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LEARNING

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LEARNING Powered By Docstoc
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• Second level
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• Third level LEARNING
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                                      1 1
    Click to LEARNING style
                   edit Master title
    Click to edit Master is, it continually
First, consumer learning is a process; thattitle style
evolves and changes as a result of newly acquired knowledge
•(which may be gained from reading,styles
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• Second level
 thinking) or from actual experience. Both newly acquired
  • Second experiences serve as feedback to the
 knowledge and level
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individual and provide the basis for future behavior in similar
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situations. level
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 The definition makes clear that learning results from acquired
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•knowledge and/or experience. This qualification distinguishes
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 learning from instinctive behavior, such as suckling in infants.




                                                              2 2
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                   Master
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 If motives serve to stimulate learning, cues are the stimuli that
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 give direction to those motives. An advertisement for a tennis
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 camp may serve as a cue for tennis buffs, who may suddenly.
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“ recognize” that attending tennis camp is a concentrated way
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 to improve their game while taking a vacation. The ad is the
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 cue, or stimulus, that suggest a specific way to satisfy a salient
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 motive. In the marketplace, price, styling, packaging,
  • Fifth and store displays all serve as cues to help
 advertisinglevel
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 consumers fulfill their needs in product-specific ways.


                   Cue for being a soccer player



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               RESPONSE
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How individuals react to a drive or cue -- how they behave --
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constitutes their response. Learning can occur even if
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responses are not overt. The automobile manufacturer who
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provides consistent cues to a consumer may not always succeed
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in stimulating a purchase, even if that individual is motivated to
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buy. However, if the manufacturer succeeds in forming a
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favorable image of a particular model in the consumer’s mind,
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when the consumer is ready to buy, it is likely he or she will
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consider that make or model.




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           REINFORCEMENT
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Reinforcement increase the likelihood that atitle style
will occur in the future as the result of particular cues or stimuli.
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If a college student finds that an advertised brand of headache
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tablets has enabled him to get through exam week relatively
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unscathed, he is more likely to buy the advertised brand in
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advance of the next exam period. Clearly, through
    • Third , learning has taken place, since the tablets lived
reinforcementlevel
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up to expectations. On the other hand, if the headache tablets
 • not helped the
had Fifth level first time, the student would be less likely to
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buy them again, despite extensive advertising or store display
cues for the product.

          YOU WILL DO ANYTHING FOR A POSITIVE REWARD


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     BEHAVIORAL LEARNING
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             THEORIEStitle style
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   Early classical conditioning theorists regarded all
• Click to edit Master and human) as relatively
   organisms (both animal text styles
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                    Master be taught certain
• Secondentities
   passive level
 • Second through repetition (or “conditioning”). In
   behaviors level
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 • everyday speech, the word conditioning has come to
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• Fourth level “knee-jerk,” or automatic, response
   mean a kind of
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   to a level
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   you get a headache every time you think of visiting
   your Aunt Tilled, your reaction may be conditioned
   from years of boring visits with her.

                                                     6 6
   MODELS OF CLASSICAL
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         CONDITIONING
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      Unconditioned Stimulus :

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          Meat paste

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                                           Unconditioned Response :
                                                    (UR)

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                                                Saliyation

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      Conditioned Stimulus :
             (CS)

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             Bell

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 • Fifth level                             Conditioned Response :
      Conditioned Stimulus :
                                                   (CR)
             (CS)
             Bell                              Salivation




                                 A Model
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   MODELS OF CLASSICAL
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         CONDITIONING
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      Unconditioned Stimulus :
          Dinner aromas

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• Third level                              Unconditioned Response :
                                                 Saliyation

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      Conditioned Stimulus :

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        Six o’clock news

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                                             Conditioned Response :
      Conditioned Stimulus :
                                                 Salivation
       Six o’clock news




                                 B Model
                                                                      8 8
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 COGNITIVE ASSOCIATIVE LEARNING
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• 1. CS SHOULD PRECEDE THEtext styles
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  2. REPEATEDlevel Master text styles
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  3. CS AND US level
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  4. CS IS NOVEL AND UNFAMILIAR
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STRATEGIC APPLICATIONS OF CLASSICAL CONDITIONING
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REPETITION
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    ADVERTISING WEAR OUT A B C D 1 2
                                     style
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            SUBSTANTIATIVE/COSMETIC
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STIMULUS GENERALISATION
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      ME TOO level
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      FAMILY
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      PRODUCT LINE/FORM/CATEGORY EXTENSION
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      LICENSING
      LOOK
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            level
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      REINFORCEMENT OF CONSUMPTION
      GENERALISING USAGE SITUATIONS
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STIMULUS DISCRIMINATION

     POSITIONING AND PRODUCT DIFFERENTIATION


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INSTRUMENTAL OR OPERANT CONDITIONING (SKINNER)
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TRIAL AND ERROR PROCESS

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FAVORABLE BUYING EXPERIENCE (REWARD) REPEAT BEHAVIOUR

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POSITIVE REINFORCMENT        NEGATIVE REINFORCEMENT
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LAKME FACE                   SLIPPERS


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SHAMPOO                      TRAVELER’S CHEQUE
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BODY DEODORANT               TOILET AD HARPIC
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CHOCOLATE                    BAD BREATH

BIKE • Fifth level           WRINKLED ANKLE

Relationship Marketing
RELATIONSHIP SCHEDULES COULD BE CONTINUOUS,FIXED RATIO, VARIABLE OR RANDOM/CASINOS
•SHAPING
•FORGETTING AND EXTINCTION
•TIMING BASED LEARNING MECHANISM FOR MEDIA PEOPLE
•MASSED (MORE INITIAL)V/S DISTRIBUTED (LASTING LONGER)LEARNING
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     NEGATIVE APPEAL
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                                      12 12
  NEGATIVE TURNED POSITIVE
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                                      13 13
         COMPONENTS OF OBSERVATIONAL
                   LEARNING
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               Vicarious Learning
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    • Click toRETENTION
ATTENTION       edit Master PRODUCTION MOTIVATION
                            text styles A situation
  • Second The consumer PROCESSES
The consumer level
    • Secondretains this
focuses on      level       The consumer    arise where
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model’s        behavior in
                            has the ability the behavior
                            to perform the  is useful to
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behavior       memory
  • Fourth level            behavior        The consumer

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    • Fifth level            OBSERVATION LEARNING
                               The consumer acquires and
                               performs a behavior earlier
                               demonstrated by a model.


                                                             14 14
 COGNITIVE LEARNING THEORY
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Not all learning takes place as the result of repeated trials. A
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• Secondamount of learning takes place as the result of
considerable level
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consumer thinking and problem solving. Sudden learning is
• Third level confronted with a problem, we sometimes
also a reality. When
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• Fourth level
see the solution instantly. More often, however, we are likely
to•search for information on which to base a decision, and
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• Fifth evaluate what we learn in order to make the best
carefully level
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decision possible for our purpose. Learning based on mental
activity is called cognitive learning.




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       INVOLVEMENT THEORIES
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 • Left Brain (Active) Cognitive, Verbal Audio, Visual, Classical conditioning
    Third level ) Experiential,
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   Right Brain ( Passive
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  ClickSOCIAL JUDGMENT THEORY style
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The central premise of social judgment theory
•is Clickan individual’s processing of information
    that to edit Master text styles
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 about an issue is determined by his or her
•involvement with the issue. Individuals who are
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 involved level
• Third highly with an issue and have a
 strong or definite opinion about it will accept
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•very few alternative opinions (i.e they will have a
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 narrow latitude of acceptance and a wide
•latitudelevel
    Fifth of rejection). This leads to narrow
  • Fifth level of Brands versus broad
 categorization
categorization for low involvement products.



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 The elaboration likelihood model (ELM)
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 suggest that a person’s level of involvement
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 during message processing is a critical factor in
 determining which route to persuasion is likely
•to be effective. Master text styles message
   Click to edit For example, as the
  • Click more personally relevant (as
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• Second level
  • Second increases), people are increasingly
 involvement level
•willing to expand the cognitive effort required to
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 process the message arguments. Thus, when
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 involvement is high, consumers follow the
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•central route (EPS) and base their
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 attitudes/choices on the message arguments.
 When involvement is low, they follow the
 peripheral route (LPS) and rely more heavily
 on other message elements (e.g., background
 music) to form attitudes or make product
 choices.                                           18 18
                 Master AND RESEARCH INSTITUTE
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                    Master AND RESEARCH INSTITUTE
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      ESCORTS HEART AND RESEARCH INSTITUTE


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                                           20 20
      BRAND LOYALTY AND BRAND EQUITY
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As straightforward as it may seem, brand loyalty is not
    simple concept. A basic issue among researchers
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  is whether to define the concept in terms of
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 •consumer behavior of consumer attitudes. To
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  cognitive learning theorists, behavioral
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definitions (e.g.., frequency of purchase or proportion
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 •ofFourth level
     total purchases) lack precision, since they do
   • distinguish between the “real” brand-loyal buyer
  notFourth level
 •who is intentionally faithful, and the spurious brand-
    Fifth level
   • Fifth level repeats a brand purchase because it
  loyal buyer who
   is the only one available at the store.
It could be for product, service or place.

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Such theories say that brand loyalty must be
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measured by attitudes text styles
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One study measured brand loyalty in three
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different ways:
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•Brand market share,
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•The number of same-brand purchases in a
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 six-month period, and
•The average number of brands bought per
 buyer.

                                            22 22
    Drivers fro brand title style
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• Consumer drivers (Personal degree of risk
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  •aversion or variety seeking)
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• Second level
• •Brand Drivers (Brand’s reputation and
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  •availability
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• Fourth drivers ( group influencers)
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    – No loyalty
  • – Covetous loyalty
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  – Inertia loyalty
  – Premium loyalty
                                         23 23
  PERCENTAGE OF USERS OF THESE PRODUCTS
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       WHO ARE LOYAL TO ONE BRAND
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 CIGARETTES    71% SHAMPOO        44%
• MAYONNAISE
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                    65%   SOFT DRINK         44%
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                    61%   TUNA FISH
• COFFEE level 58%
   Second                    44%
  • Second level 56% GASOLINE
• HEADACHE REMEDY
   Third level               39%
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  FILM              56%
• BATH SOAPlevel
   Fourth           53%   UNDERWEAR
                             36%
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  KETCHUP           51%
• LAUNDRY DETERGENT 48% TELEVISION
   Fifth level                              35%
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  BEER              48%
                          TIRES             33%
                         BLUE JEANS         33%
 AUTOMOBILE        47%
                         BATTERIES          29%
 PERFUME          46%
                         ATHLETIC SHOES     27%
 PET FOOD         45%
                         CANNED VEGETABLE   25%
                         GARBAGE BAGS       23%24 24
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