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Appendicular skeleton (DOC)


									                 Articulations (Joints)
Read pages 145-154 in your textbook. Answer the questions as you come to them.
The information is mostly in order but not completely – you may have to read a little
ahead or look back to summarize the answers for a question.

1. List the 2 functions of joints
       a. ____________________________________________________________
       b. ____________________________________________________________

Classification of Joints
   I.     Functional classification is based on the ________________________________
          allowed by the joint
          a. List and describe the 3 functional classifications:
                  i. ____________________________________________________
                 ii. ____________________________________________________
                iii. ____________________________________________________
          b. Where in the body is each functional classification found and why?

   II.   Structural classification - based on type of material that binds bone together and
            presence or absence of joint capsule
         a. Describe the mobility of each of the structural classifications
                 i. Fibrous: __________________________________________
                       1. Describe each of the following examples of fibrous joints
                                 a. Sutures: ________________________________________
                                 b. Syndesmoses: __________________________________
                                 c. Gomphoses (not in your text):
                                          i. Example: tooth held in socket by periodontal
                ii. Cartilaginous: ______________________________________
                       1. Describe each of the following examples of cartilaginous joints:
                                 a. Symphyses
                                          i. Connected by a fibrocartilage
                                         ii. Mobility: ________________________________
                                        iii. Two Examples: _____________________________
                                 b. Synchondroses
                                          i. Connected by hyaline cartilage
                                         ii. Mobility: ________________________________
                                        iii. Two Examples: _____________________________
               iii. Synovial: __________________________________________
                       1. Articulating bone ends are separated by a __________________
                            filled with ________________________________.
2. Structure of a synovial joint

       a. __________________________________ covers the ends
          of the bones in the joint to cushion & protect them.
       b. ______________________________________: double
          layered membrane to enclose the joint cavity and is lined
          with a internal layer of ____________________________
          membrane. The fibrous capsule fuses to the periosteum of
          the bone.
       c. Joint cavity: contains ______________________ fluid to
          lubricate, reduce friction, and nourish the articular cartilage.
           The synovial fluid is produced by the synovial membrane
          that lines the joint cavity.
               i. Sports Application: __________________________
       d. Reinforcing ligaments: we will discuss specific ones later
       e. Bursae
               i. Describe:

              ii. Location:

             iii. Bursitis:

             iv. True vs. False:

       f. Tendon sheath:
             i. Describe:

              ii. Tendonitis:

       g. fatty pads

       h. menisci:
III. Specific types of Synovial Joints – know the examples we discuss
        A. Nonaxial (plane): __________________________________________________
        B. uniaxial - one plane of motion
                1. hinge: ______________________________________________________
                2. pivot: _______________________________________________________

       C. biaxial - 2 planes of motion
             1. condyloid: ____________________________________________________
             2. saddle: ______________________________________________________

       D. multiaxial - universal motion - all planes
            1. ball & socket: _________________________________________________

Synovial joint movements (pages 176-179) - Be able to recognize a description and give
an example for each.
I. Gliding - sliding
       ex. intercarpal, intertarsal, sternoclavicular

II. Angular - increase/decrease angle
       A. flexion
                  o dorsiflexion
       B. extension
                  o hyperextension
                  o plantar flexion
       C. abduction
       D. adduction
       E. circumduction

III. Rotation

IV. Special movements
      A. supination
      B. pronation
      C. inversion
      D. eversion
      E. protraction
      F. retraction
      G. elevation
      H. depression

Stability of a Joint
   I.      Articular surfaces
   II.     Muscle Tone
   III.    Ligaments
Homeostatic Imbalances of Joints
A. sprains
       1. stretched/torn ligaments
       2. heal slowly due to ____________________________________________
B. dislocations/subluxation - must be reduced
C. arthritis - synovial membrane thickening and decrease in fluid production
       1. osteoarthritis
                a. define:

             b. who affected

             c. symptoms

             d. treatments

      2. rheumatoid arthritis
            a. define:

             b. who affected

             c. symptoms

             d. treatments

      3. gouty arthritis
            a. define:

             b. who affected

             c. symptoms

             d. treatments
Specific joints
     A. Shoulder joint
           1. most freely movable but ___________________
           2. Ball & socket joint
           3. ________________________________ - rim of fibrocartilage that
                  deepens glenoid cavity
           4. reinforcing ligaments primarily on ______________________ aspect
           5. Muscle tendons most important in stabilizing
           6. superstabilizer – tendon of long head of ________________________
           7. rotator cuff
                  a. other fused tendons for stability
                  b. can be stretched & injured during __________________________
           8. dislocates ______________________ due to weakness of reinforcements
     B. Elbow joint
           1. stable _______________ joint
           2. main portion of joint is _______________ with __________________ notch
           3. 3 important ligaments
                  a. _______________________________________________________
                  b. _______________________________________________________
                  c. _______________________ ligament – encloses radial head
           4. several tendons cross joint to provide stability
     C. Hip joint
           1. less movable (limited by joint ligaments) but very stable
           2. _______________________________________ enhances depth of socket
           3. Hip displacements rare – takes great force to dislocate due to size of
               muscles, tendons and ligaments and depth of socket
           4. 3 main ligaments
                  a. iliofemoral
                  b. pubofemoral
                  c. ischiofemoral
           5. ligaments arranged so femur head is “screwed” into socket upon standing
           6. ligamentum teres
                  a. contains small artery that supplies head of femur
                  b. any damage to artery leads to severe ______________________
           7. most common joint replaced: acetabulum and head of femur
     D. Knee joint
           1. largest joint in body - very complex
           2. joint cavity only partly enclosed by capsule - absent ___________________
           3. contains ____________ bursae for cushioning
           4. menisci
                  a. deepen articular surface
                  b. increase _________________________ stability
                  c. absorb shock
                  d. only attached at _______________________ margin so frequently
5. strongly reinforced by ligaments
       a. extracapsular: help stabilize entire joint
                i. patellar ligament
               ii. lateral collateral – critical in preventing lateral angular motion
              iii. medial collateral – critical in preventing medial angular motion
              iv. oblique popliteal
               v. arcuate popliteal
       b. intracapsular – help prevent displacement of articular surfaces
                i. anterior cruciate
                       1. attached to _________________ tibia
                       2. prevents _________________________
                       3. taut when knee is __________________________
               ii. posterior cruciate
                       1. attached to __________________ tibia
                       2. prevents _________________________________
                       3. taut when knee is __________________________
6. Three main structures that are commonly injured
       a. ____________________________________________________
       b. ____________________________________________________
       c. ____________________________________________________
7. Know the location of the following structures on the diagram
    anterior cruciate ligament
    posterior cruciate ligament
    lateral collateral ligament
    medial collateral ligament
    medial & lateral menisci
    patellar ligament
    patella
    quadriceps tendon
    transverse ligament
    articular cartilage
    femur condyles
    tibia condyles

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