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The Maghreb region and development gap


									  The Maghreb region and
     development gap

Understanding the key terms, policies
          and processes
What’s it all about?
 Key questions
 • What are the physical features/ limitations to the region?
            - Water scarcity
            - Desertification
 • What is an eco-region? What is the nature of biodiversity?
 • What are the human limitations to the region?
 • Is there a development gap between the 5 countries?
 • Is there a development gap between the Maghreb and Europe?
 • What links does the Maghreb have to Europe?
 • What are the global groups involved?
            - AMU Arab Maghreb Union
            - GAFTA
            - Union for the Mediterranean
            - Community of Sahel- Saharan States
 •What policies/ debt relief schemes are in place to reduce the development gap?
            - HIPC
 •Is tourism growing in North Africa?
            - What is the link to UNESCO 28 world heritage sites?
            - How does tourism vary between the 5 countries?
            - Can tourism help to close the development gap?
 * How do people feel about the region?
What are the physical features of the region?

   There are five countries that make up the Maghrebwater
    The Maghreb region has a major problem with
   region. These countries are physically very similar. All
    scarcity. There are no rivers in four of the five
    countries. A lack of fresh the Mediterranean or the
   have coastlines, either onto water supplies poses a
    technological All share a providing fresh water.
   Atlantic Ocean. problem towater scarcity problem.
    Technological water
   Synoptic link = fix synoptic link
What are the climatic/ ecosystem zones?

What are the physical features of the region?

  The Maghreb region is vulnerable to desertification.
  Northern Morocco, Algeria, Lybia and Tunisia are
  vulnerable to desertification.

  What has caused desertification in the region?

  Synoptic link = water scarcity
What is an eco-region? What is the nature of biodiversity?

  An ecoregion is small change in ecosystem. The Maghreb
  is divided into a Mediterranean climate region in the north,
  and the arid Sahara to the south.

  The Magreb's variations in elevation, rainfall, temperature,
  and soils give rise to distinct communities of plants and

  The World Wide Fund for Nature (WWF) identifies several
  distinct eco-regions in the Maghreb.
  Synoptic link = Biodiversity
What are the human limitations?

  Desertification is a big problem to the people who live
  there. It has been caused partially by human actions. (See
  information sheet).
  Synoptic link = biodiversity/ water scarcity

  There are a number of human limitations that hold these
  countries back in terms of development. A lack of money,
  food insecurity, technological innovation among other
  problems causes a development gap between the Maghreb
  and Europe.

  Synoptic link = all topics
What is the nature of the region?
   The Maghreb region shares many commonalities e.g.
   Religion (Islam) and colonial heritage. Shortly after WWII
   the region gained independence. (Synoptic link = super powers)
   Since gaining independence there have been many
   conflicts. (Synoptic link = superpowers) In 1989 the five
   countries set up the AMU to try and establish economic
   and political union very like the EU to try and pull the
   countries together.
What is the nature of farming in the Maghreb?

Growing food to eat and to sell is the        Country          Description
most common living system in North                             wheat, barley, oats, grapes,
Africa. As you can see from the               Algeria          olives, citrus, fruits; sheep,
following chart, each North African                            cotton, rice, corn, wheat,
country grows specific crops that fit         Egypt
                                                               beans, fruits, vegetables;
                                                               cattle, water buffalo, sheep,
their climate regions. These crops are                         goats
both commercially farmed for export                            wheat, barley, olives, dates,
and family farmed for consumption. In         Libya            citrus, vegetables, peanuts,
                                                               soybeans; cattle
mountainous regions crops are grown                            barley, wheat, citrus, wine,
in terraces on steep slopes. The rock         Morocco
                                                               vegetables, olives; livestock
terraces hold what little soil is available                    olives, olive oil, grain, dairy
                                                               products, tomatoes, citrus
and also trap rain and irrigated water        Tunisia
                                                               fruit, beef, sugar beets, dates,
around the crops. In lower elevations,                         almonds
large farms use tractors, sprinkler                            fruits and vegetables (grown
                                              Western Sahara   in the few oases); camels,
systems and other technology that                              sheep, goats (kept by nomads)
looks similar to farms you’ve seen in
Canada and the U.S.
What is the nature of development in the region?
   The Maghreb region is under pressure and is being pulled
   in different directions. (Synoptic link = super powers)
   • GAFTA – to create a free trade bloc spanning Arab world
   • Union for Mediterranean proposed in 2007 by French
   Government, pulls the region towards Europe.
   • African Union (except Morocco)
   • Community of Sahel-Saharan States (except Algeria) to
   create a free trade area across Northern Africa.

      It is clear that the region is under economic and political
          turmoil, in some areas are on the edge of economic
           growth, but the region is being pulled in different
         directions causing both tension and instability in the
What are the barriers to development?

   • Terrorism association e.g. Al Qaeda especially in Algeria
   • Women lacking in education, and independence stuck at
   • High male youth unemployment
   • Dependence on some exports e.g. Oil for Algeria and Iron
   Ore for Mauritania
What is being done to close the development gap?

   • Top down approach: reducing the external debt with the
   help of debt relief initiatives such as HIPC and improving
   prices for commodities such as oil.
   • Economic migrants moving to Europe, send home money
   which improves economy. (ADV: brings money in, DISAD:
   brain drain – loss of workers)
   • Diversification of their economy to Tourism
Why is tourism an opportunity for economic growth?

  • Close to Europe – large market available
  • Great holiday climate, varied landscape, history and
  • 28 heritage sites as designated by UNESCO between all
  5 countries
What else does Vision 2010 involve?

   As part of the Vision was the building of 6 coastal resorts
   much like those in Egypt around the dead sea. These will
   be called Plan Azur. Investment will also be placed in the
   cultural centres. These 6 centres are areas of the coast
   identified as areas of outstanding natural beauty.

   To gain Global investment and in particularly European
   investment and markets, Morocco has signed an open ksy
   agreement with the EU in 2006.
Is 2010 working?

   As part of the Vision was the building of 6 coastal resorts
   much are underway.
   • Tax incentives are offered to overseas buyers
   • New motorways
   • Airport expansion
   • Intellectual property: patent applications increasing,
   growth in tourism is causing a growth in innovation and
   design. (technological fix synoptic link)
   • Land prices have increased, and house prices have
   increased in cities like Tangiers and Marrakesh. Growth of
   international buyers.
What are the views to development in the Maghreb?

1. Leap Local website (not          Money from tourism often leaves the country
supportive of tourism as a way to
help close the gap)
2. Journalists New York Times       Terrorism is a security threat to Europe and will affect
(suggest that Terrorism and Al      tourism in the region.
Qaeda is a threat to European
3. Climate change report WWC        Raises concerns over the pressure water is under due to
2009. World Water Council           exploitation etc. Could be an issue for a growing tourism
                                    industry e.g. Morocco

4. Journalist France 24 News        Describes the desire for the French govt to build
website 2008                        economic and political links with Algeria and Tunisia on
                                    energy projects – perhaps seeking energy security.
5. IMF 2005                         To gain development the region needs to have stability
                                    with policies
6. African Union 2009               Common markets, and increased trade within Africa will
                                    help create economic growth.
      Range of possible questions

1.    Explain why there are limitations to the economic growth of the Maghreb region (12 marks)
2.     Assess the contribution that tourism could make the economic and social development of Morocco
      (14 marks)
1.    Identify the environmental barriers to development. Explain how these will affect the economic and social
development of the region. (14 marks)
2.    Assess the extent to which tourism can bridge the development gap for Morocco (10 marks)
3.    Explain the role of global groupings in the development of the Mahreb               (10 marks)
4.    Evaluate the human and physical barriers to development in the Maghreb              (18 marks)
5.    Assess the extent to which tourism could have a negative impact environment (10 marks)

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