VIEWS: 34 PAGES: 18 POSTED ON: 8/19/2011
The Maghreb region and development gap Understanding the key terms, policies and processes What’s it all about? Key questions • What are the physical features/ limitations to the region? - Water scarcity - Desertification • What is an eco-region? What is the nature of biodiversity? • What are the human limitations to the region? • Is there a development gap between the 5 countries? • Is there a development gap between the Maghreb and Europe? • What links does the Maghreb have to Europe? • What are the global groups involved? - AMU Arab Maghreb Union - GAFTA - Union for the Mediterranean - Community of Sahel- Saharan States •What policies/ debt relief schemes are in place to reduce the development gap? - HIPC •Is tourism growing in North Africa? - What is the link to UNESCO 28 world heritage sites? - How does tourism vary between the 5 countries? - Can tourism help to close the development gap? * How do people feel about the region? What are the physical features of the region? There are five countries that make up the Maghrebwater The Maghreb region has a major problem with region. These countries are physically very similar. All scarcity. There are no rivers in four of the five countries. A lack of fresh the Mediterranean or the have coastlines, either onto water supplies poses a technological All share a providing fresh water. Atlantic Ocean. problem towater scarcity problem. Technological water Synoptic link = fix synoptic link What are the climatic/ ecosystem zones? http://exploringafrica.matrix.msu.edu/teach ers/curriculum/m16/activity1.php What are the physical features of the region? The Maghreb region is vulnerable to desertification. Northern Morocco, Algeria, Lybia and Tunisia are vulnerable to desertification. What has caused desertification in the region? Synoptic link = water scarcity What is an eco-region? What is the nature of biodiversity? An ecoregion is small change in ecosystem. The Maghreb is divided into a Mediterranean climate region in the north, and the arid Sahara to the south. The Magreb's variations in elevation, rainfall, temperature, and soils give rise to distinct communities of plants and animals. The World Wide Fund for Nature (WWF) identifies several distinct eco-regions in the Maghreb. Synoptic link = Biodiversity http://www.tititudorancea.com/z/maghreb.htm What are the human limitations? Desertification is a big problem to the people who live there. It has been caused partially by human actions. (See information sheet). Synoptic link = biodiversity/ water scarcity There are a number of human limitations that hold these countries back in terms of development. A lack of money, food insecurity, technological innovation among other problems causes a development gap between the Maghreb and Europe. Synoptic link = all topics What is the nature of the region? The Maghreb region shares many commonalities e.g. Religion (Islam) and colonial heritage. Shortly after WWII the region gained independence. (Synoptic link = super powers) Since gaining independence there have been many conflicts. (Synoptic link = superpowers) In 1989 the five countries set up the AMU to try and establish economic and political union very like the EU to try and pull the countries together. What is the nature of farming in the Maghreb? Growing food to eat and to sell is the Country Description most common living system in North wheat, barley, oats, grapes, Africa. As you can see from the Algeria olives, citrus, fruits; sheep, cattle following chart, each North African cotton, rice, corn, wheat, country grows specific crops that fit Egypt beans, fruits, vegetables; cattle, water buffalo, sheep, their climate regions. These crops are goats both commercially farmed for export wheat, barley, olives, dates, and family farmed for consumption. In Libya citrus, vegetables, peanuts, soybeans; cattle mountainous regions crops are grown barley, wheat, citrus, wine, in terraces on steep slopes. The rock Morocco vegetables, olives; livestock terraces hold what little soil is available olives, olive oil, grain, dairy products, tomatoes, citrus and also trap rain and irrigated water Tunisia fruit, beef, sugar beets, dates, around the crops. In lower elevations, almonds large farms use tractors, sprinkler fruits and vegetables (grown Western Sahara in the few oases); camels, systems and other technology that sheep, goats (kept by nomads) looks similar to farms you’ve seen in Canada and the U.S. What is the nature of development in the region? The Maghreb region is under pressure and is being pulled in different directions. (Synoptic link = super powers) • GAFTA – to create a free trade bloc spanning Arab world • Union for Mediterranean proposed in 2007 by French Government, pulls the region towards Europe. • African Union (except Morocco) • Community of Sahel-Saharan States (except Algeria) to create a free trade area across Northern Africa. It is clear that the region is under economic and political turmoil, in some areas are on the edge of economic growth, but the region is being pulled in different directions causing both tension and instability in the region. What are the barriers to development? • Terrorism association e.g. Al Qaeda especially in Algeria • Women lacking in education, and independence stuck at home • High male youth unemployment • Dependence on some exports e.g. Oil for Algeria and Iron Ore for Mauritania What is being done to close the development gap? • Top down approach: reducing the external debt with the help of debt relief initiatives such as HIPC and improving prices for commodities such as oil. • Economic migrants moving to Europe, send home money which improves economy. (ADV: brings money in, DISAD: brain drain – loss of workers) • Diversification of their economy to Tourism Why is tourism an opportunity for economic growth? • Close to Europe – large market available • Great holiday climate, varied landscape, history and culture • 28 heritage sites as designated by UNESCO between all 5 countries What else does Vision 2010 involve? As part of the Vision was the building of 6 coastal resorts much like those in Egypt around the dead sea. These will be called Plan Azur. Investment will also be placed in the cultural centres. These 6 centres are areas of the coast identified as areas of outstanding natural beauty. To gain Global investment and in particularly European investment and markets, Morocco has signed an open ksy agreement with the EU in 2006. Is 2010 working? As part of the Vision was the building of 6 coastal resorts much are underway. • Tax incentives are offered to overseas buyers • New motorways • Airport expansion • Intellectual property: patent applications increasing, growth in tourism is causing a growth in innovation and design. (technological fix synoptic link) • Land prices have increased, and house prices have increased in cities like Tangiers and Marrakesh. Growth of international buyers. http://www.moroccoproperty1.com/morocco-vision-2010.php http://www.wipo.int/wipo_magazine/en/2006/04/article_0006.html What are the views to development in the Maghreb? Views 1. Leap Local website (not Money from tourism often leaves the country supportive of tourism as a way to help close the gap) 2. Journalists New York Times Terrorism is a security threat to Europe and will affect (suggest that Terrorism and Al tourism in the region. Qaeda is a threat to European security) 3. Climate change report WWC Raises concerns over the pressure water is under due to 2009. World Water Council exploitation etc. Could be an issue for a growing tourism industry e.g. Morocco 4. Journalist France 24 News Describes the desire for the French govt to build website 2008 economic and political links with Algeria and Tunisia on energy projects – perhaps seeking energy security. 5. IMF 2005 To gain development the region needs to have stability with policies 6. African Union 2009 Common markets, and increased trade within Africa will help create economic growth. Range of possible questions 1. Explain why there are limitations to the economic growth of the Maghreb region (12 marks) 2. Assess the contribution that tourism could make the economic and social development of Morocco (14 marks) 1. Identify the environmental barriers to development. Explain how these will affect the economic and social development of the region. (14 marks) 2. Assess the extent to which tourism can bridge the development gap for Morocco (10 marks) 3. Explain the role of global groupings in the development of the Mahreb (10 marks) 4. Evaluate the human and physical barriers to development in the Maghreb (18 marks) 5. Assess the extent to which tourism could have a negative impact environment (10 marks)
"The Maghreb region and development gap"