Protein and Fats

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Protein and Fats Powered By Docstoc
					                                The USDA says…

                               “Go Lean
Today you’ll learn what protein does in the body.
By the end of this objective you will be able to plan
a variety of meals that provide high quality protein.

                    Chapter 7
    • Important for
      development and
      repair of the
    • More about this
    Protein refers to
 certain combinations of
       amino acids
• Amino Acids can
  be found in
  animal sources
  – Meat, poultry,
    fish, eggs and
    dairy foods
• Amino Acids can
  be found in plant
  – Dry beans, peas,
    nuts, vegetables,
There are 22 amino acids
  that we know of now
            • They combine to
              create hundreds
              of thousands of
            • The specific job
              the unique
              protein plays in
              the body is
              determined by
              the shape of the
      Protein Digestion
1. You eat the
2. The body
   breaks the
   protein down
   into separate
   amino acids
3. The body
   the amino acids
   into human body
Essential Amino Acids
           • The human body can
             make certain amino
             acids, but the ones
             you need to eat are
             caLLed “essentiaL
             amino acids.”
           • If a food provides
             all of the essential
             amino acids, it
             earns the honor of
             being a complete
             – Foods from animal
               sources and from soy
      2nd place -Incomplete
• If a food lacks even one of
  the essential amino acids, it
  is called an incomplete
• Incomplete proteins can be
  combined to create a
  complete package
  – Foods from plants (except soy)
    are incomplete proteins
  – Dry bean, peas, lentils, nuts,
    seeds, almost all grains and
  – Proportions and amounts are
  – Those who depend on plant
Why do we need Protein?
     • Growth and Maintenance of all cells,
       including hair, eyes, teeth, skin,
       muscles, bones
     • Enzymes depend on protein for
       necessary chemical reactions in the
     • Some hormones – the chemical
       messengers that help regulate
       conditions in the body, are made from
       amino acids
        – Thyroid hormone regulates metabolism
        – Insulin hormone regulates levels of glucose
          in the body
  Why do we need Protein?
• Antibodies are proteins
  that fight invaders like
  the flu
• The fluid balance of
  every cell is dependent
  on protein
• If insufficient carbs and
  fat are available, the
  body can use protein for
  energy, but this creates a
  lack of protein for the
  real protein work.
How Much Protein do you
            • The body cannot store
            • The amount you need is
              affected by your
               – Age, -adults need a
                 bit more
               – Weight - increases
                 need more
               – State - pregnant,
                 nursing, ill or
                 injured need more
   Excess vs Inadequate
• Excess protein is
  stored as body fat
  and can cause the
  need for extra body
  removal of
• Inadequate protein
  – PEM – protein
    energy malnutrition
     • Found in starvation,
       eating disorders and   Kwashiorkor
       drug addicts
Go Lean with Protein
          • It is best to get more of
            your protein from plants
            than from animals due
            to the amount of fat and
             –   Soy
             –   Mac and cheese
             –   Peanut butter sandwich
             –   Rice and beans
             –   Baked beans and bread
             –   Beans and tortilla
             –   Pea soup and crackers
A vegetarian is does not just eat
• Vegans – only eat plants (grains,
  fruits, vegies
• Lacto-Vegetarian – will eat
  plants and dairy
• Ovo-Vegetarian – will eat plants
  and eggs
• Lacto-Ovo-Vegetarian – will eat
  plants, dairy and eggs
• Semi-Vegetarians – eat no red
  meat, but will eat poultry and fish
• Plan carefully in order to eat
  enough zinc, calcium, iron, B12
  and Vitamin D
      Lipids On Board
Invited passenger or Evil
            • Lipids
              – A family of
                compounds in
                every living cell
              – Includes
                 • Triglycerides
                 • Sterols
• Triglycerides
  – Structure
     • Fats – solids at room
     • Oils – liquids that
       don’t dissolve
  – Form
     • Visible – white stuff
       around meat, butter,
     • Invisible – in an egg
       yolk, nuts, whole milk,
Do we need fat?
         • Body can store fat in
           the Adipose cells, so
           quantity is something
           to watch out for.
  Quality Fat in the Right
• Helps body absorb vitamins
  A,D,E, and K
• Provides reserve energy
• Create body fat to cushion
  organs and bones
• Creates insulation
• A component of all cell
• Is slowly digested, helping
  you feel full longer
• Provides flavor and textures
  (moisture, tenderness,
  crispiness) in food
Quality – It is about the Fatty
      Acids in the fat
                • A fatty acid is a
                  chemical structure
                  that forms a fat
                • 3 (Tri) fatty acids +
                  glycerol =
    More about the Fatty
• Fatty acids contain hydrogen
   – If the fatty acid contains all of
     the hydrogen it can chemically
     hold it is called saturated
   – If only one hydrogen is missing
     – mono unsaturated fatty acid
   – If more than one hydrogen is
     missing – poly unsaturated
     fatty acid
Some Fatty Acids are
          • The body can’t make
            them, but needs them
          • Example – linolenic
            acid, also called
            “omega-3 fatty acid
            – May lower risk of
              heart disease
            – Found in fish oils,
              flax and walnuts
         Travel in style
• When fatty acids join
  with protein they
  form lipoproteins – a
  travel packages – a
Cholesterol – a Fat Like
         • Present in all body cells and
           essential for many body
         • Too much is linked to heart
         • Your body makes all you need
         • Foods from animal sources
           contain cholesterol and can
           contribute to an excess amount
         • You should eat less than 300
           milligrams a day
              LDL and HDL
• Cholesterol, like
  some fats, is
  transported through
  the bloodstream in 2
  types of liproprotein
  travel packages
   – LDL
   – HDL
  • Low Density
      – Carries cholesterol
        through the body, but
        can cause a build up
        in artery walls
      – Increases risk of
        heart disease and
            HDL - Healthy
• High Density
  – Picks up excess
    cholesterol and takes
    it to the liver for
  – A good indicator in
    blood tests
Double Whammy
      • Not only does fat in
        foods contain
        cholesterol, but it
        also fuels cholesterol
        production in the
  The winner is
• Foods with saturated fat raise the LDL levels
  (fatty meats, poultry skin, whole milk, coconut
  oil, palm oil)

• Foods with polyunsaturated fats help lower LDL
  cholesterol (corn oil, soybean oil, safflower oil,

• Foods with monounsaturated fats help lower
  LDL and raise HDL (olives, olive oil, avocados,
  nuts, peanut oil, canola oil)
   When is a vegetable oil
         not an oil?

• When it is hydrogenated
  – The missing hydrogen is added to the unsaturated fat, increasing
  – Examples, shortening and margarine
  – Hydrogenation forms “trans” fatty acids
      • Increases LDL and lowers HDL
      • Act like saturated fat
        Down on Two Counts
• Most Americans eat
  too much fat and the
  wrong kinds, leading
  – Increased heart
    disease and cancer
  – High calorie meals
    and obesity
Total Fat Grams per day
            • Less than 100 grams
            • 20-25% of your total
            • Each gram of fat = 9
            • Trans fat + saturated
              should be less than
              10% of your total
 Roasted Skinless Chicken
     vs Fried Chicken
• ½ breast of roasted
  chicken with skin = 8
  grams of fat (2 grams
  are saturated fat)

• ½ breast of fried
  chicken with skin =     • KFC Large Popcorn
  18 grams of fat (5        Chicken= 35 grams
  grams are saturated)      of fat (6 grams are
                            saturated fat)
     Controlling Fat
 Moderation allows you to eat
more food and have better health
• Read labels carefully – fat free and low fat
  foods may still give excess calories
• Eat plenty of fruits, vegies and whole grains
• Choose fat free or low fat dairy, yogurt and
• Remove skin from chicken and turkey
• Choose lean cuts of meat. Trim off and
  drain off fat
     Are you still with me?
•   Choose lean ground beef or ground turkey
•   Watch portion sizes
•   Choose fish instead of meat
•   Limit fried foods
•   Add fewer fats at the table
    – Example – 1 T sour cream has 2 g. saturated fat
• Look for margarine or other processed foods that
  are free of trans fats
• Eat high fat desserts only occasionally with small
       Proof That You Got It!
• Review your food journal. Write a
  reflection of the strengths and weaknesses
  of your protein choices.
  – Did you get enough quality protein? Defend.
  – Did you choose protein sources with too many
    evil hitchhikers? Defend.
  – How could you modify your protein decisions
    to improve long term health?
      Performance Task
• You are the team nutritionist. Your
  client wants to improve his or her long
  term health. He is a 17 year old guy who
  weighs 160 pounds and is 6’1” tall.
  Create 3 days worth of menus (include
  breakfast, lunch, dinner, and a couple of
  power snacks). Be sure to include the
  amounts of the food in your menus. At
  least 2 of your meals should be free of
  animal foods.
Action Ideas for Labs
           • Labs – oven fried
           • Something w low fat
           • Vegetarian protein

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