Strategic Management in Water and Drainage Services by lwh15807

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									    RUSTENBURG STRATEGIC
  ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENT
   VOLUME 2: VISION, STRATEGIES & STRATEGIC
      ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT PLAN

                          PREPARED FOR

    North West Department of Agriculture, Conservation, Environment
(NWDACE), Department of Developmental Local Government & Housing (NW
                           DDLG&H) and
                  The Finnish Environment Institute

                          PREPARED BY




              Ecological and Environmental Consultants
                           PO Box 441037
                               LINDEN
                                 2104

                           Tel. 011 782 3428
                           Fax. 011 888 9588
                  Email. Info@ecoassessments.co.za

                         In association with:




                        Date: September 2003

                       Our Reference: 212/02
                                                                                     Vision, Strategies & SEMP

TABLE OF CONTENTS


1      VISION ............................................................................................................... 1
    1.1 BACKGROUND .............................................................................................. 1
    1.2 PURPOSE OF THIS DOCUMENT .................................................................. 1
    1.3 VISION (OR OBJECTIVES) FOR THE ENVIRONMENT ................................. 1
      1.3.1 Natural Environment ................................................................................ 2
      1.3.2 Socio-Economic Environment .................................................................. 2
      1.3.3 Services Environment .............................................................................. 3
      1.3.4 Land Use Environment ............................................................................ 3
      1.3.5 Policy Environment .................................................................................. 4
    1.4 APPROACH TO DEVELOPMENT .................................................................. 4
2      STRATEGIES FOR MANAGING THE ENVIRONMENT & DEVELOPMENT ... 10
    2.1 GEOLOGY ................................................................................................... 10
      2.1.1 Summary of Relevant Information.......................................................... 10
      2.1.2 Opportunities ......................................................................................... 10
      2.1.3 Constraints ............................................................................................ 10
      2.1.4 Desired State of the Environment .......................................................... 10
    2.2 SOILS ........................................................................................................... 11
      2.2.1 Summary of Relevant Information.......................................................... 11
      2.2.2 Opportunities ......................................................................................... 12
      2.2.3 Constraints ............................................................................................ 12
      2.2.4 Desired State of the Environment .......................................................... 12
    2.3 TOPOGRAPHY ............................................................................................ 13
      2.3.1 Summary of Relevant Information.......................................................... 13
      2.3.2 Opportunities ......................................................................................... 14
      2.3.3 Constraints ............................................................................................ 14
      2.3.4 Desired State of the Environment .......................................................... 14
    2.4 HYDROLOGY............................................................................................... 15
      2.4.1 Summary of Relevant Information.......................................................... 15
      2.4.2 Opportunities ......................................................................................... 16
      2.4.3 Constraints ............................................................................................ 16
      2.4.4 Desired State of the Environment .......................................................... 16
    2.5 WATER QUALITY......................................................................................... 17
      2.5.1 Summary of Relevant Information.......................................................... 17
      2.5.2 Opportunities ......................................................................................... 17
      2.5.3 Constraints ............................................................................................ 17
      2.5.4 Desired State of the Environment .......................................................... 17
    2.6 ECOLOGICAL SYSTEMS............................................................................. 18
      2.6.1 Summary of Relevant Information.......................................................... 18
      2.6.2 Opportunities ......................................................................................... 19
      2.6.3 Constraints ............................................................................................ 19
      2.6.4 Desired State of the Environment .......................................................... 19
    2.7 FAUNA ......................................................................................................... 20
      2.7.1 Summary of Relevant Information.......................................................... 20
      2.7.2 Opportunities ......................................................................................... 20
      2.7.3 Constraints ............................................................................................ 20
      2.7.4 Desired State of the Environment .......................................................... 20
    2.8 FLORA ......................................................................................................... 22
      2.8.1 Summary of Relevant Information.......................................................... 22
      2.8.2 Opportunities ......................................................................................... 22
                                                               i         Rustenburg SEA – Priority Area 1

Compiled by Eco Assessments cc (ck 2000/076445/23)
                                                                                Vision, Strategies & SEMP

      2.8.3 Constraints ............................................................................................ 22
      2.8.4 Desired State of the Environment .......................................................... 23
    2.9 LAND USE .................................................................................................... 24
      2.9.1 Summary of Relevant Information.......................................................... 24
      2.9.2 Opportunities ......................................................................................... 26
      2.9.3 Constraints ............................................................................................ 26
      2.9.4 Desired State of the Environment .......................................................... 26
    2.10 CULTURAL / HISTORIC FEATURES ........................................................ 27
      2.10.1 Summary of Relevant Information.......................................................... 27
      2.10.2 Opportunities ......................................................................................... 27
      2.10.3 Constraints ............................................................................................ 27
      2.10.4 Desired State of the Environment .......................................................... 28
    2.11 AIR QUALITY ............................................................................................ 28
      2.11.1 Summary of Relevant Information.......................................................... 28
      2.11.2 Opportunities ......................................................................................... 28
      2.11.3 Constraints ............................................................................................ 28
      2.11.4 Desired State of the Environment .......................................................... 28
    2.12 SERVICE PROVISION .............................................................................. 28
      2.12.1 Summary of Relevant Information.......................................................... 28
      2.12.2 Opportunities ......................................................................................... 29
      2.12.3 Constraints ............................................................................................ 29
      2.12.4 Desired State of the Environment .......................................................... 29
    2.13 VISUALLY SENSITIVE AREAS ........................................................................ 31
      2.13.1 Summary of Relevant Information.......................................................... 31
      2.13.2 Opportunities ......................................................................................... 31
      2.13.3 Constraints ............................................................................................ 31
      2.13.4 Desired State of the Environment .......................................................... 31
    2.14 CONFLICT ZONES ........................................................................................ 31
      2.14.1 Summary of Relevant Information.......................................................... 31
      2.14.2 Opportunities ......................................................................................... 32
      2.14.3 Constraints ............................................................................................ 32
      2.14.4 Desired State of the Environment .......................................................... 32
    2.15 PROXIMITY TO MPNE.................................................................................. 32
      2.15.1 Summary of Relevant Information.......................................................... 32
      2.15.2 Opportunities ......................................................................................... 33
      2.15.3 Constraints ............................................................................................ 33
      2.15.4 Desired State of the Environment .......................................................... 33
    2.16 ENVIRONMENTAL CONTROL ZONES .............................................................. 33
      2.16.1 Summary of Relevant Information.......................................................... 33
      2.16.2 Opportunities ......................................................................................... 33
      2.16.3 Constraints ............................................................................................ 33
      2.16.4 Desired State of the Environment .......................................................... 34
3      STRATEGIC ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT PLAN ............................... 35
    3.1 BACKGROUND ............................................................................................ 35
    3.2 PURPOSE OF THIS SECTION ..................................................................... 35
4      MANAGEMENT FRAMEWORK ...................................................................... 36
    4.1 LEGISLATIVE APPROACH (REFER ALSO TO THE STATUS QUO SECTION) ........ 36
      4.1.1 Management of Water ........................................................................... 36
      4.1.2 Management of Air ................................................................................ 36
      4.1.3 Management of Soil ............................................................................... 37
      4.1.4 Management of the Flora ....................................................................... 37
      4.1.5 Management of the Fauna ..................................................................... 37
                                                           ii        Rustenburg SEA – Priority Area 1

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                                                                                   Vision, Strategies & SEMP

      4.1.6 Management of the Ecology .................................................................. 38
      4.1.7 Management of Noise............................................................................ 38
      4.1.8 Management of Visual Quality ............................................................... 39
      4.1.9 Management of Waste & Pollution ......................................................... 39
      4.1.10 Management of Open Spaces ............................................................... 40
      4.1.11 Management of Cultural / Historic sites.................................................. 40
    4.2 MANAGEMENT STRUCTURE ..................................................................... 40
      4.2.1 Proposed Approach to Environmental Assessment ............................... 40
      4.2.2 Proposed Environmental Approach ....................................................... 42
      4.2.3 Appropriate Development Types Per Environmental Control Zone ........ 42
      4.2.4 Relevant documentation ........................................................................ 43
      4.2.5 Special Considerations .......................................................................... 44
      4.2.6 Concern Zones ...................................................................................... 45
      4.2.7 Environmental Screening ....................................................................... 46
5      ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT PLAN ..................................................... 47
    5.1 GEOLOGY ................................................................................................... 48
      5.1.1 Quartzite ................................................................................................ 48
      5.1.2 Norite, Hybrid Rocks, Diabase and Epidiorite ........................................ 48
      5.1.3 Norite / Pyroxenite ................................................................................. 48
      5.1.4 Norite / Anorthosite ................................................................................ 49
      5.1.5 Slate / Shale / Hornfels .......................................................................... 49
      5.1.6 Gabbro / Norite ...................................................................................... 49
    5.2 SOILS ........................................................................................................... 50
      5.2.1 Arcadia .................................................................................................. 50
      5.2.2 Hutton / Mispah ..................................................................................... 50
      5.2.3 Hutton .................................................................................................... 51
      5.2.4 Rock / Mispah ........................................................................................ 51
      5.2.5 Shortlands / Glenrosa ............................................................................ 52
      5.2.6 Shortlands / Hutton ................................................................................ 52
    5.3 TOPOGRAPHY ............................................................................................ 53
      5.3.1 Magaliesberg Mountain Range .............................................................. 53
      5.3.2 Ridges ................................................................................................... 53
      5.3.3 Mid slopes ............................................................................................. 54
      5.3.4 Undulating Plains ................................................................................... 54
      5.3.5 Hex River Flood Plain ............................................................................ 54
      5.3.6 Stream & Tributary Floodplains ............................................................. 55
      5.3.7 Valley Bottom ........................................................................................ 56
    5.4 HYDROLOGY............................................................................................... 56
      5.4.1 Streams ................................................................................................. 56
      5.4.2 Rivers .................................................................................................... 57
      5.4.3 Dams ..................................................................................................... 58
    5.5 WATER QUALITY......................................................................................... 58
      5.5.1 Surface water ........................................................................................ 58
      5.5.2 Ground Water ........................................................................................ 59
    5.6 ECOLOGICAL SYSTEMS............................................................................. 60
      5.6.1 Core ...................................................................................................... 60
      5.6.2 Connector .............................................................................................. 61
      5.6.3 Intermediate .......................................................................................... 61
    5.7 FAUNA ......................................................................................................... 62
      5.7.1 Birds ...................................................................................................... 62
      5.7.2 Herpetofauna ......................................................................................... 63
      5.7.3 Lepidoptera ........................................................................................... 63
      5.7.4 Other Invertebrate ................................................................................. 64
                                                             iii        Rustenburg SEA – Priority Area 1

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                                                                                   Vision, Strategies & SEMP

      5.7.5 Mammals ............................................................................................... 65
    5.8 FLORA ......................................................................................................... 65
      5.8.1 Gold Reef Mountain Bushveld ............................................................... 66
      5.8.2 Rustenburg Gabbro Thornveld .............................................................. 66
      5.8.3 Moot Plains Bushveld ............................................................................ 67
      5.8.4 Norite Koppies Bushveld ....................................................................... 67
      5.8.5 Wetlands of man-made dams ................................................................ 68
      5.8.6 Riverine Wetlands ................................................................................. 68
      5.8.7 Endorheic Pan Wetlands ....................................................................... 69
      5.8.8 Exotic Vegetation ................................................................................... 70
      5.8.9 Sensitive Plants (Red Data, Protected and Medicinal Plants) ................ 70
    5.9 LANDUSE .................................................................................................... 72
    5.10 CULTURAL / HISTORIC FEATURES ........................................................ 74
    5.11 SOCIAL FEATURES ................................................................................. 74
    5.12 AIR QUALITY ............................................................................................ 75
    5.13 SERVICE PROVISION .............................................................................. 77
      5.13.1 Electricity ............................................................................................... 77
      5.13.2 Roads .................................................................................................... 77
      5.13.3 Sewage ................................................................................................. 78
      5.13.4 Storm Water .......................................................................................... 78
      5.13.5 Waste Management............................................................................... 79
      5.13.6 Water ..................................................................................................... 80
      5.13.7 Telecommunications .............................................................................. 80
    5.14 VISUALLY SENSITIVE AREAS ........................................................................ 81
      5.14.1 Crests & Ridges..................................................................................... 81
      5.14.2 KMR ...................................................................................................... 81
      5.14.3 MPNE .................................................................................................... 81
    5.15 CONFLICT ZONES ........................................................................................ 82
      5.15.1 Developed Areas ................................................................................... 82
      5.15.2 Open Space / Vacant Land .................................................................... 82
      5.15.3 Existing Conflict ..................................................................................... 83
      5.15.4 Future Conflict ....................................................................................... 83
    5.16 PROXIMITY TO MPNE.................................................................................. 83
      5.16.1 0 – 500m ............................................................................................... 83
      5.16.2 500 – 100m ........................................................................................... 84
      5.16.3 > 1000m ................................................................................................ 84
    5.17 ENVIRONMENTAL CONTROL ZONES .............................................................. 84
      5.17.1 Low........................................................................................................ 84
      5.17.2 Medium.................................................................................................. 85
      5.17.3 High ....................................................................................................... 85
6      EVALUATION AND REPORTING SYSTEMS ................................................. 86

TABLE SUMMARY OF THE STRATEGIC EMP ..................................................... 87

7      IMPLEMENTATION STRATEGIES ................................................................107

8      CONCLUSION ................................................................................................108

9      REFERENCES................................................................................................109




                                                             iv         Rustenburg SEA – Priority Area 1

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                                                           Vision, Strategies & SEMP

1 VISION
1.1   BACKGROUND

      The first phase of the SEA undertook to describe the status quo of the
      environment of the study area. This phase also included consultation with the
      relevant interested and/or affected parties with the purpose being to collect the
      views, concerns, opinions and issues that surround development, land use
      planning and management of the environment.

1.2   PURPOSE OF THIS DOCUMENT

      The purpose of this document is to present the collective vision for
      development of the study area. This vision has been formulated by means of
      integrating, the often polar points of view on, how the area should be
      developed.

      The document first presents the objectives or core principles that should be
      acknowledged in an attempt to attain the vision for the area. Secondly, each
      environmental attribute is assessed in terms of its sensitivity, opportunities and
      constraints that set the backdrop for determining the strategic objective to
      managing and implementing plans to attain the proposed vision.

1.3   VISION (OR OBJECTIVES) FOR THE ENVIRONMENT

      The vision for Rustenburg (Priority Area 1) is as follows:

      “To ensure that development in the study area proceeds in a manner that does
      not undermine the integrity of the natural, social or economic environment while
      at the same time providing opportunities and benefits for economic growth and
      prosperity”.

      The fundamental principles that must be applied in an effort to attain the vision
      for Rustenburg includes:

         Present and future generations must be assured of a life in safety and good
          health;
         The biophysical attributes of the area must be retained;
         The biodiversity, ecological integrity and visual attractiveness of the area
          must be maintained;
         The impacts of construction and development must be minimized;
         Emissions and discharges of pollutants onto soils, air and water must not
          exceed the limits of nature;
         The cultural historic features must be preserved;
         The opportunities for tourism, ecotourism and sustainable land use must be
          retained;
         Adequate infrastructure services must be provided in the area;
         Adequate housing to address the pressures of development must be
          provided;
         Renewable and non renewable resources must be efficiently utilized so as
          to protect natural systems;


                                           1       Rustenburg SEA – Priority Area 1

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                                                             Vision, Strategies & SEMP

            Employment opportunities and business development strategies using
             techniques that integrate the communities and create opportunities for
             income must be created;
            A high degree of awareness must be created among stakeholders and role
             players to encourage and support sustainable development.

1.3.1 Natural Environment

         Vision is to retain and promote the:

             Natural vegetation and ecosystems;
             Existing vegetation as a control to erosion;
             Viable agricultural areas;
             Existing parks that are under pressure for development;
             Species composition of virgin land by means of appropriate burning
              events;
             Magaliesberg as an ecologically sensitive zone that has significant
              aesthetic value;
             Development of cultural heritage sites;
             Unique geological features that form a part of the Magaliesberg Mountain
              Range;
             Fertile and agriculturally important soil types that occur in the valley and
              foot of the Magaliesberg;
             Red Data fauna and flora species that occur in the Rustenburg area;
             Improvement of the quality of the air in and around Rustenburg;
             Improvement of the quality of the water in the rivers, dam and streams.

         In addition, the vision includes refraining from:

             Developing on steep slopes and ridges;
             Locating housing on High Quality and viable agricultural land;
             Poaching that occurs in the KMR;
             The spread of invader plants that occur along the rivers;
             Polluting rivers;
             Impacting on the ground water resource;
             Dust and air pollution (sulphate and suspended particulates) from
              industrial activities, e.g. mining, that cause long term impacts on human,
              bird and plant life;
             The occurrence of acid rain that causes changes to the environment.

1.3.2 Socio-Economic Environment

         Vision is to retain and promote:

             the visual assets of the study area;
             sufficient housing to the influx of workers (i.e. require approximately 3000
              houses per annum);
             access to studies and environmental information;
             the Local Economic Development Plan for Rustenburg;
             the cultural historic sites, statues and buildings that occur in the area;



                                             2       Rustenburg SEA – Priority Area 1

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                                                          Vision, Strategies & SEMP

         information on the natural and cultural heritage that is locked up in
          literature and not accessible as an information base to inform
          environmental and local authorities of such areas;
         the proper use of sites accessible to the public by means of tourism
          related infrastructure to protect the sites.

      In addition, the vision includes refraining from:

         unplanned development that may impact negatively on tourism;
         the visual impact of development on the ridges;
         squatting in the KMR, nature areas and any other areas;
         noise pollution over the Magaliesberg as a result of air flights;
         noise pollution in the vicinity of small holdings due to loud music;
         light pollution caused by development pressure in the higher lying areas.

1.3.3 Services Environment

      Vision is to:

         Encourage appropriate infrastructure development;
         Upgrade gravel roads within Olifantsnek;
         Provide appropriate services in Olifantsnek;
         Prevent the impact of sub-standard roads;
         Prevent water shortages in Rustenburg, e.g. areas south of the Mall that
          are own service areas;
         Prevent impacts of septic tanks that pollute the underground water;
         Provide sufficient land fill facilities and structures for waste management;
         Prevent illegal dumping that occurs on the edge and within the KMR and
          MPNE and elsewhere in the study area;
         Minimise the affect traffic volumes will have on all roads into as well as
          around Rustenburg;
         Improve the problem of congestion along the R24;
         Prevent local flooding that occurs along Kremetart Avenue, Foord and
          Scheiding Streets and the Molen Street Bridge;
         Prevent the flooding of the sewerage network during heavy rainfall events;
         Prevent erosion due to storm water run off in newly developed areas;
         Upgrade the sewerage treatment plant that is too small to handle the
          amount of sewerage;
         Provide sewage services to rural areas by means of appropriate septic
          tanks.

1.3.4 Land Use Environment

      Vision is to retain and promote:

         Sewage management of the Kloof Area;
         Sufficient land for development;
         Development areas that include sufficient green areas;
         Infrastructure requirements including the Olifantsnek Dam settlement and
          sanitation plan; Rustenburg Sewage Works, Water Supply to areas not
          formally services, Waste Management Facilities;
         Provide appropriate land for housing & industrial development.
                                          3       Rustenburg SEA – Priority Area 1

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                                                          Vision, Strategies & SEMP


       In addition the vision includes refraining from:

          Urban sprawl by densifying in and in close proximity to existing urban
           areas;
          Illegal development on the Mountainous Areas;
          Illegal & unsafe land use alongside the Olifantsnek Road and on the small
           holdings (e.g. Scrap yards, businesses, housing compounds and dumping
           sites);
          Inappropriate development on the borders of the KMR;
          Densification that changes the character of the area;
          Development on the borders of the KMR increase trespassing, waste and
           boundary management problems (e.g. alter character of hiking trails);
          Sub-divisions of High Quality and viable agricultural land;
          Illegal settlements;
          Illegal land uses leading to the degradation of the environment in terms of
           water pollution, fragmentation of land, destruction of trees, loss of
           legitimate taxes and limited development in townships.

1.3.5 Policy Environment

       Vision is to:

          Improve management by the local authority that is considered to lack
           manpower, political will, bureaucracy, clear guidelines, law enforcement;
          Address inadequate planning problems of the past;
          Provide for management of the buffer zone between the KMR and
           development;
          Prevent haphazard development;
          Promote planning of green areas in and around town;
          Increase management of sport centres in the black urban areas;
          Institute monitoring and liability assessments;
          Improve the timeframe for the EIA studies;
          Provide management plans for urban open spaces and urban nature
           areas;
          Provide Red Data species lists to environmental and local authorities that
           can be used to red flag certain areas where development is proposed;
          Provide a policy for the protection and management of Red Data,
           Protected and Medicinal plants that occur on private land and specifically
           when such plants occur on proposed development sites;
          Provide guidance through policy and strategic direction;
          Ensure the application of the existing regulations;
          Ensure staff and institutional capacity;
          Ensure Political Leadership.

1.4   APPROACH TO DEVELOPMENT

      In order to ensure that development attests to the vision of the area, it is
      necessary to distinguish environmental control zones (see Table 16 below &
      Figure 14). Specific guidelines have been prepared with the purpose of
      assisting developers, the public, the Rustenburg Local Municipality and the NW


                                           4       Rustenburg SEA – Priority Area 1

Compiled by Eco Assessments cc (ck 2000/076445/23)
                                                            Vision, Strategies & SEMP

      DACE (and other relevant authorities) to improve decision making based on the
      occurrence of various features on the site.

      The following environmental control zones are provided:

           High Environmental Control (High Sensitivity) - This area should include
            land uses that are of a low impact status in order to prevent immediate
            impacts on these highly sensitive areas.

           Medium Environmental Control (Medium Sensitivity) – Areas that have
            medium sensitivity according to the sensitivity of the various environmental
            attributes.

           Low Environmental Control (Low Sensitivity) - Development of areas that
            are considered to have no or low sensitivity.

Table 16.        Criteria for ranking sites as High, Medium or Low environmental
                 control sites:

                                             Class of Sensitivity
Biophysical                    High               Medium                   Low
Category
Average Slope &                  8°               5°  x < 8°              < 5°
surrounds       (refer
Fig. 13)
Occurrence          of       Red Data             Protected &              None
Sensitive species                                  Medicinal
Habitat for Red               Occurs                 None                  None
Data species
Position of site with    Within 1:50 year       Between 1:50 and    Outside 1:100 year
regards     to     the       floodline             1:100 year            floodline
Floodline                                           floodline
Agricultural                  Hutton             Hutton / Mispah           Rock
potential of soils            Arcadia              Shortlands /           Mispah
(Refer to Fig. 4)                                   Glenrosa
Location of MPNE              <500m               500 – 1000m            >1000m
boundary (Refer to
Fig. 13)
Affect on Open              Core Area             Intermediate             None
Space        function     Connector Area
(Refer to Fig. 8)
Socio-economic
Category
Significance        of      Significant          Not significant           None
Cultural      Historic
sites (Refer to Fig.
8)
Visual Sensitivity             Inside               Outside               Outside
(Refer to Fig. 12)
Land use                    Designated            Agricultural /       Residential /
                          conservation or        Undetermined          Commercial /
                         open space area                              Office / Special


                                            5       Rustenburg SEA – Priority Area 1

Compiled by Eco Assessments cc (ck 2000/076445/23)
                                                        Vision, Strategies & SEMP

Important Note:

Figure 14 provides the Environmental Control Zones on the basis of the
following categories only:
  Average Slope & Surrounds;
  Proximity to the MPNE Boundary;
  Open Space Function;
  Significance of Cultural Historic Sites;
  Visual Sensitivity;
  Land Use

The identification of the environmentally sensitive zones is based on the following
premises:

1.     Average Slope & surrounds

       Motivation: The likely cost for development and potentially the impact on the
       environment increases on a slope of 8° and steeper. This includes impacts
       associated with storm water runoff, bank collapse, etc.

       Application: A slope analysis of the study area indicated that a substantial
       amount of the hilly and mountainous areas are 8° and steeper (Figure 13).
       The areas of 8° and steeper further coincide well with the ecologically
       sensitive areas identified (Figure 8). The category (medium environmental
       control zone) occurs on the edge of the 8° areas. Slopes of 0-5° fall into the
       low environmental control zone area.

2.     Occurrence of Sensitive Species

       Motivation: Sensitive fauna and flora species (Red Data, Medicinal and
       Protected) are listed for the study area and are protected by various sets of
       legislation. Their occurrence on a site should be managed responsibly.

       Application: Every development site should be assessed for the occurrence of
       Red Data species listed for the study area. The occurrence of Red Data
       species on a site will place a proposed application in the High Environmental
       Control Zone. The occurrence of Protected and Medicinal plants on a site will
       place a proposed development in the Medium Environmental Control Zone.
       He absence of such species will place the site in a low Environmental Control
       Zone.

3.     Habitat for Red Data Species

       Motivation: Sensitive species are often not observed on a site due to the
       seasonality of the species (flora) or the mobility of species (fauna). The
       potential occurrence of habitat on a site should be managed responsibly.

       Application: Every development should be assessed for the occurrence of
       suitable habitat for Red Data species listed for the area. If suitable habitat
       occurs, the site will be more sensitive than if no habitat occurs. The
       categorization into the various environmental control zones can further be
       done according to the provincial priority given to the various Red Data
       species listed for the study area. Such a priority system can be developed or
       based on the Red Data status of every species listed for the area.
                                           6     Rustenburg SEA – Priority Area 1

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                                                         Vision, Strategies & SEMP

4.    Position of site within floodline

      Motivation: Development within the 1:50 year floodline level can not occur
      according to existing legislation. According to the National Water Act (1998) it
      is a requirement that the 1:100 year floodline level is shown on all
      development plans. These areas lie often in close proximity to the 1:50 year
      level except where the floodplain is shallow. In such cases measures will be
      required to manage impacts to ensure that the impact on the water resources
      can be managed and mitigated. Areas falling outside the 1:100 year level
      would potentially have an lower impact on the water resource.

      Application: All areas within the 1:50 year floodline area are no-go areas with
      a High Environmental Control zoning. Areas falling within the 1:100 year flood
      line fall within the Medium Environmental Control zone, whereas areas
      outside of the 1:100 year floodline will have a Low Environmental Control
      zoning.

5.    Agricultural potential of the soil

      Motivation: The National Department of Agriculture has various programmes
      aimed at retaining and improving the wise use of the agricultural resource of
      the country. This requires that soils with a Medium/High agricultural potential
      be protected from development for the purpose of encouraging agricultural
      production.

      Application: Hutton and Arcadia soils that have an agricultural importance (i.e.
      soils with a high potential for agricultural use) have been grouped into the
      High Environmental Control zone. The intermediate soils comprising a
      combination of soil types (Hutton & Mispah or Shortlands & Glenrosa) have
      been zoned with Medium Environmental Control. Rock and Mispah falls
      within the Low Environmental Control zone, as these soils are considered to
      be less agriculturally valuable soils.

6.    Location of MPNE boundary

      Motivation: The effect of surrounding land uses on the MPNE boundary is a
      concern of many authorities, public, Non-governmental and conservation
      groups. Increased urban development on the edges of the MPNE has lead to
      a general encroachment on the natural boundary characterized by increase
      litter, trampling, exotic plant infestation and illegal trespassing in the MPNE.

      Application: A line indicating a distance of 500 and 1000 meters from the
      boundary of the MPNE has been indicated on Figure 13. The 500m was
      determined by considering the average distance between the MPNE and the
      Donkerhoek road in the northern part of the study area. The distance was
      applied equally all along the MPNE boundary. The function of the lines will be
      to assess the distance of any proposed development to the proximity of the
      MPNE where developments located closer to the MPNE will be considered
      more sensitive and will fall into the High Environmental Control Zone.

7.    Affect on Open Space Function

      Motivation: In the landscape, it is important to maintain connectivity between
      natural habitats and between natural areas in the larger landscape. If this is
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      not maintained, populations (fauna and flora) become isolated and will
      subsequently die out.

      Application: All the ecologically sensitive areas were identified in the study
      area and mapped. These areas were further identified into three categories
      which describes their function as open spaces in the landscape. These
      categories can be described as follows:

      Core Areas
      The areas that were included into the category forms the most important
      elements in an open space system. They are characteristically larger areas
      that often include more than one habitat type, which adds to the species
      richness of the areas. The shape of the areas are further rounder which
      allows for less areas in contact with surrounding land uses and subsequently
      less “edge effect” (negative spill over impacts from urban or agricultural land
      uses neighbouring the core area). These areas are often already used and
      conserved as natural areas and passive recreational activities are already
      occurring in the areas.

      Intermediate areas
      Areas included into the category, is natural with respect to the vegetation.
      They play an intermediate role in the open space system where they are
      usually smaller than core areas with subsequently less diverse habitats. The
      areas are not necessarily used and seen by the general public as natural and
      recreational areas but may be used for such purposes if access is possible.
      The shape of these areas are less optimal and could include longitudinal
      areas where large sections of the boundary of the area are exposed to
      negative impacts from surrounding land uses (the edge effect is therefore
      high). Intermediate areas play a connector role along with the streams and
      rivers between core areas.

      Connector areas
      Streams and rivers are the most important connectors in the landscape.
      Servitudes such as powerline may also fulfil this function. Stream and rivers
      allows for species movement in the landscape where other obstacle such as
      urban development and roads prevent such movement. Streams and rivers
      should therefore be managed with utmost care and responsibility and habitat
      disturbance should not be allowed to occur due to development actions.

8.    Occurrence of Cultural Historic Sites

      Motivation: The National Heritage Resources Act requires that any
      development of land greater than 10 000 m2 in extent must be subject to a
      Phase 1 Cultural Historic Assessment. This assessment determines the
      location and significance of any cultural historic features on the site and
      recommends appropriate mitigation.

      Application: A site that is rated to be of significance will generally be
      investigated in more detail by means of a Cultural Historic Impact
      Assessment. Consequently these sites fall within a High Control Zone.

      Sites with no significant features will not be investigated in any more detail,
      although some form of mitigation may be required. These sites therefore fall
      within the Medium Control Zone.
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       Sites with no cultural historic features will fall within the Low Control Zone

9.     Visual Sensitivity

       Motivation: Rustenburg is characterized by several hills and koppies with the
       Magaliesberg forming a scenic backdrop to the town. These landscape
       characteristic gives Rustenburg its character and sense of place. Amongst
       other more complex social benefits, the sense of place affects the tourism
       potential of the town and makes it attractive for people to reside there. These
       landscape elements should therefore be managed responsibly and
       developments in these areas should be considered with severe scrutiny and
       will fall into the High Environmental Control Zone.

       Application: Any development proposed that is located in the Visually
       Sensitive areas (Figure 12) will fall into the High Environmental Control zone.

10.    Land Use

       Motivation: Areas that are designated conservation or open space areas
       commonly provide ecological and environmental functions that are important
       for the protection of biodiversity, encourage human health and well being and
       provide structure and form to urban areas. Areas that are used for agricultural
       and undetermined use require management according to the Environmental
       Conservation Act and National Environmental Management Act.

       Application: Designated conservation areas and open space areas will fall
       within the High Environmental Control zone, whereas areas of agricultural or
       undetermined use would fall within the Medium Environmental Control zone.
       All other areas, i.e. Residential, Commercial, Office or Special Use areas, will
       fall within the Low Environmental Control zone.

Use of table:

Should a site be categorized by a combination of high, medium and low criteria, then
the highest category will apply e.g. should a site be affected by any one of the criteria
listed under the high control zone, it will be considered as a high control zone
development.




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2 STRATEGIES FOR MANAGING THE ENVIRONMENT &
  DEVELOPMENT
2.1   GEOLOGY

2.1.1 Summary of Relevant Information

      The study area comprises 6 geological types. These include:

         Quartzite;
         Norite, hybrid rocks, diabase and epidiorite;
         Norite / pyroxenite;
         Norite-anorthosite;
         Slate, shale, hornfels;
         Gabbro, norite

      The slope areas are distinguished by a stable geology (quartzite) whereas the
      lower lying areas have a more active geological substrate (norite & gabbro).
      Gabbros are particularly prevalent in the flatter areas associated with river
      courses.

      The geological substrate is particularly sensitive to sewage impacts. No
      inherent geological areas, other than the gabbros, occur within the study area
      that would limit development.

2.1.2 Opportunities

      The majority of the area has a stable, or relatively stable, geology that does
      not limit development. The Rustenburg area includes significant opportunities
      of mining for Chrome, Stone, Platinum and other precious group metals.

2.1.3 Constraints

      Areas with a predominantly gabbro substrate will constrain the nature &
      density of development.

2.1.4 Desired State of the Environment

      Vision

      The geology of the area should be maintained in a stable state. This will
      require that adequate services (i.e. sewage), storm water control and
      appropriate mining activities be implemented where appropriate.

2.1.4.1 Quartzite

      Sensitivity

      There is no sensitivity associated with this geology




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2.1.4.2 Norite, Hybrid Rocks, Diabase and Epidiorite

       Sensitivity

       There is no sensitivity associated with this geology

2.1.4.3 Norite / Pyroxenite

       Sensitivity

       There is no sensitivity associated with this geology

2.1.4.4 Norite / Anorthosite

       Sensitivity

       There is no sensitivity associated with this geology

2.1.4.5 Slate / Shale / Hornfels

       Sensitivity

       There is no sensitivity associated with this geology

2.1.4.6 Gabbro / Norite

       Sensitivity

       This geology is particularly sensitive to shrink / swell characteristics. This
       means that structures established on this substrate are likely to exhibit
       significant cracks owing to soil movement and the shifting of foundations.


2.2   SOILS

2.2.1 Summary of Relevant Information

       The study area comprises 6 soil types. These include:

          Arcadia;
          Hutton & Mispah;
          Hutton:
          Rock & Mispah;
          Shortlands & Glenrosa:
          Shortlands & Hutton

       The soils of the area follow the concept of the catena where they are shallow
       & rocky in the mountainous areas with a lower fertility than the lower lying and
       clay rich soils at the base. Further downslope, and typically in association with
       rivers, dams and floodplains occur the vertic, melanic and undifferentiated red
       structured soils.



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      The agricultural areas are located on the fertile soils associated with water
      availability.

2.2.2 Opportunities

      The soils that are suitable for development include the Rock / Mispah, Hutton
      / Mispah, Hutton and Shortlands / Hutton types.

      The Hutton & Shortlands / Glenrosa soils are suitable for agriculture. The
      Arcadia soil type can also be used for agricultural production (e.g. Tobacco).

2.2.3 Constraints

      Soil types, as with geology, limit development in the following way:

          Fertile soils that can be used for agriculture;
          Clayey soils that have shrink/swell characteristics;
          Undifferentiated soils that can easily erode.

2.2.4 Desired State of the Environment

      Vision

      The fertile soil types in the study area should be retained for the purpose of
      agricultural production (i.e. Arcadia, Hutton, Shortlands & Glenrosa).
      Development of the other soil types should prevent erosion, significant storm
      water run-off, contamination, and pollution.

2.2.4.1 Arcadia

      Sensitivity

      This soil type characteristically has a high to very high Shrink / Swell nature.
      This means that during the dry season the clays contract and in the wet
      season they expand. The Arcadia soil type generally contains more than 60%
      clay.

      The high clay content further prevents surface water drainage to deeper
      layers. Hence the flow & drainage of contaminated water is impeded.

      The Arcadia soil type is not suitable for development without significant
      foundation measures and adequate service provision. This is because the
      high clay content prevents vertical water movement. It will also be important
      to ensure protection of pipes, roads, etc from lateral and vertical soil
      movement.

2.2.4.2 Hutton / Mispah

      Sensitivity

      These soils are generally less fertile containing a lower clay/loam content and
      more lime. These soils are also therefore more stable and better suited to
      development. The soils are more structured and better able to drain water.

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2.2.4.3 Hutton

      Sensitivity

      This soil type is very suited to agricultural use (i.e. citrus & maize). The soil is
      well structured and relatively fertile with good drainage characteristics.
      Nevertheless, these soil characteristics make is also suited to development.

2.2.4.4 Rock / Mispah

      Sensitivity

      The Rock / Mispah soil type is not suitable for agricultural use. The soil type is
      shallow and characterised by the prevalence of surface rock.

2.2.4.5 Shortlands / Glenrosa

      Sensitivity

      This soil type is rated to be relatively fertile owing to the higher clay content of
      the Glenrosa soil. Consequently agricultural production should be encouraged
      on this soil. The drainage characteristics are fair to good.

2.2.4.6 Shortlands / Hutton

      Sensitivity

      This soil is similarly relatively fertile except that the Hutton has a lower clay
      content. Drainage characteristics are rated to be good


2.3   TOPOGRAPHY

2.3.1 Summary of Relevant Information

      The following topographic units occur in the area:

         The Magaliesberg Mountain Range
         Ridges
         Mid slopes
         Undulating Plains
         Hex River Floodplain
         Tributary Floodplains
         Valley Bottom

      The topography in this area has a marked influence on the impact of
      development. For instance, development that occurs in exposed localities in
      elevated positions will be noticeable from great distances owing the relatively
      flat to undulating topography of the surrounding area. In such cases,
      mitigation measures may not suffice to mask the environmental impact. This
      is true for developments that might include highly visible impacts (lights) at
      night, noise, and associated impacts.


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      Development impacts such as those described above are generally less
      common in lower lying areas.

2.3.2 Opportunities

      The relatively undisturbed Magaliesberg Mountain areas provide a significant
      asset to Rustenburg and should be preserved. This will serve to consolidate
      the tourism potential of the area in the short, medium and long term.

2.3.3 Constraints

      Development on the higher lying positions will be visible from far and this
      would detract from the visual beauty of Rustenburg. All higher lying areas with
      slopes greater than 8° should be avoided from development.

2.3.4 Desired State of the Environment

      Vision

      The higher lying areas should all be retained as natural features of
      Rustenburg. Development of areas with slopes greater than 8° should be
      discouraged. Appropriate mitigation measures and development types should
      be encouraged on the 5 – 8° slopes.

      The Hex River Floodplain and the Tributary flood plains should not be
      developed (i.e. no development is proposed within the 1:100 year floodline
      level).

2.3.4.1 Magaliesberg Mountain Range

      Sensitivity

      The Magaliesberg Mountain range is currently protected under the
      Environment Conservation Act as a Protected Natural Environment. This area
      provides Rustenburg with a significant natural asset and this should continue
      to be protected against development.

2.3.4.2 Ridges

      Sensitivity

      The area includes a number of sensitive and relatively undisturbed ridges.
      Similarly, there are instances where development has already occurred on
      the ridge. Ridges serve as suitable habitat for a number of Red Data (Fauna
      and Flora) species. Ridges are also considered to significantly contribute to
      the sense of place of Rustenburg and these should be retained in their natural
      state.

2.3.4.3 Mid slopes

      Sensitivity

      Mid slope areas are very similar to ridge areas as these often are visibly over
      great distances. Where the slope is greater than 8° then development should
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      be discouraged. Reasons for this include the visual impacts, impact of storm
      water, erosion, ground stability, etc.

2.3.4.4 Undulating Plains

      Sensitivity

      The undulating plains of the study area have already largely been developed.
      Areas further north and east of Rustenburg hold promise for development but
      these are constrained by aspects such as geological and soil condition.

2.3.4.5 Hex River Flood Plain

      Sensitivity

      The Hex River floodplain is under pressure to be developed. This includes a
      number of activities such as business, residential, hospitality and other. This
      area is currently not adequately serviced to be able to accommodate further
      development.

      The Hex River floodplain includes a number of exotic trees but also has
      natural elements that deserve protection.

2.3.4.6 Stream & Tributary Floodplains

      Sensitivity

      A number of streams and stream tributaries bisect the study area. Some of
      these are relatively natural (e.g. Waterkloofspruit Floodplain) whereas others
      have been significantly impacted upon (Watervalspruit & Dorpspruit
      Floodplains).

2.3.4.7 Valley Bottom

      Sensitivity

      The valley bottom commonly comprises soils that are sensitive to
      development. From a topographic point of view valley bottoms provide no
      constraint to development, except should they include disruption to the visual
      landscape and ambience of the area.

2.4   HYDROLOGY

2.4.1 Summary of Relevant Information

      The study area includes 7 streams and stream tributaries that bisect the area.
      One dam, the Olifantsnek Dam, is located in the south eastern corner of the
      study area, and the Hex River is the main river draining the area to the
      Bospoortdam in the north.

      Development, pollution, localised flooding, erosion, siltation and
      sedimentation are common impacts associated with the stream and river
      courses.

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2.4.2 Opportunities

      The river courses need to be protected from any further development.
      Pollution and contamination of the water course needs to be controlled and
      minimised.

2.4.3 Constraints

      Localised flooding,     erosion   and    siltation   will   continue   with   further
      development.

2.4.4 Desired State of the Environment

      Vision

      The runoff of surface water in the study area should not contribute to
      significant erosion, sedimentation or siltation. Localised flooding should be
      minimised to ensure that the damage to infrastructure is reduced.

2.4.4.1 Streams

      Sensitivity

      The Waterkloofspruit, Waterfallspruit, Dorpspruit, tributary of the
      Legadigadispruit, Rooikloofspruit and Sterkstroomspruit provide the major
      conduits of water flow through the study area. These all drain into the Hex
      River. Each of these spruits have a water quality rated to be good to fair and
      are characterised by high peak flows owing to their location in the upper
      reaches of the catchment.

2.4.4.2 Rivers

      Sensitivity

      The Hex River is the only major river course in the study area. This river
      drains northward from the Olifantsnek Dam toward the Bospoortdam. The
      water quality of this river is poor. The river is also impacted upon by fertilizers
      from the agricultural areas that it passes through.

2.4.4.3 Dams

      Sensitivity

      The Olifantsnek Dam is an irrigation dam that provides water to the areas
      north of it. The dam is shallow and regularly dries up during drought periods.
      Development on the borders of the dam are increasing the pressure on its
      uniqueness and ambience.




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2.4.4.4 Wetlands

      Sensitivity

      Wetlands within the study area have been transformed by sand mining. It is
      necessary that rehabilitation actions be taken to restore the functioning and
      biodiversity of the wetlands.


2.5   WATER QUALITY

2.5.1 Summary of Relevant Information

       The quality of the surface water is relatively good to fair in the upper lying
       portions of the various streams. However the quality of the Hex River is rated
       to be poor to average, primarily as a result of Faecal coliforme bacterial
       contamination.

       The Olifantsnek Dam, although relatively clean, is threatened by impacts such
       as inadequate service provision, development pressure, fertilizer run-off,
       siltation, etc.

2.5.2 Opportunities

       An improved water quality will increase the ambience of the streams, rivers
       and dams in the study area for the benefit of all. This could spurn a greater
       awareness and appreciation of the water resource by means of nature trails,
       bird hides, rambles and the such.

2.5.3 Constraints

       Unplanned development and increasing densities are increasing the pressure
       on the resource. Inadequate services threaten the water quality and
       measures to control impacts such as siltation and sedimentation are required.

       The quality of the surface water should be protected and improved by means
       of preventing sewage impacts, drainage of water through waste sites,
       controlling construction activities that can contribute to contamination of the
       stream and rivers and limiting the use of agricultural fertilizers.

2.5.4 Desired State of the Environment

       Water quality must be improved and maintained at an acceptable standard.

2.5.4.1 Surface water

       Sensitivity

       The surface water quality is variable and is rated from poor to good.




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2.5.4.2 Ground Water

      Sensitivity

      Two aquifer types occur in the area. These include the Rustenburg layered
      Suite and the Magaliesberg Formation. The ground water yield from these
      aquifers is generally poor (i.e. less than 2l/s) and the water quality is generally
      average to good.

      Water abstraction is typical in the areas not provided with serviced water.


2.6   ECOLOGICAL SYSTEMS

2.6.1 Summary of Relevant Information

      The distinguishable ecological features or habitats occurring in the study area
      include mountainous areas, wetlands, streams and river courses, dams,
      indigenous woodland and grassland floral communities. All the ecologically
      sensitive areas were identified in the study area and mapped. These areas
      were further identified into three categories which describes their function as
      open spaces in the landscape. These categories are as follows:

      Core Areas
      The areas that were included into the category forms the most important
      elements in an open space system. They are characteristically larger areas
      that often include more than one habitat type, which adds to the species
      richness of the areas. The shape of the areas are further rounder which
      allows for less areas in contact with surrounding land uses and subsequently
      less “edge effect” (negative spill over impacts from urban or agricultural land
      uses neighbouring the core area). These areas are often already used and
      conserved as natural areas and passive recreational activities are already
      occurring in the areas.

      Intermediate areas
      Areas included into the category, is natural with respect to the vegetation.
      They play an intermediate role in the open space system where they are
      usually smaller than core areas with subsequently less diverse habitats. The
      areas are not necessarily used and seen by the general public as natural and
      recreational areas but may be used for such purposes if access is possible.
      The shape of these areas are less optimal and could include longitudinal
      areas where large sections of the boundary of the area are exposed to
      negative impacts from surrounding land uses (the edge effect is therefore
      high). Intermediate areas play a connector role along with the streams and
      rivers between core areas.

      Connector areas
      Streams and rivers are the most important connectors in the landscape.
      Servitudes such as powerlines may also fulfil this function. Stream and rivers
      allows for species movement in the landscape where other obstacle such as
      urban development and roads prevent such movement. Streams and rivers
      should therefore be managed with utmost care and responsibility and habitat
      disturbance should not be allowed to occur due to development actions.

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2.6.2 Opportunities

      Not all sensitive areas have been affected by development at the present
      stage. An open space system of connected natural areas can be developed to
      guide development around sensitive areas. Some natural areas have
      historically been left undeveloped and managed as open spaces (e.g. the
      Kwaggapan Nature Reserve and Cultural Centre land) and should form the
      core areas and cornerstones of an open space system. Much of the present
      natural land belongs to the Local Authority which can be developed and
      utilized as public amenities where recreation could be provided and cost
      recovery can be initiated through controlled access points.

2.6.3 Constraints

      Some potentially important connector areas between natural areas have been
      affected by development.

      Financial commitment to manage natural open spaces areas may be lacking
      or receive low priority.

      Development will be restricted in ecologically sensitive areas.

2.6.4 Desired State of the Environment

      Vision

      All natural areas should be maintained and protected against unsustainable
      development. All open spaces should be maintained and protected against
      unsustainable development. During urbanization, designated sensitive areas
      should be identified and protected in such as way that they are connected.
      Riverine areas should not be encroached upon.

2.6.4.1 Core

      Sensitivity

      Core areas form the cornerstone of the open space system and supports a
      high species richness and biodiversity.

2.6.4.2 Connector

      Sensitivity

      Connector areas are often longitudinal in shape ad therefore prone to impacts
      along its edges. Stream and rivers which forms a large part of the connectors
      in the study area are further affected by water pollution due to bad land
      management practices as well as invasion of exotic vegetation which is
      transported downstream from its source.




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2.6.4.3 Intermediate

      Sensitivity

      Intermediate areas are often located between core areas and adjoining
      connector area and therefore functions as connectivity elements in the
      landscape. These areas are often not as undisturbed as core area and will be
      prone to be developed thereby affecting the connectivity between the core
      areas and in the landscape in general.


2.7   FAUNA

2.7.1 Summary of Relevant Information

      All areas that still resemble the natural vegetation in the study area function
      as habitat for a range of faunal species. The rural surroundings of Rustenburg
      town further support the probability of wild faunal species occurring in the
      study area. A variety of faunal species have been recorded for the study area.
      The occurrence of such species on the neighboring Kgaswane Mountain
      Reserve further implies that such species may also occur in undeveloped
      areas in the study area. The species recorded for the study area further
      includes Red Data species (species with internationally recognized
      conservation status) of which the habitat should be noted and protected
      during development in the study area.

2.7.2 Opportunities

      Sensitive species have been listed for the area and their habitats are
      described. Environmental impact studies can be used to facilitate the
      assessment of the occurrence of recorded sensitive habitats and species.
      Layout plans can be developed around sensitive habitats. The area is rich is
      fauna which can continue to add value to the tourism experience in the area
      with special reference to bird watching. Provincial biodiversity initiatives are
      increasing the knowledge of faunal distribution throughout the province.

2.7.3 Constraints

      Urbanization in Rustenburg is presently happening at a fast rate and can be
      restricted in areas where Red Data fauna habitats occur. Development
      designs are completed before the faunal and habitat sensitivities for a specific
      area is determined.

2.7.4 Desired State of the Environment

      Vision

      Natural habitats should be protected against unsustainable development as it
      will affect faunal populations including Red Data faunal habitats and
      populations.




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2.7.4.1 Birds

      Sensitivity

      Eight (8) Vulnerable (Red Data) have been recorded in the larger area
      according to the distribution maps. Two Vulnerable (Red Data) bird species
      have specifically been recorded in the area. The listed species‟ Vulnerable
      status are often caused by loss of habitat through agricultural and associated
      practices and urbanization. Insensitivity towards habitats utilized by these
      species may increase the impacts and lead to possible extinction of species.

2.7.4.2 Herpetofauna

      Sensitivity

      New reptiles species are still discovered regularly. This a concerning
      especially due to the fact that reptile species are not easily noted or easily
      recorded due to their secretive lifestyle.

      Common herpetofaunal species may land up to be Red data species if habitat
      is not protected whilst development such a urbanization or agricultural
      development is happening. Habitat protected in general should therefore be
      the focus during the development process. Special attention should be given
      to species that are habitat bound and /or species that will not be able to
      quickly move out of a site where development is proposed.

      Five Red Data herpetofaunal species are recorded for the study area as well
      as a wide variety of other reptile and amphibian species. Amphibian species
      are very susceptible to water pollution and the Giant Bullfrog are often
      unknowingly affected by urban development due to only being visible for
      approximately 3 months of the year after which it hibernates underground.

2.7.4.3 Lepidoptera

      Sensitivity

      Common butterfly species may land up to be Red data species if habitat is not
      protected whilst development such as urbanization or agricultural
      development is happening. Habitat protected in general should therefore be
      the focus during the development process. Special attention should be given
      to species that are habitat bound and /or species that will not be able to
      quickly move out of a site where development is proposed.

      Eleven Red Data butterfly species can potentially occur in the study area.
      Their habitats range from bushveld, grassland and riparian veld.

2.7.4.4 Other Invertebrates

      Sensitivity

      Over time, more information will become available on invertebrate species
      that are of conservation value e.g. scorpion species, baboon and trapdoor
      spiders. The habitats and potential occurrence of such species should be
      assessed before development is approved.
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2.7.4.5 Mammals

       Sensitivity

       Common mammal species may land up to be Red data species if habitat is
       not protected whilst development such as urbanization or agricultural
       development is happening. Habitat protected in general should therefore be
       the focus during the development process. Special attention should be given
       to species that are habitat bound and /or species that will not be able to
       quickly move out of a site where development is proposed.

       Nine Red Data and sensitive species have been recorded on the Kgaswane
       Mountain Reserve and can therefore potentially occur in the study area.


2.8   FLORA

2.8.1 Summary of Relevant Information

      Various vegetation types have been identified in the study area on different
      scales by different botanists. The most appropriate identification of vegetation
      with reference to scale is the identification completed for the North West
      Province Biodiversity Site Inventory (2003).

      A list of Red Data and sensitive plant species have been listed for the area.

      Protected species listed under the Transvaal ordinance of 1983 still needs to
      received protection.

      Alien species that are characteristic to the area have been listed with the
      habitats they potentially invade.

2.8.2 Opportunities

       Sensitive species have been listed for the area and their habitats are
       described. Environmental impact studies can be used to facilitate the
       assessment of the occurrence of recorded sensitive habitats and species
       where developments are proposed. Layout plans can be developed around
       sensitive habitats.

       The area is rich is flora which can continue to add value to the tourism
       experience in the area. Tree identification is becoming increasingly popular
       and should be utilized for tourism in the area.

       Provincial biodiversity initiatives are increasing the knowledge of floral
       distribution throughout the province.

2.8.3 Constraints

       Urbanization in Rustenburg is presently happening at a fast rate and can be
       restricted by important ecosystems.


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2.8.4 Desired State of the Environment

      Vision

      Natural vegetation should be protected during the process of development.
      Biodiversity as well as scarce and Red Data species should be maintained.
      South Africa is signatory to the International Biodiversity Convention and has
      a responsibility in this regard.

2.8.4.1 Gold Reef Mountain Bushveld

      Sensitivity

      This vegetation type generally follows the Magaliesberg mountain range and
      is characterized by a high species richness. Many of the Red Data plants
      listed for the study area occur in this vegetation type. Insensitive construction
      activities often leave a lasting scar in this generally rocky terrain.

2.8.4.2 Rustenburg Gabbro Thornveld

      Sensitivity

      This vegetation type has been affected by urban, agricultural and mining
      activities in the study area.

2.8.4.3 Moot Plains Bushveld

      Sensitivity

      The vegetation type has largely been affected by urban and agricultural
      development while remaining natural patches of vegetation is still observed in
      the northern part of the study area. This vegetation type neighbors the
      species rich Magaliesberg vegetation. This has some importance in that this
      vegetation type will function as an ecotone area (transitions area between
      different habitats) where the species richness is often higher than the
      surrounding habitats.

2.8.4.4 Norite Koppies Bushveld

      Sensitivity

      This small vegetation unit is largely associated with the Rietvly mountain in
      the northern part of the study area. The vegetation is generally undisturbed.

2.8.4.5 Wetlands of man-made dams

      Sensitivity

      Man made dams are often characterized by large indigenous trees as well as
      some indigenous wetland vegetation such as reeds and sedges. Wetland
      habitats is home to variety of Red Data fauna and flora species.




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2.8.4.6 Riverine Wetlands

      Sensitivity

      Riverine wetlands are one of the most vulnerable habitats in the study area
      due to its susceptibility to pollution and exotic plant invasion. Large sections of
      floodline have already been affected by exotic vegetation and presently
      increasingly urbanization.


2.8.4.7 Endorheic Pan Wetlands

      Sensitivity

      Endorheic pans are a closed system, which creates habitats for a variety of
      faunal and floral species. These pans are natural features that should be
      maintained as such in the landscape.

2.8.4.8 Exotic Vegetation

      Sensitivity

      Exotic vegetation infestation can lead to loss of natural habitat, loss of
      valuable agricultural land and are costly to remove often rendering the soils
      infertile and difficult to rehabilitate. In addition, exotic plants generally utilize
      larger quantities of water than indigenous plants which impacts negatively on
      hydrological systems and balances.

2.8.4.9 Sensitive Plants (Red Data, Protected and Medicinal Plants)

      Sensitivity

      Red Data Species -
      Red Data species have a researched and proven low survival potential if
      removed from their natural habitat. These plants should therefore be
      protected where they naturally occur.

      Protected Plant Species -
      Protected Plants are often plants that may end up being Red Data plants if
      not properly conserved in the short term.

      Medicinal Plant Species -
      The over utilization of medicinal plants may lead to plants eventually being
      listed as Red Data plants.


2.9   LAND USE

2.9.1 Summary of Relevant Information

      The Rustenburg Area is characterised by a mix of land uses. These include
      activities such as:

         Tourism;
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          Mining;
          Agriculture;
          Residential;
          Industrial;
          Recreational;
          Open Space;
          Municipal Services.

       Many areas also include illegal activities that have arisen as a result of poor
       control, inadequate planning, urbanisation and development. This has
       spurned a need for houses, jobs, service provision and development.
       Consequently the pressure on the environment has increased to levels that
       mean that development is not sustainable.

      The northern suburbs of the town, north of the Dorpspruit, are predominantly
       low-to-middle income housing. There are new townships such as Thlabane
       West which have been aimed at the middle class, but have been slow to take
       off owing in part to the stigma that attaches to the north.

      The large number of backyard shacks (estimated at 10 000) in Thlabane,
       which is indicative of the demand for low cost housing.

      The northern part of the CBD has become a major transportation depot for
       public transport, particularly taxis, and is responding to the largely lower
       income clientele who predominate in the area. Limited new investment and
       lack of maintenance of facilities, to name some of the possible contributory
       factors, has detrimental impacts on the quality of the environment in the area.

      The southern part of the CBD appears to be maintaining a better standard of
       development. Limited parking and accessibility and other related issues such
       as the promotion of office uses in the adjacent residential areas, are not
       assisting it in retaining its role as the regional centre for commerce and
       industry.

      There is a general exodus of retail buying power from the CBD in favour of
       peripheral locations, such as Waterfall Park.

      Two industrial townships exist in Rustenburg, one to the south of the CBD
       and the other to the north of the CBD. The northern township (Rustenburg
       Extension 9) has not been successful in attracting development, with much of
       the blame attributed to the lack of good access, it‟s location in a backwater,
       and the proximity to poorer residential townships.

      The upmarket residential townships are extending to the south and west and
       are threatening the very environmental features such as the indigenous trees
       and the higher topography that make Rustenburg attractive and give it tourist
       appeal. This is particularly pertinent in areas where densification of residential
       erven is taking place.

      There is a proliferation of illegal land uses along the major routes from
       Pretoria and Johannesburg, particularly along the so-called Olifantsnek
       Corridor.


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      There is a diminishing agricultural component in the south eastern part of the
       area in the so-called Delta Area.

      The growing traffic congestion and the need for a rethink about the roads in
       and around the urban area in order to promote better accessibility and to
       facilitate further development in the industrial areas. The potential impact of
       the N4 on the established urban area of Rustenburg, if it follows the original
       alignment proposed through the Area, will be substantial.

      The reduction in the amount of land allocated for conservation and
       environmental protection, and the encroachment of urban development onto
       sensitive zones such as the fence-line of the nature reserve.

2.9.2 Opportunities

       Rustenburg comprises a number of areas that have not yet suffered the fate
       of unsustainable development practices. Some areas still retain their natural
       beauty and these should be protected.

2.9.3 Constraints

       Development that will occur as a result of the N4, increasing demand for
       housing, services and industrial areas will exert pressure on natural
       resources. The planning for the area includes several examples where
       development will not be beneficial in the long term.

2.9.4 Desired State of the Environment

       Vision

       The retention of the salient natural environmental features in a way that
       enhances the character, amenity and sustainability of urban and rural
       development in the study area, and the effective management of future
       development within this context.

       Sensitivity

       The SEA has highlighted the need for:

          The creation and protection of open / riverine space;
          The retention of the “sense of place” conveyed by the topographical and
           ecological attributes of the area (i.e. mountains, slopes, vegetation, etc.);
          Direction regarding the sub-division of farm land which is not formally
           reticulated with services;
          The identification of new land for residential and other land uses with due
           regard for the location, soils, geology, etc;
          Deriving benefit from the mining operations in the area for the better
           development of the area in general, and the mitigation of the impacts of
           mining on the form function and living quality of the study area and the
           contiguous environs;
          Better communications between the authorities responsible for the
           development of the study area.


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         Strategic Objectives

         It is apparent that the study area lacks coherent developmental planning and
         management. This has contributed to the difficulties identified in this report.

         If this is to be addressed, it requires that the relevant municipal authorities
         area:

             Adequately capacitated (staff, equipment, funding, etc.)
             Guided by well formulated land use frameworks and policies, and
             Supported by suitable legal regulations.

         While most of these issues should form part of the Integrated Development
         Plan for the study area, they have not necessarily been adequately
         addressed in the current IDP.

     The revision of the IDP must ensure that it includes a Spatial Development
     Framework and basic guidelines for a land use management system.

     The SDF must be informed by the principles for development set out in Chapter
     One of the Development Facilitation Act, the National Environmental
     Management Act, and the findings of the Strategic Environmental Assessment
     report.

     It should also be complemented by the documents stipulated in Government
     Gazette No 22605 of 2001 (24th August 2001) which require that the objectives
     must reflect the desired spatial form of development in the area and contain:

            Strategies and policies regarding the manner in which these objectives are
             to be attained;
            Basic guidelines for a land use management system;
            A capital investment framework;
            A strategic environmental assessment (the subject of this study);
            Programmes for the development of land; and
            Provides a visual representation of the above.


2.10 CULTURAL / HISTORIC FEATURES

2.10.1 Summary of Relevant Information

         The study area includes a number of important cultural / historic sites. These
         include not only archaeological sites but also historical sites of both the black
         and white ancestries.

2.10.2 Opportunities

         The wealth of cultural / historic sites in the area should be capitalised on by
         means of encouraging appropriate development. This could include historic
         tours & walks, specialised guest houses, or associated activities.

2.10.3 Constraints

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      Development activities make areas more accessible with the consequent
      increase in thefts, trespassing, and damage to such sites.

2.10.4 Desired State of the Environment

      The cultural / historic features of the area should be retained in their current
      form and / or rehabilitated to ensure for their preservation. Efforts to better
      integrate development with the occurrence of these features should be
      encouraged.


2.11 AIR QUALITY

2.11.1 Summary of Relevant Information

      The Air quality of the Rustenburg area is considered to be poor. This is
      primarily a result of the advent of mining in the area that has led to elevated
      levels of SO2, Particulate Matter (PM10), dusts, biomass emissions, and
      associated impacts.

2.11.2 Opportunities

      Cleaner air would also ensure a healthy Rustenburg for all its inhabitants.
      An improved air quality in Rustenburg would mitigate the impacts on the
      biodiversity of the study area.

2.11.3 Constraints

      The poor air quality in Rustenburg negatively affects the tourist industry upon
      which Rustenburg has an asset.

2.11.4 Desired State of the Environment

     Vision

     The study area should comprise an area of clean air in which people can live
     without impacting on the health and well being. To achieve this will require that
     relevant parties comply with the proposed Atmospheric Pollution Control Act by
     means of controlling activities that give rise to atmospheric impacts.

     Sensitivity

     The current air quality of the Rustenburg area is rated to be poor to very poor.
     This stems primarily from the impact of mining and other industrial activities. In
     some cases the poor air quality has given rise to complaints from the public as
     well as increasing pressure on the natural environment.

2.12 SERVICE PROVISION

2.12.1 Summary of Relevant Information

      The level and standard of service provision varies through the study area. In
      the conventionally urban areas, services are available. However, within the

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       growing areas of Rustenburg, services are either insufficient or at a level of
       service that is inadequate. This gives rise to environmental impacts including
       pollution, contamination of water, dumping, and unhealthy living conditions.

2.12.2 Opportunities

       The provision of services where they are required would assist in minimising
       environmental impacts such as water contamination, pollution, waste, etc.

       Improved service delivery would speed up development and foster economic
       investment in the area.

2.12.3 Constraints

       No further development should be supported in areas that are not fully
       serviced.

       Where the local authority can not provide such a service, then the
       developer(s) should commence with providing the required infrastructure.

2.12.4 Desired State of the Environment

       Vision

       All further development in an area should only be supported if the required
       services are available at an adequate standard. This should include the
       provision of adequate and appropriate infrastructure for roads, storm water,
       electricity, sewage, waste management, and water.

2.12.4.1 Electricity

       Sensitivity

       The current level of demand and supply for electricity is considered sufficient.
       However increased development in the area will require that the service be
       expanded to meet the need.

2.12.4.2 Roads

       Sensitivity

       The increasing traffic flows to and through the area are placing a strain on the
       efficacy of the road network.

       Inequalities exist for the internal roads of Rustenburg and Thlabane.

       The alignment of the N4 is likely to bisect Rustenburg, although current
       construction activities are likely to cease at the Rustenburg / Magaliesberg
       (R24) road for the time being.

       The R24 is upgraded / repaired on an ad hoc basis and an additional
       intersection at the Mall is proposed. Movement by heavy vehicles along this
       road is high and is likely to increase owing to the N4.

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       The local road infrastructure in Olifantsnek are inadequate being gravel
       roads. An upgrade of these roads is required.

2.12.4.3 Sewage

       Sensitivity

       The sewage treatment plants suffers from overloading and frequently spills
       into the Hex River affecting the water quality of the Bospoort Dam.

       The rural areas and areas peripheral to the urban areas deal with sanitation
       by means of local solutions (e.g. septic tanks, conservancy tanks, french
       drains). This can impact on the quality of the ground water.

2.12.4.4 Storm Water

       Sensitivity

       Densification & recent development in Rustenburg Town has led to increased
       pressure on the stormwater infrastructure giving rise to overflows.

       The level of service in Thlabane will need upgrading to improve the
       effectiveness of this infrastructure.

       Seasonal flooding occurs along Kremetart Avenue, Foord and Scheiding
       Streets and at the Molen Street Bridge.

       Stormwater does not appear to be a problem in areas peripheral to the urban
       areas.

       During heavy storms the storm water run-off gives rise to flooding of the
       sewage network.

2.12.4.5 Waste Management

       Sensitivity

       Only a single land fill site exists to service solid waste disposal in the area.
       This is at capacity.

       Illegal dumping is prevalent in natural areas.

       Three transfer stations exist. One of these is run-down and requires
       significant improvement.

       No transfer stations occur in the vicinity of the Waterfall Mall.
2.12.4.6 Water

       Sensitivity

       Problems of capacity exist to meet the demands for water in the newer
       southern townships. Maintenance issues exist in the older parts of
       Rustenburg Town.

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      Areas south of the Waterfall Mall are not serviced. Similarly areas outside of
      the serviced areas of Rustenburg & Thlabane make use of borehole and river
      water.

2.12.4.7 Telecommunications

      Sensitivity

      The bulk of the formal urban areas are serviced with telephone lines. The
      same does not seem to be true for the peripheral areas.


2.13 Visually Sensitive Areas

2.13.1 Summary of Relevant Information

      A slope analysis identifies a number of areas that are considered to be
      visually sensitive. This will need to be addressed in evaluating and assessing
      the potential impacts of a development application.

2.13.2 Opportunities

      The ridges and crests in Rustenburg offer significant views and capture the
      beauty and ambience of the area.

2.13.3 Constraints

      Development and transformation of the visually sensitive areas will eliminate
      the ambience of the area and replace the sense of place.

2.13.4 Desired State of the Environment

2.13.4.1 Crests & Ridges

        Crests and ridges should remain untransformed. Development in this area
        must be sustainable and aim to link with the ambience and character of
        Rustenburg.

2.13.4.2 KMR

        The KMR falls outside the study area.

2.13.4.3 MPNE

        The MPNE falls outside the study area.

2.14 Conflict Zones

2.14.1 Summary of Relevant Information

      A number of land uses have previously transformed areas falling within the
      High Environmental Control Zone. In some cases, existing land use is


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       impacting on areas within the High ECS, and in some cases illegal
       developments occur in other areas outside the High ECZ.

       In addition, a number of areas proposed for development are likely to impact
       negatively on the High ECZ. This is considered to be unsustainable land use
       practices.

2.14.2 Opportunities

       The conflict map (Figure 15) indicates areas where development has not
       occurred and where proactives steps can be taken to minimise the conflict.

2.14.3 Constraints

       Several areas have already been transformed. In addition, the conflict map
       indicates areas where development should not be encouraged owing to the
       sensitivity of the site.

2.14.4 Desired State of the Environment

2.14.4.1 Developed Areas

        These areas should be managed to ensure that further environmental
        degradation does not occur. Where-ever possible, steps should be taken to
        recover, recreate or maintain areas so that open space function and the
        sense of place can be obtained.

2.14.4.2 Open Space / Vacant Land

        These areas are under threat of transformation and steps must be put in
        place to protect, retain, and or maintain areas worthy of such status. In other
        cases, sustainable land use practices must be implemented that will ensure
        that the sites do not degrade.

2.14.4.3 Existing Conflict

        Existing conflict areas must be proactively managed to ensure that
        environmental degradation does not occur.

2.14.4.4 Future Conflict

        Future conflict areas must be managed to reduce the threat of conflict.
        Alternative strategies must be embarked upon to preempt their
        transformation.

2.15 Proximity to MPNE

2.15.1 Summary of Relevant Information

       The proxmity of development to the boundary of the MPNE poses a
       significant and detrimental impact. Development closer than 500m to the
       boundary should not be encouraged unless it considered to be suitable and
       appropriate for the site and the MPNE (e.g. conservancies). Further away

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      from the boundary means that the potential impact is reduced and that more
      urban types of development should be encouraged.

2.15.2 Opportunities

      By limiting the nature and type of development on the boundary of the MPNE
      will allow the status, function and stature of the area to be maintained.

2.15.3 Constraints

      Development limitations placed on activities within this area will give rise to
      negative cost, public perception and lost opportunity impacts.

2.15.4 Desired State of the Environment

      The boundary of the MPNE should be protected to ensure that the land uses
      are appropriate to the site and fit in with the sense of place and function of the
      MPNE.

2.15.4.1 0 – 500m

      No or limited development of a suitable type and nature should be
      encouraged within this zone.

2.15.4.2 500 – 100m

      A wider variety of land uses should be encouraged within this zone that is
      less sensitive.

2.15.4.3 > 1000m

      Development in this zone is not considered to sensitive to the MPNE.

2.16 Environmental Control Zones

2.16.1 Summary of Relevant Information

      The study area has been subdivided in to three Environmental Control Zones
      (Figure 14). These indicate the relative sensitive areas in the study area.

2.16.2 Opportunities

      The High ECZ indicates areas of particular sensitivity that should not be
      developed without a high degree of control. These areas offer potential for a
      number of environmentally important functions include the conservation of
      biodiversity, access to open space, preservation of visual attractiveness and
      sense of place, natural ecological function, education and awareness,
      appropriate development, tourism and economic growth.

2.16.3 Constraints

      Inappropriate development within the High ECZ should not be encouraged.
      More suitable areas should be used for development activities such as those

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      of the Medium and Low zone. This must be achieved on the basis of the site
      constraints and nature of the surrounding areas.

2.16.4 Desired State of the Environment

2.16.4.1 Low

        Appropriate land use should be encouraged in the Low zone.

2.16.4.2 Medium

        Appropriate land use should be encouraged in the Medium zone.

2.16.4.3 High

        No or little development should be encouraged within the High ECZ.




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3 STRATEGIC ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT PLAN
3.1   BACKGROUND

      The Rustenburg SEA‟s focus as a pilot study SEA for the Greater Rustenburg
      Municipal Area is to provide guidelines that will facilitate sustainable
      development in the study area. The process followed thus far has included
      collecting available information on the study area, integrating this information
      with issues collected from public participation phase of the project and then
      formulating a Vision and Strategies to attain the Desired State of the
      Environment. The last phase of the SEA process includes providing the
      guidelines, processes and procedures to be used in managing development in
      the study area and implementing the SEA.

3.2   PURPOSE OF THIS SECTION

      The SEMP provides a synthesis of the environmental opportunities and
      constraints to development, as well as a framework for environmental decision
      making. The SEMP gives the core components and activities (tasks or action
      plans) that the relevant stakeholders must undertake to ensure for sustainable
      development.

      It is necessary to state that the guidelines, processes and procedures provided
      below are of a strategic nature. This means that they are management plans
      aimed toward some future end point (the Desired State of the Environment or
      DSOE) for the study area. The purpose of the management structure is to
      provide an overarching framework for environmental management. This
      framework strives to ensure for sustainable development and encompasses the
      principle of finding a balance between the biophysical, social and economic
      factors prevalent in the study area.

      In addition, it must be noted that the strategic objectives and the action plans
      must be integrated with development applications so as to ensure progress
      toward the DSOE. To achieve this will require that decision makers obtain
      relevant information during the implementation of the Environmental Impact
      Assessment process.

      Similarly it will be imperative that the relevant authorities begin with programs
      to better manage and attain the strategic objectives to get to the DSOE.

      With the above in mind the recommendations that follow are sub-divided into
      three key sections including:

      a)       Legislative Approach – This provides a short summary of the most
               relevant environmental legislation that should be considered in land
               use applications.
      b)       Management Structure – This provides the management structure that
               should be used to guide development applications and the
               implementation of the strategic objectives.
      c)       Management Plans – This provides specific requirements that should
               be used to manage the environmental attributes of the study area in
               order to achieve the DSOE. Also provided are measures that can be
               used to evaluate and monitor performance.

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4 MANAGEMENT FRAMEWORK
4.1   LEGISLATIVE APPROACH (refer also to the status quo section)

      Below is given a short summary of the relevant environmental legislation that
      pertains to development in the study area. This section is provided as a
      memory jogger. The section also provides an indication of the legal
      requirements facing the relevant authority and affected stakeholder.

4.1.1 Management of Water

       Ensure compliance to the National Environmental Management Act.

       Ensure compliance to the National Water Act in which each water use must
       be licensed. It is a requirement that the 1:100 year flood line level appear on
       all maps involving the proposed development of land. An assessment of the
       impact of the proposed development on the water quality & quantity must also
       be undertaken.

       The control of storm water in urban areas falls under the ambit of the
       Municipal Systems Act and is a local authority responsibility.

4.1.2 Management of Air

       Ensure compliance to the National Environmental Management Act.

       Scheduled processes must be managed in terms of the Atmospheric Pollution
       Prevention Act (Act 45 of 1965). It is a requirement that a permit be obtained
       from NW DACE.

       The National Environmental Management: Air Quality Bill seeks to repeal the
       APPA and to provide the framework for governance of air quality
       management through:
        the establishment of national norms and standards,
        setting up a regulatory framework for an air quality management
           planning;
        setting up a reporting regime and numerous regulatory instruments for
           the control of air pollution; and
        ensuring a comprehensive approach to compliance and enforcement.

       This amendment to the Act seeks to, among other things:

        Protect, restore and enhance the air quality in the Republic, having regard
         to the need to ensure sustainable development;
        Provide increased opportunities for public involvement and participation in
         the protection of air quality;
        Ensure that the public has access to relevant and meaningful information
         about air pollution;
        Reduce risks to human health and prevent the degradation of air quality
         by the use of mechanisms that promote:
        - pollution prevention and cleaner production;
        - the reduction to harmless levels of the discharge of substances likely to
            impair air quality.
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4.1.3 Management of Soil

      Ensure compliance to the National Environmental Management Act.

      Soil resources are increasing becoming rare as a result of land use change
      and transformation. The CARA requires that alien species (refer to Status
      Quo Report) be removed or controlled on site.

4.1.4 Management of the Flora

      Consult the Nature Conservation Ordinance relating to the protection of
      sensitive and endangered species.

      The objectives of the Biodiversity Bill include:
       The management and conservation of biological diversity within the
         Republic;
       The use of indigenous biological resources in a sustainable manner; and
       The fair and equitable sharing of benefits arising from the
         commercialisation through bioprospecting of traditional uses and
         knowledge of genetic resources;
       To give effect to international agreements relating to biodiversity which
         are binding on the Republic;
       To provide for cop-operative governance in biodiversity management and
         conservation;
       To provide for a National Biodiversity Institute to assist in achieving the
         above objectives.

      The following principles should be applied in the application of a Red Data
      Plant Policy by the North West DACE1:

             Conserve the diversity of landscapes, ecosystems, habitats,
              communities, populations, species and genes in South Africa;
             Species endemic to the province should receive the utmost protection;
             All populations of Red Data plant species should be protected;
             In situ conservation is preferable to ex situ conservation;
             The ecological processes of a population must be protected;
             The natural habitat of the species must be retained;
             Translocation of species should be avoided;
             The occurrence of Red Data species on a site must be evaluated in
              light of the ecosystem drivers;
             Suitable habitat for such species should be protected;
             Buffer zones should be used to protect species in a fragmented
              landscape. A distance of 200m should be used in such a case;
             Agricultural transformation of land is a threat to Red Data Plant
              species.

4.1.5 Management of the Fauna

      Consult the Nature Conservation Ordinance for the protection of sensitive and
      endangered species.

1
  GDACEL Red Data Plant Policy for Environmental Impact Evaluations. Final draft
September 2001.
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          The objectives of the Biodiversity Bill include:
           The management and conservation of biological diversity within the
             Republic;
           The use of indigenous biological resources in a sustainable manner; and
           The fair and equitable sharing of benefits arising from the
             commercialisation through bioprospecting of traditional uses and
             knowledge of genetic resources;
           To give effect to international agreements relating to biodiversity which
             are binding on the Republic;
           To provide for cop-operative governance in biodiversity management and
             conservation;
           To provide for a National Biodiversity Institute to assist in achieving the
             above objectives.

4.1.6 Management of the Ecology

          In terms of the National Environmental Management: Protected Areas Bill the
          following legislation is provided for the management of the environment:

               The management and conservation of the biological diversity of South
              Africa;
               The sustainable use of our biological resources; and
               The fair and equitable sharing of benefits arising from the use and
              application of genetic resources.

4.1.7 Management of Noise

          No noise control policy could be traced with in the NW DACE.

          Control of noise is however dealt with as part of the Occupational Health and
          Safety Act and the Environment Conservation Act. These regulations include
          that it is necessary to:

             Prevent, reduce or eliminate noise, vibration and shock;
             Not exceed levels of noise, vibration and shock either in general or by
              specified apparatus or machinery or in specified instances or places.

          Construction activities and other noise impacts can cause noise pollution. A
          disturbing noise is one that exceeds the zone sound level or the ambient
          sound level by 7dBA or more. A noise nuisance is defined as meaning “any
          sound that disturbs or impairs or may disturb or impair the convenience or
          peace of persons2. This includes the use of power tools, movement of
          vehicles, etc.

          An average of 20dBA is given for Rural Areas and 85dBA is given for Urban
          Areas for ambient noise3.




2
    Gauteng DACEL Noise Control regulations (1999).
3
    CSIR Sound Pressure Levels (unpublished).
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4.1.8 Management of Visual Quality

       An example for the use of a Ridges Policy is that of the GDACEL 4. This was
       developed on the basis of a GIS demographic (digital) elevation model that
       yielded slopes of 5° as sensitive. The GDACEL consequently classified all
       ridges as falling within four classes based on the percentage of the ridge that
       had been transformed using a LANDCOVER assessment. Development
       guidelines were listed for each of the classes that include No-Go Areas, Low
       Impact Development Areas, Low and High Impact Development Areas,
       Transformed Areas.

4.1.9 Management of Waste & Pollution

       Ensure compliance with the National Environmental Management Act and the
       Environment Conservation Act. Important requirements included in this
       legislation are:

          The classification of waste of different types and the handling, storage,
           transport and disposal of such waste;
          The reduction of waste by modifying the design and marketing of
           products, modifications to manufacturing processes and the use of
           alternative products;
          The utilization of waste by way of recovery, re-use or processing of waste;
          The location, planning and design of disposal sites and sites used for
           waste disposal;
          Control over the management of sites, installations and equipment used
           for waste disposal;
          Administrative arrangements for the effective disposal of waste;
          Dissemination of information to the public on effective waste disposal;
          Control over the import and export of waste;
          Any other matter which may be deemed necessary or expedient in
           connection with the effective disposal of waste for the protection of the
           environment.

       Also relevant is the ECA regulations pertaining to the control of littering and
       the dumping of litter:

          Containers should be providing for the dumping of litter;
          Notices should be erected in respect of the dumping of litter;
          The cleaning, clearing away and removal of litter and the emptying and
           maintenance of containers for the dumping of litter;
          Facilities or methods to prevent the dumping of litter, as well as
           programmes for the clearing away of litter.

       The Draft White Paper on the formulation of an Integrated Waste
       Management Strategy5 makes reference to the following requirements:

          Promote the prevention and minimization of waste generation and hence
           pollution at source;

4
 Gauteng DACEL Development Guidelines for Ridges. Final Draft September 2001.
5
 Draft White Paper on integrated pollution and waste management for South Africa: A policy
on pollution prevention, waste minimization, impact control and remediation (1998).
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          Promote the management and minimization of the impact of unavoidable
           waste from its generation to final disposal;
          Ensure the integrity and sustained “fitness for use” of all environmental
           media, i.e. air, water and land;
          Ensure the remediation of any pollution of the environment by holding
           responsible parties accountable; and
          Ensure environmental justice by integrating environmental considerations
           with the social, political and development needs and rights of all sectors,
           communities and individuals.

4.1.10 Management of Open Spaces

       In terms of the National Environmental Management: Protected Areas Bill the
       following legislation is provided for the management of the environment:

          The management and conservation of the biological diversity of South
           Africa;
          The sustainable use of our biological resources; and
          The fair and equitable sharing of benefits arising from the use and
           application of genetic resources.

4.1.11 Management of Cultural / Historic sites

       The National Heritage Resources Act requires the submission of a Phase 1
       cultural historic assessment (including archaeology) for any site greater than
       1000m2 that is proposed to be developed. This assessment must map the site
       and indicate the significance of the site along with adequate mitigation
       measures. The Heritage Impact Assessment report should accompany and
       form part of the EIA, or alternatively the South African Heritage Resources
       Agency should be notified of the report and findings from it.


4.2   MANAGEMENT STRUCTURE

4.2.1 Proposed Approach to Environmental Assessment

      The development process should normally commence with an application to
      undertake a listed activity. Here both the developer and the NW DACE have an
      opportunity to ensure for sustainable development. The developer can be
      assisted and be guided by an environmental consultant in ensuring that the
      proposed project complies with the recommendations of the SEA.

      The NW DACE as per the Environment Conservation Act (73 of 1989) and the
      National Environmental Management Act (108 of 1998) is obliged, as the
      relevant authority, to consider the application and provide a Record of Decision
      based on the submission of sufficient relevant information and according to
      National and Provincial Policy.

      In terms of existing legislation and on the basis of information that is available,
      the NW DACE should undertake to either exempt an applicant from complying
      to Section 26 of the ECA or require the compilation of a scoping report. The
      Record of Decision may either be provided at the scoping report level or
      following the submission of more detailed information, including an impact
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     assessment as part of the Environmental Impact Assessment report (refer to
     summary of the EIA process).

      Figure 16.       Suggested EIA Process (refer to the Department of
                       Environmental Affairs & Tourism Guideline Document, 1998,
                       for a more complete discussion on the regulated EIA process).

         Exemption                      Scoping Report                 EIA Report Process
         Application                       Process
          Process

     Pre-Application                 Application           for         Application         for
     checklist          incl.        Authorisation       incl.         Authorisation     incl.
     Motivation                      Motivation                        Motivation




     Notification Phase              Plan of    Study for              Plan of    Study for
                                     Scoping                           Scoping



     Information
     Assessment                          Scoping Report                    Scoping Report
                                - Scoping Process                          (Issues Report)
                                - Issues & Alternatives          - Scoping process
                                - Env. Assessment                - Issues
                                - EMP                            - Alternatives
     Exemption
     Application incl. EMP
     report
                                                                       Plan of Study for EIA
                                       Record of Decision



     Exemption given or                                                     EIA Report
     Scoping      Report                 Authorisation                 - Specialist Reports
     requested                                                         - Env. Assessment
                                                                       - EMP


                                                                        Record of Decision




                                                                          Authorisation or
                                                                              Decline




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4.2.2 Proposed Environmental Approach

     On the basis of the assessment of the environment and the delineation of the
     various Environmental Control Zones (ECZ Figure 14), the following approach
     to development applications in the study area is recommended:

      Low ECZ – Exemption Application with EMP

            -   Submission of a pre-application checklist and project motivation;
            -   Submission of an Environmental Exemption report, that includes all
                relevant information including motivation reports, public participation,
                and a detailed Environmental Management Plan specifying the what,
                where, when and how of the mitigation measures.

      Medium ECZ: Scoping Report with EMP

            -   Submission of a project motivation and Plan of Study for Scoping;
            -   Undertaking relevant specialist studies by suitably qualified
                professionals (where required);
            -   Submission of an Environmental Scoping report, that includes all
                relevant information including specialist reports, public participation,
                and a detailed Environmental Management Plan specifying the what,
                where, when and how of the mitigation measures.

               High ECZ: Issues Report & EIA & EMP

            -   Submission of a plan of study for scoping;
            -   Compilation of an Issues Report including project motivation;
            -   Undertaking relevant specialist assessments by suitably qualified
                professionals;
            -   Submission of an Environmental Impact Assessment report, that
                includes all relevant information including specialist reports, public
                participation, and a detailed Environmental Management Plan
                specifying the what, where, when and how of the mitigation measures.

4.2.3 Appropriate Development Types Per Environmental Control Zone

Table 1 provides a list of appropriate versus inappropriate development types per
environmental control zone.

Table 17.       Example of appropriate versus          inappropriate   land   uses    per
                environmental control zone.

Land Use Zone                 Appropriate                       Inappropriate
Low                     Dump sites
                        Industrial and
                         manufacturing activities
                        Retail trade facilities
                        Bulk services
                        Mining and quarrying
                        Sports and Recreation
Medium                  Residential resorts              Commercial Industrial or
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                        Eco residences                    manufacturing activities
                        Commercial or office uses        Any mining, quarrying or
                         including home industries         other excavation type
                         or home offices                   activity
                        Uses including schools and
                         municipal depots
                        Industrial or manufacturing
                         activities
                        Conventional residential
                         development
                        Retirement villages
                        Golf courses and Golf
                         estates
                        Any bulk infrastructure
                         activities
                        Tourist trade stalls within
                         defined nodes
                        Farming and Agricultural
                         activities
                        Use for scientific research
High                    Conservancies, private           Residential resorts
                         nature reserves, biosphere       Retail facilities
                         reserves and other               Commercial or office uses
                         conservation orientated           including home industries or
                         uses                              home offices
                        Hiking trails, game/bird         Industrial uses including
                         hides, other nature               schools and municipal
                         orientated activities             depots
                        Use for environmental            Industrial or manufacturing
                         awareness and education           activities
                        Other passive recreation         Conventional residential
                         pursuits as approved              development
                        Eco Residences                   Retirement villages
                        Tourist related facilities       Golf courses and Golf
                         including cultural heritage       estates
                         facilities                       Any mining, quarrying or
                                                           other excavation type
                                                           activities
                                                          Dump sites and any other
                                                           activities undermining the
                                                           conservation status of the
                                                           land
                                                          Any bulk infrastructure
                                                           activities

       It is important to note that the features of the site and the proposed nature of
       the development should be compatible. For this reason EIA may be required to
       ensure that site features and proposed development do not contradict.

4.2.4 Relevant documentation

        The NW DACE will need to update their requirements for additional
        information based on the recommendations included in this SEA. This will
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      include the reformulation of the content of Pre-application checklists and
      Applications for Authorisation such that the relevant authority is in a position
      to better understand the proposed development and how it fits into the
      surrounding landscape. This is considered imperative in order to ensure that
      the proposed planning for the area complies with what is scheduled to occur
      and visa versa (refer to the Pre-Application Environmental Assessment
      Sheet).

4.2.5 Special Considerations

      The following considerations should be included in the information requested
      of applicants and when evaluating a proposed development:

      -    A site locality map and project description including adequate
           motivation;
      -    A map (1:50 000 topographic map) and ortho-photograph (1:10 000) of
           the site under investigation;
      -    A map indicating points or areas of environmental importance
           (tributaries, streams, rivers, wetlands, koppies, rock outcrops,
           mountains, gullies, channels, furrows, ledges);
      -    A map providing the bulk infrastructure services required for the project
           (access to water, sewage, electricity and roads);
      -    Measures to control storm water run-off, erosion, siltation &
           sedimentation;
      -    Measures to manage waste (liquid, solid and gaseous) during
           construction and operation;
      -    Measures to determine the ecological impact including the ecological
           footprint area of the development versus that of the remaining property;
      -    The location of sensitive species including Red Data species, Protected
           species, Medicinal species;
      -    The location of habitat for sensitive species (fauna and flora);
      -    Measures to manage pollution including light and noise;
      -    Measures to control the occurrence of exotic species;
      -    Measures to control impacts including mitigation measures during the
           pre-construction, construction, post construction and operational
           phases;
      -    Measures to allow for regular control and management of activities on
           site;
      -    Measures to rehabilitate the site.

      The following specialist reports, as compiled by relevant specialists or
      qualified professionals, should accompany the relevant application process
      per control zone.

      -    An agricultural assessment report that determines the potential of the
           soil and the site to support commercial agricultural programmes;
      -    An ecological assessment (fauna & flora) that establishes the quality of
           the indigenous vegetation, lists the established woody species and
           provides an assessment on measures to protect or relocate such
           species. This should also include a description of the habitat and the
           interaction of the different species occurring there, in other words the
           inter-dependencies;
      -    Red Data species (fauna and flora) assessments that determine the
           occurrence or potential occurrence of species on the site. This
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           assessment must also evaluate the suitability of the habitat to support
           these species;
      -    A protected species assessment report indicating the occurrence of
           protected species and measures to address impacts on such species;
      -    A cultural historic assessment of the site listing the location of cultural
           historic features, their significance and measures to protect or conserve
           them;
      -    A services assessment by a professional engineer that indicates the
           location of the relevant service, capacity of supply and measures to
           increase the capacity if required for water, sewage, electricity, roads;
      -    A geotechnical assessment of the site including maximum and minimum
           gradients and average slope;
      -    A geohydrological report wherever ground water is proposed to be used
           as a water source;
      -    A visual assessment including the nature and use of the surrounding
           area, distance and proximity to high points, open areas and designated
           conservation areas.

4.2.6 Concern Zones

      A comparison of the High Environmental Control Zone, that identifies
      environmental opportunities and constraints, and that of the existing &
      proposed development trends (Figure 15) shows that areas around Boschdal
      and Donkerhoek will be potential problem areas.

      Existing developed areas (including mining, business, industrial and
      residential land uses) comprise 24.7% or 3520.8 ha of the study area.

      Open spaces & vacant land that includes agriculture, mixed land use
      (predominantly agriculture), formal open space and institutional / municipal /
      government comprises 60.6% or 8643.9ha of the study area.

      Existing concern areas (i.e. land that has already been transformed in
      sensitive areas) extend over 19.4% of the High Environmental Control Zone.

      Future concern areas (i.e. where developments are proposed in sensitive
      areas) extend over 28.2% of the High Environmental Control Zone.

      No concern areas (i.e. for land uses including proposed open space,
      proposed recreational development, proposed agriculture and agricultural
      tourism, and proposed nature tourism) extend over 52.4% of the High
      Environmental Control Zone.

      Table 18.     Conflict areas in the High Environmental Control Zone

Conflict Types                                Area (ha)        Percentage (%)
Existing Developments                           404.7               19.4
Proposed Developments                           588.5               28.2
No conflict                                    1095.4               52.4
Total                                          2088.6




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4.2.7   Environmental Screening

        It is acknowledged that lay members of the public and project proponents
        may not have access to resources for the provision of required information. In
        such cases it is important that the NW DACE make available such information
        during the initial review or pre-consultation phases of the project. For this
        reason the GIS viewer has been developed that will simply and quickly point
        project proponents to the critical management issues of a site. This will then
        facilitate cost effective data gathering and reporting to ensure that all the
        relevant elements are adequately addressed in development planning. This is
        the purpose and intent of the Pre-Application Checklist (Appendix M).

        It should also be noted that the purpose of the SEMP is to foster responsible
        and relevant development in appropriate areas that are suited for that use.
        This is indicated by the guidelines and approached described in the following
        chapters.




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5 ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT PLAN
    The section that follows serves to develop guidelines, processes and procedures
    that ensure that the environment is not detrimentally affected by development.

    Strategic objectives have been formulated as a means to managing and
    minimizing the impact of development on the environment. The approach used
    included formulating management criteria that would retain the environmental
    opportunities as well as setting requirements to ensure that environmental
    constraints are identified early in the development cycle. Management
    requirements follow best practice approaches and minimum requirements from a
    legal compliance point of view.

    Action plans are provided that will ensure that the strategic objective is
    implemented that was set as a tool to reach the DSOE.

    Various monitoring and evaluation procedures are provided for the purpose of
    checking on the performance of the action6. This tool also allows the responsible
    authority (i.e. NW DACE, DWAF, NDA, Rustenburg Local Council, etc.) as well
    as the public at large to determine the degree of success and the progress being
    made to implementing the SEA. This is achieved by periodically quantifying and
    tracking selected indicators relative to the strategic objectives.

    Indicators serve to track performance in relation to the specific strategic
    objectives and are important for:

        Keeping people informed on progress;
        Monitoring the implementation of specific targets and measures that emerge
        from the strategies;
        Enable comparison and benchmarking7.

    Various sustainability indicators8 are provided for the purpose of assessing
    environmental performance. These provide a first list of potentially suitable
    indicators that should be refined and applied according to the resources in the
    NW DACE and other relevant authorities. It is not practical at this point to set the
    precise indicators nor the responsible authority without first evaluating the
    existing systems and resources that are in place.

    A useful procedure for selecting relevant indicators9 is as follows:

         They are clearly linked to the strategic objective;
         They are useful for decision making;
         They are meaningful to staff;
         They can be used in stakeholder communication;
         They are cost effective to implement, making use of existing data wherever
           possible;
         They are suitable for intra industry comparison;
         They are consistent across sites and over time;

6
  Environmental Performance Measurement (1998)
7
  A Nordic Set of Indicators. Will We Achieve Our Objective (2002).
8
  Bronberg Strategic Environmental Assessment (2002).
9
  Environmental Performance Measurement (2000)
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          They are quantifiable when possible;
          They are few in number.

      It should be noted that the purpose of environmental indicators is to track
      management efforts and responses to changes or trends in the landscape. The
      selection and delegation of responsibility for implementation and checking
      relevant indicators rests with the appropriate authorities. This has not been
      specified as the roles and responsibilities between relevant departments span
      many levels and areas. Co-operative governance and a joint agreed upon
      proposal and strategy to monitor performance indicators will therefore be
      necessary.

5.1       GEOLOGY

5.1.1 Quartzite

          Strategic Objective

          Only development that is suitable to the site should be supported. A detailed
          geotechnical investigation will be required in order to determine the specific
          measures necessary to mitigate impacts such as blasting, etc.

          Priority Action

          Not applicable

          Indicator

          Not applicable

5.1.2 Norite, Hybrid Rocks, Diabase and Epidiorite

          Strategic Objective

          Only development that is suitable to the site should be supported. A detailed
          geotechnical investigation will be required in order to determine the specific
          measures necessary to mitigate impacts such as blasting, cracking, collapse,
          etc.

          Priority Action

          Not applicable

          Indicators

          Not applicable

5.1.3 Norite / Pyroxenite

          Strategic Objective

          Only development that is suitable to the site should be supported. A detailed
          geotechnical investigation will be required in order to determine the specific
          measures necessary to mitigate impacts such as cracking, collapse, etc.
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      Priority Action

      Not applicable

      Indicators

      Not applicable

5.1.4 Norite / Anorthosite

      Strategic Objective

      Only development that is suitable to the site should be supported. A detailed
      geotechnical investigation will be required in order to determine the specific
      measures necessary to mitigate impacts such as cracking, collapse, etc.

      Priority Action

      Not applicable

      Indicators

      Not applicable

5.1.5 Slate / Shale / Hornfels

      Strategic Objective

      Only development that is suitable to the site should be supported. A detailed
      geotechnical investigation will be required in order to determine the specific
      measures necessary to mitigate impacts such as cracking, collapse, etc.

      Priority Action

      Not applicable

      Indicators

      Not applicable

5.1.6 Gabbro / Norite

      Strategic Objective

      Only development that is suitable to the site should be supported. A detailed
      geotechnical investigation will be required in order to determine the specific
      measures necessary to mitigate impacts such as cracking, collapse, etc.

      Priority Action

      Not applicable


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      Indicators

      Collapse of foundations
      Cracking of built structures


5.2   SOILS

      The original soil profile should be replaced during construction activities or
      where other forms of excavation occur. Top soil should be stockpiled
      separately to sub-soils to allow for this process.

      No soil loss from exposed or disturbed areas should occur. Erosion control
      techniques must be implemented in areas likely to erode including exposed
      surfaces, channel banks, sloping areas, un-vegetated areas, and areas that
      have been degraded or disturbed.

5.2.1 Arcadia

      Strategic Objectives

      Development on these soils must be suited to overcome the constraints of the
      site. This will require the use of suitable foundations, adequate drainage,
      appropriate service (i.e. sewage) provision, etc.

      Where opportunities occur, i.e. suitable infrastructure, then the appropriate
      agricultural practices should be encouraged (e.g. cultivation of maize, cotton
      and sun flower).

      Priority Action

      The NW DACE should compile a detailed inventory of soils in the study area.
      This must be used to determine the occurrence of valuable agricultural lands.

      Where development activities are proposed on the Arcadia soil type, then a
      detailed geotechnical assessment must be undertaken by the developer. This
      assessment must indicate the development area affected by the soil type, the
      mitigation measures to prevent collapse and cracking (i.e. foundation
      designs) and measures to safeguard the installation and integrity of the
      services.

      Indicators

      Percentage loss or transformation of potentially agriculturally productive soils.
      Use of fertilizers (tons per ha)
      Use of pesticides (tons per ha)
      Area of land under cultivation
      Area of land under irrigation

5.2.2 Hutton / Mispah

      Strategic Objectives

      Development on these soils is possible without any particular intervention.
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      Priority Action

      The NW DACE should compile an inventory of soils in the study area. This
      must be used to determine the occurrence of soils valuable for agricultural
      use.

      Indicators

      Percentage loss or transformation of potentially agriculturally productive soils.
      Use of fertilizers (tons per ha)
      Use of pesticides (tons per ha)
      Area of land under cultivation
      Area of land under irrigation

5.2.3 Hutton

      Strategic Objectives

      This soil is relatively fertile and should therefore be retained for agricultural
      use.

      Priority Action

      The NW DACE should compile an inventory of soils in the study area. This
      must be used to determine the occurrence of soils valuable for agricultural
      use.

      Indicators

      Percentage loss or transformation of potentially agriculturally productive soils.
      Use of fertilizers (tons per ha)
      Use of pesticides (tons per ha)
      Area of land under cultivation
      Area of land under irrigation

5.2.4 Rock / Mispah

      Strategic Objectives

      Development on this soil is limited by the presence of rock and shallow soils.
      Blasting activities will therefore be required and these impacts will need to be
      managed and mitigated.

      Similarly, owing to the shallowness of the soil and the often steep slopes
      upon which this soil occurs, it will be necessary to ensure adequate and
      appropriate storm water control to limit erosion.

      Priority Action

      Where blasting activities are required for development purposes then a
      detailed EMP must be compiled by the developer. This must specify how the
      blasting is to be controlled, when it is proposed to occur, equipment that will

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      be used and the potential impact on the surrounding property owners and
      members of the public.

      A storm water management plan should be drawn up for all development
      sites.

      The local authority must be notified of the date and times when the blasting
      activities are to occur.

      Indicators

      Percentage loss or transformation of potentially agriculturally productive soils.

5.2.5 Shortlands / Glenrosa

      Strategic Objectives

      Encourage agricultural production where suitable infrastructure occurs.

      Priority Action

      The NW DACE should compile a detailed inventory of soils in the study area.
      This must be used to determine the occurrence of suitable soils for
      agricultural land use.

      Indicators

      Percentage loss or transformation of potentially agriculturally productive soils.
      Use of fertilizers (tons per ha)
      Use of pesticides (tons per ha)
      Area of land under cultivation
      Area of land under irrigation

5.2.6 Shortlands / Hutton

      Strategic Objectives

      Development should pose no risk on this soil type.

      Priority Action

      Not applicable

      Indicators

      Use of fertilizers (tons per ha)
      Use of pesticides (tons per ha)
      Area of land under cultivation
      Area of land under irrigation




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5.3   TOPOGRAPHY

      Significant cut and fill should be discouraged unless it can be adequately
      mitigated.

      Banks should remain stable at all times during construction and operation.

      Linear impacts (i.e. pipelines, powerlines, gas pipes, roads, and railway lines)
      should be discouraged in the sensitive areas and adequate mitigation to
      minimize their impact must be implemented.

5.3.1 Magaliesberg Mountain Range

       Strategic Objectives

       Protect the existing demarcation of the Magaliesberg Protected Natural
       Environment. Low impact development activities should be supported within
       this demarcation. This would include for instance compliance to the
       regulations published under Administrator‟s Notice 127 (4 May 1994) of
       Section 16(2) of the Environment Conservation Act (73 of 1989).

       Priority Action

       Ensure compliance of all development applications with Administator's Notice
       127 (04 May 1994).

       Only appropriate land uses should be encouraged within this area. This
       should be ascertained with the NW DACE prior to application.

       Indicators

       Non compliance with Administrators Notice 127.
       Occurrence of inappropriate land uses within the MPNE.
       Applications for land use change within the Magaliesberg Mountain Range
       area and MPNE.

5.3.2 Ridges

       Strategic Objectives

       The development of ridges should be prevented. This should prevent
       activities from breaking the skyline, becoming visually obtrusive or occurring
       on steep slopes.

       Priority Action

       Development activities should not be supported on slopes greater or equal to
       8°.

       Development on ridges should be visually unobtrusive and include lighting
       that is focused downward (i.e. not dispersive lighting).

       Activities that generate significant noise should not be encouraged on ridges
       that would create nuisance noise in downslope areas.
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      The trampling of lookout points should be prevented and the appropriate
      infrastructure developed.

      Indicators

      No further loss of ridges to inappropriate development

5.3.3 Mid slopes

      Strategic Objectives

      Development on these areas needs to be evaluated to ensure that there are
      no significant impacts that would detract from the ambience of Rustenburg.

      Priority Action

      The gradient of the midslope should be used to determine the appropriate
      type of development.

      The development must be in character with the surrounding area.

      Indicators

      Percentage land that is visually sensitive and lost to development.

5.3.4 Undulating Plains

      Strategic Objectives

      Development should be encouraged on the undulating plains around
      Rustenburg, but this will need to take into consideration the existing
      constraints.

      Priority Action

      Sensitive natural, agricultural, archaeological and social features and
      characteristics should be considered before development is approved.

      Indicators

      Percentage development that is in line with the surrounding environment.

5.3.5 Hex River Flood Plain

      Strategic Objectives

      The Hex River floodplain should be retained as a natural corridor within the
      1:100 year floodline level. Development activities outside this zone should be
      compatible with the surrounding area. The floodplain should be rehabilitated
      in order to improve the quality of the area. The habitat integrity within the
      entire Hex River course should be maintained.


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      Priority Action

      Remove all exotic species growing within the Hex River Floodplain.

      Limit further development activities until adequate and suitable service
      provision is made available.

      Encourage the planting of indigenous trees and shrubs.

      Construction of bulk infrastructure across rivers should compile a complete
      EMP.

      Indicators

      Percentage decrease of exotic trees and invader plants.
      Percentage increase in silt content.
      Percentage increase in sedimentation.
      Percentage river maintained in its natural form.

5.3.6 Stream & Tributary Floodplains

      Strategic Objectives

      The natural stream and stream tributary flood plains should be retained in
      their existing state. Efforts to remove exotic species should be encouraged.
      Erosion protection and storm water control should be implemented in areas
      where localised flooding and erosion occur.

      Floodplains of stream and tributaries that have already been altered by
      development activities should be rehabilitated. This should include the use of
      retention ponds, gabions, planting indigenous trees & shrubs, etc.

      Development that occurs on the fringes of such areas should be green.

      An adequate “buffer area” should separate the floodplain from developments.

      Priority Action

      Remove all exotic woody species and invader plants.

      Insert storm water control points such as gabions, retention ponds, riffle beds
      in appropriate positions to limit the impact of peak flows.

      Prevent planting of Kikuyu as lawns on properties adjacent to streams and
      rivers.

      Control erosion and siltation.

      Indicators

      Percentage decrease of exotic trees and invader plants.
      Percentage increase in silt content.
      Percentage increase in sedimentation.
      Percentage riverine vegetation in it‟s natural form.
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5.3.7 Valley Bottom

       Strategic Objectives

       Ensure that development activities do not obstruct or significantly undermine
       the ambience of the area.

       Priority Action

       Minimise impacts caused by noise pollution and atmospheric pollution
       especially during winter.

       Indicators

       Percentage transformation of the valley bottoms.


5.4   HYDROLOGY

      There is a growing need to improve and integrate management of urban
      drainage systems in a manner that balances the competing and divergent
      needs of the community10. This should consider:

       Flood protection;
       Ecological enhancement and protection of aquatic systems;
       Cultural, recreational and economic opportunities.

      An integrated catchment management plan, involving the participation of
      communities and civil society in the planning and management of river systems
      via forums, should be developed. This should culminate in the development of
      relevant by laws for the control and management of stormwater, water quality,
      runoff, flooding, etc.

      No alteration of stream or river courses should be made (including
      damming/water impoundments) without approval from the relevant authorities
      (DWAF & NW DACE).

      Pollution control should be identified for all development areas. Pollution
      control in these areas should be regularly enforced by the relevant authorities.

      Point and non-point pollution sources must be addressed in an effort to
      improve water quality.

5.4.1 Streams

       Strategic Objectives

       Storm water control in these streams is imperative to control localised
       flooding and impacts on the Hex River. These will increase as development
       increases.


10
 Catchment, Stormwater and River Management. City of Cape Town Development Service.
May 2002.
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      Measures are necessary to control siltation on an on site basis so that
      impacts further downstream can be mitigated.

      Priority Action

      Compile a storm water management plan for the study area.

      Compile storm water management plans for development areas.

      Construct retention ponds, gabions or riffle beds to limit the impact of peak
      flows in areas prone to erosion (steep slopes, vertic soils).

      Control erosion and siltation on development sites and within the study area.

      Remove all exotic and invader species within the floodplains of the streams.

      Indicators

      Percentage decrease of exotic infestation.
      Percentage increase in silt content.
      Percentage increase in sedimentation.
      Water quality including levels of nutrients, pollutants, bacteriophages, pH and
      EC.
      Annual and monthly rainfall.
      Stream flow rates.

5.4.2 Rivers

      Strategic Objectives

      Development along the Hex River will need to include measures to control
      storm water run-off, siltation, sedimentation and the spread of exotic species.

      Priority Action

      Compile a storm water management plan for the study area.

      Compile storm water management plans for development areas.

      Construct retention ponds, gabions or riffle beds to limit the impact of peak
      flows.

      Control erosion and siltation on development sites and within the study area.

      Remove all exotic and invader species within the floodplains of the rivers.

      Indicators

      Percentage decrease of exotic infestation.
      Percentage increase in silt content.
      Percentage increase in sedimentation.
      Water quality including levels of nutrients, pollutants, bacteriophages, pH and
      EC.
      River flow rates
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5.4.3 Dams

      Strategic Objectives

      The Olifantsnek Dam provides an opportunity for recreational water use as
      well as significant natural character. This should be retained and enhanced by
      increasing the use of the water resource and making it more readily available
      for suitable development (i.e. camping grounds, angling, bird hides, nature
      walks, etc.).

      Priority Action

      Undertake a study to determine the opportunity of using the Olifantsnek Dam
      as an open space area. Examine opportunities for recreational and ecological
      use.

      Indicators

      Level of water in the Olifantsnek Dam.
      Stream inflow deviation from long term average.
      Volume of water discharged from Olifantsnek Dam.


5.5   WATER QUALITY

5.5.1 Surface water

      Strategic Objectives

      The quality of the water in the streams, rivers and dams must be improved
      such that it is potable.

      All water resources should comply to the minimum requirements as set by the
      Department of Water Affairs & Forestry Target Water Quality Guidelines for
      domestic use.

      Development activities should further include controls on the management of
      sewage and waste in the upper reaches of the catchment in order to
      circumvent cumulative impacts on the Hex River.

      Control needs to be exercised on the inadequate provision of services
      (especially sewage treatment) that influences the Hex River. The sewage
      works north of the study area is incapable of dealing with the demand and the
      impact of peak flow during heavy thundershower events. This sewage works
      station must be upgraded.

      It is necessary that control be exercised on the use of fertilizers in the study
      area, especially along the banks of the Hex River and Olifantsnek Dam.

      The quality of the Olifantsnek dam water needs to be controlled by limiting
      impacts of inadequate service provision, increasing development pressure,
      fertilizer run-off, etc.


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      The Olifantsnek Dam Irrigation Board must take responsibility for the
      management of the water resource.

      Priority Action

      No additional development in the area of the Olifantsnek Dam should be
      permitted prior to the installation of adequate services. These services must
      include adequate potable water and sewage treatment.

      A regular system of water quality checks is required. This should include a
      regular assessment of the status of the water and the location of potential
      pollution sources.

      All potential polluters must be compelled to comply with the National Water
      Act.

      Sanitation systems should all be piped. No pit latrines or French drains should
      be used where townships develop.

      Indicators

      Regularly (i.e. once per month) undertake water quality analyses at various
      water monitoring points in the catchment.
      Regularly (i.e. every four months) compile a water quality report indicating the
      trends in the water quality.
      Compare the water quality versus that of the DWAF Water Quality target
      variables.
      Determine the location of polluters and sources of pollution.
      Record the volume of effluent and pollution discharged into rivers as a
      proportion of total flow.

5.5.2 Ground Water

      Strategic Objectives

      Ground water quantity and quality must be protected for the use as potable
      water supply in the agricultural sections of the study area.

      Control of land use must be exercised to mitigate the impact of sewage
      contamination in these areas, until adequate services are in place.

      Priority Action

      The uncontrolled abstraction of ground water from the aquifer must be
      prevented.

      Borehole use must be registered and appropriate studies by professional
      parties must be undertaken to motivate the need and assess the impact of
      ground water abstraction.

      Residential development should not be facilitated without formal water
      services. Informal settlements should be avoided.


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      All development proposed in non-serviced areas must submit water
      requirements and water availability figures.

      Indicators

      Ground water abstraction rates.
      Number of boreholes per catchment or sub-catchment.
      Depth to ground water.
      Difference between recharge rates and abstraction rates per catchment.
      Regularly (i.e. once per month) undertake water quality analyses at various
      water monitoring points in the catchment.
      Regularly (i.e. every four months) compile a water quality report indicating the
      trends in the water quality.
      Compare the water quality versus that of the DWAF Target Water Quality
      requirements for domestic water use.
      Determine the location of polluters and sources of pollution.
      Determine pollution indices from mining and industry.
      Determine pollution indices from agricultural chemicals and products.

5.6   ECOLOGICAL SYSTEMS

5.6.1 Core

      Strategic Objective

      Core areas should be conserved and managed as natural open spaces in the
      landscape.

      Urban park-like open spaces should only be rezoned if a holistic assessment
      of the nature, function and need of all such areas have been done and a
      decision has been made as to which areas are the most appropriate to rezone
      for other purposes.

      Priority Action

      Funds for the appropriate development and utilization of these areas should
      be obtained.

      Core areas should be used for the purpose of environmental awareness.

      The ecological integrity of these areas must be maintained by means of
      preventing degradation, erosion, loss of biodiversity, accumulation of waste,
      inappropriate development, etc.

      Compile a detailed inventory of all the core areas.

      Establish a management framework for the protection and utilization of these
      areas.

      Public Private initiatives should be considered to retain these areas.




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      Indicators

      Fire frequency as indicated by burn scar mapping via aerial photographs or
      remote sensing. Frequent fires cause unnatural shifts in species distributions
      and negatively effect the ecology of an area.
      Annual rainfall (expressed as percentage of regional long term average)
      NDVI index using LANDSAT imagery.
      Bare soil index.
      Bush Encroachment index

5.6.2 Connector

      Strategic Objective

      Connector areas must be protected against developmental damage and
      disturbed areas must be rehabilitated. Riverine vegetation must be conserved
      and sufficient buffer areas must be maintained between the connector and
      the surrounding development.

      Priority Action

      Retain connector areas free from development except passive recreation
      development.

      Rehabilitate all areas within the connector areas that have been degraded
      and disturbed.

      Compile a detailed inventory of all the connector areas.

      Establish a management framework for the protection and utilization of these
      areas.

      Indicators

      Fire frequency
      Bare Soil Index
      Bush Encroachment index

5.6.3 Intermediate

      Strategic Objective

      Intermediate areas should be conserved as open space in the natural
      landscape with limited recreation orientated development where the
      connectivity function of the areas is not compromised. The role of areas 25,
      26 and 27 (Figure 8) as intermediate areas in the open space system must be
      re-assessed should development be proposed in these areas.

      Priority Action

      Re-visit the function and value of areas 25, 26 and 27 (Figure 8) when
      development is proposed for these areas.


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       The ecological integrity of these areas must be maintained by means of
       preventing degradation, erosion, loss of biodiversity, accumulation of waste,
       inappropriate development, etc.

       Establish a management framework for the protection and utilization of these
       areas.

       Public Private Partnerships should be considered to retain these features.

       Indicators

       Fire frequency
       Bare Soil Index
       Bush Encroachment index


5.7   FAUNA

      Encourage the public at large to assist in reporting regularly to the relevant
      authorities. This could include NGO‟s, and wildlife clubs. It is important to
      ensure that such efforts are noted and used in interpretation.

5.7.1 Birds

       Strategic Objectives

       The habitats and potential occurrence of sensitive bird species should be
       assessed before development is approved. Suitable habitats should be
       conserved where possible or mitigation measures provided to decrease
       impacts.

       Conservation of sensitive bird species can be conveyed to the public by
       developing educational bird outings and volunteer „watch dog‟ organisations.

       Priority Action

       Compile a Red Data avifauna policy for the study area. This should list those
       species under threat, reasons for their demise and measures that must be
       taken to ensure for their continued existence, including access to adequate
       and appropriate areas of suitable habitat condition.

       Development applications that are proposed in areas containing sensitive
       avifauna habitat must include a specialist investigation detailing the potential
       impact and relevant mitigation measures.

       Protect areas that serve as habitat for sensitive avifauna.

       Indicators

       Percentage change in the number and abundance of sensitive bird species.
       Percentage loss of sensitive potential avifauna habitat.



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5.7.2 Herpetofauna

      Strategic Objectives

      The habitats and potential occurrence of sensitive herpetofaunal species
      should be assessed before development is approved. Suitable habitats
      should be conserved where possible or mitigation measures provided to
      decrease impacts.

      Assessments to determine the significance of impacts on the Herpetofauna
      must be conducted at the suitable time of year.

      The introduction of exotic faunal species into the area should follow the
      correct legislated procedures.

      Priority Action

      Compile a Red Data herpetofauna policy for the study area. This should list
      those species under threat, reasons for their demise and measures that must
      be taken to ensure for their continued existence, including access to
      adequate and appropriate areas of suitable habitat condition.

      Development applications that are proposed in areas containing sensitive
      herpetofauna habitat must include a specialist investigation detailing the
      potential impact and relevant mitigation measures.

      Protect areas that serve as habitat for sensitive herpetofauna.

      Indicators

      Percentage change in the number and abundance of sensitive herpetofauna
      species.
      Percentage loss of sensitive potential herpetofauna habitat.

5.7.3 Lepidoptera

      Strategic Objectives

      The habitats and potential occurrence of butterfly and sensitive butterfly
      species should be assessed before development is approved. Suitable
      habitats should be conserved where possible or mitigation measures provided
      to decrease impacts.

      Assessments to determine the significance of impacts on the Lepidoptera
      must be conducted at the suitable time of year.

      The introduction of exotic faunal species into the area should follow the
      correct legislated procedures.

      Priority Action

      Compile a Red Data lepidoptera policy for the study area. This should list
      those species under threat, reasons for their demise and measures that must

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      be taken to ensure for their continued existence, including access to
      adequate and appropriate areas of suitable habitat condition.

      Development applications that are proposed in areas containing sensitive
      lepidoptera habitat must include a specialist investigation detailing the
      potential impact and relevant mitigation measures.

      Protect areas that serve as habitat for sensitive lepidoptera species.

      Indicators

      Percentage change in the number and abundance of sensitive lepidoptera
      species.
      Percentage loss of sensitive potential lepidoptera habitat.

5.7.4 Other Invertebrate

      Strategic Objectives

      The habitats and potential occurrence of sensitive invertebrate species should
      be assessed before development is approved. Suitable habitats should be
      conserved where possible or mitigation measures provided to decrease
      impacts.

      Assessments to determine the significance of impacts on the other
      invertebrates must be conducted at the suitable time of year.

      The introduction of exotic faunal species into the area should follow the
      correct legislated procedures.

      Priority Action

      Compile a Red Data invertebrate policy for the study area. This should list
      those species under threat, reasons for their demise and measures that must
      be taken to ensure for their continued existence, including access to
      adequate and appropriate areas of suitable habitat condition.

      Development applications that are proposed in areas containing sensitive
      invertebrate habitat must include a specialist investigation detailing the
      potential impact and relevant mitigation measures.

      Protect areas that serve as habitat for sensitive invertebrate species.

      Indicators

      Percentage change in the number and abundance of sensitive invertebrate
      species.
      Percentage loss of sensitive potential invertebrate habitat.




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5.7.5 Mammals

       Strategic Objectives

       The habitats and potential occurrence of mammals and sensitive mammal
       species should be assessed before development is approved. Suitable
       habitats should be conserved where possible or mitigation measures provided
       to decrease impacts.

       Assessments to determine the significance of impacts on the mammals must
       be conducted at the suitable time of year.

       The introduction of exotic faunal species into the area should follow the
       correct legislated procedures.

       Priority Action

       Compile a Red Data mammal policy for the study area. This should list those
       species under threat, reasons for their demise and measures that must be
       taken to ensure for their continued existence, including access to adequate
       and appropriate areas of suitable habitat condition.

       Development applications that are proposed in areas containing sensitive
       mammal habitat must include a specialist investigation detailing the potential
       impact and relevant mitigation measures.

       Protect areas that serve as habitat for sensitive mammal species.

       Indicators

       Percentage change in the number and abundance of sensitive mammal
       species.
       Percentage loss of sensitive potential mammal habitat.


5.8   FLORA

      Areas that are disturbed and devoid of natural vegetation should be
      rehabilitated with indigenous species. A basal cover of 60% should be
      established on the rehabilitated site within a year.

      Alien/invasive species should be removed, either mechanically or chemically,
      from sites. National programmes such as the Department of Water Affairs &
      Forestry Working for Water programme should be used to assist in this.

      Individual landowners should be encouraged to remove exotic species from
      their properties.

      A fire management system is required in areas subject to frequent fires. This
      fire burning programme should complement the burning programme of the
      KMR.



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5.8.1 Gold Reef Mountain Bushveld

      Strategic Objectives

      A vegetation assessment including a Red Data scan should be completed if
      development is proposed in this vegetation type.

      Priority Action

      Natural elements of this vegetation types should be included in the township
      layout.

      Mature indigenous trees should be included in the layout plans.

      Red Data species potentially or actually occurring on site should be listed.

      An assessment of the site for potential Red Data and other sensitive species
      should be undertaken.

      Appropriate mitigation measures that protect suitable habitat must be
      provided.

      Indicators

      Percentage loss of Red Data habitat.
      Percentage loss of this vegetation type.
      Percentage occurrence of Red Data species.
      Lists of Red Data species occurring on particular farm portions.

5.8.2 Rustenburg Gabbro Thornveld

      Strategic Objectives

      Bushveld trees should be maintained as far as possible.

      Habitat connectivity between properties should be maintained.

      A vegetation assessment including a Red Data scan should be completed if
      development is proposed in this vegetation type.

      A vegetation scan and Red Data scan can be considered if the site has
      severely been affected by agricultural or development related activities.

      Drainage lines, floodlines and water quality should be protected.

      Priority Action

      Mature indigenous trees should be included in the layout plans.

      Red Data species potentially or actually occurring on site should be listed.

      An assessment of the site for potential Red Data and other sensitive species
      should be undertaken.

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      Appropriate mitigation measures that protect suitable sensitive species habitat
      must be derived.

      Indicators

      Percentage loss of Red Data habitat
      Percentage loss of this vegetation type.
      Percentage occurrence of Red Data species.
      Lists of Red Data species occurring on particular farm portions.

5.8.3 Moot Plains Bushveld

      Strategic Objectives

      Natural savanna (trees and grassland) should be maintained as natural
      features.

      Habitat connectivity between land parcels should be maintained.

      A Vegetation Assessment including a Red Data scan should be completed if
      development is proposed in this vegetation type.

      A Vegetation Scan and Red Data Scan can be considered if the site has
      severely been affected by agricultural activities.

      Priority Action

      Percentage loss of this vegetation type.

      Mature indigenous trees should be included in the layout plans.

      Red Data species potentially or actually occurring on site should be listed.

      An assessment of the site for potential Red Data and other sensitive species
      should be undertaken.

      Appropriate mitigation measures that protect suitable sensitive species habitat
      must be derived.

      Indicators

      Percentage loss of Red Data habitat
      Percentage occurrence of Red Data species.
      Lists of Red Data species occurring on particular farm portions.

5.8.4 Norite Koppies Bushveld

      Strategic Objectives

      The natural woodland component should be retained as a natural feature. A
      vegetation assessment including a Red Data scan should be completed if
      development is proposed in this vegetation type.


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      Priority Action

      Mature indigenous trees should be included in the layout plans.

      Red Data species potentially or actually occurring on site should be listed.

      An assessment of the site for potential Red Data and other sensitive species
      should be undertaken.

      Appropriate mitigation measures that protect suitable sensitive species habitat
      must be derived.

      Indicators

      Percentage loss of this vegetation type.
      Percentage loss of Red Data habitat
      Percentage occurrence of Red Data species.
      Lists of Red Data species occurring on particular farm portions.

5.8.5 Wetlands of man-made dams

      Strategic Objectives

      Wetlands should be maintained and incorporated into development where
      possible.

      Priority Action

      Mature indigenous trees should be included in the layout plans.

      Red Data species potentially or actually occurring on site should be listed.

      An assessment of the site for potential Red Data and other sensitive species
      should be undertaken.

      Appropriate mitigation measures that protect suitable sensitive species habitat
      must be derived.

      Indicators

      Percentage occurrence of exotic species
      Area of functional open space around the dam
      Quality of the surface water
      Visitor numbers to recreational areas
      Area of sensitive habitats

5.8.6 Riverine Wetlands

      Strategic Objectives

      These areas should be protected from development. Impacts of alien
      vegetation must be controlled and disturbed sites should be rehabilitated.
      Impacts including erosion and sedimentation should be controlled.

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      Priority Action

      Development should not be allowed in the 1:50 year floodline or 25 meters
      from the side of the stream/river which ever width is the largest.

      Wetlands should not be drained for agricultural purposes.

      Mining of wetlands for peat should follow the correct legislated procedures.

      Diversion and damming of streams/rivers should follow the correct legislated
      procedures.

      Existing riverine vegetation such as is found along the Hex and Dorpsriver
      should be conserved in any development proposal despite the above
      parameters provided.

      Exotic vegetation should be removed and controlled as per the guidelines
      provided in the Status Quo report.

      Mature indigenous trees should be included in the layout plans.

      Red Data species potentially or actually occurring on site should be listed.

      An assessment of the site for potential Red Data and other sensitive species
      should be undertaken.

      Appropriate mitigation measures that protect suitable sensitive species habitat
      must be derived.

      Indicators

      Percentage loss of Red Data habitat
      Percentage loss of this vegetation type.
      Percentage occurrence of Red Data species.
      Lists of Red Data species occurring on particular farm portions.

5.8.7 Endorheic Pan Wetlands

      Strategic Objectives

      Development should not be allowed to encroach upon pans. A buffer area
      should be determined to protect the pan from surrounding land uses and
      activities. Pans should not be drained or used for stormwater runoff collection
      points.

      Priority Action

      Mature indigenous trees should be included in the layout plans.

      Red Data species potentially or actually occurring on site should be listed.

      An assessment of the site for potential Red Data and other sensitive species
      should be undertaken.

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      Appropriate mitigation measures that protect suitable sensitive species habitat
      must be derived.

      Indicators

      Number of Red Data fauna and flora species
      Visitor numbers to recreational areas
      Number of exotic species
      Quality of the surface water
      Level of siltation
      Number of times for turnover each year.

5.8.8 Exotic Vegetation

      Strategic Objectives

      Exotic vegetation should be removed and/or contained where it occurs.

      Exotic vegetation should specifically be strictly controlled along water courses
      and according to the legislated guidelines provided in the Status Quo report.

      Priority Action

      Remove exotic vegetation and invader plants from river courses and natural
      areas.

      Educate and inform the public of the legislated guidelines and status of the
      various exotic species.

      Indicators

      Percentage reduction in the exotic species occurrence along river courses
      and in natural areas.

5.8.9 Sensitive Plants (Red Data, Protected and Medicinal Plants)

      Strategic Objectives

      Red Data species should be protected in situ. The habitat of Red Data
      species should be preserved without degradation.

      Protected Plant species should be protected in situ. Alternatively protected
      plants may be relocated to a similar habitat in the site (in the open space
      areas) or to a natural area in close proximity to the site. The guidance of a
      botanist and/or horticulturist should be obtained for this purpose.

      Medicinal Plant Species should be protected in situ. Alternatively protected
      plants may be relocated to a similar habitat in the site (in the open space
      areas) or to a natural area in close proximity to the site. The guidance of a
      botanist and/or horticulturist should be obtained for this purpose.

      Priority Action

      Red Data Species -
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      The occurrence of the plant must be assessed as close as possible to the
      flowering time of the plant (this is possible taking into account the average
      lifetime of a project application from being a concept to authorization date).

      Red Data plants should be protected where they naturally occur (in situ) as far
      as possible.

      A protective natural buffer area, to be determined by a professional botanist,
      should be maintained around plant populations in order to protect the plant
      from human related activities associated with development.

      Red Data species potentially or actually occurring on site should be listed.

      An assessment of the site for potential Red Data and other sensitive species
      should be undertaken.

      Appropriate mitigation measures that protect suitable sensitive species habitat
      must be derived.

      Compile a Red Data plant policy for the study area. This should list those
      species under threat, reasons for their demise and measures that must be
      taken to ensure for their continued existence, including access to adequate
      and appropriate areas of suitable habitat condition.

      No red data species should be relocated.

      Protected Plants –
      A vegetation assessment should determine the occurrence of sensitive
      species on proposed development sites.

      Appropriate mitigation measures, in association with a botanical expert,
      should be obtained when the species are to be impacted upon.

      In situ conservation of the species should be encouraged. Relocation should
      only be seen as a last resort.

      Compile a Protected Plant policy for the study area. This should list those
      species under threat, reasons for their demise and measures that must be
      taken to ensure for their continued existence, including access to adequate
      and appropriate areas of suitable habitat condition.

      Medicinal Plants -
      The study area should be assessed with regards to the most popular
      medicinal plants that may potentially become Red Data plants in the
      foreseeable future. A management strategy in association with the users as
      well as nurseries should be established to maintain sustainable utilization
      patterns.

      A medicinal plant policy should be compiled for species in the study area.
      This should include measures to manage the occurrence, collection, impact
      and relocation of such species to suitable habitat or areas for protection or
      use.



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      Indicators

      Percentage loss of Red Data, Protected Plant and Medicinal Plant habitat
      Percentage occurrence of Red Data, Protected Plant and Medicinal Plant
      species.
      Lists of Red Data and Protected Plant species occurring on particular farm
      portions.


5.9   LANDUSE

      Strategic Objectives

      It is apparent that the study area lacks coherent developmental planning and
      management. This has contributed to the difficulties identified in this report.

      If this is to be addressed, it requires that the relevant municipal authorities
      are:

         Adequately capacitated (staff, equipment, funding, etc.)
         Guided by well formulated land use frameworks and policies, and
         Supported by suitable legal regulations.

      While most of these issues should form part of the Integrated Development
      Plan for the study area, they have not necessarily been adequately
      addressed in the current IDP.

      The revision of the IDP must ensure that it includes a Spatial Development
      Framework and basic guidelines for a land use management system.

      The SDF must be informed by the principles for development set out in
      Chapter One of the Development Facilitation Act, the National Environmental
      Management Act, and the findings of the Strategic Environmental
      Assessment report.

      It should also be complemented by the documents stipulated in Government
      Gazette No 22605 of 2001 (24th August 2001) which require that the
      objectives must reflect the desired spatial form of development in the area
      and contain:

         Strategies and policies regarding the manner in which these objectives
          are to be attained;
         Basic guidelines for a land use management system;
         A capital investment framework;
         A strategic environmental assessment (the subject of this study);
         Programmes for the development of land; and
         Provides a visual representation of the above.

      Priority Action

         The preparation of a sub-division policy for the farm area south of the
          Waterfall Mall, which should include a basic infra-structural framework for
          future roads and services and clarity on the legal process to be followed. It

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          should prescribe requirements relating to the future land uses, the
          provision of suitable access to the new subdivisions, the standards
          required for sanitation and disposal of waste materials, the availability and
          proposed usage of potable ground water sources and the provision for a
          future network of access roads and formal services;
         The preparation of a housing strategy in consultation with the mines in
          order to address the short fall of housing in the area, ensure that housing
          is well located, and minimize the possibility of further backyard and shack
          development;
         The preparation of a land use audit of the areas outside the former
          municipal boundary with a view to establishing the rights granted,
          compliance with the rights granted and the formulation of an approach to
          ensure appropriate land use management in the area;
         Formalization of the Olifantsnek township and its services;
         A moratorium on the sale and land owned by the municipality until
          adequately assessed for its suitability to contribute to the vision for the
          study area;
         Preparation of a policy to protect areas adjacent to sensitive zones
          defined by slope, ecological characteristics, ands the like from
          inappropriate land use;
         Preparation of a Spatial development Framework and land use
          management system to inform future municipal and private development
          opportunities in the study area;
         The expansion of the KMR into areas that are considered to have
          significant ecological and cultural/historic attributes;
         The creation of private nature reserves, municipal nature areas or
          concessionaire areas on the boundary of the KMR and elsewhere in the
          study area;
         Creation of private nature reserves or municipal nature areas in areas
          such as Rustenveld and Donkerhoek;
         The development of residential areas should be discouraged within the
          High ECZ area;
         The boundary of the MPNE should be clearly indicated. No development
          within the MPNE should be supported;
         Assessment of the urban edge of Rustenburg.

      Indicators

      Area of land under cultivation (commercial monocrop)
      Area of land under subsistence crops
      Percentage area under organic farming methods
      Area of land left fallow
      Agricultural crop productivity (tons per hectare)
      Rates of urban expansion and clearing of land
      Percentage of land under formal conservation protection
      Proportion of informal versus formal housing
      Numbers of households with security of tenure
      Percentage of household or shelter types (informal shacks, formal house)
      Government expenditure on improving basic services (CAPEX).
      Gross employment levels.
      Gross population growth rate in the study area.
      Number of complaints received from I&AP‟s concerning illegal development.


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5.10 CULTURAL / HISTORIC FEATURES

      Strategic Objective

      The cultural / historic features of the area should be retained in their current
      form and / or rehabilitated to ensure for their preservation. Efforts to better
      integrate development with the occurrence of these features should be
      encouraged.

      Priority Action

      Compile an inventory of all the cultural historic sites in the study area.

      Determine the significance of each site.

      Formulate strategies for managing the rehabilitation and utilisation of this
      national asset.

      Encourage private sector involvement in promoting access and management
      of the resource.

      Move the appropriate cultural historic features to sites where they can be
      viewed and accessed (i.e. museums).

      Indicators

      Numbers of visitors to cultural historic centres.
      Numbers of cultural historic centres.
      Number of sites rehabilitated
      Capital Expenditure on the development of sites
      Completion of Cultural Historic Database

5.11 SOCIAL FEATURES

      Strategic Objective

      The study area is under threat of significant transformation. It is important that
      adequate housing be provided in areas that are suitable for such use and that
      do not contain significant constraints for development. This includes areas
      with steep slopes, vertic soils and areas in close proximity to core areas.

      Impacts associated with industrial activities, development and urbanisation
      should be controlled to ensure for a safe and healthy living environment.
      Areas of conflict occur in Thlabane, the city centre and immediately
      surrounding areas where industrial/manufacturing and retail activities occur.

      Priority Action

      Create opportunities for employment.

      Provide adequate infrastructure for transport.

      Encourage recycling of waste
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      Prevent litter accumulation by providing adequate bins within urban centres.

      Provide housing of suitable standard.

      Provide the appropriate services.

      Prevent crime and illegal activities.

      Retain open spaces in the urban areas so as to promote a healthy living
      environment.

      Promote environmental education.

      Implement greening of urban and residential area initiatives.

      Indicators

      Crime statistics
      Number of disaster events (toxic spills, poisonings, and fires)
      Percentage growth in tourism, industry, manufacturing, agriculture, retail,
      trade.
      Population growth rate
      Number of applications for land use change.
      Percentage of Exemption Applications, Scoping Reports and Environmental
      Impact Assessment reports.
      Percentage growth per year in tourism.
      Number of trees or green areas in the urban areas.
      Loss of green areas such as parks.


5.12 AIR QUALITY

     Strategic objective

     The air quality of Rustenburg should be improved according to the
     requirements of the NW DACE.

     The mines and other industries in Rustenburg must adhere to the National Air
     Quality Guidelines.

     The Local Authority in association with NW DACE and NW DME must ensure
     compliance.

     No biomass burning shall be permitted without a permit.

     Exposed surfaces must be wetted or kept wet during windy periods to reduce
     dust.

     Soil that is transported must be suitably covered to prevent dust escape.

     Veld fires and the burning of fossil fuels for domestic purposes should be
     controlled and minimized by means of providing electrical power.

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         Encourage the transformation and reliance of fossil fuels to energy sources
         such as solar heating, wind power and the like. This should be made available
         in housing developments.

         Priority Action

         The key actions to managing the air quality environment should include11:

              Determining population exposure and assessing health impacts;
              Informing the public about air quality and raising awareness;
              Identifying threats to natural ecosystems;
              Determining compliance with national and international standards;
              Source apportionment and identification;
              Assessing point or area source impacts;
              Trend qualification, to identify future problems or progress against
               management/control targets.

         Establish a regional air quality forum that regularly meets to discuss sources of
         pollution, limits of compliance and measures to ensure compliance.

         More accurate and up-to-date information on the baseline characteristics of the
         air quality in the study area is required.

         Pollutant levels within the study area should be compared to the World Health
         Organisation standards and standards of the NW DACE.

         A strategy to control pollutants within the study area should be developed.
         Areas and activities for which pollution control is necessary include:

          -   Emissions from stoves and camps associated with construction sites;
          -   Emissions from the hospital;
          -   Dust generated from vehicle activity on sand roads;
            - Emissions from point sources outside the study area (mining areas north
                east of the study area);
          -   Vehicle movement within the industrial areas;
          -   Emissions from the industrial areas;
          -   Informal settlements in the north of the study area and Thlabane;
          -   Vehicle emissions.

        Appropriate mitigation measures include:

          -    Preventing open fires such as frequent veld fires, ignition of waste, use of
               “konkas”;
          -    Providing electrical services to settlement areas;
          -    Materials handling and processing;
          -    Dust entrainment;
          -    Dust abatement;
          -    Storage of materials by means of wetting (i.e. soil stockpiles);;
          -    Wetting exposed areas to reduce emissions from open areas;
          -    Road cleaning and maintenance.



11
     Guidelines for Air Quality, WHO, Geneva, 2000
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     Regular reports concerning the state and flux of the air quality of Rustenburg
     should be available.

     Dust control is necessary including the creation of applicable regulations,
     limitations to biomass burning and emission control.

     Indicators

     Establish a programme to measure the regional air quality including for
     example the levels of SO2, PM10, Dust, Biomass emissions, etc.
     Estimate total pollution emissions.
     Percentage reduction in the emission of pollutants from industry.
     Spatial coverage.


5.13 SERVICE PROVISION

5.13.1 Electricity

      Strategic Objectives

      The supply and capacity of electricity in Rustenburg should be regularly
      reviewed in order to address the increasing demand.

      Priority Action

      Begin a process to determine the future demand for electrical supply to
      Rustenburg and initiate steps to ensure that is available.

      Indicators

      Capital Expenditure (CAPEX) on electrical provision and supply.

5.13.2 Roads

      Strategic Objectives

      The road networks in the study area should be upgraded and improved to
      ensure adequate traffic flow. Congestion in areas along the R24 should be
      alleviated. Impacts of the N4 through the eastern section of Rustenburg
      should be considered and appropriate mitigation measures implemented.

      Priority Action

      Compile a Regional Traffic Movement study that considers the existing traffic
      patterns, projected traffic patterns and measures to ensure appropriate traffic
      flow in the study area.

      Budgets must be provided by the Local Authority for the upgrade of roads in
      Olifantsnek.

      Upgrade the internal roads in Olifantsnek.

      Address the inequalities in the internal road infrastructure of Thlabane.
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      Upgrade the internal road infrastructure of Thlabane.

      Indicators

      CAPEX for the management of roads, transport and traffic.

5.13.3 Sewage

      Strategic Objectives

      The sewage system in Rustenburg should be addressed to ensure an
      adequate disposal and treatment capacity. This is particularly the case for
      Olifantsnek that does not have access to an outfall sewer. Control of sewage
      impacts in the developing areas requires consideration (as along the R24
      Road).

      Priority Action

      Undertake a study of the entire sewage system of Rustenburg to determine
      the effectiveness and adequacy of the existing system.

      Upgrade the existing sewage treatment plant.

      Improve the system of sanitation in the study area by means of upgrading
      sewer pipes, the sewage treatment plant, and separating storm water flow
      versus sewage flow.

      Implement measures to plan for future development areas including the
      existing area of Olifantsnek.

      Investigate the opportunity of creating an evaporation pond that could service
      the surrounding areas that have conservancy tanks.

      Ensure that chemical toilets are provided at construction sites.

      Indicators

      Regularly determine the level of Faecal coliforme in water samples.

      CAPEX for the management of sewage and sanitation.

5.13.4 Storm Water

      Strategic Objectives

      Exercise greater control of the storm water in Rustenburg. Peak flows must
      be minimised to ensure that localised flooding does not occur.

      Priority Action

      Separate the drainage of storm water from that of the sewage system.


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      Institute ways to ensure that development activities address storm water
      impacts including peak flows, localised flooding, erosion, siltation and
      collapse of river banks.

      Provide adequate storm water control in Thlabane and Olifantsnek.

      Upgrade the storm water systems in the Old Rustenburg.

      Indicators

      CAPEX for the management of storm water.

5.13.5 Waste Management

      Strategic Objectives

      Waste management in the study area requires greater control. Efforts to
      encourage recycling, a reduction in littering and the disposal of waste in
      natural areas must be discouraged. It also necessary to improve the
      management at the transfer stations and increase the accessibility & use to
      these sites.

      Priority Action

      All transfer stations and waste dumps/landfill sites must be legalised.

      Upgrade or commission as soon as possible a new landfill site that will have
      adequate capacity.

      Upgrade the existing transfer stations in the study area. This should include
      longer operating hours and appropriate staff to control activities at the site.

      Provide for adequate recycling facilities at the transfer stations and land fill
      sites.

      Provide a transfer station in the vicinity of the Waterfall Mall area.

      Control illegal dumping.

      Waste flow studies are required including for example amounts, numbers of
      households outside the service area, existing demand and future demand,
      periods of activity, etc.

      Indicators

      Audits of the use of the transfer stations and landfill sites
      Volume and frequency of illegal waste spots.
      CAPEX for waste management.




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5.13.6 Water

      Strategic Objectives

      The supply and availability of potable water in the study area should be
      increased. This should include the provision of services to the south western
      sector of the town. Control of water supply during summer and drought
      periods is required. An awareness of the need to recycle water and use water
      sparingly is required.

      Priority Action

      A thorough water audit is required to establish the exact reason for the
      shortage of water in the vicinity of the mines.

      The water quality requires regular audits to ensure that water of suitable
      standard is provided.

      The existing reticulation of Rustenburg requires re-examination and
      upgrading.

      A source of water is required for Olifantsnek. This must then be reticulated to
      serve the existing developments. Alternatively, ground water must be used for
      the existing development and no further demand placed on the aquifer until a
      potable water system is available.

      The Olifantsnek Dam should not be used as a source of potable water.

      Indicators

      CAPEX for the management of potable water.

5.13.7 Telecommunications

      Strategic Objectives

      The supply and capacity of the telecommunications service should meet the
      demand for the service.

      Priority Action

      Investigate in greater detail the capacity and supply of telecommunication
      infrastructure in the urban and peripheral areas.

      Future development areas must be serviced with telephone infrastructure.

      Telecommunication infrastructure must not be erected in visually obtrusive
      areas.

      Indicators

      CAPEX for the management of telecommunication infrastructure.


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5.14 Visually Sensitive Areas

5.14.1 Crests & Ridges

      Strategic Objectives

      Development of ridges should be prevented. Prevent the occurrence of
      activities that break the skyline or that become visually obtrusive or occur on
      steep slopes.

      Priority Action

      Development activities should not be supported on slopes greater or to 8°.

      Development on ridges should be visually unobtrusive and include lighting
      that is focused downward (i.e. not dispersive lighting).

      Activities that generate significant noise should not be encouraged on ridges
      that would create nuisance noise in downslope areas.

      The trampling of lookout points should be prevented and the appropriate
      infrastructure developed.

      Indicators

      No. of cases of non compliance.
      No. of complaints.
      Percentage of ridge area transformed.

5.14.2 KMR

      Strategic Objectives

      Protect the existing demarcation of the MPNE. Compliance to the regulations
      published under Administrators Notice 127 must be enforced.

      Priority Action

      Ensure compliance of all development applications with the Administrators
      Notice (Appendix M). Only appropriate land uses should be encouraged
      within this area.

      Indicators

      Not applicable.


5.14.3 MPNE

      Strategic Objectives

      Protect the existing demarcation of the MPNE. Compliance to the regulations
      published under Administrators Notice 127 must be enforced.

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      Priority Action

      Ensure compliance of all development applications with the Administrators
      Notice (Appendix M). Only appropriate land uses should be encouraged
      within this area.

      Indicators

     Not applicable.


5.15 Conflict Zones

5.15.1 Developed Areas

      Strategic Objectives

      Ensure compliance to EIA regulations and the recommendations in the SEA.

      Priority Action

      Obtain environmental authorisation.

      Legalise activities.

      Prevent environmental degrasdation.

      Indicators

      Not Applicable.



5.15.2 Open Space / Vacant Land

      Strategic Objectives

      Ensure compliance to EIA regulations and the recommendations in the SEA.


      Priority Action

      Obtain environmental authorisation.

      Legalise activities.

      Prevent environmental degrasdation.

      Indicators

      Compliance to ECA and Town Planning



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5.15.3 Existing Conflict

      Strategic Objectives

      Ensure compliance to EIA regulations and the recommendations in the SEA.

      Priority Action

      Obtain environmental authorisation.

      Legalise activities.

      Prevent environmental degrasdation.

      Indicators

      Compliance to ECA and Town Planning


5.15.4 Future Conflict

      Strategic Objectives

      Ensure compliance to EIA regulations and the recommendations in the SEA.

      Priority Action

      Obtain environmental authorisation.

      Legalise activities.

      Prevent environmental degrasdation.

      Indicators

      Compliance to ECA and Town Planning


5.16 Proximity to MPNE

5.16.1 0 – 500m

      Strategic Objectives

      Limit development on the fringes of the MPNE. Ensure compliance to the
      recommendations of the ECA and SEA.

      Priority Action

      Only appropriate land uses should be encouraged within this area.

      Suitable land uses include low impact developments such as conservancies,
      passive recreational activities, eco residences, tourist related activities.

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      Indicators

      No. of appropriate land uses.
      No. of inappropriate land uses.
      History of land use.

5.16.2 500 – 100m

      Strategic Objectives

      Ensure compliance to the recommendations of the ECA and SEA.

      Priority Action

      Only appropriate land uses should be encouraged in this area.

      Indicators

      No. of appropriate land uses.
      No. of inappropriate land uses.
      History of land use.


5.16.3 > 1000m

      Strategic Objectives

      Ensure compliance to the recommendations of the ECA and SEA.

      Priority Action

      Only appropriate land uses should be encouraged in this area.

      Indicators

      No. of appropriate land uses.
      No. of inappropriate land uses.
      History of land use.


5.17 Environmental Control Zones

5.17.1 Low

      Strategic Objectives

      Encourage only the establishment of appropriate land uses. This would
      include waste sites, industrial and manufacturing activities, retail trade
      facilities, bulk services, mining and quarrying, sports and recreation land use.

      Priority Action

      Ensure compliance to the recommendations of the SEA.

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      Indicators

      Nature of compliance and non compliance.
      No. of cases of compliance and non compliance.

5.17.2 Medium

      Strategic Objectives

      Encourage only the establishment of appropriate land uses. This would
      include residential resorts, eco residences, commercial or office uses,
      industrial uses and activities, conventional residential development,
      retirement villages, golf courses and golf estates, bulk infrastructure activities,
      tourist trade stores within defined nodes, farming and agricultural activities,
      uses for scientific research.

      Priority Action

      Ensure compliance to the recommendations of the SEA.

      Indicators

      Nature of compliance and non compliance.
      No. of cases of compliance and non compliance.


5.17.3 High

      Strategic Objectives

      Encourage only the establishment of appropriate land uses. This would
      include. This would include conservancies, nature orientated activities, use for
      environmental awareness, passive recreation, eco residences, tourist related
      facilities.

      Priority Action

      Ensure compliance to the recommendations of the SEA.

      Indicators

      Nature of compliance and non compliance.
      No. of cases of compliance and non compliance.




                                          85      Rustenburg SEA – Priority Area 1

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6     EVALUATION AND REPORTING SYSTEMS
      In order for the NW DACE and other relevant authorities to be able to assess
      the effectiveness of the SEA, steps will be necessary that regularly evaluate,
      assess and report on the actions that were taken and the results that were
      achieved. Only then will it be possible to determine if the Vision and
      Strategies to attain the vision are making any progress.

      A list of some common approaches is provided below that can be used to
      assess environmental performance:

           Monthly reporting of the various environmental attributes in the area
            (water quality, air quality, loss of agricultural land, etc.);
           Monthly assessment of the nature and type of development applications
            (i.e. EIA‟s, Scoping Reports, Exemption Applications);
           Monthly records on the progress of applications and problems
            experienced;
           Monthly records on the nature of environmental problems in the study
            area;
           Monthly records of non-compliance;
           Regular (quarterly) meetings with representative organisations that are
            affected by development planning;
           Provision of information quarterly reports on all of the above.

      It will be necessary that the relevant authorities and Rustenburg Local Council
      agree on the roles and responsibilities for collecting, analyzing and reporting
      functions as described above.

      It is important to state that key targets will need to be set as a means to
      evaluating performance. The limit of these targets will be determined on the
      basis of acceptable level of change and this should be set in consultation with
      the relevant stakeholders including the public, relevant authorities, non-
      government organisations and parties. This should take the form of a
      workshop during which participants will be able to motivate and justify the
      acceptable level of change. Relevant actions that support the attainment of
      the target can then be considered and appropriate reporting systems
      developed.

      It will be imperative that before this occurs, adequate capacity at the local and
      provincial government level is created to support the intentions. This should
      include an appropriate review of the existing operating systems in an attempt
      to identify weakness in management structure and the characteristics of the
      required capacity requirements. Measures would then to be implemented in
      an effort to support the envisaged vision for the study area.




                                         86      Rustenburg SEA – Priority Area 1

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Table summary of the Strategic EMP
Table 19 below provides a summary for the management of the relevant environmental aspect. Please refer to the text and the GIS viewer for a more
detailed discussion on the management requirements of each feature.

Table 19.     Summary of management per environmental category.

Category                Feature                  Strategic Objective                Action Plan                     Indicator
Geology                 Quartzite                N/A                                N/A                             N/A
                        Norite, Hybrid Rock,     N/A                                N/A                             N/A
                        Diabase            and
                        Epidiorite
                        Norite/ Pyroxenite       N/A                                N/A                             N/A
                        Norite / Anorthosite     N/A                                N/A                             N/A
                        Slate/         Shale/    N/A                                N/A                             N/A
                        Hornfels
                        Gabbro/ Norite           A detailed geotechnical            N/A                             N/A
                                                 investigation       will     be
                                                 required     in     order     to
                                                 determine       the     specific
                                                 measures necessary to
                                                 mitigate impacts such as
                                                 cracking, collapse, etc.
Soils                   Arcadia                  Development on these soils         Compile a detailed inventory    Percentage loss or transformation of potentially
                                                 must be suited to overcome         of soils in the study area.     agriculturally productive soils.
                                                 the constraints of the site.       Detailed        geotechnical    Use of fertilizers (tons per ha).
                                                 Appropriate         agricultural   assessment      must      be    Use of pesticides (tons per ha).
                                                 practices       should       be    undertaken by the developer     Area of land under cultivation.
                                                 encouraged                                                         Area of land under irrigation.
                        Hutton/ Mispah           Development on these soils         Compile an inventory of soils   Percentage loss or transformation of potentially
                                                 is possible without any            in the study area               agriculturally productive soils.
                                                 particular intervention.                                           Use of fertilizers (tons per ha).
                                                                                                                    Use of pesticides (tons per ha).
                                                                                                                    Area of land under cultivation.


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                                                                                                                Area of land under irrigation.
                       Hutton                 Should      therefore   be      Compile an inventory of soils     Percentage loss or transformation of potentially
                                              retained   for agricultural     in the study area                 agriculturally productive soils.
                                              use.                                                              Use of fertilizers (tons per ha).
                                                                                                                Use of pesticides (tons per ha).
                                                                                                                Area of land under cultivation.
                                                                                                                Area of land under irrigation.
                       Rock/ Mispah           Blasting impacts will need      Where blasting activities are     Percentage loss or transformation of potentially
                                              to    be   managed      and     required detailed EMP must        agriculturally productive soils.
                                              mitigated. Ensure adequate      be      compiled      by    the
                                              and     appropriate   storm     developer. A storm water
                                              water control to limit          management plan should be
                                              erosion.                        drawn up for all development
                                                                              sites. Local authority must be
                                                                              notified of the date and times
                                                                              when the blasting activities
                                                                              are to occur.
                       Shortlands/ Glenrosa   Agricultural      production    Compile a detailed inventory      Percentage loss or transformation of potentially
                                              where                suitable   of soils in the study area.       agriculturally productive soils.
                                              infrastructure occurs                                             Use of fertilizers (tons per ha).
                                                                                                                Use of pesticides (tons per ha).
                                                                                                                Area of land under cultivation.
                                                                                                                Area of land under irrigation.
                       Shortlands/ Hutton     Development should pose         N/A                               Use of fertilizers (tons per ha).
                                              no risk on this soil type                                         Use of pesticides (tons per ha).
                                                                                                                Area of land under cultivation.
                                                                                                                Area of land under irrigation.
Topography             Magaliesberg           Protect     the      existing   Ensure compliance of all
                       Mountain Range         demarcation       of      the   development     applications
                                              Magaliesberg       Protected    with Administrators Notice.
                                              Natural        Environment.     Only appropriate land uses
                                              Compliance        to      the   should encouraged within
                                              regulations published under     this area
                                              Administrator‟s Notice 127
                                              (4 May 1994) of Section


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                                           16(2) of the Environmental
                                           Conservation Act (73 of
                                           1989).
                       Ridges              Development of ridges            Development            activities    No further loss    of   ridges   to   inappropriate
                                           should     be     prevented.     should not be supported on           development
                                           Prevent    activities    from    slopes greater or equal to 8.
                                           breaking     the      skyline,   Development         on     ridges
                                           become visually obtrusive        should         be        visually
                                           or occur on steep slopes.        unobtrusive      and      include
                                                                            lighting that is focused
                                                                            downward (i.e. not dispersive
                                                                            lighting).
                                                                            Activities     that    generate
                                                                            significant noise should not
                                                                            be encouraged on ridges that
                                                                            would create nuisance noise
                                                                            in downslope areas.
                                                                            The trampling of lookout
                                                                            points should be prevented
                                                                            and        the       appropriate
                                                                            infrastructure developed.
                       Mid slopes          Development on these             The      gradient      of      the   Development on midslopes should be appropriate
                                           areas    needs    to   be        midslopes should determine           and in character with the surrounding environment
                                           evaluated to ensure that         the                  appropriate
                                           there are no significant         developments, which should
                                           impacts that would detract       be visually unobtrusive and
                                           from the ambience of             include lighting that is
                                           Rustenburg.                      focused downward (i.e. not
                                                                            dispersive lighting).
                       Undulating Plans    Development should be            Sensitive                natural,    Development that is in line with the surrounding
                                           encouraged      on     the       agricultural, archaeological         environment.
                                           undulating plains around         and social feature and
                                           Rustenburg,    take   into       characteristics should be
                                           consideration the existing       considered                 before
                                           constraints.                     development is approved.


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                       Hex     River   Flood   Hex River floodplain should      Remove all exotic species.      Percentage decrease of exotic trees and invader
                       Plain                   be retained as a natural         Limit further development       plants.
                                               corridor within the 1:100        activities. Encourage the       Percentage increase in silt content.
                                               year floodline level. The        planting of indigenous trees    Percentage increase in sedimentation.
                                               floodplain      should      be   and shrubs. Construction of     Percentage increase in vegetation maintain its
                                               rehabilitated in order to        bulk infrastructure across      natural form.
                                               improve the quality of the       river should require complete
                                               area. The habitat integrity      EMP.
                                               within the entire Hex River
                                               course        should       be
                                               maintained.
                       Stream & Tributary      Natural stream and stream        Remove all exotic woody         Percentage decrease of exotic trees and invader
                       Floodplains             tributary flood plains should    species and invader plants.     plants.
                                               be retained in their existing    Insert storm water control      Percentage increase in silt content.
                                               state. Efforts to remove         points to limit the impact of   Percentage increase in sedimentation.
                                               exotic species should be         peak flows prevent planting     Percentage river vegetation.
                                               encouraged.           Erosion    of Kikuyu. Control erosion
                                               protection.                      and siltation
                                               Floodplains of stream and
                                               tributaries     should     be
                                               rehabilitated. Development
                                               that occurs on the fringes of
                                               such areas should be
                                               green. An adequate “buffer
                                               area” should separate the
                                               floodplain               from
                                               developments
                       Valley Bottom           Ensure that development          Consider noise impacts and      N/A
                                               activities do not obstruct or    air pollution
                                               significantly undermine the
                                               ambience of the area
Hydrology              Streams                 Storm water control in           Compile a storm water           Percentage decrease of exotic infestation.
                                               these streams is imperative      management plan.                Percentage increase in silt content.
                                               to control localised flooding.   Compile a storm water           Percentage increase in sedimentation.
                                               Measures are necessary to        management    plans for         Water quality including levels of nutrients,


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                                           control siltation on an on      development areas.                pollutants, bacteriophages, pH and EC.
                                           site basis                      Limit the impact of peak          Annual and monthly rainfall.
                                                                           flows in areas prone to           Stream flow rates.
                                                                           erosion.
                                                                           Control erosion and siltation.
                                                                           Remove all exotic and
                                                                           invader species within the
                                                                           floodplains of the streams.
                       Rivers              Includes      measures     to   Compile a storm water             Percentage decrease of exotic infestation.
                                           control storm water run-off,    management plan.                  Percentage increase in silt content.
                                           siltation, sedimentation and    Compile a storm water             Percentage increase in sedimentation.
                                           the     spread   of    exotic   management         plans    for   Water quality including levels of nutrients,
                                           species                         development areas.                pollutants, bacteriophages, pH and EC.
                                                                           Limit the impact of peak          Annual and monthly rainfall.
                                                                           flows .                           River flow rates.
                                                                           Control erosion and siltation
                                                                           on development sites and
                                                                           within the study area.
                                                                           Remove all exotic and
                                                                           invader species .
                       Dams                Should be retained and          Examine opportunities for         Level of water in the Olifantsnek Dam.
                                           enhanced by increasing the      recreational and ecological       Stream inflow deviation from long term average.
                                           use of water resource and       use                               Volume of water discharged from Olifantsnek Dam.
                                           making it more readily
                                           available      for suitable
                                           development.
Water Quality          Surface water       Quality of the water in the     No additional development in      Regularly (i.e. Once per Month) undertake water
                                           streams, rivers and dams        the area of the Olifantsnek       quality analyses.
                                           must be improved such that      Dam prior to the installation     Regularly (i.e. every four Month) compile a water
                                           it is potable.                  of adequate services. A           quality report.
                                           All water resources should      regular system of water           Determine the location of polluters and sources of
                                           comply to the minimum           quality checks is required.       pollution.
                                           requirements as set by the                                        Record the volume of effluent and pollution
                                           Department of water affairs     All potential polluters must be   discharged into rivers as a proportion of total flow.
                                           & Forestry Target Water         compelled to comply with the


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                                           Quality   Guidelines        for    National Water Act.
                                           domestic use.

                                           Development           activities
                                           should      further     include
                                           controls         on          the
                                           management of sewage
                                           and waste in the upper
                                           reaches of the catchment.
                                           Control needs          to     be
                                           exercised          on        the
                                           inadequate provision of
                                           services
                                           Control be exercised on the
                                           use of fertilizers
                       Ground water        Ground water quantity and          Uncontrolled abstraction of     Ground water abstraction rates.
                                           quality must be protected          ground water from the           Number of boreholes peer catchment or sub-
                                           for the use as portable            aquifer must be prevented.      catchment.
                                           water     supply      in     the   Borehole use must be            Depth to ground water.
                                           agricultural sections of the       registered                      Difference between recharge rates and abstraction
                                           study area.                        Residential     development     rates per catchment.
                                           Control of the impact of           should not be allowed           Regularly (i.e. Once per Month) undertake water
                                           sewage contamination.              without formal water services   quality analyses.
                                                                                                              Regularly (i.e. every four Month) compile a water
                                                                                                              quality report.
                                                                                                              Determine the location of polluters and sources of
                                                                                                              pollution.
                                                                                                              Determine pollution indices from mining and
                                                                                                              industry.
                                                                                                              Determine pollution indices from agricultural
                                                                                                              chemicals and products.
Ecological systems     Core                Core areas should be               Funds for the appropriate       Fire frequency as indicated by burn scar mapping
                                           conserved and managed as           development and utilization     via aerial photographs or remote sensing.
                                           natural open spaces in the         of these areas should be        Annual rainfall (expressed as percentage of
                                           landscape. Urban park-like         obtained                        regional long-term average).


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                                           open spaces should only         Core areas should be used         NDVI index using LANDSAT imagery.
                                           be rezoned if a holistic        for      the     purpose     of   Bare soil index.
                                           assessment of the nature,       environmental       awareness.    Bush Encroachment index.
                                           function and nee of all such    Preventing         degradation,
                                           areas have been done.           erosion, loss of biodiversity,
                                                                           accumulation       of    waste,
                                                                           inappropriate development.
                                                                           Compile a detailed inventory
                                                                           of all the core areas.
                                                                           Establish a management
                                                                           framework for the protection
                                                                           and utilization of these areas.
                       Connector           Connector areas must be         Rehabilitate all areas that       Fire frequency.
                                           protected             against   have been degraded and            Bare Soil Index.
                                           developmental damage and        disturbed. Compile a detailed     Bush Encroachment index.
                                           disturbed areas must be         inventory of all the connector
                                           rehabilitated.       Riverine   areas.        Establish       a
                                           vegetation       must      be   management framework
                                           conserved and sufficient
                                           buffer areas must be
                                           maintained .
                       Intermediate        Intermediate area should        N/A                               Fire frequency.
                                           be conserved as open                                              Bare Soil Index.
                                           space. The role of areas                                          Bush Encroachment index.
                                           25,26 and 27 (Figure 8) as
                                           intermediate areas must be
                                           re-assessed
Fauna                  Birds               Habitants and potential         Compile a red data avifauna       Percentage in the number and abundance of
                                           occurrence of sensitive bird    policy for the study area.        sensitive bird species.
                                           species        should      be   Protected areas that serve as     Percentage loss of sensitive potential avifauna
                                           assessed               before   habitat for sensitive avifauna    habitat.
                                           development is approved.
                                           Suitable habitants should
                                           be conserved
                       Herpetofauna        The habitats and potential      Compile     a    Red     Data     Percentage in the number and abundance of


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                                            occurrence of sensitive       herpetofauna            policy.   sensitive herpetofauna species.
                                            herpetofaunal      species    Development       applications    Percentage loss of sensitive potential herpetofauna
                                            should be assessed before     must include a specialist         habitat.
                                            development is approved       investigation detailing the
                                                                          potential impact and relevant
                                                                          mitigation measures. Protect
                                                                          areas that serve as habitat
                                                                          for sensitive herpetofauna
                       Lepidoptera          Habitants and potential       Compile      a    Red    Data     Percentage in the number and abundance of
                                            occurrence of butterfly and   lepidoptera             policy.   sensitive lepidoptera species.
                                            sensitive butterfly species   Development       applications    Percentage loss of sensitive potential lepidoptera
                                            should be assessed before     must include a specialist         habitat.
                                            development is approved       investigation detailing the
                                                                          potential impact and relevant
                                                                          mitigation measures. Protect
                                                                          areas that serve as habitat
                                                                          for    sensitive   lepidoptera
                                                                          species.
                       Other Invertebrate   The habitats and potential    Compile      a    Red    Data     Percentage in the number and abundance of
                                            occurrence of sensitive       Invertebrate            policy.   sensitive Invertebrate species.
                                            invertebrate species should   Development       applications    Percentage loss of sensitive potential Invertebrate
                                            be     assessed      before   must include a specialist         habitat.
                                            development is approved       investigation detailing the
                                                                          potential impact and relevant
                                                                          mitigation measures. Protect
                                                                          areas that serve as habitat
                                                                          for sensitive Invertebrate
                                                                          species
                       Mammals              The habitats and potential    Compile      a    Red    Data     Percentage in the number and abundance of
                                            occurrence of    mammals      mammals                 policy.   sensitive mammals species.
                                            and    sensitive   mammal     Development       applications    Percentage loss of sensitive potential mammals
                                            species      should     be    must include a specialist         habitat.
                                            assessed            before    investigation detailing the
                                            development is approved       potential impact and relevant
                                                                          mitigation measures. Protect


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                                                                                 areas that serve as habitat
                                                                                 for    sensitive     mammals
                                                                                 species
Flora                  Gold Reef Mountain    Areas that are disturbed            Mature indigenous trees         Percentage loss of Red Data habitat.
                       Bushveld              and removed of natural              should be included in the       Percentage occurrence of Red data species.
                                             vegetation      should        be    layout plans.                   Lists of Red Data species occurring on particular
                                             rehabilitated               with    Red Data species potentially    farm portions.
                                             indigenous species. Alien/          or actually occurring on site
                                             invasive species should be          should     be    listed.  An
                                             removed.          A          fire   assessment of the site
                                             management system is                should be provided
                                             required in area subject to
                                             frequent fires
                                             A vegetation assessment
                                             including a Red Data scan
                                             should be completed
                       Rustenburg   Gabbro   Bushveld trees should be            Mature indigenous trees         Percentage loss of Red Data habitat
                       Thornveld             maintained.             Habitat     should be included in the       Percentage occurrence of Red data species
                                             connectivity          between       layout plans. Red Data          Lists of Red Data species occurring on particular
                                             properties      should        be    species potentially occurring   farm portions
                                             maintained. A vegetation            on site should be listed.
                                             assessment including a              An assessment of the site
                                             Red Data scan should be             should be undertaken.
                                             completed.
                                             A vegetation scan and Red
                                             Data      scan       can      be
                                             considered if the site has
                                             severely been affected by
                                             agricultural activities.
                                             Drainage lines, floodlines
                                             and water quality should be
                                             protected
                       Moot Plain Bushveld   Natural savanna (trees and          Mature indigenous trees         Percentage loss of Red Data habitat.
                                             grassland)      should        be    should be included in the       Percentage occurrence of Red data species.
                                             maintained      as       natural    layout plans.                   Lists of Red Data species occurring on particular


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                                             features.                      Red Data species potentially    farm portions.
                                             Habitat connection between     or actually occurring on site
                                             land parcels should be         should be listed.
                                             maintained.                    An assessment of the site
                                             A Vegetation Assessment        should be undertaken
                                             including a Red Data scan
                                             should be completed if a
                                             vegetation Scan and Red
                                             Data     Scan        can be
                                             considered if the site has
                                             severely been affected by
                                             agricultural activities

                       Norite      Koppies   A vegetation assessment        Mature indigenous trees         80% loss of Norite Koppies Bushveld.
                       Bushveld              including a Red Data scan      should be included in the       Percentage loss of Red Data habitat.
                                             should be completed if         layout plans.                   Percentage occurrence of Red data species.
                                             development is proposed in     Red Data species potentially    Lists of Red Data species occurring on particular
                                             this vegetation type           or actually occurring on site   farm portions.
                                                                            should be listed.
                                                                            An assessment of the site
                                                                            should be undertaken
                       Wetlands of    man-   Wetlands     should    be      Mature indigenous trees         % loss of wetland of man-made dam.
                       made dams             maintained            and      should be included in the       Percentage loss of Red Data habitat.
                                             incorporated          into     layout plans.                   Percentage occurrence of Red data species.
                                             development         where      Red Data species potentially    Lists of Red Data species occurring on particular
                                             possible                       or actually occurring on site   farm portions.
                                                                            should be listed.
                                                                            An assessment should be
                                                                            undertaken
                       Riverine Wetlands     These areas should be          Development should not be       % of riverine wetlands.
                                             protected               from   allowed in the 1:50 year        Percentage loss of Red Data habitat.
                                             development. Impacts of        floodline or 25 meters from     Percentage occurrence of Red data species.
                                             alien vegetation must be       the side of the stream/ river   Lists of Red Data species occurring on particular
                                             controlled, disturbed sites    whichever width is the          farm portions.
                                             should be rehabilitated        largest.


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                                                                               Wetlands should not be
                                                                               drained     for     agricultural
                                                                               purposes.
                                                                               Existing riverine vegetation
                                                                               should be conserved.
                                                                               Exotic vegetation should be
                                                                               removed and controlled as
                                                                               per the guidelines provided in
                                                                               the Status Quo report.
                                                                               Mature indigenous trees
                                                                               should be included in the
                                                                               layout plans.
                                                                               Red Data species potentially
                                                                               or actually occurring on site
                                                                               should be listed.
                                                                               An assessment should be
                                                                               undertaken.
                       Endorheic        Pan    Developments should not         Mature indigenous trees            % of Endorheic Pan wetlands.
                       Wetlands                be allowed to encroach          should be included in the          Percentage loss of Red Data habitat.
                                               upon pans. A buffer area        layout plans.                      Percentage occurrence of Red data species.
                                               should be determined to         Red Data species potentially       Lists of Red Data species occurring on particular
                                               protect the pan from            or actually occurring on site      farm portions.
                                               surrounding land uses and       should     be     listed.    An
                                               activities. Pans should not     assessment       should      be
                                               be drained or used for          undertaken.
                                               stormwater runoff collection
                                               points
                       Exotic Vegetation       Exotic vegetation should be     Remove exotic vegetation           Percentage reduction in the exotic species
                                               removed and/ or contained       and invader plants from river      occurrence along river courses and in natural
                                               where it occurs.                courses and natural areas.         areas.
                                               Exotic vegetation should        Educate and inform public on
                                               specifically    be   strictly   legislated guidelines and
                                               controlled    along   water     status of various exotic
                                               courses                         species
                       Sensitive plants (Red   Red Data species should         Red       Data       Species       Percentage loss of Red Data protected plants and


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                       Data, Protected and   be protected in situ. The      occurrence of the plant must       medicinal plant habitat.
                       Medical Plants)       habitat of Red Data species    be assessed as close as            Percentage occurrence of Red data Protected and
                                             should      be    preserved    possible to the flowering time     medicinal plant.
                                             without degradation.           of the plant.                      Lists of Red Data species, Protected and medicinal
                                             Protected plants species       Red Data plants should be          occurring on particular farm portions occurring on
                                             should be protected in situ    protected       where       they   particular farm portions.
                                             Medicinal Plants Species       naturally occur (in situ) as far
                                             should be protected in situ    as possible.
                                                                            A protected natural buffer
                                                                            area, to be determined by a
                                                                            professional botanist.
                                                                            Red Data species potentially
                                                                            or actually occurring on site
                                                                            should be listed.
                                                                            An assessment should be
                                                                            undertaken.
                                                                            A Red Data policy. No red
                                                                            data species should be
                                                                            relocated.
                                                                            Protected      plants     –    A
                                                                            vegetation          assessment
                                                                            should       determine       the
                                                                            occurrence       of    sensitive
                                                                            species       on      proposed
                                                                            development sites.
                                                                            In situ conservation of the
                                                                            species         should        be
                                                                            encouraged.
                                                                            Medicinal plant – A medical
                                                                            plant policy should be
                                                                            compiled for species in the
                                                                            study area
Land use                                     Relevant           municipal   Preparation of a sub-division      Incorporation of SEA into spatial Development
                                             authorities are:               policy which should include a      Framework.
                                             Adequate         capacitated   basic             infrastructure   Study to assess feasibility of drawing an urban
                                             (staff, equipment, funding,    framework for future roads         edge line.

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                                           etc.).                          and services and clarity on           Area of land under cultivation (commercial
                                           Guided by well formulated       the legal process to be               monocrop).
                                           land use frameworks and         followed.                             Area of land under subsistence crops.
                                           policies.                       The preparation of a housing          Percentage area under organic farming methods.
                                           Supported by suitable legal     strategy.                             Area of land left fallow.
                                           regulations.                    The preparation of a land use         Agricultural crop productivity (tons per hectare).
                                           Revision of the IDP must        audit.                                Rates of urban expansion and clearing of land.
                                           ensure that it includes a       Formalization         of       the    Percentage of land under formal conservation
                                           Spatial.      Development       Olifantsnek township and its          protection.
                                           Framework      and   basic      services.                             Proportion of informal versus formal housing.
                                           guidelines for a land use       Preparation of a policy to            Number of households with security of tenure.
                                           management system.              protect areas adjacent to             Percentage of household or shelter types (informal
                                                                           sensitive zones.                      shacks, formal house).
                                                                           Preparation of a spatial              Government expenditure on improving basic
                                                                           development Framework and             services (CAPEX).
                                                                           land      use      management         Gross employment levels.
                                                                           system.                               Gross population growth rate in the study area.
                                                                           The expansion of the KMR
                                                                           into     areas       that      are
                                                                           considered         to       have
                                                                           significant ecological and
                                                                           cultural/ historic attributes.
                                                                           The creation of private nature
                                                                           reserves.
                                                                           The        development           of
                                                                           residential areas should be
                                                                           discouraged within the High
                                                                           ECZ area.
Cultural/      Historic                    Cultural / Historic features    Compile an inventory.                 Number of accessible and protected cultural historic
Features                                   of the area should be           Determine the significance of         features
                                           retained in their current       each site.
                                           form and / or rehabilitated
                                           to    ensure     for    their   Formulate      strategies    for
                                           preservation                    managing the rehabilitation
                                                                           and utilisation of this national
                                                                           asset.

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                                                                          Encourage private         sector
                                                                          involvement

Social Features                            Ensure for the safe and        Create      opportunities     for   Crime statistics.
                                           healthy living Environment     employment.                         Number of disaster events (toxic spills, poisonings,
                                                                          Provide                adequate     and fires).
                                                                          infrastructure for transport.       Percentage      growth    in     tourism,   industry,
                                                                          Encourage        recycling     of   manufacturing, agriculture, retail, trade.
                                                                          waste.                              Population growth rate.
                                                                          Prevent litter accumulation         Number of applications for land use change.
                                                                          by providing adequate bins          Percentage of Exemption Applications, Scoping
                                                                          within urban centres.               Reports and Environmental Impact Assessment
                                                                          Provide housing of suitable         reports.
                                                                          standard.                           Percentage growth per year in tourism.
                                                                          Provide      the     appropriate
                                                                          services.
                                                                          Prevent crime and illegal
                                                                          activities.
Air Quality                                Air quality of Rustenburg      Establish a regional air            Establish a program to measure the regional
                                           should      be     improved    quality forum.                      atmospheric quality including the levels of pollutants
                                           according       to      the    More accurate and up-to-            such as so2, PM10, Dust, Biomass emissions, etc.
                                           requirements of the NW         date information on the             Estimate total pollution emission of pollutants from
                                           DACE.                          baseline characteristics of         industry.
                                           Mines and other industries     the air quality in the study        Spatial coverage.
                                           in Rustenburg must adhere      area is required.
                                           to the National Air Quality    Pollutant levels within the
                                           Guidelines.                    study     area     should     be
                                           Local       authority     in   compared to the standards of
                                           association with NW DACE       the NW.
                                           and NW DME must ensure         A     strategy     to    control
                                           compliance.                    pollutants within the study
                                           No biomass burning shall       area should be developed
                                           be permitted without a
                                           permit.
                                           Exposed surfaces must be


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                                                wetted or kept wet during
                                                windy periods to reduce
                                                dust.
Service Provision      Electricity Objectives   Supply and capacity of             Determine the future demand       CAPEX on electrical provision and supply.
                                                electricity in Rustenburg          for electrical supply to
                                                should       be        regularly   Rustenburg and initiate steps
                                                reviewed in order to               to ensure that is available
                                                address the increasing
                                                demand.
                       Roads                    Should be upgraded and             Compile a Regional Traffic        CAPEX for the management of roads, transport and
                                                improved        to       ensure    Movement study.                   traffic
                                                adequate       traffic     flow.   Budget must be provided by
                                                Congestion in areas along          the LA for the upgrade of
                                                the     R24      should       be   roads in Olifantsnek
                                                alleviated. Impacts of the         Upgrade the internal roads in
                                                N4 through the eastern             Olifantsnek.
                                                section     of     Rustenburg      Address the inequalities in
                                                should be considered               the         internal     road
                                                                                   infrastructure of Thlabane
                       Sewage                   Sewage        system    in         Undertake the study of entire     Regularly determine the level of Faecal coliforme in
                                                Rustenburg     should  be          sewage          system       of   water samples.
                                                addressed.     Control of          Rustenburg to determine the       CAPEX for the management of sewage and
                                                sewage impacts in the              effectiveness and adequacy        sanitation
                                                developing areas requires          of the existing system.
                                                consideration                      Upgrade the existing sewage
                                                                                   treatment plant.
                                                                                   Improve the system of
                                                                                   sanitation.
                                                                                   Implement measures to plan
                                                                                   for future development areas.
                                                                                   Investigate the opportunity of
                                                                                   creating an evaporation pond
                                                                                   that could service         the
                                                                                   surrounding areas that have
                                                                                   conservancy tanks.


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                                                                            Ensure that chemical toilets
                                                                            are provided at construction
                                                                            sites
                       Storm Water         Peak     flows   must    be      Separate the drainage of            CAPEX for the management of storm water.
                                           minimised to ensure that         storm water from that of the
                                           localised flooding does not      sewage system.
                                           occur                            Provide     adequate       storm
                                                                            water from that of the
                                                                            sewage system.
                                                                            Provide     adequate       storm
                                                                            water control in Thlabane
                                                                            and Olifantsnek.
                                                                            Upgrade the storm water
                                                                            systems       in      the     old
                                                                            Rustenburg
                       Waste Management    Effort       to encourage        Upgrade or commission as            Audits of the use of the transfer station and landfill
                                           recycling, a reduction in        soon possible a new landfill        sites.
                                           littering and the disposal of    site.                               Volume and frequency of illegal waste spots.
                                           waste in natural areas must      Upgrading        the     existing   CAPEX for waste management.
                                           be discouraged                   transfer stations in the study
                                                                            area.
                                                                             Provide      for      adequate
                                                                            recycling facilities.
                                                                            Provide a transfer station in
                                                                            the vicinity of the Waterfall
                                                                            Mall area.
                                                                            Control illegal dumping
                       Water               The     supply      and    the   Water audit is required to.         CAPEX for the management of potable water.
                                           availability of portable water   Water       quality     requires
                                           in the study area should be      regularly audits to ensure
                                           increased.                       that    water      of    suitable
                                           Control of water supply          standards is provided.
                                           during summer and drought        Existing     reticulation      of
                                           periods is required.             Rustenburg        requires    re-
                                           An awareness of the need         examination and upgrading.


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                                               to recycle water and use         Source of water is required
                                               water sparingly is required      for Olifantsnek.
                                                                                Olifantsnek Dam should not
                                                                                be used as a source of
                                                                                potable water
                           Telecommunication   Supply and capacity of the       Investigate in greater detail         CAPEX for the management of telecommunication
                                               telecommunications service       the capacity and supply of            infrastructure.
                                               should meet the demand           telecommunication
                                               for the service.                 infrastructure      in      future
                                                                                development areas must be
                                                                                serviced      with     telephone
                                                                                infrastructure
Visually sensitive areas   Crests & Ridges     Development of ridges            Development              activities   No. of cases of non compliance;
                                               should     be     prevented.     should not be supported on            No. of complaints
                                               Prevent    activities    from    slopes greater or equal to 8.         Percentage ridge area transformed
                                               breaking     the      skyline,   Development         on     ridges
                                               become visually obtrusive        should         be         visually
                                               or occur on steep slopes.        unobtrusive      and      include
                                                                                lighting that is focused
                                                                                downward (i.e. not dispersive
                                                                                lighting).
                                                                                Activities     that     generate
                                                                                significant noise should not
                                                                                be encouraged on ridges that
                                                                                would create nuisance noise
                                                                                in downslope areas.
                                                                                The trampling of lookout
                                                                                points should be prevented
                                                                                and        the       appropriate
                                                                                infrastructure developed.
                           KMR                 Protect     the    existing      Ensure compliance of all              NA
                                               demarcation     of      the      development         applications
                                               Magaliesberg     Protected       with Administrators Notice.
                                               Natural Environment.             Only appropriate land uses
                                               Compliance      to      the      should encouraged within


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                                             regulations published under     this area
                                             Administrator‟s Notice 127
                                             (4 May 1994) of Section
                                             16(2) of the Environmental
                                             Conservation Act (73 of
                                             1989).
                       MPNE                  Protect     the      existing   Ensure compliance of all         NA
                                             demarcation       of      the   development       applications
                                             Magaliesberg       Protected    with Administrators Notice.
                                             Natural Environment.            Only appropriate land uses
                                             Compliance        to      the   should encouraged within
                                             regulations published under     this area
                                             Administrator‟s Notice 127
                                             (4 May 1994) of Section
                                             16(2) of the Environmental
                                             Conservation Act (73 of
                                             1989).
Conflict Zones         Developed Areas       Ensure compliance to EIA        Obtain           environmental   NA
                                             regulations              and    authorisation;
                                             recommendations in the          Legalise activities;
                                             SEA                             Prevent          environmental
                                                                             degradation.
                       Open Space / Vacant   Ensure compliance to EIA        Obtain           environmental   Compliance to ECA & Town Planning
                       Land                  regulations          and        authorisation;
                                             recommendations in the          Legalise activities;
                                             SEA                             Prevent          environmental
                                                                             degradation.
                       Existing Conflict     Ensure compliance to EIA        Obtain           environmental   Compliance to ECA & Town Planning
                                             regulations          and        authorisation;
                                             recommendations in the          Legalise activities;
                                             SEA                             Prevent          environmental
                                                                             degradation.
                       Future Conflict       Ensure compliance to EIA        Obtain           environmental   Compliance to ECA & Town Planning
                                             regulations          and        authorisation;
                                             recommendations in the          Legalise activities;


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                                           SEA                               Prevent          environmental
                                                                             degradation.
Proximity to MPNE         0 – 500m         Limit development on the          Only appropriate land uses         No. of appropriate land uses
                                           fringes of the MPNE;              should be encouraged within        No. of inappropriate land uses
                                           Ensure compliance to the          this area;                         History of land use
                                           recommendations of the            Suitable land uses include
                                           ECA and SEA.                      low impact developments
                                                                             including       conservancies,
                                                                             passive             recreational
                                                                             activities, eco residences,
                                                                             toursit related facilities.
                          500 – 1000m      Ensure compliance to the          Only appropriate land uses         No. of appropriate land uses
                                           recommendations of the            should be encouraged in this       No. of inappropriate land uses
                                           ECA and SEA.                      area                               History of land use

                          > 1000 m         Ensure compliance to the          Only appropriate land uses         No. of appropriate land uses
                                           recommendations of the            should be encouraged in this       No. of inappropriate land uses
                                           ECA and SEA.                      area                               History of land use

Environmental   Control   Low              Appropriate     land     uses     Ensure compliance to the           History of compliance and non compliance
Zones                                      should include:                   recommendations of the SEA         No. of cases of compliance and non compliance
                                           Dump sites, industrial and
                                           manufacturing       activities,
                                           retail trade facilities, bulk
                                           services,     mining       and
                                           quarrying,     sports      and
                                           recreation
                          Medium           Appropriate     land     uses     Ensure compliance to the           History of compliance and non compliance
                                           include:                          recommendations of the SEA         No. of cases of compliance and non compliance
                                           Residential resorts, eco
                                           residences, commercial or
                                           office uses, industrial uses
                                           and activities, conventional
                                           residential    development,
                                           retirement villages, golf


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                                           courses and golf estates,
                                           bulk infrastructure activities,
                                           tourist trade stores within
                                           defined nodes, farmining
                                           and agricultural activities,
                                           uses for scientific research.
                       High                Appropriate     land     uses     Ensure compliance to the     History of compliance and non compliance
                                           include:                          recommendations of the SEA   No. of cases of compliance and non compliance
                                           Conservancies,          nature
                                           orientated activities, use for
                                           environmental awareness,
                                           passive recreation, eco
                                           residences, tourist related
                                           facilities.




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7 IMPLEMENTATION STRATEGIES
    Below are given a list of items that require implementation in order to ensure that the
    SEA has effect in the study area. It is important to note that a SEA is a “living
    document” in the sense that it requires regular re-assessment, evaluation and
    review. It is therefore important that an action plan be developed by the relevant
    authorities to implement the steps as described and that a regular process of
    monitoring, evaluation and review be used to update and refine the SEA.

    Steps necessary for implementing the SEA include:

      SEA must be adopted by NW DACE for the purpose of reviewing development
       applications and managing the environment for sustainable development;
      The Rustenburg Local Municipality must adopt the SEA for use in spatial planning
       and environmental management for sustainable development;
      The SEA must form part of the tender requirement for a new Spatial Development
       Framework;
      The SEA must be included into future revisions of the IDP;
      An environmental management framework, that sets more precise management,
       monitoring and reporting systems, must be formulated for the study area. These
       EMF‟s must incorporate the principles of the SEA;
      Commence programmes to collect, measure, assess and validate key
       environmental performance indicators;
      The Mining Forum, Small Business Development Forum, Chamber of Commerce
       and Relevant developers must be lobbied to support the SEA;
      NW DACE to facilitate consultation with the relevant authorities and organizations
       for the purpose of implementing the recommendations in the SEA;
      Funding to be required for the extension of the project into the broader
       Rustenburg Council Area;
      Revision of the decision making process and management requirement of NW
       DACE to be undertaken;
      Information documents to be made available to I&AP‟s for use and application.
       This can include access to the GIS Viewer application via a web site;
      NW DACE to research and confirm a data base of all farms and properties on
       which Red Data Species occur or are likely to occur;
      NW Spatial Development Initiative be used to provide information on the
       occurrence and diversity of biota;
      NW DACE and SAHRA to determine and confirm the status and occurrence of
       cultural historic sites in the study area;
      NW DACE and SAHRA to examine the opportunity and requirements for
       establishing a Rustenburg Ramble of archaeological sites, historic sites, natural
       history sites and areas of ecological value;
      NW DACE to support the establishment of conservancies within the High zones;
      Develop a work plan detailing key activities, anticipated completion dates and
       responsibilities;
      Organize a project team to guide the process of SEA implementation;
      Assess the success of implementing the SEA;
      Public Private partnerships to be considered for the creation of core and
       intermediate areas, cultural historic sites as well ways to upgrade and provide
       services in the study area.



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8 CONCLUSION
    The Status Quo Assessment for Priority Area 1 of the Rustenburg Municipal Area
    has indicated an environment in a rapid state of change. Development pressures are
    exerting a number of impacts on the biophysical as well as socio-economic
    environment in the form of decreased air quality, reduced water quality, loss of
    natural land, loss of agricultural land, increased traffic and congestion, increase in
    the number of illegal activities, noise pollution, litter and illegal waste dumps,
    inadequate service supply and delivery, lack of enforcement and several other
    impacts.

    The pressure of mining and development in the study area are likely to increase in
    the short term and it is therefore imperative that systems be put in place to manage
    and mitigate these impacts.

    The study area has been subdivided into a number of Environmental Control Zones.
    Each of these zones were defined on the basis of a table of site features that allows
    the relevant person the opportunity to identify and determine elements of
    environmental opportunity or constraint. The EMP thus presents the requirements,
    processes and procedures necessary to ensure that the environment is not
    detrimentally affected by development and that such development can be
    environmentally sustainable over the long term.




The content of this report is based on the accuracy of information provided to Eco
Assessments at the time of compiling the report. Any queries can be addressed to Eco
Assessments CC, PO Box 441037, LINDEN, 2104 or Tel. 011 – 782 – 3428, Fax. 011 –
888 – 9588 or email. Info@ecoassessments.co.za.


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Environmental Performance Measurement: Design, Implementation, and
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Wulfsohn, L. (1992). Rustenburg at War. CTP Book Printers. Cape Town




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