Tunisia by cuiliqing

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									   NATIONAL STUDY ON THE
IRRIGATION OF DATE PALM AND
 ASSOCIATED CROPS IN TUNISIA

        By Dr.LEBDI Fethi
              INAT
              Tunsia
            May 2007
                      Plan
   Introduction
   Oases evolution
   Economic considerations
   Exported water balance
   Natural resources and development
   Irrigations management in oases
   Conclusion
   Perspectives
                        Introduction

  Geographic and Water                         Water appropriation
        resources                              and sharing systems


                                 Oases
                             characterization
   Socioeconomic                                      Bioclimatic
(Oasis agricultural system                         Inshore oases
      and populations)                             Altitude oases
                                                   Continental oases
                                 Agronomic
                              Associated Crops
                              Animal production
                            Oases evolution

Table 1: Date palms surface                    Table 2: Distribution of the number
distribution in Ha (Onagri:2006)               of date palms(Onagri:2006)
Oasis    Traditionnel   Modern   Total                  Nomber      %        Cropping
                                                                                Intensity%
Tozeur   3370           4850     8220    25%
Kebili   4220           11780    16000   48%   Tozeur   1.609.000   35,4 %   157
Gafsa    820            1000     1820    6%    Kebili   2.282.000   50,3 %   150
Gabes    6940           -        6940    21%   Gafsa    178.000      3,9 %   155
         15350          17630    32980         Gabès    470.000     10,4 %   189
         46%            54%                             4.539.000
                                               Tons

        19
          80




                       20000
                               40000
                                       60000
                                                               80000
                                                                       100000
                                                                                120000
                                                                                         140000




                   0
             /8
        19 1
          82
             /8
        19 3
          84
             /8
        19 5
          86
             /8
        19 7
          88
             /8
        19 9
          90
             /9
        19 1
          92
             /9
        19 3
          94
             /9
        19 5




Years
          96
             /9
        19 7
          98
             /9
        20 9
          00
             /0
        20 1
          02
             /0
        20 3
          04
             /0
        20 5
          06
             /0
               7
                                          Export
                                                   Tot.Production
                                                                                                  Production and export evolution
                                       M.Dinars

        19
           8




                       20000
                               40000
                                       60000
                                               80000
                                                       100000
                                                                120000
                                                                         140000
                                                                                  160000




                   0
        19 0/8
           8 1
        19 1/8
           8 2
        19 2/8
           8 3
        19 3/8
           8 4
        19 4/8
           8 5
        19 5/8
           8 6
        19 6/8
           8 7
        19 7/8
           8 8
        19 8/8
           8 9
        19 9/9
           9 0
        19 0/9
           9 1
        19 1/9
           9 2
        19 2/9
           9 3
        19 3/9
           9 4
        19 4/9


Years
           9 5
        19 5/9
           9 6
        19 6/9
           9 7
        19 7/9
           9 8
        19 8/9
           9 9
        20 9/0
           0 0
        20 0/0
           0 1
        20 1/0
           0 2
        20 2/0
           0 3
        20 3/0
           0 4
        20 4/0
           05 5
                                                                                           Exported dates values evolution




             /0
               6
     Irrigation practice history in oases
   13rd century : the sharing of waters has been established by
    “Ibn Chabat”.
   1903 : Mr. T.H.Kearney had visited Jerid, to study local date
    palm varieties. Some studies on climate and irrigation
    techniques followed.
   1907 : artesian well forages were undertaken and new oases
    are created.
   1957 : it counted 75000 date palms, irrigated from the source
    of Ras El Aïn, with 100l/s.
   2006 : the palms number evolved toward 2.282.000, thanks to
    a big program of water resource mobilization.
            Exported water balance
Table 3 : Valorization of one m3 of water

              Water needs      Yields T/ha   Equivalent in
              m3/ha                          m3/T


Dates         12000 (Irrigation 12           1000
              de surface
              améliorée)
Olives        6000             10            600

Olive oil     6000             2             3000
Valorization of the exported m3 of water

     3.5

      3

     2.5

      2
                                                                                         Olive
Dt




                                                                                         Dattes
     1.5

      1

     0.5

      0
           1996   1997   1998   1999   2000   2001    2002   2003   2004   2005   2006

                                              Years
 Water resources and demands

           Agricultural development

     Overexploitation of underground water

Piezometry decreasing and artesianism gets lost.

          Pumping and more energy
Irrigations management in oases
   Irrigation performance and its technical
    efficiency is related to :
     the irrigation network and the hydro agricultural
      amenities nature in the parcel
     the nature of soil and its features
     used irrigation techniques and their restraint
     the perception of water problems economy or water
      loss by the irrigators
     the agrarian and fundamental structures and the
      impact of the property partition on the irrigations
      efficiency.
            Saltiness constraint

Weak depth of the       Strong              Strong
   water plan         dry residual        evaporation


                    Increase the salt
                       concentration
                     dissolved in water
                      Soil salinity

                    Weak crops yields
                 Actions to take

 Rehabilitation of salted soils by drainage
 and integrating leaching needs in irrigation;

                 Salted water use according to the type of soil.

Selection of tolerant varieties to salt
presenting an economic interest;

               Fertilization in saline environment;

Brackish water desalination
and the use of solar energy.
           Conclusion (1)
 Irrigation in oases is confronted to

Natural resources, in water and in soil, rare and
  fragile of the point of view quality.




   Agriculture is facing opportunities that can
   present a more and more demanding,
   aggressive and globalized market.
            Conclusion (2)
The exam of exported water quantities
            through dates

If the m3 of water is sold around 0.030Dt, it brings
      back directly by dates more than 2 Dinars.




       This m3 of water brings back a lot more
    than the 2Dt, if one considers all appendices
                  activities in oases
                     Perspectives (1)
   To continue the water economy program, in order to improve
    the hydraulic service and to increase again irrigation efficiencies.
   To decrease water losses to all levels of its production, its
    mobilization and its application to the parcel.
   To come with the agriculturist in methods and means of
    irrigation piloting.
   To promote again to more the numbering and the volumetric
    rating.
   To stop extensions that already touch to a fragile resources -
    demands balance.
   Improvement of drainage systems and conditions.
   Generalized control of the soil saltiness, following irrigation
    conditions
   promotion of the reuse of the drainage waters.
   to increase the intensification in oases, especially in winter and
    with a tariff that is already relatively low.
                    Perspectives (2)
   to integrate more again adapted raising to oases, in particular
    ovine.
   formation and framing of the different water actors in oases
   the framing by the formation in particular, of GICs and especially
    of the staff in direct contact with the water management.
   popularization actions must be reviewed, while taking account of
    the new context of participative water management.
   popularization actions must touch all dates chain.
   to continue to refine, by research, water needs on stacked cultures
    in oases.
   Indicators development of irrigated oasian system evolution.
   this survey can be to the origin of a convenient plan that
    guarantees efficiency and durability objectives of oasian systems
    in Tunisia.
    Thank you
for your attention

								
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