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Year 11 : Applied Science : Life care : Revision notes.

Complete these sheets as you go through the power point presentation. If at any
point you are unsure – ask !

Fitness centres and healthcare facilities.
    You need to be able to name 2 from you local area :

           Fitness centre                       Healthcare facility




      Describe the services these places provide ( e.g eye tests / swimming/ gym /
      antenatal checks.
   a) Fitness centre ………………………………………………………………………………………………
   …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………
   b) Healthcare facility.………………………………………………………………………………………
   …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………

The National Health Service
   You need to be able to describe the key features :
  
  
  
  
  

Describe title and roles :
A fitness practitioner : Job title = ……………………………………………………………………
Role = ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….
A Healthcare practitioner : Job title = .……………………………………………………………
Role = ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….

The advantages of regular contact between patient / client and practitioner:
Between health practitioners and patients :
   
   
   
Between fitness practitioners and clients:
   
   
   

The importance of education and health education
Some lifestyle choices that can lead to health issues are : …………………………………………….
…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………
Public information campaigns aim to ………………………………….and …………………………………….
people to adopt a safer and healthier lifestyle.

This will save money for the NHS in the long run because……………………………………………….
…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………

What does a health practitioner need to know before treatment begins ?
  
  
  
  
  
  
  

   Why is patient information needed before treatment / fitness regime starts ?
   Answers to questions are needed so that the ………………………..to the patient can be
   judged. If a fitness regime was started or treatment started before
   information about the patient was known there could be serious health
   implications.

   Why must patients medical / fitness information be stored ?
   
   
   

How is baseline data collected ?
1. Pulse rate : …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………
…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………..
2. temperature : ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………
…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………..
3. blood pressure: …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………
…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………..
5. body mass : ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………
6.aerobic fitness :…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………
………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….
7. gender : ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………
8. age : ……………………………….……………………………………………………………………………………………………

Calculate and interpret BMI
BMI=………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………
It gives information about whether somebody is …………………………………………….., at the
correct ………………………………… overweight or ……………………………………..



BMI=



Underweight person= ………………………………..
A person at healthy weight = ……………………………..
Overweight person =……………………………………
Obese person = …………………………………..

Vital signs equipment.
To measure body temperature you would use :……………………………………………………………
…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………
To measure blood pressure you would use :…………………………………………………………………….
To measure pulse rate you would use :………………………………………………………..……………………

Samples for analyses
Samples that can be taken are :
  
  
  
  
  
  

How to take a blood sample.
Write out the statements in the correct order:
      1.
      2.
      3.
      4.
      5.
      6.
Testing urine samples

            Test positive for                     Health indicator

nitrite                               Kidney damage

Protein                               Urinary tract infection

Glucose                               Pregnant

Hormone HCG                           diabetic

Samples and diagnoses

1. Urine
                diagnosis                   What is present in the urine
Diabetes
Pregnancy
Kidney damage / disease
Kidney / urinary system / bladder
disease



2.Blood
Can be used to diagnose :
   
   
   

Testing urine samples :
You have used 2 methods :
   1) Using benedict’s reagent.
   2) Using clinistix.

Advantages of using clinistix are ;
        
        
        
        
The ECG
ECG = ………………………………………………………………………………………………..
It is used to : ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………



Medical imaging techniques.
These are a ………………………………………………………….. way of seeing ……………………………….the
body. They provide……………………………………………………as well as
………………………………………………… information.

X-ray shows ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………..
Ultrasound shows ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….

Medical use of imaging techniques :

        method                              Medical use
         X-ray



      Ultrasound



       CT scan



       PET scan



       MRI scan




Vital signs : Interpreting information.

1. Body temperature.
     Normal = ……………… oC ….to……………………… oC
     Above 37.5oC we have a fever ………………………………….. this can be due to
      ………………………………….or ……………………………………………… and death occurs at
      temperatures above …………………………… oC.
     Below 37.5oC we have ……………………………………………….and death occurs at
      temperatures below …………………..oC
2. Pulse rate.
     Healthy adults = ……………………………..beats per minute.
     Higher than normal : …………………………………………………………………………………………………
    …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………..
     Weaker than normal : …………………………………………………………………………………………………
    …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………..

3. Blood pressure.
     Healthy = usually lower than ………………………mmHg
     Normal = usually about ……………………………mmHg



Treatments, risks and consent.
All treatments carry some ……………………………..Some treatments have ……………………
……………………………………and these must be weighed up against the benefits of the
…………………………………………………………



Treating the disease is not the same as curing the problem e.g symptoms of the
common cold can be treated with lemsip / paracetamol but these don’t kill the
viruses so they don’t cure the illness.

Ways of treating health issues.
There are usually several possible ways – not all of them involving
……………………………………… ……………………………………………………..
e.g. heart disease could be treated by : ……………………………………………………………………………….
…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………

Informed consent
Before a patient can be treated, the doctors or nurses need to explain what they
plan to do- the ……………………………………….. and the ………………………involved. The patient
then needs to …………………………………to it- this is ……………………………………….
……………………………….
    It is important because : …………………………………………………………………………………………
   .......................................................................................................................................................
   .......................................................................................................................................................

Triage
This is how a patient’s needs are assessed so that a ………………………….. ………………………..
for care can be made.
How are patients assessed ?
   
   
   
   
   
   

Managing costs
Managers in hospitals, health care facilities and fitness centres need to ensure
their most …………………………………………….. and ……………………………………………use.
In medical treatments 2 important factors to be considered are :
1. ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………..
…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………
2. ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………

Describing treatments

          Treatment                               Description
surgery

Exercise regime

Diet

Drug therapy

Public health campaign



Diabetes
This is a disease that means the patient can’t control their blood
………………………………….. level.
Sometimes it can be controlled by following a low sugar diet and being careful with
starchy ………………………………………………………………….. intake.
Also being careful not to be ………………………………………………………………..

The role of the physiotherapist
They form a ………………………………………………………………….plan for anyone who has had an
injury where ………………………………………………………….. /……………………………………………….
/………………………………………… ……………………………………………………….. is needed for recovery.
Firstly an assessment of the injury is needed.
In skeletal / muscular injuries the patient would start with simple ………………………………
Exercises. After at least …………….% of the previous level of …………………………….. has
returned moderate …………………………………….exercise can begin again.

Monitoring progress
a) During treatment / fitness training
    Using verbal assessment - ……………………………………………………………………………………………
    Monitoring vital signs - ………………………………………………………………………………………………….
Accurate record keeping is vital throughout so that …………………………………………………………
………………………………………………………..Sometimes treatments / fitness programmes are
altered as a result.
b) After treatment / fitness training.
    Check-ups.

Assessing progress
For a reliable assessment to be made the health or fitness practitioner needs to
know how reliable the ………………………..is.

Modifying a programme.
Two reasons why this might be done :
  
  

Health practitioners : good practice
The 4 key elements are :
    ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………
      ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………
    ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………
      ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………
    ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………
    ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………
      ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………
Health practitioners : personal qualities
Effective communication skills are needed e.g. :
   
   
   
   
The heart
Label onto the diagram
Left atrium           right atrium       left ventricle    right ventricle   valves




Blood vessels : structure and function

       Blood vessel                                 Descriptions
Arteries                             
                                     

Veins                                
                                     

Capillaries                          
                                     
   You need to be able to label parts of the human breathing system:

      Ribs      intercostal muscle        diaphragm            lungs       trachea
                          bronchus      bronchioles         alveoli
       Add labels from box above to your diagram. Ignore extra label lines and
        add those extra ones needed.




   You need to explain how the structure of some parts help them to function.
   1. Cartilage in the breathing tubes helps to …………………………….these tubes and
   keep them ………………… even when there is no air inside them.
   2. The alveoli have several important features :
        Large …………………………….. ………………………………. for rapid diffusion of gases.
        Close ……………………………… ……………………………….for effective exchange of
          gases between the blood and lungs.
        Permeable / thin ………………………………….to allow gas exchange to occur.

Blood
Label the diagram. Include : red blood cells, white blood cells and platelets

                 plasma
The skeleton

You need to be able to add these labels :
      skull       humerus             fibula      tibia         clavicle
         vertebral column          sternum            ribs          scapula
                      ulna         femur       pelvis        radius




Functions of the skeleton :
   
   
   

Ligaments, muscles, tendons and bones
Muscles allow joints to …………………………….They do this by …………………………….. on one of
the bones.
Tendons join …………………………………………. to …………………………………………
Ligaments hold ………………………………………. in place.
Female reproductive system

Label the parts : ovary   fallopian tube      uterus             cervix        vagina




Changes during pregnancy and birth
The foetus grows rapidly and moves more vigorously. External genital organs are
visible. The mother’s heart rate increases and her uterus enlarges. From about 20
weeks on, she can usually fell the baby move. = …………………Trimester
The foetus’ toes and fingers are distinct and have tiny nails. Ears, eyelids and teeth
buds have formed. Mother’s breasts become tender and enlarge. Morning sickness
is common. She begins to gain weight, = ……………………….Trimester
The foetus becomes increasingly mature. After about 28 weeks it’s organs have
developed enough so that it can just survive with expert care if born prematurely.
Mother’s skin is stretched tight, she will need to urinate more often as the
enlarged uterus presses onto her bladder. She may feel tired and breathless.
Backpain and heartburn are common. = ………………………….Trimester
How does the body respond to changes in temperature ?
If our body temperature falls below 37oC or goes above 37oC then our body
responds.
If body temperature above 37oC :
    Sweating
   Sweat …………………………………….. from the skin surface. It needs ………………………….. to
   do this which it takes from the skin, so the skin ………………………………. down.

   Vasodilation
  Blood ………………………………………………. near the skin
  surface get …………………………………so that more blood
   flows through them. This then loses
  ……………………………….through the skin surface.

If body temperature falls below 37oC :
    Shivering
   Muscles in the skin ………………………………………….. They ………………………………. To make
   the energy needed and release …………………………………energy in the process.

   Vasoconsrtiction
  Blood ………………………………………………. near the skin
  surface get …………………………………so that less blood
   flows through them. This then loses
  ………………………………………..through the skin surface.




Function of the kidneys.
    To remove the main waste product ……………………………. from the blood
    To maintain the correct ………………………… ……………………………………….. in the blood

				
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