carollo proposed replacing filter media with                                                           addition.
GAC and converting them to contactors for
                                                                                                                                                   re s e arc h so l ut io n s

EDC/PPCP removal. This method, coupled                                                            Ozone oxidation was recommended as the
with the membrane filtration and existing                                                         best EDC treatment technology based on
UV disinfection, may be the most cost                                                             life-cycle cost, even though it required the
effective means of incorporating EDC/PPCP                                                         highest initial capital investment. However,
treatment into the current project. Silver                                                        given the results for GAC that show it is an
Creek will be expanded from 2 to 3.7 mgd                                                          effective treatment method and the ability                 3
and upgraded to match the process used at                                                         to use existing infrastructure, SBWRD has
East Canyon.                                                                                      indicated that they will exchange filter
                                                 Pilot-scale carbon filters for EDC/PPCP          media and begin treating for EDCs/PPCPs
                                                 removal.                                         at the completion of the expansion project.
                              PROJECTUPDATES                                                                                    Costa Water District’s Bollman Water
                                                                                                                                Treatment Plant. The evaluation of ozone
                                                                                                                                followed by BAF will provide a baseline
                                                                                                                                understanding of the effectiveness of the
                                                                                                                                existing full-scale treatment processes
                                                                                                                                (Phase 1). Then the effectiveness of
                                                                                                                                advanced oxidation with ozonation and
                                                                                                                                peroxide will be investigated (Phase 2).
                                                                                                                                Finally, NF following full-scale ozonation
                                                                                                                                and BAF will be evaluated (Phase 3). In
                                                                                                                                all test phases EDCs, PPCPs, and salts
                                                                                                                                (bromide, iodide, sulfate, and chloride) will
                                                                                                                                be added to the pilot feed water. Removal
                                                                                                                                efficiencies for target EDCs and PPCPs
                                                                                                                                will be quantified in the various treatment
                                                                                                                                trains. Subsequent tests for DBP formation
                                                                                                                                will be performed in bench-scale reactors
                                                                                                                                for various ultraviolet (UV) treatment and
                                                                                                                                chlorination schemes (dosing free chlorine
                                                                                                                                or chloramines).
                              NF pilot skid at Contra Costa Water District, CA.
                                                                                                                                Results and Implications
                              Removal of NDMA, EDCs, and PPCPs from                                                             Pilot testing was completed in July 2008.
                                                                                                                                The data gathered from this study will
                              South Delta Water                                                                                 provide information on the effectiveness of
                                                                                                                                the various treatment trains for removing
                              Background                                       observed, as well as contaminants of             select trace organic compounds from Delta
                                                  KEY TEAm mEmbERS
                              and Research                                     emerging concern (e.g., EDCs and PPCPs).         water. Results from the bench-scale DBP
                                                  cari Ishida, Ph.D., P.E.
                                                                               An additional concern with treatment             tests will provide side-by-side comparisons
                              Objectives          (
                                                                               of Delta waters is the formation of              of expected DBP formation from different
                              Various             Elisa Garvey, Ph.D., P .E.
                                                                               disinfection byproducts (DBPs) including         combinations of UV, free chlorine, and
                              trace organic       Tom Patten, P .E.
                                                                               trihalomethanes (THMs), haloacetic               chloramination treatments. These results
                              compounds are       Kimberly Lin, P.E.
                                                  [ccWD]                       acids (HAAs), N-Nitrosodimethylamine             will be used for planning, design, and
                              finding their way
                                                                               (NDMA), and other nitrosamines. Delta            operation of existing and future disinfection
                              into the nation’s
                                                                               utilities need to understand the treatment       systems.
                              water supply. The Sacramento-San Joaquin
                                                                               effectiveness of existing processes as well as
                              River Delta System (Delta) is one example
                                                                               advanced treatment processes that may be
                              where the presence of these compounds
                                                                               implemented in the future to remove these
                              is of growing concern. The Delta is a vital
                                                                               chemicals. To meet this need, a diverse
                              source of drinking water for more than
                                                                               research team, including: the Contra Costa
                              23 million Californians. Supplies from the
                                                                               Water District, Carollo Engineers, Trent
                              south Delta are conveyed through the
                                                                               University, the University of Colorado at
                              South Bay Aqueduct and the Contra Costa
                                                                               Boulder, and the University of Toronto, as
                              Canal, serving more than 2.5 million people
                                                                               well as numerous specialists, is evaluating
                              in the Bay Area, much of the time as an
                                                                               the performance of advanced water
                              unblended source of drinking water.
                                                                               treatment technologies with respect to
                                                                               the destruction/removal of trace organic
                              Deterioration of the Delta source water
                                                                               compounds and the formation of DBPs.
                              quality due to xenobiotic inputs (e.g.,
                                                                               The California Department of Public
                              agricultural drains and wastewater
                                                                               Health and the California Department of
                              effluents), and increased freshwater
                                                                               Water Resources are providing funding and
re s e ar ch so l ut io n s

                              diversions is a growing concern for drinking
                                                                               oversight for the project.
                              water users. In particular, users must
                              consider the possibility of significantly
                                                                               The treatment technology combinations
                              deteriorated water quality during severe
                                                                               under investigation include: ozone/
                              drought events. As such, Delta water
                                                                               biologically active filtration (BAF)
          4                   utilities must be prepared for both the
                                                                               [biologically active sand and granular
                              presence of existing contaminants (e.g.,
                                                                               activated carbon media], ozone/peroxide/
                              pesticides and nutrients) at significantly                                                        Ozone pilot skid at Contra Costa Water
                                                                               BAF, and nanofiltration (NF) at Contra
                              greater concentrations than currently                                                             District, CA.
Filtration and Destruction of PPCPs                                                                                         •	 The TiO2/UV (Photo-Cat) process
and EDCs in Reclaimed Water                                                                                                      in the range of power tested (0.1 to
                                                                                                                                 0.6 kW per gpm) effectively oxidized
                                                                                                                                 dissolved organic compounds, provided
Background and Research                                                       reclaimed
                                                                                           KEY TEAm mEmbERS
                                                                                                                                 complete disinfection of coliforms
Objectives                                                                    water for                                          (~5-log removal) and MS-2 virus
                                                                                           Andrew Salveson, P   .E.
Although some microconstituents can                                           various      (               (>6-log reduction), destroyed trace
persist through wastewater treatment                                          states       Karl Linden, Ph.D.                    organic chemicals such as triclosan
(Stackelberg et al., 2004; Gomez et al.,                                      (e.g.,       Tavy Wade                             and carbamazepine, and substantially
2007), current research suggests that                                         CA).         Keith bourgeous, Ph.D., P .E.         reduced estradiol activity in the water
advanced treatment technologies can                   •	                      Peracetic    Vincent hart, P .E.                   based upon in-vitro bioassays.
effectively remove a range of PPCPs (Tang                                     acid         Jess brown, Ph.D., P  .E.        •	   The TiO2/UV process effluent had a
et al., 2006) to concentrations below human                                   (PAA),                                             particle count equivalent to distilled
health risk levels (Snyder et. al, 2007).                                     when combined with medium-pressure                 water and a UV transmittance at
In addition, some research shows that                                         UV, demonstrated robust removal of                 254 nm (UVT) of nearly 90%
advanced treatment technologies following                                     many trace organic compounds.                      (increasing from an influent of 67%).
conventional wastewater treatment can                 •	                      UV disinfection at doses of 80 to             •	   Most compelling, this work
significantly reduce the risk to aquatic                                      100 mJ/cm2, when combined with                     demonstrated that the use of MF or
organisms (Schwatter et al., 2007).                                           hydrogen peroxide, showed ≥50%                     UF membranes with low-dose ozone
                                                                              reduction of many of the target
To better understand the most efficient ways                                  compounds.                                                                 Continued on page 12
to destroy EDCs and PPCPs in wastewater
effluent, the WateReuse Foundation, the                                        250        240                                           UV Reactor Flow Rate ~ 355 gpm
Southwest Florida Water Management                                                                                                               UVT ~ 63%
District (SWFWMD), and the U.S.                                                                                                              REDMS2 ~ 89 mJ/cm2
                                                                               200                       190
                                                 NDMA Concentration (ng/L)

Bureau of Reclamation funded a research
team from Carollo, Duke University, and
the U.S. Department of Agriculture to                                          150
conduct WRF 02-009, Innovative Treatment
Technologies for Reclaimed Water. The project
included detailed bench- and pilot-scale
investigations to find and demonstrate                                                                                                       63
emerging (market-ready) reclaimed water                                                                                    48                                  55
treatment technologies that could robustly
destroy pathogens and PPCPs at a cost
substantially below that of reverse osmosis                                      0
                                                                                        UV Reactor     UV Reactor       UV Reactor        UV Reactor        UV Reactor
(RO) (Wade et al., 2008). Technologies                                                   Influent,      Effluent,     Effluent, 5 mg/L Effluent, 10 mg/L Effluent, 15 mg/L
investigated included media and membrane                                                   Flow        No Peroxide        Peroxide          Peroxide          Peroxide
filtration, ozone, ozone/peroxide, peracetic
acid/ultraviolet light (UV), hydrogen
                                                       NDMA destruction by MP UV with hydrogen peroxide.
peroxide/UV, and titanium dioxide/UV.                                         200
                                                                              180                                          EEQ - MF Eff. No Peroxide
Results and Implications
                                                                              160                                          EEQ - Sand Eff. No Peroxide
Significant results include:
                                                Estradiol Equivalents (EEQ)

                                                                                                                           EEQ - Sand Eff. ~0.50 to 0.65 Peroxide/Ozone MF
•	 Substantial removal of EDCs and PPCPs                                                                                   EEQ - Sand Eff. 2.2 Peroxide/Ozone MF
     by full-scale microfiltration (MF) and                                   120
     sand filtration, including 50 to 80% (or                                 100
                                                                                                                                                                                 re s e ar ch so l ut io n s

     greater) reduction of 4-nonylphenol,
     bisphenol-A, and triclosan, and limited
     removal of DEET.                                                          60
•	   Ozone after media filtration and after                                    40
     MF provided ≥90% destruction of the
     majority of the target compounds and                                      20
     hormonal activity (as measured by
     estradiol equivalency [EEQ]) at low                                            0           1         2            3            4             5             6            7
     ozone doses (<6 mg/L), while meeting                                                                            Applied Ozone Dose
     the stringent disinfection criteria for
                                                       Destruction of hormonal equivalency by different treatment process combinations.
                               FEaTuRESTORY                                                                                      processing of forest products (MacLatchy et
                                                                                                                                 al., 1997; Mellanen et al., 1996). Synthetic

                               Occurrence and Impact of                                                                          EDCs include certain biocides and their
                                                                                                                                 degradates (pesticides, herbicides, and
                                                                                                                                 fungicides), PPCPs including veterinary
                               Endocrine Disrupting Chemicals                                                                    and human drugs, industrial chemicals
                                                                                                                                 and intermediates or byproducts from

                               in Water and Wastewater                                                                           their production and their environmental
                                                                                                                                 degradates, and combustion byproducts
                                                                                                                                 from human activities such as burning of
                               By Shane A. Snyder, Ph.D. [Total                  been tested for endocrine activity by any
                                                                                                                                 fossil fuels and incineration of industrial and
                               Environmental Solutions, Inc.]                    means.
                                                                                                                                 municipal waste (Institute for Environment
                                                                                                                                 and Health, 2005; Myers, 2008; World
                               Endocrine Disrupting Chemicals                    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency
                                                                                                                                 Health Organization, 2002).
                               EDCs are substances that interfere with           (USEPA) established the Endocrine
                               the functioning of the endocrine system in        Disruptor Screening Program (EDSP) to
                                                                                                                                 EDCs can originate from numerous sources
                               humans or other animals. Alternative terms        develop a battery of standardized toxicity
                                                                                                                                 and enter the environment by many routes.
                               used to describe these chemicals include:         tests that can be used to determine
                                                                                                                                 Effluents from municipal wastewater
                               ‘endocrine disruptors,’ ‘hormonally active        whether a particular chemical is an EDC
                                                                                                                                 treatment plants (WWTPs) have been
                               agents,’ and ‘endocrine-active substances.’       by USEPA’s definition. The program
                                                                                                                                 implicated as major contributors of EDCs to
                               Currently, there is no consensus among            focuses exclusively on chemicals that act
                                                                                                                                 surface waters (Anderson, 2005). WWTPs
                               experts regarding the definition of an            by interfering with estrogen, androgen, or
                                                                                                                                 receive EDCs from sources including plant
                               EDC or the criteria that should be used to                                        ,
                                                                                 thyroid action (USEPA-EDSP 2008); these
                                                                                                                                 material, plastics, items treated with fire
                               determine whether a chemical is or is not         are the best-characterized modes of action.
                                                                                                                                 retardants, cleaning products, pesticides,
                               an EDC. Some definitions require that an          However, EDCs may also interfere with
                                                                                                                                 other household chemicals and consumer
                               effect must be demonstrated in vivo (i.e., in a   the functions of other hormones (World
                                                                                                                                 products, hormones excreted by humans,
                               live animal), while others stipulate only that    Health Organization, 2002). The EDSP
                                                                                                                                 and PPCPs excreted or washed from the
                               the potential for an effect be demonstrated,      will use a two-tiered testing strategy, with
                                                                                                                                 body and flushed to the sanitary sewer.
                               such as through in vitro receptor binding         Tier 1 consisting of screening-level tests
                                                                                                                                 WWTPs might also receive industrial or
                               (binding of test chemicals with estrogen          and Tier 2 consisting of in vivo bioassays
                                                                                                                                 hospital effluents and stormwater runoff
                               receptors) or structure-activity relationships    that will generate data suitable for use in
                                                                                                                                 streams that contain EDCs. Although
                               ([SARs] predictable impact based upon                                               ,
                                                                                 risk assessments (USEPA-EDSP 2008).
                                                                                                                                 wastewater treatment processes can remove
                               molecular structure). Other definitions seek      This process is not yet complete, but Tier
                                                                                                                                 some EDCs, recalcitrant chemicals may
                               to distinguish adverse effects from merely        1 screening of an initial set of chemicals is
                                                                                                                                 remain at detectable levels in effluents
                               compensatory responses (non-adverse but           expected in Fall 2008 (USEPA, 2007).
                                                                                                                                 discharged to surface water or in reclaimed
                               measurable effects) (USEPA-EDSTAC,                                                                water used for groundwater recharge. These
                               1998; World Health Organization, 2002).           Sources and Occurrence in the                   contaminants may be diluted, sequestered
                               This has also been a source of controversy.       Water Cycle                                     (e.g., in sediment), or degraded by physical
                                                                                 Known and potential EDCs encompass a            or biological processes, but some are
                               Hundreds of chemicals have been                   wide variety of chemicals and a diversity       detected in the environment due to their
                               implicated as potential EDCs based on a           of structures. They include both natural        persistence or relatively constant loading.
                               variety of criteria (Institute for Environment    and synthetic chemicals (Table 1). EDCs
                               and Health, 2005). While screening-level          arising from natural sources include            WWTP effluents and reclaimed water
                               evidence such as SARs, in vitro receptor          hormones excreted by humans and other           are not the only sources of EDCs to the
                               binding activity, and certain short-term in       animals, substances found in plants             environment. Other potential sources
                               vivo tests might suggest the potential for        (phytoestrogens, phytosterols) or fungi         include private septic systems (Swartz et
                               endocrine disruption, such effects are often      (mycoestrogens), metals, inorganic ions,        al., 2006), untreated stormwater flows and
                               not demonstrated in the more definitive           and byproducts of natural combustion            urban runoff (Boyd et al., 2004), industrial
                               in vivo tests, (e.g., tests conducted on          processes (e.g., volcanic activity, forest      effluents (Kosaka et al., 2007), landfill
                               intact animals or on multiple generations         fires) (Institute for Environment and           leachate (Coors et al., 2003), discharges
                               of exposed animals). Standardized test            Health, 2005; Myers, 2008; World Health         from fish hatcheries and dairy facilities
re s ea rc h s o lu ti o n s

                               methods are generally unavailable. At             Organization, 2002). Some of these EDCs         (Kolodziej et al., 2004), fish spawning in
                               this time, only certain in vivo bioassays         occur normally in the environment or in         natural waters (Kolodziej et al., 2004),
                               conducted with intact animals and using           dietary items, but their concentrations         runoff from agricultural fields and livestock
                               appropriate protocols (e.g., encompassing         may be elevated due to human activities.        enclosures (Orlando et al., 2004), and
                               susceptible life stages) provide data that are    For example, metals may be mobilized in         land amended with biosolids or manure
          6                    useful for risk assessment. Few chemicals         the environment during mining (Wilkin,          (Hanselman et al., 2003; Khanal et al.,
                               have been subjected to this type of testing       2007), and endocrine-active phytosterols        2006).
                               due to the cost and time required to              may be released to water in effluents from
                               conduct them. Most chemicals have not
               Table 1. Examples of Known or Potential Endocrine                                       Woodling et al., 2006), and elsewhere where
                             Disrupting Chemicals                                                      WWTP effluents have been implicated in
                                                                                                       endocrine-related effects on fish.
                   Chemical Class                               Representative Chemicals
 Naturally-occurring EDCs                                                                              WWTP effluents contain a mixture of
                                                                                                       known or potential EDCs. In most cases
 Hormones                                                     Estradiol, estrone                       researchers have been unable to pinpoint
 Phytoestrogens and plant sterols                             Genistein, ß-sitosterol                  the specific chemicals responsible for effects
 Mycoestrogens                                                Zearalenone                              indicating endocrine disruption in exposed
 Metals                                                       Arsenic, cadmium, lead, mercury          fish. Estradiol, estrone, ethynylestradiol,
                                                                                                       nonylphenol, octylphenol, alkylphenol
 Inorganic ions                                               Perchlorate, thiocyanate                 ethoxylates, and bisphenol A have been
 Combustion byproducts                                        Dioxins, certain PAHs                    identified as likely causes (Purdom et al.,
 Synthetic EDCs                                                                                        1994; World Health Organization, 2002)
 Biocides or their degradates                                 Atrazine, DDT (or DDE), tributyltin      based on their concentrations in wastewater
                                                                                                       effluents and their potency in laboratory
 PPCPs                                                        Ethynylestradiol, trenbolone             studies. Natural hormones produced in
 Industrial chemicals, intermediates, and degradates          PCBs, bisphenol-A, octylphenol           the bodies of humans and other animals
 Combustion byproducts                                        Dioxins, certain PAHs                    (e.g., estradiol and estrone) and synthetic
 EDCs, endocrine disrupting chemicals; PAHs, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons; PCBs, polychlorinated   hormones intended to mimic the actions
 biphenyls; PPCPs, pharmaceuticals and personal care products.                                         of endogenous hormones (e.g., the oral
                                                                                                       contraceptive ingredient ethynylestradiol)
Various EDCs have been reported to                     is a symptom of exposure to estrogens           are of particular concern because they are
occur in WWTP effluents, surface water,                from external sources but generally is not      potent at very small concentrations and are
groundwater, reclaimed water, and drinking             considered to be an adverse effect. Later       commonly detected in WWTP effluents.
water, usually at concentrations in the ng/L           studies suggested a link between exposure to
(0.000000001 g/L) range. In general, EDCs              WWTP effluents and adverse or potentially       While hormonal disruption of aquatic life
are reported to occur with greater frequency           harmful effects on the reproductive organs      by wastewater-derived EDCs has clearly
and at higher levels in WWTP effluents                 and fertility of fish (Jobling et al., 2002;    been demonstrated, limited information
than in reclaimed water or drinking water.             Jobling and Tyler, 2003). The findings in       exists on the possibility of long-term effects
Dilution and environmental degradation are             the U.K. studies spurred research in other      on aquatic life populations. This is an area
responsible for smaller concentrations and             European countries (Petrovic et al., 2002;      for further research.
less frequent detections in surface water.             Diniz et al., 2005), North America (Bevans
The limited data available to date indicate            et al., 1996; Folmar et al., 1996, 2001;        Implications for Human
that EDCs originating from municipal                   Giesy et al., 2003; Hemming et al., 2004;       Health
WWTPs generally occur infrequently and at              Nichols et al., 1999; Patiño et al., 2003;      Although there are well substantiated
exceedingly small levels in finished drinking          Schoenfuss et al., 2002; Snyder et al., 2004;   links between environmental exposure
water because they are diluted and undergo                                                             to EDCs and effects in fish and wildlife,
degradation in the environment and then                                                                there is little evidence to suggest that
must survive drinking water treatment                                                                  typical low-level environmental exposures
processes and distribution to remain in                                                                to EDCs (including EDCs in WWTP
potable water at the tap.                                                                              effluent, reclaimed water, and drinking
                                                                                                       water) have had any adverse effects on
Implications for Aquatic Life                                                                          human health (World Health Organization,
There is a substantial and growing body                                                                2002). However, the science of endocrine
of evidence indicating that EDCs at                                                                    disruption is relatively new, as is research
levels found in some WWTP effluents                                                                    into exposure to EDCs and the potential
can cause endocrine disruption in fish                                                                 human health consequences.
and other aquatic life, with the literature
suggesting that some EDCs at or above                                                                  Reports of endocrine disruption in fish
0.1 ng/L can induce endocrine-mediated
                                                                                                                                                        re s ea rc h s o lu ti o n s

                                                                                                       collected from source waters for drinking
changes in aquatic life (Purdom et al.,                                                                water treatment plants (e.g., Blazer et
1994; Vanderford et al., 2003). This issue                                                             al., 2007) and detection of wastewater-
first gained public attention when male                                                                associated EDCs in these waters commonly
fish collected downstream of WWTPs in                                                                  trigger consumer concern. However, there
the United Kingdom (U.K.) were found                                                                   are important differences in exposure to
to have elevated levels of vitellogenin, a             Outfall from a wastewater treatment             wastewater contaminants between fish and                   7
female-specific egg yolk protein, in their             plant can be a source of EDCs to the            humans. Fish may be immersed in effluents
blood. Vitellogenin induction in male fish             environment.
                                                                                                                                 Continued on page 8
                              FEaTuRESTORY                                      technology is capable of identifying and
                                                                                quantifying sub-ng/L levels of organic
                                                                                                                                Exposed to Treated Sewage Effluent.”
                                                                                                                                Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety,
                              Continued from page 7                             contaminants, it is prudent to determine        62(3):427-435.
                                                                                the toxicological relevance of these
                              at their point of entry into surface water,       emerging contaminants in order to establish     Folmar, L.C., N.D. Denslow, K.J. Kroll, E.F.
                              where concentrations are greatest. They can       meaningful treatment goals.                     Orlando, J. Enblom, J. Marcino,
                              take up contaminants directly across their                                                        C. Metcalfe, and L.J.J. Guillette. 2001.
                              body surfaces, particularly the gills. Fish can   References                                      “Altered serum sex steroids and vitellogenin
                              also be exposed to EDCs and other effluent        Anderson, P 2005. Technical Brief:
                                                                                             .D.                                induction in walleye (Stizostedion vitreum)
                              contaminants that accumulate in their             Endocrine Disrupting Compounds and              collected near a metropolitan sewage
                              food or that are associated with particulate      Implications for Wastewater Treatment.          treatment plant.” Archives of Environmental
                              material and sediments. In contrast, people       Alexandria, VA: Water Environment               Contamination and Toxicology, 40:392-398.
                              tend to receive little direct exposure to         Research Foundation (WERF).
                              EDCs in WWTP effluent, so concerns                                                                Folmar, L.C., N.D. Denslow, V. Rao,
                              related to potential human health effects         Bevans, H.E., S.L. Goodbred, J.F. Miesner,      M. Chow, D.A. Crain, J. Enblom,
                              generally center around drinking water            S.A. Watkins, T.S. Gross, N.D. Denslow,         J. Marcino, and L.J. Guillette, Jr. 1996.
                              contamination. EDCs discharged in WWTP            and T. Schoeb. 1996. “Synthetic Organic         “Vitellogenin Induction and Reduced
                              effluents or reclaimed water undergo              Compounds and Carp Endocrinology                Serum Testosterone Concentrations in Feral
                              dilution, environmental degradation,              and Histology in Las Vegas Wash and Las         Male Carp Cyprinus carpio Captured Near
                              and water treatment processes that can            Vegas and Callville Bays of Lake Mead,          a Major Metropolitan Sewage Treatment
                              substantially reduce their concentrations         Nevada, 1992 and 1995.” Water-Resources         Plant.” Environmental Health Perspectives,
                              before they reach the tap.                        Investigations Report 96-4266. Carson City,     104(10):1096-1101.
                                                                                NV: United States Geological Survey.
                              Regulations                                             .,
                                                                                                                                Giesy, J.P E.M. Snyder, K.M. Nichols,
                              Although some chemicals that might be                                                                                            .D.
                                                                                                                                S.A. Snyder, S.A. Villalobos, P Jones,
                              considered to be EDCs are regulated in            Blazer, V.S., L.R. Iwanowicz, D.D.              and S.D. Fitzgerald. 2003. “Examination
                              WWTP effluent for the protection of               Iwanowicz, D.R. Smith, J.A. Young, J.D.         of Reproductive Endpoints in Goldfish
                              aquatic organisms, these rules are not            Hedrick, S.W. Foster, and S.J. Reeser. 2007.    (Carassius auratus) Exposed in Situ to
                              based on endocrine modes of action except         “Intersex (testicular oocytes) in Smallmouth    Municipal Sewage Treatment Plant
                              to the extent that they are captured in           Bass From the Potomac River and Selected        Effluent Discharges in Michigan, USA.”
                              effects on more traditional ecotoxicologic        Nearby Drainages.” Journal of Aquatic           Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry,
                              endpoints (e.g., mortality or reproduction)       Animal Health, 19(4):242-253.                   22(10):2416-2431.
                              (USEPA, 2005). Likewise, chemicals that
                              might be classified as EDCs are federally         Boyd, G.R., J.M. Palmeri, S. Zhang, and         Hanselman, T.A., D.A. Graetz, and A.C.
                              regulated in drinking water, but not on the       D.A. Grimm. 2004. “Pharmaceuticals              Wilkie. 2003. “Manure-borne Estrogens as
                              basis of their potential to cause endocrine       and Personal Care Products (PPCPs) and          Potential Environmental Contaminants: A
                              disruption. In Massachusetts, the level of        Endocrine Disrupting Chemicals (EDCs) in        Review.” Environ. Sci. Technol., 37(24):5471-
                              perchlorate in drinking water is regulated        Stormwater Canals and Bayou St. John in         5478.
                              on the basis of its potential to act as an        New Orleans, Louisiana, USA.” Science of
                              EDC (by interfering with thyroid function)        the Total Environment, 333(1-3):137-148.        Hemming, J.M., H.J. Allen, K.A. Thuesen,
                              (Massachusetts DEP 2006), but to date
                                                    ,                                                                            .K.
                                                                                                                                P Turner, W.T. Waller, J.M. Lazorchak,
                              no other state has regulated any drinking         California Department of Public Health.         D. Lattier, M. Chow, N. Denslow, and
                              water contaminant as a putative EDC. For          2008. “Groundwater Recharge Reuse Draft         B. Venables. 2004. “Temporal and
                              indirect potable reuse projects in California,    Regulation: Title 22, California Code of        Spatial Variability in the Estrogenicity
                              the California Department of Public Health        Regulations; Division 4. Environmental          of a Municipal Wastewater Effluent.”
                              (CDPH) has mandated monitoring and                Health; Chapter 3. Recycling Criteria.”         Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety,
                              reporting of EDCs and pharmaceuticals, but        (Draft - January 4, 2007, most recently         57(3):303-310.
                              not their removal (California Department          updated August 5, 2008). http://www.cdph.
                              of Public Health, 2008).                          Institute for Environment and Health.
                                                                                Pages/Waterrecycling.aspx                       2005. Chemicals Purported to be Endocrine
                              Conclusion/Summary                                                                                Disruptors: A Compilation of Published
re s e ar ch so l ut io n s

                              Trace levels of EDCs and pharmaceuticals                      .             .
                                                                                Coors, A., P D. Jones, J.P Giesy, and H.T.      Lists (Web Report W20). Institute for
                              are ubiquitous in municipal wastewater            Ratte. 2003. “Removal of Estrogenic             Environment and Health (IEH). Leicester,
                              effluents. In some cases, steroid hormones        Activity From Municipal Waste Landfill          United Kingdom. http://www.silsoe.
                              have been implicated as the primary source        Leachate Assessed with a Bioassay Based
                              of estrogenicity in effluents; however,           on Reporter Gene Expression.” Environ. Sci.
          8                   some synthetic organic chemicals have the         Technol., 37(15):3430-3434.                     Jobling, S., S. Coey, J.G. Whitmore,
                              ability to mimic endogenous hormones.                                                             D.E. Kime, K.J.W. Van Look, B.G.
                              Advanced water treatment processes can            Diniz, M.S., I. Peres, I. Magalhaes-Antoine,    McAllister, N. Beresford, A. C. Henshaw,
                              greatly reduce the concentration of organic       J. Falla, and J.C. Pihan. 2005. “Estrogenic                                    .
                                                                                                                                G. Brighty, C.R. Tyler, and J.P Sumpter.
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rutilus) Have Reduced Fertility.” Biology of   L.E. Gray, Jr., A.M. Soto, and L.J. Guillette,
Reproduction, 67(2):515-524.                   Jr. 2004. “Endocrine-Disrupting Effects          nonylphenol/final-doc.pdf
                                               of Cattle Feedlot Effluent on an Aquatic
Jobling, S. and C.R.Tyler. 2003. “Endocrine    Sentinel Species, the Fathead Minnow.”           USEPA. 2007. “Draft List of Initial Pesticide
Disruption in Wild Freshwater Fish.” Pure      Environ. Health Perspectives, 112(3):353-358.    Active Ingredients and Pesticide Inerts
& Applied Chemistry, 75(11):2219-2234.                                                          to be Considered for Screening under the
                                               Patiño, R., S.L. Goodbred, R. Draugelis-         Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act.”
Khanal, S.K., B. Xie, M.L. Thompson,           Dale, C.E. Barry, J.S. Foott, M.R. Wainscott,    Federal Register, 72 (116):33486-33503.
S. Sung, S.K. Ong, and J. vanLeeuwen.          T.S. Gross, and K.J. Covay. 2003.
2006. “Fate, Transport, and Biodegradation     “Morphometric and Histopathological                            .
                                                                                                USEPA-EDSP 2008. Endocrine Disruptor
of Natural Estrogens in the Environment        Parameters of Gonadal Development in             Screening Program (EDSP) [Website]. Last
and Engineered Systems.” Environ. Sci.         Adult Common Carp from Contaminated              updated March 24, 2008. Washington,
Technol., 40(21):6537-6546.                    and Reference Sites in Lake Mead,                D.C.: United States Environmental
                                               Nevada.” Journal of Aquatic Animal Health,       Protection Agency, Endocrine Disruptor
Kolodziej, E.P T. Harter, and D.L. Sedlak.     15:55-68.                                        Screening Program (USEPA-EDSP). http://
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and Spawning Fish as Sources of Steroid        Petrovic, M., M. Solé, M.J. López de
Hormones in the Aquatic Environment.”          Alda, and D. Barceló. 2002. “Endocrine           USEPA-EDSTAC. 1998. Endocrine
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M. Kamoshita, and S. Kunikane. 2007.           Biological Effects on Feral Carp.” Environ.      Environmental Protection Agency,
“Occurrence of Perchlorate in Drinking         Toxicology and Chemistry, 21(10):2146-2156.      Endocrine Disruptor Screening and
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E.M. Snyder, and J.P Giesy. 1999. “Effects     Nonylphenol Ethoxylate Metabolites,              World Health Organization. 2002. Global
of Exposure to Municipal Wastewater in         and Other Wastewater Contaminants in             Assessment of the State-of-the-Science of
Situ on the Reproductive Physiology of the     Groundwater Affected by a Residential            Endocrine Disruptors. WHO/PCS/EDC/02.2.
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2001-2012.                                                                                      Kraak. Geneva, Switzerland: World Health                   9
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                                               EPA), Office of Water. EPA-822-R-05-005.         disruptors/en/print.html
                              Carollo Studies the Fate of EDCs and PPCPs Through
                              Advanced Wastewater Membrane Systems and the
                              Biological Impact of Effluent on Aquatic Organisms
                              Background and Research                          Results and          KEY TEAm mEmbERS
                              Objectives                                       Implications         George Zhou, Ph.D.
                              Population growth in South Florida has           The removal          (
                              put pressure on valuable fresh water             of select EDCs/      Jose Lopez, P.E.
                              resources. Various utilities are investigating   PPCPs was            Jess brown, Ph.D., P.E.
                              the use of advanced wastewater treatment         tracked across       Andrew Salveson, P .E.
                              processes to indirectly supplement existing      two treatment                                    This Advanced Membrane Pilot was used
                              potable water supplies. However, concerns        trains: Train 1: membrane bioreactor             for the WRF project in Plantation, FL.
                              have been raised by the public regarding         (MBR) + reverse osmosis (RO); Train 2:
                              presence of EDCs and PPCPs in wastewater         activated sludge(AS) + denitrifying                   other compounds added or generated
                              effluents and the potential impact of these      filtration (DNF) + ultrafiltration (UF)               in the RO permeate. These included
                              compounds on aquatic life and human              + and RO. Removal of EDCs/PPCPs by                    ammonia, chloramine, and anti-scalant
                              health.                                          MBRs and UF processes was demonstrated.               (used for maintaining the membrane
                                                                               Significant removal of EDCs/PPCPs by                  system). Dechlorination (quenching)
                              In response to some of these concerns, the       RO was observed for all compounds, with               of chloramine with sodium thiosulfate
                              WateReuse Foundation (WRF) and the               most removed to levels below the analytical           reduced and delayed toxicity effects.
                              South Florida Water Management District          detection limits (1-25 ng/L). The RO                  Further experiments without ammonia,
                              (SFWMD) funded WRF 06-019, Monitoring            performance data were in accordance with              chloramine, and antiscalant eliminated
                              for Microconstituents in an Advanced             other published data (Drewes et al., 2006).           the toxic effects in the RO permeate and
                              Wastewater Treatment (AWT) Facility and                                                                significantly increased the survival of
                              Modeling Discharge of Reclaimed Water to         Furthermore, the concentrations of PPCPs               .
                                                                                                                                     P promelas and C. dubia. Similar results
                              Surface Canals for Indirect Potable Use. This    were correlated with toxicity tests and both          were found for the test with antiscalant
                              research, led by Carollo and SFWMD,              tissue culture and live fish bioassays. The           alone, suggesting that antiscalant did
                              with help from the University of Florida         results indicated that the EDCs and PPCPs             not exert toxic effects on C. dubia. These
                              at Gainesville, the City of Plantation, FL,      in the RO permeate caused no toxicity.                results indicate that dechlorination or
                              Hazen and Sawyer, and others, monitored          Detailed results include:                             other quenching methods should be
                              and evaluated water quality through                                                                    used to remove chloramines or ammonia
                              advanced wastewater treatment facilities         •	 The toxicity tests were chronic definitive         in these AWT facilities to minimize their
                              and modeled the fate and transport of                 tests on the waterflea Ceriodaphnia dubia        toxic effects.
                              various compounds through a canal system              and the fathead minnow Pimephales           •	   In vitro estrogen screen (E-Screen)
                              and into groundwater supply wells.                    promelas following EPA 821-R-02-013              bioassays were conducted to evaluate
                                                                                    Test Method 1002.0 and 1000.0,                   the endocrine disrupting potential of the
                                                                                    respectively. The results of tests on MBR        treated permeate. In these bioassays, the
                                                                                    and UF permeate indicated that there             estradiol equivalents (a measure of the
                                                                                    were no significant survival differences         hormone-inducing activity of a given
                                                                                    between the control (deionized water)            solution) in all the RO permeate were
                                                                                    and the treated samples for P promelas           below the detection limit (0.03 ng/L),
                                                                                    and C. dubia, except that the                    although they were detected in
                                                                                    survivability of C. dubia was low in MBR         secondary effluent (0.11 ng/L), DNF
                                                                                    permeate in one of the five sampling             filtrate (0.12-0.23 ng/L), MBR permeate
                                                                                    events. These results suggest that the           (0.12-0.18 ng/L), and UF permeate
                                                                                    MBR permeate and UF permeate did                 (0.14-0.21 ng/L). The results of the
                                                                                    not have significant toxic effects on the        E-Screen bioassay indicated that the
re s e arc h so l ut io n s

                                                                                    survival of P promelas and C. dubia.             permeate did not produce a significant
                                                                               •	   Some toxic effects were observed in              estrogenic response in MCF-7 cells, a
                                                                                    the RO permeate, but they did not                breast cancer cell line that proliferates in
                                                                                    appear to have been caused by PPCPs.             response to estrogenic activity.
                                                                                    The survival of P promelas and C. dubia
                                                                                                      .                         •	   The in vitro yeast estrogen screen (YES)
   10                                                                               in the RO permeate was poor for one              bioassay was conducted to evaluate the
                                                                                    sampling event. Because PPCPs in the             endocrine disrupting potential in the
                                                                                    RO permeate were all non-detectable              treated effluents. In the YES bioassay,
                              Fish biossays at the University of Florida            (<1 ng/L in most cases), the observed            yeast cells are transformed to contain
                              at Gainesville.                                       toxic effects were likely caused by              human estrogen receptors. The results
     showed that estradiol equivalents were
     not detected in MBR permeate, UF
                                                  MBR and UF could partially remove
                                                  microconstituents, only RO completely
     permeate, and RO permeate, although          removed microconstituents from                advanced treatment facilities for future
     they were detected in the secondary          wastewater. In addition, no hormonal          indirect potable use of reclaimed water.
     effluent (0.22 ng/L) and DNF filtrate        threats were found in RO permeate to tissue
     (0.23 ng/L). The results suggest that        cultures and live fish, while some hormonal   References
     MBR permeate and RO permeate                 responses were detected in MBR permeate       Drewes, J.E., J.D.C. Hemming, J.J. Schauer,
     may not possess endocrine disrupting         and UF permeate.                              and W.C. Sonzogni. 2006. Removal of
     potential, though in vivo assays provide a                                                 Endocrine Disrupting Compounds in Water
     higher measure of confidence for such a      The observed toxicity due to membranes        Reclamation Processes. Alexandria, VA:
     conclusion compared to in vitro assays.      pretreated with chemicals suggests that       Water Environment Research Foundation
•	   In vivo assays, such as fathead minnow       dechlorination equipment may be necessary     Report 01-HHE-20T.
     vitellogenin assays and steroid              to minimize the impact on aquatic
     immunoassays, were conducted to              organisms if similar RO processes are         Zhou, Z., A. Salveson, J. Brown, and J.
     measure the estrogenic activity of the       designed and operated.                        Lopez. 2008. “Water Quality Through
     treated effluents. There was no plasma                                                     Advanced Wastewater Treatment
     vitellogenin induction in fish exposed to    Hydrodynamic and water quality models         (AWT) Facilities and Recharge Modeling
     the MBR permeate and RO permeate,            can help us evaluate the fate and transport   (WateReuse Foundation Project 06-019).”
     suggesting that the MBR permeate and         of microconstituents in reclaimed water       2008 California Section Annual Conference.
     RO permeate were not estrogenic as           discharged to surface canals and therefore    Newport Beach, CA.
     assessed in this bioassay.                   are useful tools for designing or upgrading

All of these results suggested that RO                             Table 1. Concentrations of Microconstituents
permeate did not exert endocrine disrupting
                                                                                                      Treatment Trains
potential to tissue cultures or live fish (Zhou
                                                                                            MBR/RO              AS/DNF/UF/RO
et al., 2008).                                          Microconstituents (ng/L)
                                                                                                RO Permeate Sampling Dates
A hydrodynamic and water quality model                                                  10/29/07 11/26/07 1/14/08 1/31/08 2/21/08
was also developed to track the fate and          2,6-di-tert-butylphenol                 <10      <10      <10       <10   <10
transport of a range of potential PPCPs           4-Methylphenol                          <25      <25      <25       <25   <25
from a surface water discharge point to           4-Nonyl Phenol                          <25      <25      <25       <25   <25
groundwater supply wells. The Plantation          Acetaminophen                            <1       <1       <1        <1   <1
sub-model was extracted from the Broward          Alpha Chlordane                         <10      <10      <10       <10   <10
County model including the surface and            Bisphenol A (BPA)                       <25      <25      <25       <25    57
groundwater features since they have a
                                                  Caffeine                                <25      <25      <25       <25   <25
direct hydraulic connection to the proposed
                                                  Carbamazepine                            <5       <5       <5        <5   <5
discharge location, the East Holloway
Canal. The model area was determined              Carbaryl                                <50      <50      <50       <50   <50
with both the surface water basin divides         Chlorpyrifos                            <25      <25      <25       <25   <25
and the groundwater capture areas.                N,N-diethyl-m-toluamide                 <25      <25      <25       <25   <25
Boundary conditions for the model area            Diazinon                                <25      <25      <25       <25   <25
were extracted from the Broward model             Dieldrin                                <25      <25      <25       <25   <25
results for all of the groundwater and the        Estradiol                               <1       <1        <1        <1   <1
surface water boundaries in the Plantation        Estrone                                 <1       <1        <1        <1   <1
sub-model. In general, the groundwater            Ethinyl Estradiol -17 alpha             <1       <5        <5        <5   <5
results followed the observed data closely        Fluoxetine                              <1       <1        <1        <1   <1
while the surface water results deviated          Gemfibrozil                             NA       <1        <1        NA   <1
somewhat from the observed data. Three            Ibuprofen                               <1        3.1      <1        <1   <1
representative PPCPs (sulfamethoxazole,           Iopromide                               <5       <5        <5        <5   <5
phenol, triclosan) were selected for              Methyl Parathion                        <25      <25      <25       <25   <25
the water quality model based on their
                                                                                                                                              re s e ar ch so l ut io n s

                                                  Phenol                                 <100     <100      <100     <100  <100
susceptibility to photodegradation, sorption,
                                                  Progesterone                             <1       <1       <1        <1   <1
and biodegradation, as well as their
                                                  Sulfamethoxazole                         <1       <1       <1        <1   <1
                                                  Testosterone                             <1       <1       <1        <1   <1
                                                  Triclosan                               <50      <50      <50       <50   <50
                                                  Trimethoprim                             <1       <1       <1        <1   <1                     11
The results suggest that RO is most
effective among membrane technologies             Triphenylphosphate                      <25      <25      <25       <25   <25
if utilities plan to reach maximum                Tris(1,3-dichloro-2-propyl) phosphate   <25      NA       <25        NA   <25
removal of microconstituents and their            Tris(2-butoxyethyl) phosphate          <100     <100      <100     <100  <100
endocrine disrupting potential. Although          Tris(2-chloroethyl) phosphate           <25      <25      <25       <25   <25

                              What Does It All Mean?                                                                          Phoenix, Arizona
                                                                                                                              Yuma, Arizona
                              Concentrations of EDCs in reclaimed water       The solution to dealing with EDCs and           Bakersfield, California
                              and surface water do not appear to pose a       PPCPs must be multi-faceted. Public
                              public health threat, but wastewater effluent   health is paramount, but enhancing water        Fresno, California
                              can cause detrimental effects like endocrine    treatment to eliminate very small amounts       Inland Empire, California
                              disruption in aquatic life.                     of EDCs and PPCPs will result in substantial
                                                                              cost and energy use. Increased levels of        Orange County, California
                              Economic analyses associated with the           treatment must be scientifically and fiscally   Pasadena, California
                              projects described in this publication show     based. Balancing the improvement of water
                              that advanced treatment technologies            quality with the generation of greenhouse       Sacramento, California
                              can be cost-effective for reducing EDCs         gases (due to energy-intensive advanced         San Diego, California
                              and PPCPs in wastewater. Similar results        treatment) must be considered as must
                              are expected for drinking water. The            public concerns.                                Walnut Creek, California
                              larger problem is that of perception. Public                                                    Denver (Broomfield), Colorado
                              concerns jumped after the recent U.S.           The technical work presented here is
                              Senate hearings on PhACs in water. Recent       part of the solution, detailing EDC/PPCP        Denver (Littleton), Colorado
                              Associated Press articles led the general       occurrence, risk, and treatment. Integrating    Broward County, Florida
                              public to believe that ANY amount of            this knowledge base with a proactive public
                              pharmaceuticals in the water is toxic. “The     relations program is recommended.               Miami, Florida
                              dose makes the poison” logic goes unheard.                                                      Orlando, Florida
                                                                                                                              Palm Beach County, Florida
                                                                                                                              Sarasota, Florida
                              Filtration and Destruction                                                                      Boise, Idaho
                              Continued from page 5                                                                           Overland Park, Kansas
                                 or UV (when combined with hydrogen           Snyder, S., H. Lei, J. Hemming, J. Zeigler-     Las Vegas, Nevada
                                 peroxide, PAA, or TiO2) can provide          Holiday, and R. Trenholm. 2007. Relative        Reno, Nevada
                                 90-99% reduction/destruction of various      Risk Assessment of Estrogens in Reuse
                                 EDCs and PPCPs at a cost near that of        Water. 22nd Annual WateReuse Association        Charlotte, North Carolina
                                 conventional reclaimed water filtration      Symposium, September 2007 in Tampa, FL.         Portland, Oregon
                                 and disinfection. Further, it showed that
                                 particle removal could result in removal     Stackelberg, P E.T. Furlong, M.T.
                                                                                             .E.,                             Austin, Texas
                                 of substantial amounts of particle-          Meyer, S.D. Zaugg, A.K. Henderson,              Dallas, Texas
                                 associated PhACs. Thus, optimizing           and D.B. Reissman. 2004. Persistence of
                                 the performance of sand filtration           Pharmaceutical Compounds and Other              Fort Worth, Texas
                                 for particle removal can provide a           Organic Wastewater Contaminants in a            San Antonio, Texas
                                 significant barrier to EDCs and PPCPs        Conventional Drinking-Water-Treatment
                                 without substantial capital cost.            Plant. Sci. Total Environ, 329(1-3), 99-113.    Salt Lake City, Utah
                                                                                                                              Seattle, Washington
                              References                                                              .
                                                                              Tang, C.Y., Q.S. Fu, A.P Robertson, C.S.
                              Gomez, M.J., M.J. Martinez Bueno, S.            Criddle, and J.O. Leckie. 2006. Use of
                                                                                                                                RESEARch SOLUTIONS
                              Lacorte, A.R. Fernandez-Alba, and A.            Reverse Osmosis Membranes to Remove
                              Aguera. 2007. Pilot Survey Monitoring           Perfluorooctane Sulfonate (PFOS) From
                              Pharmaceuticals and Related Compounds           Semiconductor Wastewater. Environ. Sci.
                                                                              Technol., 40(23), 7343-7349.                    REsEaRCh gROuP
re s e ar ch so l ut io n s

                              in a Sewage Treatment Plant Located on
                                                                                                                              Jess Brown, Manager
                              the Mediterranean Coast. Chemosphere,                                                           Phone (941) 371-9832
                              66(6), 993-1002.                                Wade, T., A. Salveson, A. Kaumudi, K. 
                                                                              Linden, J. Bandy, P Ruiz-Haas, and J.
                                                                                                                              PROduCEd By
                              Schwatter, F., C.B. Hannich, T. Nothe, J.       Thurston-Enriquez. 2008. “WRF project           andrew salveson
                              Oehlmann, and H. Fahlenkamp (2007).             02-009: Innovative Reclaimed Water              Laura Corrington
    12                        Risk Assessment for Organic Trace               Treatment Technologies: Media and               EdITOR
                                                                                                                              Erin Mackey
                              Compounds in Wastewater: Comparison of          Membrane Filtration, Ozone, Ozone
                                                                              Peroxide, and UV/Peroxide.” 2008                dEsIgn and PROduCTIOn
                              Conventional and Advanced Treatment.                                                            Matthew Parrott
                              Water Sci. Technol., 56(5), 9-13.               California Section Annual Conference.
                                                                              Newport Beach, CA.                                   Printed on Recycled Paper

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