Professor Dick Heller - School of Medicine - University of Manchester by pengxiuhui

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									          Population Health Evidence
           On-line Distance Learning
                 Programmes

                 STUDENT HANDBOOK
                       2005/6



Programme Director: Professor Dick Heller
Programmes Administrator: James Draper

Evidence for Population Health Unit
Division of Epidemiology and Health Sciences
School of Medicine
Faculty of Medical and Human Sciences
The University of Manchester
Tel: +44 (0) 161 275 1648
Fax: +44 (0) 161 275 7712
E-mail: mphe.admin@manchester.ac.uk
Website: www.mphe.man.ac.uk

Updated October 2005 by Vicky Clarke, James Draper and Arpana Verma.




                                               1
CONTENTS

INTRODUCTION ........................................................................... 4

EXCITING NEW DEVELOPMENTS .............................................. 5

PUBLIC HEALTH GRAND ROUNDS ............................................ 5

GENERAL INFORMATION ........................................................... 6
  Programmes and Divisional Structure ...................................................... 6
  Primary Contacts ........................................................................................ 6
  Learning Resources ................................................................................... 6
  Programmes Staff ....................................................................................... 7
    Administrative Staff ......................................................................................................... 7
    Web Development Team .................................................................................................. 7
    Academic Staff and Course Unit Leaders ...................................................................... 8


PROGRAMME OF STUDY ......................................................... 10
  Programme Aims and Learning Outcomes ............................................ 10
    Aims ................................................................................................................................. 10
    Learning outcomes ........................................................................................................ 10
    Specific Learning outcomes ......................................................................................... 10
  Philosophy of the Programme ................................................................. 11
    Evidence .......................................................................................................................... 11
    Skills ................................................................................................................................ 11
    Self-directed study ......................................................................................................... 11
    Implications..................................................................................................................... 11
  Course Unit Codes .................................................................................... 12
  Core Units .................................................................................................. 12
  Programme Timetable .............................................................................. 12

STUDENT PROGRESS .............................................................. 13
  Registration ............................................................................................... 13
  Fees and Sponsorship ............................................................................. 13
  Residential ................................................................................................. 13
  Participation Requirements ..................................................................... 14
  Pre-Requisite IT Skills .............................................................................. 14
  Equipment Required ................................................................................. 14
    PC Hardware ................................................................................................................... 14
    Software .......................................................................................................................... 14
    Apple Mac users ............................................................................................................. 15
    Browsers ......................................................................................................................... 15
    Statistical Software ........................................................................................................ 15
  Accreditation of Prior Learning (APL) ..................................................... 15
  Special Circumstances ............................................................................. 15
  Interruption of Studies ............................................................................. 16
  Withdrawal from Studies .......................................................................... 16
  Intercalating Undergraduate Medical Students ...................................... 16
  Public Health Trainees and Professionals .............................................. 16
  Progressing from PHPD to CPHe, DPHe or MPHe ................................. 17



                                                                    2
ASSESSMENT............................................................................ 18
  Methods of Assessment ........................................................................... 18
  Assignment Submission .......................................................................... 18
  Assessment Criteria ................................................................................. 18
  Plagiarism .................................................................................................. 19
  Failure of Assignments and Course Units .............................................. 19
    Resits ............................................................................................................................... 19
    Compensation of Marks................................................................................................. 20
  Extensions ................................................................................................. 20
  Late Submissions ..................................................................................... 20
  Assignment Feedback .............................................................................. 21
  Appeals ...................................................................................................... 21
  Publication of Results .............................................................................. 21
  Graduation ................................................................................................. 21

LEARNING RESOURCES .......................................................... 22
  On-line Skills and Resources................................................................... 22
  Library Resources .................................................................................... 22
  Student Identity Card ................................................................................ 22
  Books ......................................................................................................... 22
  Technical Support..................................................................................... 22

SUPPORT AND GUIDANCE....................................................... 24
  Student Services Centre .......................................................................... 24
  Health and Safety ...................................................................................... 24
  Security...................................................................................................... 24
  Equal Opportunities .................................................................................. 25

QUALITY ASSURANCE: STUDENT REPRESENTATION AND
 FEEDBACK .............................................................................. 26
  Student Representation ........................................................................... 26
  Student Representatives 2005/6 .............................................................. 26
  Student Feedback ..................................................................................... 26

DISSERTATION .......................................................................... 27

APPENDICES ............................................................................. 28
  Appendix 1: Confirmation of Receipt of Handbook ............................... 29
  Appendix 2: Course Units ........................................................................ 30
  Appendix 3: Statement of Own Work ...................................................... 31
  Appendix 4: Special Circumstances Form ............................................. 32
  Appendix 5: Referencing Guidelines ...................................................... 33
  Referencing for Assignments .................................................................. 33
    Referencing example ..................................................................................................... 33
    References ...................................................................................................................... 34




                                                                    3
INTRODUCTION

September 2005:

Welcome to the Evidence for Population Health Unit and to our Population Health Evidence
on-line distance learning programmes.

These postgraduate courses are for all those interested in acquiring skills and competencies
required for an evidence-based approach to population health. Therefore, participants are
drawn from a variety of backgrounds such as: Public Health Physicians and Specialists
(medical and non-medical), Primary Care Workers, Clinicians wanting to develop
research/evidence-based practice / governance skills, General Practitioners, Medical and
Nursing and other para-medical young graduates, Health Promotion Professionals,
Community Development Workers, Community Nurses, Health Visitors/Midwives, Community
Health Doctors and Dentists, Environmental Health Officers, Health Service Managers,
Nutritionists, Social Workers, Town Planners and many more professions.

The MPHe is the first on-line public health masters programme in the UK and a flagship on-
line programme at the University of Manchester. You will benefit from the advantages of web-
based delivery such as increased flexibility and control over the timing of your learning. This
will be aided by simple navigation and links both within course material and to the vast
amount of resources now available on the World Wide Web.

Our programmes were developed by a team experienced in the delivery of distance learning
and the production of web-based material. Development of the course was informed by
consultation with a wide range of practitioners in public health, dentistry, medicine, health
promotion, nursing and other health professions and involved collaboration with experts from
many departments within the University of Manchester and other universities. The
programmes emphasise a self-directed approach, and encourage participation and discussion
between students and tutors through on-line discussion boards and collaborative exercises.

We hope this handbook will provide you with most of the information you will require to
progress with your studies. Every effort has been made to provide you with the most up to
date and accurate information, however, some minor details might change during the course
of your studies. All changes and additions will be brought to your attention. Please
complete the 'Confirmation of Receipt' of this Handbook (Appendix 1) and return as
instructed on the form.

If you have any queries or comments, or would like to contact us for advice and guidance on
any issues, please do not hesitate to get in touch. You can call us on +44 (0) 161 275 1648 or
e-mail on mphe.admin@manchester.ac.uk.

On behalf of the Evidence for Population Health Unit (EPHU) may I wish you an enjoyable
and successful time on your chosen programme.

Dick Heller.
Professor Dick Heller
Programme Director
Professor of Public Health
Head of the Evidence for Population Health Unit




                                              4
EXCITING NEW DEVELOPMENTS
There have been several new developments with the current MPHe over the last few months,
which will ensure the continued success and expansion of the Masters programme. The first
of these changes to come into effect in 2006 will be the change in name from Masters in
Population Health evidence (MPHe) to Masters in Public Health (MPH). Students currently
enrolled on the MPHe will be able to choose whether they graduate with the Masters in
Population Health Evidence or the Masters in Public Health award. In addition, new course
units are being developed in Health Protection and Health Promotion which will be available
from January 2006 and September 2006.

The MPH will also combine forces with the Division of Primary Care here at the University of
Manchester. In addition, for those wishing to develop more in-depth research skills to prepare
for a research career or a PhD, we are developing a Masters of Research (MRes). This will
be in both Public Health and Primary Care and will involve fewer Course Units and a more
extensive Dissertation. This partnership will expand the range of subjects and build upon our
extremely popular Masters programme.

Keep an eye on our website www.mphe.man.ac.uk for updates and further details.




PUBLIC HEALTH GRAND ROUNDS
All students and their guests are invited to take part in the Public Health Grand Rounds,
further details of which can be accessed via: http://www.phgr.man.ac.uk/default.htm.




                                              5
GENERAL INFORMATION

Programmes and Divisional Structure

There are four programmes within the MPHe:

MPHe: Masters in Population Health Evidence (8 course units plus a dissertation)
DPHe: Postgraduate Diploma in Population Health Evidence (8 course units)
CPHe: Postgraduate Certificate in Population Health Evidence (4 course units)
PHPD: Population Health Professional Development (individual course units)

These programmes are run by the Evidence for Population Health Unit which is located in the
University as follows:

University of Manchester > Faculty of Medical and Human Sciences > School of Medicine >
Division of Epidemiology and Health Sciences > Evidence for Population Health Unit.

Professor Alan Silman is currently the Head of the Division of Epidemiology and Health
Sciences. Professor Dick Heller is the Head of the Evidence for Population Health Unit.


Primary Contacts

Programme Director: Professor Dick Heller

Programmes Administrator: James Draper
Tel: +44 (0) 161 275 1648
Fax: +44 (0) 161 275 7712
E-mail: mphe.admin@manchester.ac.uk
        james.b.draper@manchester.ac.uk

MPHe Admissions Assistant: Helen Anderton
Tel: +44 (0) 161 275 1635
Fax: +44 (0) 161 275 7712
E-mail: helen.anderton@manchester.ac.uk

You can contact us Monday-Friday, 9am-5pm, UK local time.


Learning Resources
As you are enrolled on a web-based programme, lecture theatres and educational space
issues will not be relevant to you. However, you might be attending tutorial sessions and
other education events in the School and therefore it is necessary to mention such issues.
Tutorials and residential components will be used for explanation and interaction rather than
content delivery and therefore do not fall in the category of lectures.

The MPHe is entirely web-based with a high degree of student-led learning through
interactive exercises to test understanding built into the web-based teaching materials, and
exercises and assignments involving seeking out and retrieving information from a range of
web-based resources.

There will be opportunities for student-student and student–tutor interaction through dedicated
e-mail discussion groups. There will be web-based course material with links to external web
resources such as reports, academic papers, other teaching materials and case studies.

Information on how to access and use on-line learning resources will be given at the initial
residential at the end of September and is also available in the “Resources for Residential



                                              6
and On-line Learning” area of our website. You can access further details by clicking into:
http://www.mphe.man.ac.uk/RegStudentInfo.htm

For Information on Library resources, please visit the John Rylands University Library
webpage, accessible via the following link: http://www.library.manchester.ac.uk/



Programmes Staff

Administrative Staff


Name, Title and Contact Details

James Draper
Programmes Administrator
Tel: +44 (0)161 275 1648
E-mail: james.b.draper@manchester.ac.uk
Webpage: http://www.ephu.man.ac.uk/STAFF/James%20Draper.htm
Helen Anderton
MPHe Admissions Assistant
Tel: +44 (0)161 275 1635
E-mail: helen.anderton@manchester.ac.uk

Vicky Clarke
EPHU Unit Administrator and PA to Professor Heller
E-mail: vicky.clarke@manchester.ac.uk


Jo Hewitt
Secretary to Dr David Baxter
E-mail: joanne.hewitt@manchester.ac.uk




Web Development Team


Name, Title and Contact Details

Alison Humphrey
MPHe Web Developer and Distributed Learning Facilitator
Tel: +44 (0)161 275 1608
E-mail: alison.humphrey@manchester.ac.uk


Stewart Taylor
E-Learning Officer
Tel: +44 (0) 161 275 1609
E-mail: stewart.taylor@manchester.ac.uk




                                             7
Academic Staff and Course Unit Leaders


Name, Title and Course Unit

Professor Dick Heller
Programme Director, Professor of Public Health and Head of EPHU
Course Unit Leader: CY6121: Evidence for Population Health
E-mail: dick.heller@manchester.ac.uk

Dr Tony Akobeng
Course Unit Leader: CY6041: Evidence Based Practice
E-mail: anthony.akobeng@manchester.ac.uk

Dr David Allen
MPHe Course Development Specialist
Course Unit Leader: CY6081/CY6082: Health Service Management
E-mail: mphe.admin@manchester.ac.uk
Dr Bob Barrell
Course Co-ordinator
Course Tutor: CY6052: Communicable Disease Control – UK Approach
                CY6342: Communicable Disease Control – Middle East Approach
E-mail: robert.barrell@manchester.ac.uk
Dr David Baxter
Lecturer in Public Health Medicine
Course Unit Leader: CY6161: Major Incident Management 1
                      CY6162: Major Incident Management 2
                      CY6052: Communicable Disease Control – UK Approach
                      CY6342: Communicable Disease Control – Middle East Approach
E-mail: joanne.hewitt@manchester.ac.uk
Dr Rebecca Craven
Lecturer in Dental Health, School of Dentistry
Course Unit Leader: CY6222: Dental Public Health
E-mail: rebecca.c.craven@manchester.ac.uk

Linda Davies
Reader and Director of Health Economics Research
Course Unit Tutor: CY6092: Health Economics
E-mail: linda.davies@manchester.ac.uk

Professor Aneez Esmail
Professor of General Practice
Course Unit Leader: CY6151/2: Patient Safety and Clinical Risk Management
E-mail: aneez.esmail@manchester.ac.uk

Emily Fargher
Training Fellow in Health Economics
Course Unit Leader: CY6092: Health Economics
E-mail: emily.fargher@manchester.ac.uk
Dr Islay Gemmell
Research Fellow
Course Unit Leader: CY6001: Introduction to Epidemiology and Biostatistics
                     CY6102: Advanced Biostatistics
E-mail: islay.gemmell@manchester.ac.uk




                                         8
Dr Alan Gillies
Programme Director: Institute of Public Health Research (Salford)
Course Tutor: HI4003/CY6261: Qualitative Methodology for Health Research
                HI4001/CY6272: IT for Health Research
E-mail: tfarrell@uclan.ac.uk
Dr Roger Harrison
Honorary Senior Fellow
Course Unit Tutor: CY6121: Evidence for Population Health
Course Unit Leader: CY6122: Evidence for Population Health
E-mail: roger.harrison@manchester.ac.uk
Dr Keith Haynes
Medical Protection Society
Course Unit Tutor: CY6151/2: Patient Safety and Clinical Risk Management
E-mail: Annys.Cole@mps.org.uk

Professor Rajan Madhok
Consultant in Public Health, South Manchester PCT
Course Unit Tutor: CY6041: Evidence Based Practice
E-mail: rajan.madhok@manchester.ac.uk

Dr Peter Nicklin
Medical Protection Society
Course Unit Tutor: CY6151/2: Patient Safety and Clinical Risk Management
E-mail: Annys.Cole@mps.org.uk
Andrew Rogers
Course Development Advisor
Course Unit Leader: CY6021: Health Promotion and Prevention Theory and Methods
                     CY6032: Health Promotion and Prevention Topics
                     CY6072: Working with Communities
E-mail: andrew.rogers@manchester.ac.uk

Dr John Sandars
Course Unit Leader: CY6062: Action Research
E-mail: mphe.admin@manchester.ac.uk


Dr Selwyn St Leger
Course Unit Leader: CY6112: Advanced Epidemiology
E-mail: mphe.admin@manchester.ac.uk

Dr Arpana Verma
Clinical Lecturer
Academic Co-ordinator for Intercalating Medical Students and Public Health Trainees
Course Unit Leader: CY6131/2: Designing a Research Study
E-mail: arpana.verma@manchester.ac.uk




                                          9
PROGRAMME OF STUDY

Programme Aims and Learning Outcomes
Aims

The aim of the programme is to provide the skills of population health sciences to those of
you working in the health field and to enable you to contribute to improving the health of the
population by understanding the use of and utilising for yourselves an evidence based
approach to health problems.

The specific aims of the individual programmes are:

Certificate:   To provide basic skills of how to use the population sciences to access and
assess evidence. (4 course units – 60 credits)

Diploma:         To provide the skills of a „user‟ of Public Health research methods in the
context of applying evidence to inform health policy. (8 course units – 120 credits)

Masters:         To provide the skills to be able to perform research in the Public Health field
that can inform health policy and that might form the basis of future research development. (8
course units + dissertation - 180 credits)

Learning outcomes

       Assess evidence that underlies health practice
       Develop a population focus to health issues
       Develop research skills necessary to research and answer population health
        questions (to be able to collect evidence)
       Understand the processes of, and contribute to, health policy decision making.

Specific Learning outcomes

On completion of the masters programme you will be able to demonstrate competencies in:

       Surveillance and assessment of the population‟s health and well-being (including
        managing, analysing and interpreting evidence)
       Promoting and protecting the population‟s health and well-being
       Understanding quality and risk management within an evaluative culture
       Collaborative working for health
       Developing health programmes and services for reducing inequalities
       Policy and strategy development and implementation
       Working with and for communities
       Strategic leadership for health
       Research and development
       Ethically managing self, people and resources (including education and continuing
        professional development)

Those of you that complete either the certificate or diploma will be expected to have met a
sub-set of these objectives, the mix depending on their own professional requirements. These
10 items are adapted from the 10 core Public Health competencies detailed by the Faculty of
Public Health Medicine.




                                              10
Philosophy of the Programme

Evidence

Developing skills in the collection, synthesis and implementation of evidence is central to this
programme. Each Course Unit will be based on this approach wherever possible, and will use
the evidence cycle as it applies to the population as a theme.




This can be summarised             as:   collection,   synthesis   (and/or    appraisal),   and
implementation/application.


Skills

The programmes emphasise the acquisition of skills so that you can put into practice what
you learn. Many MPH courses teach attitudes and knowledge, while our emphasis will be
more focussed on the development of skills to use in professional life. These skills will also
translate into the ability to perform and appraise research projects as well as passing the
professional examinations set by the Faculty of Public Health.


Self-directed study

The programmes encourage self-directed study around clearly identified learning outcomes
for each course unit rather than the provision of lectures or just web based lecture notes.


Implications

The implications of 2 & 3 are that the course will largely involve active learning methods using
case-scenarios, exercises etc in a problem-based approach. Hence examples and exercises
will use real-world examples from appropriate settings e.g. from primary/secondary care,
public health practice, etc.




                                              11
The programmes include a visionary aspect, so course units will cover the latest
developments in the field and possible future directions.


Course Unit Codes

Each of our taught course units is worth 15 credits at masters level. The dissertation is worth
60 credits. Please note that course unit codes that end in a 1 are semester one units, course
unit codes that end in a 2 are semester two units, and course unit codes that end in 0 run all
year long.


Core Units

Some of our programmes have compulsory core units.

MPHe: three core units. CY6001 „Introduction to Biostatistics and Epidemiology,‟ CY6041
„Evidence Based Practice,‟ and CY6131/2 „Designing a Research Study.‟ Please note that
students must complete and pass CY6001 and CY6041 before doing CY6131/2. If you are a
full time student, this means you will have to take CY6131/2 in the second semester.

DPHe: two core units. CY6001 „Introduction to Biostatistics and Epidemiology‟ and CY6041
„Evidence Based Practice.‟

CPHe and PHPD: no core units, although if you wish to proceed from these programmes to
the DPHe or MPHe, you will have to take the core units as above.


Programme Timetable

The programme timetable can be accessed via the following link:
http://www.mphe.man.ac.uk/programmetimetable05_06.doc.




                                              12
STUDENT PROGRESS

Registration

This year we have introduced a new electronic application and registration system.

Prior to the start of each academic year, you will be sent an e-mail attached to which will be a
PDF registration form and an instruction letter with links to an on-line confirmation and
declaration form. You will be asked to check through the details and to complete the on-line
form. Part of this will involve selecting your course unit choices and indicating if you will be
submitting your dissertation this academic year.

Once they have submitted the on-line form, new students will be directed to a webpage where
they can self-register for University of Manchester, WebCT and Athens login usernames and
passwords.


Fees and Sponsorship
Once you have submitted your on-line form and selected your course units, your fees due will
be calculated and you will be sent an e-mail directing you to the Student Services Centre to
arrange payment. Sponsored students will be asked to obtain letters from their sponsors,
which should be on company/institution letterhead, include the student‟s full name and
programme title, and should indicate the amount to be paid (i.e. the full cost of the
programme, or another specified amount) and payment specifications (i.e. direct debit details
or an invoice address). These letters should be sent directly to MPHe administration in the
first instance.

Access to on-line course materials and other University of Manchester resources may be
prohibited or withdrawn if fees arrangements are not completed in full. It is the responsibility
of individual students to co-ordinate payment of their fees and the University of Manchester
cannot be held liable for sponsorship failures. Late registration and/or fees payment may
result in additional charges.

All fees issues are dealt with by the Student Services Centre. Contact details for the SSC can
be accessed via: http://www.campus.manchester.ac.uk/ssc/contactus/.


Residential
The MPHe programme hosts a two day residential at the beginning of each semester.
Timetables are published on the website well in advance via:
http://www.mphe.man.ac.uk/Residential/Sep2005/ResidentialTimetableSep05.doc.

The residentials are designed to orient students to all aspects of the on-line course and they
are great opportunities to meet staff and other students. Our web-development team will be
on hand to demonstrate how our on-line resources work, and will also be available on the day
and afterwards by telephone and e-mail to provide further technical support.

Attendance for new students is strongly recommended. Those unable to attend should access
and work through the exercises in the Resources for Residential and On-line Skills area on
the MPHe website: http://www.mphe.man.ac.uk/Prospectus/OLS_mpheskills/Intro.htm.




                                              13
Participation Requirements

As this is a web-based programme, physical attendance at the University is not required.
Participation in the on-line discussion boards is monitored. Students who fail to participate
without accepted extenuating circumstances may be contacted by Course Unit Leaders and
subject to penalties. For some course units, contributions to discussion boards will be credited
with marks.


Pre-Requisite IT Skills
We ask you to ensure (by attending formal training courses if necessary) that you are familiar
with the basics of:
     Using a personal computer, including Microsoft Software, particularly Microsoft Word.
     Using the internet as an aid to study, including bookmarking, saving and storing web-
         based material, and communicating via e-mail.
     Using a web-based search engine to search a clinical database (e.g. PubMed).
     Previous experience in using WebCT software is not necessary, but a willing to learn
         new packages is essential.
See “Technical Support” below for further details.


Equipment Required

PC Hardware

You should make sure you have, or have regular access, to a Windows PC (or Windows
compatible PC) with the following minimum specification:

Pentium-based PC, recommended 64MB RAM
Soundcard and headphones /speakers
24 x CD ROM drive
56kbs or greater Internet connection
Access to printer

This is the minimum specification you do not need a high spec. (expensive) computer to do
this course. However, if you can get access to a broadband (ADSL) internet connection it will
significantly improve the download times for web pages.


Software

The specification of software needed for a Windows PC used for your access to the on-line
course is: Microsoft Internet Explorer version 6.0. and above, or Netscape 7.0.
If you have any initial problems, we recommend that you do the WebCT browser tune-up -
please refer to: http://www.webct.com/tuneup Adobe Acrobat Reader.

A statistical package is required for the core course unit CY6001 “Introduction to Biostatistics
and Epidemiology.” We recommend that students use StatsDirect and will inform them how to
purchase this once the course starts. However, if students wish to use SPSS or STATA we
have no objection.




                                              14
Apple Mac users

We regret that we cannot offer support for Apple Macs, and while we can offer the following
advice, we cannot accept responsibility for the performance of the web based materials on an
Apple Mac.


Browsers

If you are running Mac OS 9.x and above, you should be able to access the course materials
in WebCT through Microsoft Internet Explorer 5.2 and above, or Netscape 7.0. For further
information, please refer to the WebCT Browser Tune Up page at:
http://www.webct.com/tuneup


Statistical Software

Biostatistics:
Stata is available for Macs.
Stats Direct may run on a Mac in Virtual Windows but we have not tested it.

Communicable Disease Control Course Unit:
Epi Info does not run on a Mac. The Epi Info website states that it may be run in Virtual
Windows but we have not tested it. Please refer to the following web page for further details:
http://www.cdc.gov/epiinfo/Epi6/ei6faq.htm#mac
If you are a Mac user and you plan to do the CDC course unit, please contact your course
unit leader if you have any queries about using Epi Info.


See “Technical Support” below for further details.


Accreditation of Prior Learning (APL)
A student may be permitted to receive an award of credits on the basis of demonstrated
learning that has occurred at some point in the past. The award of credits can be based upon
learning for which certification has been awarded by an educational institution or another
education/training provider, or uncertificated learning gained from experience.

All APL applications will be approved in line with the University‟s overall policy on the award
of APL as follows:

i)      The MPHe will allow a maximum of 60 APL credits.            APL credits cannot count
        towards the dissertation.

ii)     The DPHe will normally allow a maximum of 30 APL credits.

iii)    The CPHe and PHPD scheme do not allow any APL credits.

If you wish to gain APL, please contact the Programme Administrator for further guidance.
You will be asked to apply in writing, to provide evidence of prior learning, and to indicate
which MPHe course units your prior learning is to be accredited in place of. A full list of MPHe
course units can be accessed via: http://www.mphe.man.ac.uk/Prospectus/Structure.htm.

Students who have completed units on the PHPD scheme who progress to the CPHe, DPHe
or MPHe will have those units automatically accredited to their new programme.


Special Circumstances



                                              15
Any student who, during the course of the year, experiences any special circumstances which
may have an adverse effect on their academic performance should complete the form in
appendix 4, below.


Interruption of Studies
If for any reason you would like to take a break part way through your programme, you can
apply to interrupt your studies. Please contact the Programmes Administrator for further
guidance. You will asked to apply in writing giving full details of the reasons for interruption
and indicating the length of interruption required.


Withdrawal from Studies

If for any reason you would like to withdraw from your studies, please contact the
Programmes Administrator for further guidance. You will be asked to give notification of your
withdrawal in writing, and may be invited to speak to a member of academic staff before your
withdrawal is processed. Please note that you may be liable for part or whole of the tuition
fees due and/or an administrative charge if you decide to withdraw once teaching has started.



Intercalating Undergraduate Medical Students
Each year we welcome a number of undergraduate medical students onto the MPHe
programme. These students take the MPHe while intercalating in the fourth year of their
undergraduate studies, and are awarded with the masters degree when they obtain their
undergraduate qualification. Intercalating students who wish to take the MPHe should contact
                                                                      st
the MPHe Programmes Administrator for application details before 31 August.

Further details can be downloaded via:
http://www.mphe.man.ac.uk/Prospectus/IntercalatingStudents.htm.


Public Health Trainees and Professionals

The MPHe is a unique web-based masters programme where trainees and professionals can
choose from over 20 different areas in public health. The course has been designed and
reviewed to help trainees and professionals gain the relevant knowledge in which to underpin
their careers in public health. The course unit leaders have ensured that the Faculty of Public
Health‟s competencies and syllabus for examinations is covered in the variety of modules
available for study.

Assessment is through assignments that are set by individual course unit leaders and there
are no written examinations.

As the course is web-based, trainees can work from home or their place of work, providing
that they have a PC and internet access. All pieces of work are submitted electronically.
There is an on-line discussion board which allows interaction between other students and the
tutors which is open 24 hours a day, 7 days a week. This allows flexible learning, peer
support and tutorial guidance. There is also an active students‟ forum.

Despite the course being web-based, other interactions are also supported e.g. residentials
at the University of Manchester, teleconferencing facilities and on-line discussions through
MSN Messenger.

To obtain a Masters degree (MPHe), you will need to complete 8 course units and a
dissertation. However, all trainees will have complete access to all available course units to



                                              16
help them prepare for the Faculty examinations. The “Designing a Research Study” course
unit allows trainees to plan their dissertation with advice from tutors who are experienced in
research methodology, statistical, management and ethical approval advice. This allows the
prior planning of the dissertation. Each trainee will be given a dissertation supervisor to
guide them through the dissertation process.

Help is also available through MPHe staff for preparation for the Part A and new OSPHE
Faculty examinations. This is facilitated through having access to all the course units and
tutorials held once a month on topics chosen by the trainees.

98% of current students said that they would recommend the course to others.
92% of current students said that it was relevant to their career.

“The MPHe allowed me to work when and how I wanted from home. There was excellent
supervision and feedback through the discussion boards as well as individually from the
course unit leaders. The materials were relevant and up to date. I have learnt skills that I can
now put into practice.” Student 2004

The MPHe team has ensured that their web- based masters programme is a state of the
art e-learning package that allows flexibility and high-quality teaching on regularly
updated materials. This gives public health trainees the best possible start to complete
the examinations and start their careers in public health.

For further details on the MPHe programme, please contact the Programmes Administrator:
mphe.admin@manchester.ac.uk.

For information on Public Health Training issues, please contact Arpana Verma:
arpana.verma@manchester.ac.uk.

Further information can be accessed via:
http://www.mphe.man.ac.uk/Prospectus/PHTdoc.htm




Progressing from PHPD to CPHe, DPHe or MPHe

If you have completed course units on the PHPD scheme and would like to progress to the
CPHe, DPHe or MPHe programme, you must contact the Programmes Administrator before
   st
31 August. You will be asked to complete a form and will be sent an electronic registration
pack, which will include a new student registration number. Please ensure that you follow
the instructions sent to you and register for new WebCT and Athens usernames and
passwords using your new registration number. Your old PHPD account will be deactivated.
Course units that you have completed on the PHPD scheme will be accredited to your new
programme (see Accreditation of Prior Learning, above).




                                              17
ASSESSMENT


Methods of Assessment
We have described in each course unit outline the mix of self-assessment and marked
assessment expectations. The assessment will be closely linked to the learning outcomes of
each course unit. Factual knowledge is assessed by self-assessment assignments/quizzes.
The marks from these self-assessments are purely for feedback purposes, and are not made
available to course unit tutors. Marked assignments will focus on the ability to synthesise and
implement knowledge. There are no formal examinations, as all work is assessed by essay
type assignments.            Please refer to individual course units for details:
http://www.mphe.man.ac.uk/Prospectus/Structure.htm


Assignment Submission

All coursework assignments should be completed in Microsoft Word or Rich Text format and
submitted via the WebCT postboxes. Full details of how to submit an assignment in WebCT
are given in course unit material and can be found in our on-line Skills and Resources at the
following link:
http://www.mphe.man.ac.uk/Prospectus/OLS_mpheskills/Intro.htm.

All submitted coursework must be accompanied by a completed “Statement of Own Work,” a
template of which can be found in appendix three of this handbook. Coursework submitted
without a completed appendix three will not be accepted. Submission of an appendix
three is taken to indicate that students have read and understood the relevant terms and
conditions.


Assessment Criteria

Pass marks for individual assignments, individual course units and overall programme
averages are as follows:

DPHe, CPHe and PHPD: 40% (Please note that if you wish to proceed from these
programmes to the MPHe, you will need to pass all course units with 50% or more.)

MPHe: the MPHe is marked in accordance with the University‟s Masters regulations as below:


BAND                MARKING CRITERIA
                    Descriptor
                    EXCELLENT (allows award of distinction)
90% - 100%
                    Exceptional work, nearly or wholly faultless for that expected at Masters
                    level.

                    EXCELLENT (allows award of distinction)
80% - 89%
                    Work of excellent quality throughout.

                    EXCELLENT (allows award of distinction)
70% - 79%
                    Work of very high to excellent quality showing originality, high accuracy,
                    thorough understanding, critical appraisal, and very good presentation.
                    Shows a wide and thorough understanding of the material studied and
                    the relevant literature, and the ability to apply the theory and methods



                                              18
                    learned to solve unfamiliar problems

                    GOOD PASS
60% - 69%
                    Work of good to high quality showing evidence of understanding of a
                    broad range of topics, good accuracy, good structure and presentation,
                    and relevant conclusions. Shows a good knowledge of the material
                    studied and the relevant literature and some ability to tackle unfamiliar
                    problems.


                    PASS
50% - 59%
                    Work shows a clear grasp of relevant facts and issues and reveals an
                    attempt to create a coherent whole. It comprises reasonably clear and
                    attainable objectives, adequate reading and some originality.

                    DIPLOMA PASS, POTENTIALLY COMPENSATABLE FOR MASTERS
40% - 49%
                    Work shows a satisfactory understanding of the important programme
                    material and basic knowledge of the relevant literature but with little or no
                    originality and limited accuracy. Shows adequate presentation skills with
                    clear but limited objectives, and does not always reach a conclusion.

                    FAIL, POTENTIALLY COMPENSATABLE FOR DIPLOMA
30% - 39%
                    Work shows some understanding of the main elements of the programme
                    material and some knowledge of the relevant literature. Shows a limited
                    level of accuracy with little analysis of data or attempt to discuss its
                    significance

                    FAIL
20% - 29%
                    Little relevant material presented. Unclear or unsubstantiated arguments
                    with very poor accuracy and understanding.

                    CLEAR FAIL
0 - 19%
                    Work of very poor quality containing little or no relevant information.


Plagiarism
Plagiarism is intellectual theft and is taken very seriously. For the University‟s policy on
plagiarism, please go to the following webpage:
http://www.campus.manchester.ac.uk/staffnet/policies/plagiarismguidencetostudents/.


Failure of Assignments and Course Units
If you fail an assignment or entire course unit, you will be offered the opportunity to resubmit
work, or to cross compensate your marks where possible:

Resits

If you are resubmitting work, it will be counted as a resit. The maximum mark you can obtain
for a resit is the pass mark (50% for MPHe students; 40% for CPHe, DPHe and PHPD
students). This mark will represent your overall mark for the entire course unit.




                                               19
Students can resit a maximum of three course units.


Compensation of Marks

A compensated pass for the failure of individual course units can be applied if the following
conditions apply:

MPHe: overall mean mark for the programme is 50% or higher, student has passed the three
core units (CY6001 „Introduction to Epidemiology and Biostatistics,‟ CY6041 „Evidence Based
Practice,‟ CY6131/2 „Designing a Research Study‟), student has failed no more than two
units, mark to be compensated is 40% or higher.

DPHe: overall mean mark for the programme is 40% or higher, student has passed the two
core units (CY6001 „Introduction to Epidemiology and Biostatistics‟ and CY6041 „Evidence
Based Practice‟), student has failed no more than two units, mark to be compensated is 30%
or higher.

CPHe: overall mean mark for the programme is 40% or higher, student has failed no more
than two units, mark to be compensated is 30% or higher.

PHPD: compensation cannot be applied to course units taken as part of the PHPD scheme,
although if PHPD units are to be accredited to a full programme of study later, the above rules
apply.



Extensions
All coursework deadline extension requests should be submitted directly to James Draper,
Programmes Administrator. Please provide as much detail as possible (name, student
registration number, course unit, assignment, reason for extension request) and be assured
that all information will be treated confidentially.

Please send extension requests to James via the following e-mail address:
mphe.admin@manchester.ac.uk. Please do not submit extension requests via WebCT.

Extensions will be granted at the discretion of individual Course Unit Leaders or the
Programme Director. Students are permitted a maximum extension of one week. If you
need longer, you will be offered the opportunity to resubmit coursework during the resit
period, with the possibility of obtaining full marks (i.e. the maximum mark for resits would not
apply in these circumstances).

See also the section “Support and Guidance” below.


Late Submissions
Assessments HANDED IN LATE WITHOUT PRIOR APPROVAL shall be subject to the
following penalties:

       late by up to 72 hours: 10% of the total possible mark should be forfeit;

       late by more than 72 hours and less than one week: 25% of the total possible mark
        should be forfeit;

       late by one week: no marks awarded.




                                              20
Assignment Feedback
Marks and general feedback (e.g. a model answer or details of common errors) will be
published on WebCT by Course Unit Leaders approximately three weeks after the
assignment deadline. Some Course Unit Leaders may offer more detailed individual feedback
at a later date.


Appeals

Regulations for student complaints and appeals are provided in the University‟s General
Regulations, XVII and XIX respectively. These can be accessed via the following link:
http://www.manchester.ac.uk/medialibrary/governance/generalregulations.pdf


Publication of Results
After the internal and external examinations boards have been held at the end of the
academic year, and once all marks have been ratified and processed, students will be sent an
e-mail with a full breakdown of their marks so far. Students who are eligible for resits or
compensation, and MPHe students who are on track for a mark of distinction, will also be
contacted by e-mail.


Graduation
All students who successfully complete the CPHe, DPHe or MPHe programme are invited,
along with their guests, to attend a graduation ceremony. Further details can be accessed via:
http://www.manchester.ac.uk/visitors/events/graduation/

All University of Manchester degree ceremonies are broadcast live on-line, and are also
stored on the University website. You can watch the July 2005 graduation ceremony by going
to the following link: http://www.manchester.ac.uk/visitors/events/graduation/2005/ and
                            th
clicking into “Wednesday 13 July, 2.30pm.”

Keep an eye on the University website for details of graduation ceremonies in December
2005, and July 2006.




                                             21
LEARNING RESOURCES


On-line Skills and Resources

Information on how to access various on-line resources can be found in On-line Skills and
Resources on the MPHe website:
http://www.mphe.man.ac.uk/Prospectus/OLS_mpheskills/Intro.htm


Library Resources
You can access details on how to use the John Rylands University Library‟s on-line and
archive resources via the JRUL website: http://www.library.manchester.ac.uk/


Student Identity Card
If you would like to obtain a University of Manchester student identity card, which will allow
you physical access to the JRUL, please ensure that you have completed the required
registration and fees payment procedures for the academic year, and then contact the
Student Services Centre: http://www.campus.manchester.ac.uk/ssc/. You will be asked to
provide a photograph of yourself – you can do this by visiting the SSC to have your picture
taken, or by submitting a passport-sized photograph electronically or through the post.


Books
Please refer to the book list on the MPHe website and identify the required reading for the
course units you are taking: http://www.mphe.man.ac.uk/BookList.htm.

It is possible to order the books through the following on-line bookshops:

Blackwell‟s University Bookshop: http://bookshop.blackwell.co.uk/bobuk/scripts/welcome.jsp

John Smith Medical Bookshop: http://www.johnsmith.co.uk/corporate/

Amazon: www.amazon.co.uk or www.amazon.com.


Technical Support
If you are experiencing problems with WebCT, please refer to the instructions in on-line skills
and resources in the first instance:
http://www.mphe.man.ac.uk/Prospectus/OLS_mpheskills/Intro.htm

If you require further assistance, you can contact the Faculty of Medical and Human Sciences
IT Service Desk:
Tel: +44 (0) 161 275 1111
itservicedesk.mhs@manchester.ac.uk

Alternatively, you can contact:

MPHe e-learning Officer: Stewart Taylor
Tel: +44 (0) 161 275 1609
E-mail: mphe.techsupport@manchester.ac.uk
        stewart.taylor@manchester.ac.uk



                                              22
Stewart is available Monday-Friday, 9am-5pm, UK local time.

Please note that queries and support needs for accessing on-line library resources should be
directed to the JRULM Helpdesk: http://www.library.manchester.ac.uk/help/ask/.

On the University campus, there are large open access PC Clusters at the John Rylands
University Library, the Stopford Building, Coupland 3 and Manchester Computing. These are
open at weekends. If you wish to the use any of the pn-campus machines, you will need to
log in using the same username and password that you use to log into WebCT. If you have
any queries about this, please contact the Faculty of Medical and Human Sciences IT Service
Desk (contact details above).

Further information about the computing and IT services offered by the University of
Manchester, including basic computer training courses, can be found on the Manchester
Computing website: http://www.itservices.manchester.ac.uk/.




                                            23
SUPPORT AND GUIDANCE

Course Unit Leaders, Course Unit Tutors, the Programmes Administrator and Programme
Director are all on hand to support and guide you while you are going through your
programme of study. If you have any queries or would like to discuss any issues at all –
academic, administrative, technical or personal – please do not hesitate to get in touch. All
personal issues will be dealt with confidentially.

Contact details for all Evidence for Population Health Unit staff can be found above.

If we are unable to help you directly, we can put you in touch with many of the support
services that are available to students of the University through our Student Services Centre.
You can approach these services independently, without the involvement of MPHe staff.


Student Services Centre

Tel: +44 (0) 161 275 5000
E-mail: ssc@mancheseter.ac.uk

You can contact the SSC for the following:

Counselling Service.
„Nightline‟ – confidential listening service.
Disability Support (including learning difficulties and ill health).
Careers Service.
International Student Welfare.
Mature Student Welfare.
Student Parent Welfare.
Gay, Lesbian, Bisexual and Transgender Student Welfare.
Societies for religious groups.
English language skills.
Tuition fees and student money.
Examinations, awards and graduation guidelines.
University policies.
Official transcripts.
Students Union.

Full contact details for the Student Services Centre can be accessed via:
http://www.campus.manchester.ac.uk/ssc/contactus/.

A full list of University Student Support Services can be accessed via:
http://www.campus.manchester.ac.uk/studentexperience/a2z.htm.


Health and Safety

If you are going to be visiting the University campus for any purpose, please take time to read
the University‟s Health and Safety Policy before doing so. This can be accessed via:
http://www.campus.manchester.ac.uk/healthandsafety/CoPs&Guidance/Policy%20statement,
%202005-6.doc.


Security

If you are going to be visiting the University campus for any purpose, please note that neither
the Evidence for Population Health Unit nor the University of Manchester can be held
responsible for your personal property. Please keep your belongings with you at all times.



                                                  24
Items left unattended may be removed and destroyed or damaged without warning by
University Security Services.


Equal Opportunities
In conformity with the general intention of the University‟s charter, the Evidence for Population
Health Unit confirms its commitment to a comprehensive policy of equal opportunity for
students and prospective students in its admissions policy, in all aspects of teaching and
examining, in its counselling of students and in the way it affords access to any of its benefits,
facilities and services. The aim of the policy is to ensure that no student or prospective
student receives less favourable treatment directly or indirectly on the grounds of race,
nationality, ethnicity, gender, sexuality, marital or parental status, disability, creed, political
belief or social or economic class. The Code of Practice for complaints represents EPHU‟s
commitment to a programme of action to make these policies fully effective.




                                                25
QUALITY ASSURANCE: STUDENT REPRESENTATION AND
FEEDBACK


Student Representation
Each year, we ask students to volunteer for the role of student representative. Student
representatives play a vital and important part in helping us to maintain and improve the
quality of the services and programmes that we provide.

The role of a student representative has three aspects:
    to liaise between staff and students on matters of concern to either side;
    to provide two-way feedback on the course and on teaching quality;
    to promote active student involvement in course development.

Communication between students and their representatives usually takes place in the Student
Lounge which will be available in On-line Skills and Resources in WebCT (members of
programme teaching staff do not have access to the Student Lounge, so students are able to
communicate their concerns anonymously). Student Representatives may wish to provide
other students with further contact details. Representatives should alert the Programmes
Administrator of any issues that arise.

Student representatives are also invited to speak confidentially to our external examiner at the
end of the academic year, and to participate in our end of year course review meetings.
Representatives can participate by attending meetings in person or by teleconference.
Representatives will be asked to feedback information from these meetings to the other
students.


Student Representatives 2005/6
Maria Ahmed
Michael Evans-Brown
Maria Gedde
Bernard Lukwago


Student Feedback
Your feedback is part of an ongoing process of programme and course unit assessment. At
the end of each semester you will be asked to complete an on-line evaluation questionnaire
for each course unit you have taken. At the end of each academic year, you will be asked to
complete a general evaluation for your overall programme of study.

A member of research staff will circulate your feedback to the unit leaders in a form that
cannot identify individual responses, assuring anonymity. Your feedback is extremely
important not only for programme quality assurance but also to the University in meeting the
requirements of external quality assessment. Summaries of student feedback will be
published on the MPHe website.




                                              26
DISSERTATION
Please see the MPHe dissertation handbook for further details:
http://www.mphe.man.ac.uk/Prospectus/Downloads/Dissertaion%20Handbook2004.doc.




                                        27
APPENDICES




             28
Appendix 1: Confirmation of Receipt of Handbook


FACULTY OF MEDICAL AND HUMAN SCIENCES

CONFIRMATION OF RECEIPT OF PROGRAMME HANDBOOK

All students are required to send us the following declaration.


I have received a copy of the programme handbook, containing information on the content,
delivery, assessment and management of the course. I have read and understood the
University of Manchester‟s regulations on plagiarism.

I agree that any assessed coursework submitted throughout the academic year will include no
plagiarism as defined by the University. I have also noted the grading criteria and pass mark
for assignments and the dissertation as relevant to my chosen programme of study.


Name: (IN BLOCK CAPITALS)
……………………………………………………………………………….………

Signed:
       ………………………………………………………………………………………….

Programme:
      …………………………………………………………………………………………..

Date:
          ………………………………………………………………………………………….

Student ID/Registration Number:

---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- ------




PLEASE COMPLETE AND RETURN TO JAMES B DRAPER AS SOON AS POSSIBLE, via
the Essential Requirements on-line orientation or by fax to:

Fax: +44 (0) 161 275 7712




                                                             29
Appendix 2: Course Units

A list of available MPHe course units can be accessed via the following link:
http://www.mphe.man.ac.uk/Prospectus/Structure.htm.




                                              30
Appendix 3: Statement of Own Work

Evidence for Population Health Unit, Division of Epidemiology and Health Sciences

STATEMENT AND CONFIRMATION OF OWN WORK

regarding the programme of:-

……………………………………………………………………………

All submitted work must have this form as the cover/first page. Please
include this form as part of a standard format to submit your work.
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
I have read and understood the University of Manchester‟s regulations on plagiarism.

I can state that the recently submitted coursework with the following details:

Student ID/Registration number:
       ………………………………………………………………………………………….

Title and code of course unit:
        ………………………………………………………………………………………….

Title of work (essay title):
         ………………………………………………………………………………………….

Course Unit Leader:
       ………………………………………………………………………………………….

Semester:
      ………………………………………………………………………………………….

Due Date:
       ………………………………………………………………………………………….

Number of words:
      ………………………………………………………………………………………….


is my own work and that I have not plagiarised any part of it. I have also noted the grading
criteria and pass mark for assignments and the dissertation.


Name: (IN BLOCK CAPITALS)
……………………………………………………………………………………..…
(this will be accepted as a signature but will be removed from the copy that the assessor
receives for marking.)

Submitted Date:
       ………………………………………………………………………………………….



Please include this in all submissions to the assignment postbox, in each of your chosen
course units.




                                                         31
Appendix 4: Special Circumstances Form



UNIVERSITY OF MANCHESTER
SPECIAL CIRCUMSTANCES FORM

This form should be completed by any student who, during the course of the year,
experiences any special circumstances which may have an adverse effect on their academic
performance. These could include: disability, prolonged ill-health, pregnancy, bereavement,
family problems, exceptional financial difficulties, accommodation problems or a traumatic
experience. Wherever possible, supporting documentary evidence should be supplied. The
information recorded on this form will be available at the meeting of the Board of Examiners,
and will be dealt with confidentially.

Student‟s Name: _______________________________________________________

Course:             _______________________________________________________

Year of Course (if relevant): __________________

Special Circumstances (these should be noted as briefly as possible. Any medical certificates
or other documentary evidence should be attached):




Period affected: _______________________________________________________


With the student’s consent, a more detailed account can be enclosed in a sealed envelope
marked ‘Confidential’ and addressed to the Programmes Administrator. The envelope should
be filed with this form.

Medical Certificate Attached Yes/ No

Confidential Report Attached Yes/ No

If applicable, a copy of this form and other non-confidential documentation should be sent to
the student‟s other departments.


Student‟s Signature _________________________________ Date ______________

Tutor‟s Signature    _________________________________ Date _____________




                                              32
Appendix 5: Referencing Guidelines


Referencing for Assignments
Referencing is an important skill of scholarly and scientific writing, and you will be expected to
demonstrate it in work submitted to your programme (assignments or the dissertation).

The aim of referencing at all is to enable the person reading your assignment to trace all the
information you quote by going back to your original sources. The idea is that each statement
of fact that you make or piece of information that you provide is attributed to a source which is
cited in the text so that the reader can look up the source in the reference list at the end of the
document.

The list of references at the end of your dissertation should follow one type of accepted
referencing system. For a brief description of the most commonly used systems please look
at http://rylibweb.man.ac.uk/guides/citations.pdf. The main two are to cite the author(s) and
date (Harvard system) or to cite each reference as a number in the text in the order in which
they occur (Vancouver system).

The research papers and books you have read will use these methods – e.g. the BMJ uses
the Vancouver system. An example using the Vancouver system is shown below. Either
system is okay. The important point is to be consistent and include all the details as required.
We recommend the Vancouver (or “numeric”) style (as specified by the BMJ).

Marks will be awarded for the quality of referencing within your assignments.

NOTE: In some disciplines it is the practice to provide a Bibliography which is a list of works
(e.g. books) read and recommended for further reading, but not necessarily specifically
referenced in the text. This is NOT the practice in our discipline. Moreover, your list of works
referred to should be headed “References” and NOT “Bibliography”.

Referencing example

Schools are an established setting for health promotion activity with the theoretical
advantages of influencing health related beliefs and behaviors early in the „health career‟
before they are established as adult patterns. Children in schools also represent a large
population (about 80% of children attend secondary schools in Cameroon), who are present
and hence accessible over prolonged periods, in a setting which is relatively sheltered and
where education and learning is the norm. Influencing children in their formative years, is a
potential mechanism for influencing the emerging culture and health beliefs of society. There
                                                           1;2
is increasing interest (and some effectiveness evidence       ) in the influence that health
promotion programs delivered in schools can have on the wider community and in involving
                                                                     3;4
families and communities in school-based health promotion programs .

Most research on the effectiveness of schools programs in promoting healthy behaviors
comes from developed countries, particularly the US, and suggest modest effects. Reviews
from a range of topic areas suggest the following:
Approaches incorporating the exploration of social norms, identifying peer pressures, and
skills training (e.g. refusal skills) may be more effective with evidence of at least a short term
         5-7
impact .

Programs implemented in a facilitative policy context may be more successful (e.g. smoking
                                                                        7
prevention programs in schools with comprehensive no-smoking policies)
Substantial interventions over several years relevant to students‟ level of cognitive
development and with adequate attention to resources and capacity building through teacher-
        8
training .

Most experts agree that simple information giving is not sufficient, and that successful health
education is characterized by efforts to increase self-efficacy; promoting self-reflection, self-


                                                33
awareness and autonomy; improve decision-making skills; and provide training in personal
       9
skills . Educationalists commonly advocate a spiral curriculum with learning experiences
                                                                                            10
appropriate to social and cognitive development of pupils, and the revisiting of topics . A
systematic review of studies of obesity prevention in children revealed few high quality studies
and equivocal evidence of effectiveness. Most studies were of interventions aimed at primary
school children and the strongest evidence was for strategies to reduce sedentary behaviour
                                 11
and increase in physical activity .

References

1.       Rahman A, Mubbashar MH, Gater R, Goldberg D. Randomised trial of impact of
school mental-heatlh programme in rural Rwalpindi, Pakistan. Lancet 1998;352:1022-5.
2.       Chang S, Xia W, Zhang S-Y, Xu S-M, Tang S-H, et al. Creating health-promoting
schools in China with a focus on nutrition. Health Promotion International 2004;19:409.
3.       St Leger L. What's the place of schools in promoting health? Are we too optimistic?
Health Promotion International 2004;19:405-8.
4.       Perez-Rodrigo C,.Aranceta J. Nutrition education in schools: experiences and
challenges. European Journal of Clinical Nutrition 2003;57 (suppl 1):S85.
5.       Health Education Authority. Health education with young people for the prevention of
substance misuse. London: 1997.
6.       Peersman G, Oakkley A, Oliver S, Thomas J. Review of effectiveness of sexual
health promotion interventions for young people. London: London Social Science Research
Unit, Insitute of Education, London University, 1996.
7.       Reid DJ, McNeill AD, Glynn TJ. Reducing the prevalence of smoking in youth in
Western countries: an international review. Tobacco Control 1995;4:266-77.
8.       St Leger L, Nutbeam D. Evidence of Effective Health Promotion in Schools. In:
Evidence of Health Promotion Effectiveness. Brussels: European Union, 1999.
9.       Aggleton P. Health promotion and young people. London: Health Education Authority,
1996.
10.      Tones K, Green J. Health promotion: planning and strategies. London: Sage, 2004.
11.      Campbell K, Waters E, O'Meara S, Kelly S, Summerbell C. Interventions for
preventing obesity in children. The Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 2002, Issue 2.
London: John Wiley and Sons, 2002.




                                              34

								
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