INTRODUCTION

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					CHAPTER 1:
   INTRODUCTION
BUILDING MATERIALS

n   Building material is any material which is used for a
    construction purpose
n                                                  clay,
    Many naturally occurring substances, such as clay,
    sand,
    sand, wood and rocks, even twigs and leaves have
    been used to construct buildings
n   Apart from naturally occurring materials, many
    man-made products are in use, some more and
    man-
    some less synthetic
n   The manufacture of building materials is an
    established industry in many countries
Properties Of Materials

n   Determined by their structure, known from
    testing and research.
n   New materials are developed each year and
    the architect, engineer, QS and contractor
    must be informed about their properties.
n   If the properties of the material are known,
    the designer can predict its behavior and
    check it against that specified by codes and
    standards.
The following requirements are
considered when selecting
materials:
   Integrity of shape
   Strength
   Structural integrity
   Useful life
   Specified functions
   Cost
   Appearance
   Availability
   Maintenance
   Ease of installation
Materials and Roles of QS
n   QS should have knowledge regarding the
    materials that are available in the market.
    The information that a QS should know as
    listed below:
      Type of material
      Specification & Quality
      Functions and usage
      Raw materials
      Manufacturing process
      Installation
      Comparison between different materials (cost)
Why?

n   The main role of QS is to give advice to the
    client and architect especially regarding
    price comparisons and quality of the
    materials that are to be used in the project.
    However QS plays different roles in different
    stage of project development. There are 2
    main stages:
n   Pre-contract
    Pre-
n   Post-
    Post-contract
Pre-
Pre-contract Stage

n   Prepare cost estimate
n   Prepare bills of quantities
n   Prepare specification
n   Enquire materials price quotation from
    suppliers.
n   Compare prices between QS estimate
    and contractors estimate.
Post-
Post-contract Stage

n   Carry out site valuation with reference
    to the document contract.
n   Prepare progress payment (fixed and
    unfixed materials on site).
QS Roles in Materials
Selection
n   Advice Architect in terms of types and cost.
n   Prepare the correct and accurate
    specification that is to be included in the
    tender document. (This can be achieved by
    referring to the catalogue or past projects).
n   Selecting the quality materials. Hence can
    fulfill the functions, longer life span.
n   Comparing materials prices between
    suppliers (credit facility, location).
Factors Influencing
Costs/Prices of Materials
DEFINITION
n Cost   - the sum of money paid by
         the contractor to the supplier.
n Price  - the sum of money paid by
         the client to the contractor.
Factors Influencing
Costs/Prices of Materials
(cont d)
n   Sources of raw material (availability)
n   Location of site
n   Manufacturing process
n   Profit & overhead
n   Labour cost