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The Role of Light Metals in the Car of the Future

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					The Role of Light Metals
in the Car of the Future



            Tobias Svantesson Kåvik
             Christian Eide Lodgaard
Contents

   Emission Reducing Factors
   Crashworthiness
   End of Life Considerations
   Future Trends
Emission Reducing
Factors
Does CO2 Emissions cause climate
changes?
Passenger Cars Part of Emissions
      Share of Worldwide CO2 Emissions from the Combustion of Fuel




                     Commercial & Other
                          6%
              Residential
                 8%



   Other Transport
         9%
                                                                Production of Energy
                                                                       41 %




   Road Transport
       17 %




                               Manufacturing & Construction
                                          19 %

                                                              Source; IEA (2000a)
Factors that influence car emissions




                   Source; Automobiltechnische Zeitschrift 3/2002
 Weight; Development Last 20 Years

  Vicious Circle of                More functions
   increasing weight
                                               Modular approach


                                                     Improved Crashworthiness
                            Increased Stiffness
                           Requirements on Body
    Increased Loads              Structure              Increased Performance
     from Road Gear

                                                     Noise deadening


    Increased
 Requirements on                         Heavier Cars
Road Gear & Brakes

                        Maintain
                      Performance
One Car Model

 VW Golf
     Golf I (1977)    Curb Weight; 750 kg
     Golf II          Curb Weight;
     Golf III         Curb Weight;
     Golf IV (1998)   Curb Weight; 1170 kg
     Volvo 240        Curb Weight; 1240 kg


 Same customer segment buys Golf today as 20
  year ago.
 What does Weight Saving Imply?
 EU mixed cycle 91/441/EEC


 0,0046 l pr. Kg pr. 100 km
 18 000 km / year
                                                   0,0046 l            x      18000 km               x      10 years
 10 Years lifetime                                                           100 km
 7 Years model life
 2.85 Kg CO2 pr l. fuel                                 = 8.28 l fuel saved = 23.6 kg CO2
 40% Weight saving by Al
 150 000 Tonnes Al Parts

  1kg, one car                                                   23.6 kg CO2 eq saving
  1kg, one platform                                              18 888 000 kg CO2 eq saving
  Hydro Automotive yearly                                        828 000 000 kg CO2 eq saving

    Sources: IPAI; Life Cycle Inventory of the Worldwide Aluminium Industry with regard to Consumption and Emissions of Greenhouse Gases, BMW, VW
European Fleet made Light Weight

 All cars 30% lighter. Existing technology


      0,0046 l x ~400 kg x 18000 km x 150 million cars
                          100 km

     = 49 680 000 000 l = 141 588 000 tonnes CO2




                                x 1 656 000 Yearly
Emissions from Production

 If Produced from Primary Aluminium
         Emissions from Al. Production                                                                         12 kg
        -Emissions from Production of Replaced Steel                                                           3 kg
        -Reduced Emissions from during use                                                                     16 kg
        Impact on Lifetime CO2 eq Emissions                                                                    -7 kg

 Real Recycling Level;
           Automotive sheet 11%                                                           Producing 1 kg
                                                                                           Aluminium
           Automotive extrusions 11%
                                                                                           Emits 6 kg
           Automotive castings 85%                                                        CO2eq




Sources: IPAI; Life Cycle Inventory of the Worldwide Aluminium Industry with regard to Consumption and Emissions of Greenhouse Gases. Paper 1 Automotive
Effective Reduction of CO2eq Emissions




     1 kg Aluminium
            =
 Reduction of 13 kg CO2eq
Other Benefits of Reduced Weight

Pros
   + Better kilometer reading
   + Better handling
   + Better driving dynamics
   + Road wearing
   + Safety if all cars’ weight is reduced


Cons
 - Safety if not all cars’ weight is reduced
Crash Worthiness
Level of Accidents in Road Traffic
Sustainable?

 116 000 Fatalities in Road Traffic in OECD
  Countries in 2000
 5 000 000 Injured
 Proportions                                23478

                                                                     Pedestrian
      22 % Pedestrians                                              Bicyclists
                                                                     Motorcyclists
      6 % Bicyclists     60575
                                                     6075
                                                                     Occupants of passenger cars
                                                 15084
      14 % Motorcyclists
      58 % Passenger Car Occupants
 Cost on Society 1% of GDP
      In Norway alone: NOK 15 Billion
      Norwegian foreign aid: NOK 12.3 Billion

                                                            Source: IRTAD April 2002 Issue
Crash Management

 Considerations at different speeds;
      Low speed; prevent damage of car
      Mid speed; minimize damage of car
      High speed; protect occupants
BMW 7 series

 Crash management system
Comparison Aluminium to Steel


                            Specific Energy Absorbtion pr. Unit Weight

            25

            20

            15
    KJ/Kg
            10

            5

            0
                 Al 7xxx   Al 6082   Al 7003   Al 3105 H66 Mg AE 42 DOCOL 800   M-130   80Y100T




 Energy absorbtion to weight ratio superior by
  aluminium
End of Life Considerations
Why Recycle?
 Why not go for anything that saves weight,
  regardless of recycling friendliness?
Why Recycle Aluminium?

 Only 5 % of primary production energy consumed
 Only 5 % of CO2 emissions

                                100   %
   Metallic shredder fraction


                                           Non ferrous
                                 90   %
                                 80   %                  Non ferrous

                                 70   %
                                 60   %
                                 50   %    Ferrous

                                 40   %
                                                          Ferrous
                                 30   %
                                 20   %
                                 10   %
                                  0   %
                                          By weight      By value

  Average 12 year old US car
Global Supply 2002
  Recycling Challenges
                              Properties
Primary Metal
    Recycled
                              Metal in Use
                        Tendency; High Purity Alloys




                Recycling                          Logistic
                Friendly                           Concepts
                Alloys


                                Sorting
                                Methods

  Growing interdependency between primary and
   recycled Aluminium
The Aluminium Bank – Metal Stored in Use
               Energy          Primary Al           Aluminium             Recycled Al
                                                       bank

               350
                        Virgin metal shipm.   Scrap/incr. rec.rates   Left in Bank
               300

               250
 million ton




               200

               150

               100

                50

                0
                1970 1975 1980 1985 1990 1995 2000 2005 2010 2015 2020 2025 2030
Recycling in Hydro


 Recycling Capacity 2002:      1 320 000 tonnes
     Primary Metal Capacity:   1 640 000 tonnes
 10 Recycling facilities in Europe and USA
 Only 5 % energy consumption compared to
  production of virgin material
 Magnesium recycling in Europe and North
  America
Legislation Dilemma

 Weight savings (emissions) during lifetime
  must be considered!
      87 % of total CO2e emissions over complete lifetime
       comes from car use
      Production and shredding 13 %
 EU directive require 85% by weight recycling
   Small Car       Weight of non- Weight of     Effect of
   1000 kg         recyclables    recyclables   legislation
   Conventional 150               850           Accepted
   Build                                        (15%)
   Light Weight    150            700           Not accepted
   Structure                                    (<15%)
Future Trends
Are future demands different?
  Turn Vicious Circle?
                                      More integration of functions
   Circle of reducing
    weight                                          More symbiotic approach


                                                    Light metal applications

                          Reduce weight of Body
                               Structure
        Lighter Cars


                                       Reduce Stiffness
                                       Requirements on
                                        Body Structure
Lighter Powertrain
     for same
   Performance
                            Reduced
                        Requirements on
                       Road Gear & Brakes
Lightweight BIW Structures
 Aluminium closures
     MB E-class
 Aluminium Spaceframes
     Audi A2, A8, BMW Z8, Lotus
      Elise,
 Aluminium sheet structures
     Jaguar, Honda NSX
 Hybrid Structures
     Integrated Structures              Mg
                                   Alu
     Bolt-ons

                                         Steel
Legislation Needs?




  ‘No one are willing to pay more for
           reduced weight.’
       (Dr. Wolfgang Ruch, Audi Aluminiumzentrum)
Bolt-ons

   Engine Cradles
   Suspension
   IP Beams
   Closures
   Seats
New Vehicle Concepts

 Is weight saving alone enough?            10%
 Is hydrogen as energy carrier enough?     10%
      Locally yes, globally?
 Is fuel cell technology alone enough?     10%
      Locally yes, globally?
 Is fossil fuel / electric powertrain alone enough?10%
 Does recycling solve this?                   No
 New Mobility Concepts necessary in addition
New Mobility Concepts

   Why private car?
   VW 1 Litre car? Spacious enough?
   Insight? Solves local emissions
   Park & ride, car pools. Flexible enough?
   Reduce Mobility Needs?
   Highway chains?
Conclusions

 We need all measures to reduce emissions
  from car use:
      Light weighting
      Hydrogen as energy carrier
      Fuel cell technology
 We need improved recycling systems
 In addition, we need to challenge ourselves on
  new mobility concepts

				
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posted:8/19/2011
language:English
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