5.1 Environmental Impacts Jungle by ashrafp

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									5.1   ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACTS - JUNGLE


This section gives a detailed description of the environmental impacts that could occur during
the pre-construction, construction and operation phases of the gas pipeline in the jungle
sector. For this purpose the project activities are interrelated with the environmental
components in the impact identification matrix shown in Table 5-2.

The purpose of this matrix is to identify the positive and negative impacts that could occur in
each phase of the project, as well as the environmental components that will require greater
attention during the pre-construction, construction and operation of the gas pipeline. Table 5-3
shows the points value of each impact in the impact severity classification matrix (the
complete matrix can be found in the environmental impacts appendix). Table 5-4 shows the
impacts according to their severity. Tables 5-5, 5-6 and 5-7 show the impact severity matrix
for each phase of the project grouped according to whether they are positive or negative and
according to their probability of occurrence. They are also identified as direct or indirect. This
analysis is aimed at establishing the impacts that require higher priority in prevention,
correction or mitigation.

Tables 5-8 and 5-9 show the linear analysis matrix for the construction and operation phases
of the project. Tables 5-15, 5-16 and 5-17 are also given in the final part of the description of
the impacts, with a general summary of the environmental impacts of the principal activities.




EIA Gas Pipeline Camisea-Lima                                                           Vol I 5.1-1
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 JUNGLE: MALVINAS - TOROBAMBA RIVER
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              CONSTRUCTION                       OPERATION
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    INSTALLATION OF PIPES AND STATIONS
                                                                                                                        PRE-CONSTRUCTION
                            º                                                                                                                                                                                         CAMPS AND MACHINERY                                                                          EXPLOITATION OF




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     CONSTRUCTION OF DRAINAGE STRUCTURES
                                                                                              (STUDIES AND DESIGN)
                                                                                          LOGISTICS          MOBILIZATION OF PIPES




                                                                                                   PROJECT ACTIVITIES
                                                                                                                                                                                                                             AREA                                                                                     QUARRIES                                            OPENING OF THE                 LEVELING OF THE                                                                                         MOUNTING
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 MOUNTING OF MAINTENANCE OF
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          TRANSPORT
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           RIGHT OF WAY                     TERRAIN                                                                                 PIPES      PUMPING STATION




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   CUT AND CLEANING OF THE TERRAIN
                                                                                  TRANSPORT OF SUPPLIES (FUEL AND




                                                                                                                                                        TRANSPORT OF PIPES (GROUND AND




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          PUMPING STATIONS
                                                  MOBILIZATION OF EQUIPMENT AND




                                                                                                                        CLEARING (HELIPADS, CAMPS AND




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     TRANSPORT OF NATURAL GAS (NG)




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       MAINTENANCE OF THE PLATFORM
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          SUPPLYING OF WAREHOUSE AND




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                CUT, FILLING AND COMPACTING
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                MAINTENANCE OF THE PUMPING
                                                                                                                                                                                         TEMPORARY STORAGE OF PIPES
                                                                                                                        IMPROVEMENT OF TEMPORARY




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  COVER OR FILLING OF DITCHES
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              (HYDROSTATICS OR PRESSURE)
                                                                                                                        AERIAL AND GROUND TRAFFIC




                                                                                                                                                        TRANSPORT OF SUPPLIES AND




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           TRANSPORT OF NATURAL GAS
                                                                                                                                                                                                                      CONDITIONING OF THE AREA
                                                                                                                        CONSTRUCTION OF PUMPING




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        MOUNTING OF STRUCTURES
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                AND PRESSURE REDUCTION


                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              MAINTENANCE OF SERVICE
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              CONSTRUCTION OF BASES
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             EXCAVATION OF DITCHES




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           DEVELOPMENT OF TESTS
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  SUPPLYING OF SERVICES




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   CUTS WITH EXPLOSIVES




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           MAINTENANCE OF PIPES
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     SELECTION AND LOAD
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          MACHINERY AREA




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 CUT AND FILLING




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       (RIGHT OF WAY)
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           LIQUIDS (NGL)
                                                                                                                        STATION Nº 2
                                                  MACHINERY



                                                                                  MATERIALS)




                                                                                                                                                        MATERIALS




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       OPERATION




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            CLEARING
                                                                                                                        ACCESSES




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              ACCESSES
                                                                                                                                                        FLUVIAL)




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                STATIONS
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       FELLING
                                                                                                                        TRAILS)
         ENVIRONMENT ELEMENTS
AIR QUALITY
Increase of gasses                                    -X                                  -X -X -X                                           -X           -X -X                                                       -X                         -X                        -X                          -X          -X                                -X                                          -X                -X                                        -X                                               -X                                              -X                                           -X-X                                                                      -X
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 -X -X                                     -X
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          -X
Increase of particle material                         -X                                  -X -X -X                                           -X           -X -X                                                       -X                         -X                        -X                          -X          -X                                -X                                          -X                -X                                        -X                                               -X                                                                                             -X                                                                      -X
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 -X -X                                     -X
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          -X
NOISE
Increase of noise levels                              -X                                  -X -X -X                                           -X           -X -X                                                       -X                         -X                          -X                        -X          -X                                -X                                -X        -X                -X -X -X                                                                                   -X                                               -X
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              -X                                           -X         -X
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             -X -X-X -X                                                                                                    -X
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          -X
RELIEF AND GEODYNAMICS
Increase of relief affectation                                                                                                           -X                                                                                                                                                                        -X                                                                            -X                -X                                        -X                        -X                                                                                                                                                                                        -X
Increase of instability of slopes                                                                                                     -X -X                                                                                                                                                                        -X                                                      -X          -X        -X                -X                                        -X                        -X
Increase of mass removal processes                                                                                                    -X -X                                                                                                                                                                                                                                -X          -X        -X                -X                                        -X                      -X-X                                                                     -X
SOIL
Changes to the soil                                                                                -X -X                                                                                                              -X                                                                                                                                                   -X          -X        -X                                                          -X                                                                                                                                                                                                                  -X
Compacting of soil                                                                                    -X                                                                                 -X                           -X                         -X                          -X                                                                                                                  -X                                                                                                           -X                                                                                                             -X                                                  -X                     -X
Increase of erosion                                                                                -X -X                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   -X          -X        -X                -X
Risk of pollution of soil                             -X                                  -X -X -X    -X                                                  -X -X                                                       -X                         -X                          -X                        -X          -X                                                                            -X                                       -X                                                                  -X                                               -X
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              -X                                           -X-X -X-X -X
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      -X                                                                                                   -X
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          -X
HYDROLOGY
Changes to the characteristics of the riverbeds                                                                                              -X                                                                                                                                                                    -X                                                      -X          -X        -X                -X                                        -X                        -X
Temporary changes to volumes of flows                                                                                         -X             -X                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        -X                                                                      -X
Corrosion of pipes                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        -X                                         -X                                                                       -X
WATER QUALITY
Water turbidity                                       -X                                  -X    -X                                           -X                         -X                                                                                                                                                                                                                       -X                -X                                        -X                                               -X
Risk of pollution of superficial waters               -X                                  -X -X -X                                           -X           -X                                                                                                                                           -X          -X                                -X                                          -X                                                          -X                                                                                                -X
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              -X                                           -X
Risk of pollution of subsuperficial waters                                                -X                                                                                                                                                                                                           -X                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     -X                                           -X
VEGETATION
Loss of vegetative coverage                                                                                                           -X -X                                              -X                                                                                                                                                                                -X          -X                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        -X
Loss of individuals of species                                                                                                           -X                                                                                                                                                                                                                                -X          -X                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        -X
Loss of habitats                                                                                                                         -X                                                                                                                                                                                                                                -X          -X
Risk of fires                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          -X                                                                                                                                 -X                                         -X                                                                       -X
FAUNA
Loss of individuals of species                                                                                                      -X                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     -X          -X                                                                                              -X                                                                                                                                                                                                       -X                        -X
Temporary migration of individuals                    -X                                                                      -X -X -X                    -X -X                                                       -X                                                                               -X          -X                                -X                    -X          -X        -X                      -X                                                            -X                                                                                                                                                                                        -X              -X                        -X
Barrier effect to fauna mobilization                  -X                                                                      -X    -X                                                   -X                                                      -X                          -X                                                                                            -X          -X        -X                -X -X -X                                                          -X-X                                                                     -X                                                                                                                                 -X
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                -X                        -X
LANDSCAPE
 Changes 5-2        Environmental Impact Identification Matrix
Table to the landscape                        -X -X                                                                                                                                      -X                           -X                         -X                          -X                        -X          -X                                                      -X          -X        -X                -X                                        -X                                               -X                                                                                                                                                                 -X                     -X                    -X
Fragmentation of the landscape
EIS Gas pipeline Camisea-Lima                                                                                                                -X                                                                                                                                                                                                                            -X          -X        -X
ARCHAEOLOGICAL REMAINS
Finding of archaeological sites                                                                                                      +X -X                                               -X                                                                                  -X                        -X                                                                  -X          -X        -X                -X                                        -X                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 -X                        -X
Conservation and protection of archaeological sites                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              +X
EIS Gas pipeline Camisea-Lima
      Table 5-3            Environmental Impact Severity Matrix (Summary)

                                                                                                                                                                                   CONSTRUCCIÓN                                                                                                                              OPERACIÓN




                                                           PRE- CONSTRUCCIÓN
                                                                                                                                                                                                            INSTALACIÓN DEL




                                                                               (DISEÑO Y ESTUDIOS)
                                              ACTIVITIES




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   ESTACIONES DE REDUCCIÓN
                                                                                                                                         CAMPAMENTOS Y PATIO DE
                                                                                                                                                                                                               GASODUCTO




                                                                                                                  TRASLADO DE TUBERÍAS




                                                                                                                                                                                     LIMPIEZA DEL TERRENO




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   SIGNIFICACIÓN




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             SIGNIFICACIÓN
                 MATRIX




                                                                                                                                                                  EXPLOTACIÓN DE




                                                                                                                                                                                                                              CONSTRUCCIÓN DE




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            MANTENIMIENTO
                                                                                                                                                                                                             NIVELACIÓN DEL



                                                                                                                                                                                                                              OBRAS DE ARTE




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               ESTACIONES DE
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 MONTAJE DEL




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              TRANSPORTE
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               MONTAJE DE
                                                                                                                                                                  CANTERAS




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 GASODUCTO




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   DE BOMBEO
                                                                                                      LOGÍSTICA




                                                                                                                                         MÁQUINAS




                                                                                                                                                                                                             TERRENO




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               BOMBEO
               ELEMENTS
AIR QUALITY
Increase of emission of gasses                             -0.32 -0.42 -0.34 -0.40 -0.37                                                                                                                    -0.54 -0.45 -0.43 -0.35                                            -0.41                                         -0.43 -0.45 -0.44
Increase of particulate material                           -0.26 -0.42 -0.28 -0.39 -0.37                                                                                                                    -0.47 -0.45 -0.48 -0.32                                            -0.41                                         -0.43 -0.36 -0.39
NOISE
Increase of noise levels                                   -0.36 -0.45 -0.41 -0.48 -0.48 -0.47 -0.63 -0.45 -0.38 -0.47                                                                                                                                                         -0.47 -0.38 -0.34 -0.39 -0.37
RELIEF AND GEODYNAMICS
Increase of changes to the relief                                -0.52                                                                                            -0.52       -0.67 -0.57                                                                      -0.35           -0.53
Increase of instability of slopes                          -0.36 -0.38                                                                                            -0.36 -0.49 -0.59 -0.41                                                                                      -0.44
Increase of mass movement processes                        -0.32 -0.36                                                                                                  -0.50 -0.54 -0.36                                                                                      -0.44                                         -0.34                          -0.34
SOILS
Changes to the soils                                       -0.32 -0.45       -0.38       -0.60 -0.62             -0.27                                                                                                                                                         -0.46
Compacting of soils                                              -0.54 -0.26 -0.38             -0.59 -0.36 -0.36 -0.41                                                                                                                                                         -0.41
Increase of erosion                                        -0.33 -0.57                   -0.49 -0.58                                                                                                                                                                           -0.57
Risk of pollution of soils                                 -0.28 -0.42       -0.43 -0.32       -0.43 -0.19 -0.37 -0.24                                                                                                                                                         -0.37 -0.43 -0.38 -0.31 -0.38
HIDROLOGY
Changes to the characteristics of the riverbeds                                                      -0.38                                                        -0.33 -0.32 -0.38 -0.26                                                                                      -0.33
Temporary changes to the flows of the riverbeds                                                      -0.38                                                                          -0.48 -0.57                                                                                -0.48
Corrosion of pipes                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           -0.48                          -0.48
WATER QUALITY
Water turbidity                                                  -0.44 -0.52                                                                                                                                -0.62 -0.32                                                        -0.48
Risk of pollution of superficial waters                    -0.18 -0.39       -0.26 -0.32                                                                                                                    -0.42       -0.30                                                  -0.34                                         -0.34 -0.43 -0.38
Risk of pollution of underground waters                          -0.34       -0.26                                                                                                                                                                                             -0.30                                         -0.34 -0.43 -0.38
VEGETATION
Loss of vegetative coverage                                -0.38 -0.58 -0.34                                                                                                        -0.72                                                                      -0.43           -0.52
Loss of individuals of protected species                         -0.45                                                                                                              -0.74                                                                      -0.45           -0.55
Loss of habitats                                                 -0.50                                                                                                              -0.49                                                                                      -0.49
Risk of fires                                                                                                                            -0.34                                                                                                                                 -0.34 -0.50 -0.41                                                            -0.45
FAUNA
Loss of individuals of protected species                         -0.32                   -0.41                                                                                                                                                                                 -0.36                                                       -0.26 -0.26
Temporary migration of species                             -0.31 -0.56 -0.27 -0.49 -0.37 -0.54 -0.38 -0.41                                                                                                                                                     -0.47           -0.44
Barrier effect to mobilization                                   -0.41 -0.24 -0.42       -0.57 -0.43 -0.52                                                                                                                                                     -0.62           -0.46                                         -0.38 -0.34 -0.36
LANDSCAPE
Changes to the landscape                                   -0.36 -0.41 -0.18 -0.51 -0.18 -0.43 -0.57 -0.50                                                                                                                                                     -0.55           -0.43
Fragmentation of landscape                                       -0.36                   -0.41 -0.54                                                                                                                                                                           -0.44
ARCHAEOLOGICAL REMAINS
Finding of archaeological sites                            +0.32 -0.36 -0.41 -0.41                                                                                                  -0.32 -0.38                                                                                -0.38
Conservation and protection of archaeological
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               +
sites                                                                                                                                                                                                       +0.54                                                                  0.54




                     CLASSIFICATION                         RANGE                                                                                                                    SIGNS                                                      IMPACTS
      Of very little significance                          0,10 - 0,39                                                                                                                 +                                                         Positive
      Of little significance                               0,40 - 0,49                                                                                                                 -                                                         Negative
      Moderate significance                                0,50 - 0,59
      Very significant                                     0,60 - 0,69
      High significance                                    0,70 - 1,00




      EIA Gas Pipeline Camisea-Lima                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Vol I 5.1-5
Table 5-4           Impacts in Order of Severity

                     IMPACT                                PHASE          CLASSIFICATION      SIGNIFICANCE

Conservation and protection of archaeological sites.    Construction.           0.54        Moderate significance
Discovery of archaeological sites                      Pre-construction         0.38       Of very little significance
Risk of surface water pollution.                       Pre-construction        -0.18       Of very little significance
Increase in particulate material                       Pre-construction        -0.26       Of very little significance
Loss of individual animals                                Operation            -0.26       Of very little significance
Risk of soil pollution                                 Pre-construction        -0.28       Of very little significance
Risk of surface water pollution                         Construction.          -0.30       Of very little significance
Temporary migration of individual animals              Pre-construction        -0.31       Of very little significance
Increase in gas emissions                              Pre-construction        -0.32       Of very little significance
Increase in landslides                                 Pre-construction        -0.32       Of very little significance
Alteration of soils                                    Pre-construction        -0.32       Of very little significance
Increased erosion                                      Pre-construction        -0.32       Of very little significance
Alteration to the characteristics of rivers             Construction.          -0.33       Of very little significance
Increase in landslides                                    Operation            -0.34       Of very little significance
Risk of soil pollution                                  Construction.          -0.37       Of very little significance
Risk of surface water pollution.                        Construction.          -0.34       Of very little significance
Risk of fires                                           Construction.          -0.34       Of very little significance
Increase in noise levels                               Pre-construction        -0.36       Of very little significance
Increased risk of unstable slopes                      Pre-construction        -0.36       Of very little significance
Barrier effect to movement of fauna                       Operation            -0.36       Of very little significance
Alteration of the landscape                            Pre-construction        -0.36       Of very little significance
Loss of individual animals                              Construction.          -0.36       Of very little significance
Increase in noise levels                                  Operation            -0.37       Of very little significance
Risk of soil pollution                                    Operation            -0.38       Of very little significance
Risk of surface water pollution.                          Operation            -0.38       Of very little significance
Risk of surface water pollution                           Operation            -0.38       Of very little significance
Loss of vegetation                                     Pre-construction        -0.38       Of very little significance
Effect on archaeological sites                          Construction.          -0.38       Of very little significance
Increase in particulate material                          Operation            -0.39       Of very little significance
Increase in particulate material                        Construction.          -0.41         Of little significance
Increase in gas emissions                               Construction.          -0.41         Of little significance



EIA Gas Pipeline Camisea-Lima                                                                                            Vol I 5.1-7
Soil compacting                                Construction.   -0.41   Of little significance
Alteration of the landscape                    Construction.   -0.43   Of little significance
Increase in landslides                         Construction.   -0.44   Of little significance
Increase in gas emissions                       Operation      -0.44   Of little significance
Increased risk of unstable slopes              Construction.   -0.44   Of little significance
Temporary migration of individual animals      Construction.   -0.44   Of little significance
Fragmentation of the landscape                 Construction.   -0.44   Of little significance
Risk of fires                                   Operation      -0.45   Of little significance
Alteration of soils                             Operation      -0.46   Of little significance
Water turbidity                                Construction.   -0.48   Of little significance
Increase in noise levels                       Construction.   -0.47   Of little significance
Temporary alteration of flow rates             Construction.   -0.48   Of little significance
Deterioration of pipelines through corrosion    Operation      -0.48   Of little significance
Barrier effect to movement of fauna            Construction.   -0.46   Of little significance
Loss of habitat                                Construction.   -0.49   Of little significance
Increased effect on the relief                 Construction.   -0.53   Moderate significance
Loss of vegetation                             Construction.   -0.52   Moderate significance
Increased erosion                              Construction.   -0.57   Moderate significance
Loss of individual plants                      Construction.   -0.55   Moderate significance




EIA Gas Pipeline Camisea-Lima                                                                   Vol I 5.1-8
Table 5-5            Summary of Impact Evaluation for the Pre-construction Phase
 SIGNIFICANCE                                                                                            PROBABILITY OF OCURRENCE
   POSITIVE                                       OCURRENCE                            HIGH            MODERATE             LOW                                  VERY LOW
   NEGATIVE                                                                         PROBABILITY       PROBABILITY       PROBABILITY                             PROBABILITY
       V
     HIGH
 SIGNIFICANCE
    IV VERY
 SIGNIFICATIVE

      III
  MODERATE
 SIGNIFICANCE


       II
    LITTLE
 SIGNIFICANCE

                                                                                                                                                                 Finding of
                                                                                                                                                              archaeological sites -
                                 Increase of noise levels - (d)
                                 Changes to soils - (d)                                                                               Increase of           (i)
                                                                                                                                    instability of slopes        Changes to the
       I                         Loss of vegetative coverage - (d)
                                                                                                                                    - (i)                     landscape - (d)
  VERY LITTLE                    Increase of particulate material - (d)                             Increase of erosion - (i)
                                                                                                                                       Increase of mass         Risk of pollution of
 SIGNIFICANCE                    Increase of emission of gasses - (d)
                                                                                                                                    removal processes -       soils – (i)
                                 Temporary migration of individuals of species -                                                   (i)                          Risk of pollution of
                                 (i)                                                                                                                          water - (i)

 (+) positive impact, (-) negative impact; (d) direct impact, (i) indirect impact




 EIA Gas Pipeline Camisea-Lima                                                                                                                                             Vol I 5.1-9
Table 5-6              Summary of Impact Evaluation for the Construction Phase
   SIGNIFICANCE                                                                                                          PROBABILITY OF OCURRENCE
     POSITIVE                                     OCURRENCE                                  HIGH                     MODERATE              LOW                                   VERY LOW
     NEGATIVE                                                                             PROBABILITY                PROBABILITY        PROBABILITY                              PROBABILITY
         V
       HIGH
   SIGNIFICANCE
     IV VERY
  SIGNIFICATIVE
                                  Increase of changes to the relief - (d)
        III                       Loss of vegetative coverage - (d)
    MODERATE                      Increase of erosion – (i)
   SIGNIFICANCE                   Changes to the soil - (d)
                                  Loss of individuals of species of flora - (i)
                                  Increase of emission of gasses - (d)                                            Increase of mass
                                  Increase of particulate material - (d)                                          removal processes – (i)
                                  Increase of instability of slopes - (i)                                         Compacting of soils– (i)
         II                                                                                Increase of                                                                         Fragmentation of the
                                  Temporary changes to water flows - (d)                                          Barrier effect to fauna
      LITTLE                                                                              noise levels – (d)                                                                  landscape - (i)
                                  Turbidity of waters – (d)                                                       mobilization – (i)
   SIGNIFICANCE
                                  Loss of individuals of species of fauna - (i)                                   Changes to the landscape
                                  Temporary migration of fauna - (i)                                            – (d)
                                  Loss of habitats - (i)
                                                                                                                                                                               Risk of pollution of
                                                                                                                                                                               soils - (i)
                                                                                                                                                                               Risk of pollution of
                                                                                                                                                     Conservation and
         I                                                                                                                                                                     superficial and
                                   Changes to the characteristics of the riverbeds                                                                protection of
    VERY LITTLE                                                                                                                                                                underground waters -
                                 of gullies or rivers - (i)                                                                                        archaeological sites
   SIGNIFICANCE                                                                                                                                                                (i)
                                                                                                                                                   + (d)
                                                                                                                                                                               Risk of fires – (i)
                                                                                                                                                                               Affectation of
                                                                                                                                                                               archaeological sites - (i)
(+) positive impact, (-) negative impact; (d) direct impact, (i) indirect impact




  EIA Gas Pipeline Camisea-Lima                                                                                                                                                         Vol I 5.1-11
  Table 5-7              Summary of Impact Evaluation for the Operation Phase
     SIGNIFICANCE                                                                                           PROBABILITY PF OCCURENCE
        POSITIVE                                       OCURRENCE                        HIGH              MODERATE                                                   VERY LOW
       NEGATIVE                                                                                                          LOW PROBABILITY
                                                                                     PROBABILITY         PROBABILITY                                                PROBABILITY
            V
          HIGH
     SIGNIFICANCE
           IV
         VERY
     SIGNIFICATIVE

           III
                                                                                                                                           Corrosion of pipes
       MODERATE
                                                                                                                                         + (d)
      SIGNIFICANCE


            II
                                                                                                                                                                 Loss of individuals of
          LOW
                                                                                                                                                                 species of fauna – (i)
      SIGNIFICANCE

                                       Increase of noise levels - (d)                                                                   Risk of pollution
            I
                                       Increase of particulate material - (d)                           Barrier effect to            of soils – (i)
        VERY LOW                                                                                                                                                 Risk of fires – (i)
                                       Increase of emission of gasses - (d)                           fauna mobilization - (i)          Risk of pollution
      SIGNIFICANCE
                                       Increase of mass removal processes – (i)                                                       of water – (i)
(+) positive impact, (-) negative impact; (d) direct impact, (i) indirect impact




                                                 Impact Attention Priorities
                                                                   High Priority                         SYMBOL                   IMPACTS
                                                                   Medium Priority                           +                     Positive
                                                                   Low Priority                              -                    Negative




  EIA Gas Pipeline Camisea-Lima                                                                                                                                              Vol I 5.1-13
Table 5-8     Linear Analysis Matrix of Environmental Impacts – Construction Phase




EIA Gas Pipeline Camisea-Lima                                                        Vol I 5.1-15
Table 5-9     Linear Analysis Matrix of Environmental Impacts – Operation Phase




EIA Gas Pipeline Camisea-Lima                                                     Vol I 5.1-16
5.1.1   PRE-CONSTRUCTION PHASE (STUDY AND DESIGN)


During this phase the impacts in the jungle sector will be of very little significance, generated
principally by air and road traffic, clearing and by the transport of supplies required by the
arrival of professionals, technicians and workmen to survey and adjust the route of the gas
pipeline. These activities will very slightly reduce the air quality and increase noise levels.
Clearing the track will require the undergrowth to be removed and helipads prepared.

Negative impacts that will be unavoidable, temporary and, in general, of very little
significance. Positive impacts will be the discovery and valuing of archaeological sites and
the use of information obtained to prevent negative impacts by the project.

A general description of the impacts is given, relating the activities that could generate
environmental impacts in this jungle sector to the environmental components, which are:

 Air and road traffic,
 Clearing of helipads, camps and tracks, and
 Transport of supply and materials

5.1.1.1 Negative Impacts

Air Quality

Increase of Emission of Gasses

Emissions of gasses such as sulphur dioxide (SO2), carbon monoxide (CO), oxides of nitrogen
(NOx) and total hydrocarbons (HCT) generated by combustion during mobilization of
equipment and machinery and by the use of areas such as helipads, warehouses and temporary
camps. These emissions will vary according to the power and condition of the vehicles'
engines.

All the machinery and equipment used during this phase of the project must be in correct
operating condition and adequately maintained, in order to reduce emissions of gasses into the
environment.

It is considered that the emissions will be of low magnitude and will disperse rapidly without
having a serious effect on air quality in the area or on the population, given that the working
areas are a long way from native or incomer settlements. This impact, therefore, has been
classified as direct, temporary, of very little significance and unavoidable.

Increase in Particulate Material

Particle emissions will be generated during mobilization of vehicles in areas close to the route
of the gas pipeline. The increase in the concentration of suspended particles (SP10) in the air
will be temporary and they will disperse rapidly.




EIA Gas Pipeline Camisea-Lima                                                        Vol I 5.1-17
Because the traffic volume is expected to be low, the generation of dust will be a low
magnitude impact. The effect will be most intense in areas where vehicles and helicopter
operate, such as: helipads, warehouse and areas proposed for the temporary camps. In this
phase the impact will be direct and isolated, limited to an area of no more than 240 m2 for the
helipads and a 30 m strip for the access tracks. The intense rainfall in the jungle will reduce
the presence of particles in the air and clean the leaves, so that the productive capability of the
vegetation will not be affected.

In accordance with these criteria, this impact has been classified as of very little significance,
direct, temporary and unavoidable. Therefore no mitigation measures are recommended.

Noise

Increase in Noise Levels

The operation of vehicles and helicopters during the pre-construction activities will increase
noise levels. Given the nature of the activities to be carried out in this pre-construction phase,
noise will be discontinuous, with the exception of the temporary camps, because of the use of
electricity generators; noise level increases will be localized, temporary and discontinuous.

The noise levels will reach maximum values of around 80 dB for very short periods in areas
overflown by helicopters1, providing logistics support to the workmen. The maximum value
depends on the topography of the terrain and will be lower in the valleys than high areas.

In accordance with these criteria, this impact has been classified as of very little significance,
direct, temporary and unavoidable. As a preventive measure the machinery and equipment
must be in perfect operating condition, electricity generators will also be located as far away
as possible from populated areas.

Relief and Geodynamics

Increase of Risk of Instability of Slopes

Instability of embankments is the most frequent effect and carries greater inherent risk in the
clearing work, especially in the jungle. Instability occurs because the soil is exposed to natural
factors (forces) such as rainfall, wind and gravity that produce erosion, landslides and
sedimentation. In this sector the slopes with their coverage of vegetation are in a naturally
stable condition (relative equilibrium).

Under these conditions clearings created by removal of the vegetation could make slopes in
the areas proposed for helipads, camps and tracks unstable. Therefore, the clearing of
vegetation will be carried out in places where the geological and geomorphological
characteristics are stable, in order to minimize the risk of instability. According to these
criteria the impact has been classified as of very little significance, temporary, indirect and
with a low probability of occurrence.


1
 Environmental Impacts of oil gas exploration in the rain forest studies from Tambopata-Candamo,
Conservation International, October 2000.


EIA Gas Pipeline Camisea-Lima                                                                      Vol I 5.1-18
Increase in Landslides

The jungle contains areas susceptible to landslides and rock falls generated by earthmoving
activities or clearing of the vegetation. The most fragile areas are those with gradients in
excess of 25º where the ground is very loose.

The construction activities could reduce the morphodynamic stability and, therefore, increase
the risk of landslides. The areas used are: 2,400 m2 for the helipads, 3.6 ha for the temporary
camps in 15 sectors and a 2 m wide strip for the access track in this stretch. Measures for
closing the areas will be carried out to reduce the effects to a minimum. This impact has been
classified as of very little significance, temporary and indirect.

Soil

Alteration of Soils

Clearing tracks to define the route may affect the soils, generating erosion. Because of the
small surface area to be cleared of undergrowth, the effects in ecological terms are of little
importance. In accordance with these criteria, this impact has been classified as indirect, of
very little significance and unavoidable.

Increase of Erosion

The clearing of helipads, temporary camps and access tracks to confirm the route of the gas
pipeline may generate increased laminar erosion of the soil, produced by surface water runoff,
especially where the soil is loose and fine grained and the gradient is steep. When the helipads
are cleared, stumps and vegetation will be left in the soil, thus minimizing erosion.

The criteria described classify this impact as of very little significance, indirect and localized.

Risk of Soil Pollution

Spillages of fuel, oil, grease and waste resulting from the operation of vehicles and helicopters
could contaminate the soils. This is possible principally in storage areas such as Quiteni. This
risk, despite having been classified as of very little significance and very low probability of
occurrence, would be localized and of minor magnitude during this phase, as large volumes of
spoil would not be involved. Adequate handling of fuels and waste should prevent this type of
risk, as will correct maintenance of machinery and equipment.

Water Quality

Risk of Superficial Water Pollution

The risk of increasing the concentration of contaminants in surface water sources by spillages
of pollutants such as hydrocarbons is low. This impact refers to the risk of spillages of fuel,
oil, grease or waste, principally at the Quiteni camp and the temporary camps. This impact
has been classified as of very little significance, with a low probability of occurrence and
susceptible to the application preventive measures.



EIA Gas Pipeline Camisea-Lima                                                           Vol I 5.1-19
Vegetation

Loss of Vegetative Coverage

Clearing of the helipads, temporary camps and access track to define the route of the gas
pipeline will mean the loss of the undergrowth on the access track and 3.6 ha of vegetation on
the helipads and temporary camps. Most of this loss will consist of bushes and herbaceous
species; neither trees nor crops will be affected at this phase.

The elimination of vegetation could affect species of ecological interest such as “caimitillo”
(Pouteria sp) "cumala" (Virola sp., Otoba sp.), “sachavaca micuna” (Clarisia racemosa),
“huacrapona” (Iryartea deltoidea) and “machimango” (Eschweilera sp.) which produce fruit
used as food by the fauna. In accordance with these criteria, this impact has been classified as
direct, of very little significance and unavoidable.

Fauna

Temporary Migration of Species

The fauna will migrate to get away from humans and the noise generated during clearing of
the track and areas to be used for helipads and temporary camps. It is believed that the effect
will be of very little significance because of the small surface area used for the helipads and
temporary camps (3.6 ha).

Landscape

Changes to the Landscape

The quality of the landscape may be affected by the clearing and earthmoving activities
required to install the temporary camps and helipads, as well as by the construction of the
access to PS-2. It is believed that the effect will be of very little significance because of the
small surface area used for the helipads and temporary camps. Access will be by an existing
road in the zone.

5.1.1.2 Positive Impacts

Archaeological Remains

Finding of Archaeological Sites

During clearing of the access track to define the route of the gas pipeline, it is possible that
archaeological sites will be found. Given that in this area the archaeological evidence found
does not take the form of buildings, but the remains of domestic artefacts, the risk associated
with these activities is of very little significance.

It should also be mentioned that the zones occupied by native communities are more likely to
contain archaeological remains, so greater care should be taken. In the event of archaeological
evidence being discovered it will be duly recorded and modifications to the track will be
evaluated.


EIA Gas Pipeline Camisea-Lima                                                        Vol I 5.1-20
5.1.2     CONSTRUCTION PHASE


The impacts are described in accordance with the activities being carried out during the
construction phase, grouped according to the tasks and interaction tables.

       General impacts are those that could be generated by the different activities involved in
        the construction of the gas pipeline.
       Impacts caused by logistics, transport of pipeline sections and camps, describe the
        impacts resulting from the mobilization of equipment and machinery, transport of supply
        (fuels and materials), improvements to temporary access tracks and the construction of
        the access to pumping station No. 2, transport and storage of pipeline sections and the
        preparation of the camps and machinery areas.
       Impacts caused by quarrying.
       Impacts caused by clearing and leveling, describes the impacts caused by the tasks of
        clearing, felling, excavating cuttings using explosives, embankments, excavation of
        ditches and construction of additional infrastructure.
       Impacts caused by the construction of the gas pipeline and pumping stations arising from
        the hydrostatic and pressure testing, filling of ditches, commissioning of the pumping
        stations construction of foundations and mounting of infrastructure.
       Impacts caused by the restoration of the terrain, includes the task of redistributing excess
        material, reconditioning the land and removal of equipment and camps, which are in
        general positive impacts and are described in the closure and contingency plan of this
        EIS.

Most of the impacts identified and evaluated for this phase are unavoidable: The mitigation
and prevention measures will, in some cases, contribute to reducing the magnitude of these
impacts. In addition, the restoration work in the area will reduce the duration of the impact
and its effects.

In this phase the positive impacts of the project are job creation and the indirect effects of this,
which are analyzed in section 6.0 of the Social Impact Study.

5.1.2.1 Description of General Impacts

General impacts are those that derive from the majority of the construction activities. They are
described in this section to avoid repeating a description of the impacts.

Negative Impacts

Air Quality

The base indicates that there are no significant sources of atmospheric contaminants in the
jungle. The only sources of emissions are small, mobile and sporadic (vehicles, chainsaws,
etc.) or small generators used to provide electricity to the villages during the night.

The air quality analyses show that this stretch complies with the air quality standards
established by environmental legislation. The jungle has a humid to very humid climate,




EIA Gas Pipeline Camisea-Lima                                                           Vol I 5.1-21
which tends to reduce the presence of particulate materials. The impacts identified, evaluated
and analyzed in this components are:

Increase of Emission of Gasses

The operation of machinery and equipment during logistics activities, movement of pipeline
sections, camps and machinery areas, quarrying, opening and leveling of the right of way,
construction of additional infrastructure, installation of the pipelines and stations and during
rehabilitation of the areas where the gas pipeline is to be built will generate emissions of
gasses (principally sulphur dioxide - SO2, carbon monoxide - CO, nitrogen oxides - NOx) and
total hydrocarbons - HCT). These emissions will be well dispersed and will not represent a
significant increase in the gas concentrations found during the base line.

Operation of the camps and machinery maintenance workshops will also produce gasses
deriving from the combustion of diesel - 2 in the electricity generating sets. A list of
emissions from this equipment is given in Table 5-10. Isolated emissions, classified as
moderately significant.

All the machinery and equipment used during this phase of the project must be in correct
operating condition and adequately maintained, in order to reduce emissions of gasses into the
environment. In general, it is believed that the emissions will be of low and medium
magnitude, non-continuous and dispersed. They will not have a significant effect on air
quality on the right of way or in villages, given that native and incomer settlements are a long
way from the working sites. This impact has been classified, in general, as direct, of little
significance, temporary and unavoidable.

Table 5-10         Inventory of Monthly Gas Emissions*

   Location of Generators by                Waypoint              Generation of Gasses each Month (ton/month)
             Camp                             wp
                                                                      NOx     CO         SO2          TOC
       Las Malvinas                            0+000                  4.40    5.40       8.20         3.80
       Chimpiarina                            80+000                  4.40    5.40       8.20         3.80
       Kepashiato                            106+000                  4.40    5.40       8.20         3.80
       Monterrico                            160+000                  4.40    5.40       8.20         3.80
*Assume one 500 kw generator in each camp operating 24 hours a day.


Increase of Particulate Material

Emissions of particulate materials will occur mainly during mobilization of personnel and
equipment, leveling the right of way (cuttings and embankments, use of explosives and
excavation of ditches), construction of access tracks, additional infrastructure, preparation of
cleared areas, provision of services, workshops and storage areas, operation, dismantling and
closure, among others.

The size of the effect will vary with the amount of traffic, the degree of cohesion of the soil,
the humidity and the duration of the construction activity. Vehicle wheels will reduce the
surface to dust and this, together with the draught produced by the vehicles will create



EIA Gas Pipeline Camisea-Lima                                                                          Vol I 5.1-22
emissions of particles which are not toxic as they consist of the surface material itself (sand
and clay). The variation in the effects on the right of way is shown in linear matrix 4.8.

This zone is characterized by a relatively humid to very humid climate, which will tend to
reduce the presence of particles and a light breeze that will not lift particles into the air
(section 4.1 of volume II, Climate). Furthermore, the study of air quality carried out for this
stretch shows concentrations of suspended particles well below the maximum permissible
levels (see Table 5-11 and also Table 4.2-4 of air quality).

The increase in particulate material will have a limited effect on a 20 - 30 m strip alongside
the working area throughout the jungle section (wp 0+000 to 182+000) and will cover the
vegetation with a slight and temporary coating of dust. This effect on the vegetation is not
significant because the intense rainfall in this sector will clean the leaves, therefore the
productive capacity of the vegetation will not be affected. The effect on air quality of
increased particulate material emissions has been classified as direct, of little significance and
confined to a small area. The impact will be prevented by periodic sprinkling the construction
sites with water when the right of way is dry.

Table 5-11          Inventory of Monthly Particles Emissions **

                                                                       Generation of Particles each
                                                    Station
  Location of Generators by Camp                                          Month (ton/month)
                                                      wp
                                                                                  SP10
      Las Malvinas                                   0+000                        5.40
      Chimpiarina                                   80+000                        5.40
      Kepashiato                                    106+000                       5.40
      Monterrico                                    160+000                       5.40
**Assume one 500 kw generator in each camp operating 24 hours a day.


Noise

The environmental characterization shows that populated areas support sporadic vehicle
traffic, therefore noise levels are low. While noise levels in the forest are variable with much
of it coming from the local fauna (59 to 61 dbA). These levels increase during the night
because of the noise made by numerous animals, particularly the croaking of frogs and toads.

During the work peak values will reach 80 to 90 dbA on the right of way. The project will use
the WHO guidelines which establish average hourly values of 45 dBA and 55 dBA as the
limits for night-time and daytime noise respectively in populated areas.

Increase of Noise Levels

The increase in noise levels will interfere with oral communication and affect the environment
and migration of fauna. Noise will be generated by the machinery and equipment, explosions
and the operation of generators in camps, storage areas and workshops. Because of the nature
of the operations in this jungle sector, the noise will normally be continuous except for
blasting, which will be sporadic and of short duration.




EIA Gas Pipeline Camisea-Lima                                                                         Vol I 5.1-23
The presence of dense vegetation in the project area will naturally damp the noise generated
by the construction machinery. The document ”Noise Reduction on Existing Roads" issued by
the Department of Transport of the State of Washington, reports that a dense 60 m section of
vegetation can reduce noise levels by 10 dB. In addition, construction will only be carried out
during the day. Compliance with the WHO guidelines will ensure that the noise will have a
limited impact.

The zones between waypoints wp 16+000 – 71+500 (ARZ), wp 134+000 – 152+500 and wp
167+400 - 179+000 are considered to be areas of high biological sensitivity as the forest has
seen little human intervention and a diversity of animal species can be found. Nevertheless,
this characteristic (dense forest with little human intervention) means that noise will be muted
closer to the sources because of the density of the vegetation.

This impact has been classified as of little significance, direct and temporary (approx. 14
months - only during the dry season in each of the 2 years), moderately significant and
unavoidable. The EMP incorporates measures to reduce noise on site and close to populated
areas. These include the use of silencers and carrying out construction work only during the
day. The linear matrix shows the variations of this impact in the different sectors.

Relief and Geodynamics

The effects and geomorphological impact produced by the activities in this phase of the
project have a direct or indirect influence on the stability of the environment and on its
capacity to absorb the changes generated. The construction of the access to PS-2 and
improvements to the roads will cause changes in the landscape and will either accelerate or
stabilize certain natural processes.

The jungle stretch crosses three large morphostructural units: The eastern Andes, the Andean
foothills and the Amazon plain, the rock structures of which differ because of their
geohistorical development, structure, altitude and lithology as well as their relief which varies
from steep and rugged mountains through hills to alluvial terraces. The impacts on this
component that have been identified and evaluated are given in the description of the impact
of logistic activities, quarrying, clearing and leveling of the right of way and construction of
the pumping stations. The impacts identified for this component are described together with
the activities that generate them.

Soil

Risk of Soil Pollution

A risk of altering soil quality could arise from spillages during storage, transport and handling
of fuel, oils and greases throughout the construction period.

The risk of spillages is greatest during fuel transport and refueling, for which reason refueling
will only be carried out in areas provided and prepared for that activity. Adequate
maintenance of the machinery before it is brought into use will reduce and prevent the risk of
minor spillages during operation.




EIA Gas Pipeline Camisea-Lima                                                        Vol I 5.1-24
Inadequate handling of domestic and industrial waste generated during the construction of the
gas pipeline constitutes a risk of pollution. Storage, recycling and disposal of waste in
adequate locations will avoid this risk. TGP will use biodegradable waste to produce compost,
and ensure adequate handling of industrial waste (transport to landfill sites, incineration and
recycling).

Nevertheless, these risks have been classified as of very little significance and with very a low
probability of occurrence, in the event of an occurrence the effects will be localized and with
a low to medium magnitude during this phase as the volumes involved will be small. This
impact will be prevented by training the personnel involved in prevention and spillage
response and adequate maintenance of machinery.

Water Quality

The construction of the gas pipeline calls for activities that will modify the physical, chemical
and bacteriological characteristics of the water as a result of discharges, sedimentation and the
inadequate handling of waste.

The base line study of water quality for this jungle sector points out that concentrations of
total suspended solids, chlorides, nitrates and phosphorus in the rivers sampled are below the
maximum permissible limits and comply with the environmental quality standards set forth in
Peruvian and international legislation.

Risk of Water Pollution

Water discharges and inadequate disposal of both solid and liquid waste could affect the
chemical and bacteriological characteristics of the water. Direct or accidental discharges of
liquid waste such as lubricants, fuels and waste water into rivers could have severe effects on
the quality of surface and underground water as well as the aquatic biota.

The risk of surface water pollution from discharges or spillages of hydrocarbons is low during
the logistics activities (construction of access tracks, mobilization of equipment and
machinery, construction and operation of the camps, workshops and jetties) transport of the
pipeline sections, leveling of the right of way (cutting and embankments), mounting of the
pipelines (hydrostatic testing) and construction of the additional infrastructure.

The impact in general has been classified as of very little significance, with a very low
probability of occurrence, susceptible to the application of preventive measures, which will be
described in detail in the waste management plan contained in the EMP. The linear matrix
differentiates between the risks of water pollution.

In order to avoid the risk of pollution, waste water will be treated in a portable treatment plant
before discharge and sediment traps will be used on the right of way to reduce the possibility
of river pollution to a minimum. Official effluent disposal standards will be met (Chap. 2
Legal Framework, Table 2-1) as will the guidelines contained in the management plan.
Hazardous waste, such as lubricants, will be sent to specialist facilities for handling, treatment
and elimination, as stipulated in the contingency plan for hydrocarbons spillages. In addition,
in no circumstances will waste be disposed of close to rivers and lakes.



EIA Gas Pipeline Camisea-Lima                                                         Vol I 5.1-25
Fauna

Temporary Migration of Individual Animals

The presence of human beings and noise generated by the different activities will cause
individual animals to leave the area of the right of way. This impact will be greater in zones
where the forest is in a good state of preservation and near water (the rivers Comerciato and
Igoritoshiari, Shimaa creek), the Apurímac Restricted Zone (wp 16+000 to 71+500) and the
stretch between the rivers Chunchubamba and Sachapampa (wp 167+400 - 179+000), which
are areas where the vegetation is in a good state of preservation and, therefore, so is the fauna.
In the zones identified as highly sensitive for fauna, animals will migrate when their habitats
on the right of way are perturbed or destroyed.

The disappearance of the fauna will only be temporary while construction is in progress or
they adapt to the existing noise, and it is expected that they will return. The nature of the
fauna found in the study area indicates that the impact caused by migration will not be severe.
The noise generated by blasting will also cause species to migrate, but the use of explosives
will be kept to an absolute minimum.

These criteria enable the impact to be classified as of little significance and unavoidable. The
fauna monitoring program will evaluate changes in the composition, diversity and behavior of
the fauna within the direct area of influence of the project. The equipment and machinery will
be maintained and silencers fitted in order to reduce the effects of noise on animals and,
especially, birds.

Barrier Effect to Fauna Mobilization

The construction of the gas pipeline will form a barrier to the dispersal and local migration of
woodland fauna (while work is in progress from April 2002 to August 2004, in the dry
season). This effect will be reduced, both for birds and mammals once they adapt to the slight
human presence during the construction of the gas pipeline and infrastructure (pumping
stations, jetties, shut-off valves), which will not impede movement because of their design
characteristics and short construction time. This impact has been classified as of little
significance and temporary.

Landscape

Changes to the Landscape

The quality of the landscape will be affected by the logistics activities (construction of access
track to PS-2, mobilization of machinery, implementation of camps, machinery parking areas
and jetties), quarrying, opening and leveling of the right of way (felling, clearing cutting and
embankments) and the accumulation of materials for the construction work. This alteration
will be more evident where the gas pipeline is built on the summits of hills because it will be
visible from the air and from other prominent points. During construction of the gas pipeline
on the Amazon plain alteration will be less visible.




EIA Gas Pipeline Camisea-Lima                                                         Vol I 5.1-26
The effect enables this impact to be classified as of little significance, given the maximum
width of the right of way. In addition, land rehabilitation measures (reconditioning and
replanting) will reduce the duration of the alteration to the landscape.

Archaeological Remains

Discovery of Archaeological Sites

Archaeological sites may be found during the logistics activities (construction of access track
to PS-2, implementation of camps and machinery parking areas), clearing and leveling the
right of way (felling, clearing, cutting and embankments), construction of the pumping and
other stations. The archaeological evidence found on this stretch of the jungle sector consists
of domestic utensils located on river banks. The zones occupied by native communities could
well contain archaeological evidence. The zones where such evidence is considered likely are
waypoints 0+000 to 19+500, wp 32+000 to 43+000, wp 62+500 to 72+000, wp 90´500 to
112+000, wp 128+500 to 134+000, wp 152+500 to 167+500 and wp 179+000 to 182+000.

The risks associated with these activities have been classified as of little significance. In the
event of archaeological remains being found during the construction of the gas pipeline, the
guidelines contained in the contingency plan will be followed. This impact has been classified
as direct, of little significance and mitigable.

5.1.2.2 Description of the Impacts – Logistics and Camps

This section describes the most influential impacts generated or produced by these activities -
the impacts related to the remaining project activities have been described in the previous
item (general impacts).

Negative Impacts

Relief and Geodynamics

Increase of Changes to the Relief

The relief will be affected during construction of the access track to PS-2 (clearing and
earthmoving) and, to a lesser extent, during improvement work on temporary accesses and
preparation of the areas to be used for storing the pipeline sections, camps (portable units) and
machinery parking areas which as far as possible will be in areas already affected by human
activity. The access track to PS-2 (in the basin of the Igoritoshiari River) will be 10 Km. long
and 5 m wide for most of its length. This track will cross areas already affected by human
activity, so the alteration to the relief will be of medium magnitude.

Improvements to the Quiteni – Chimpiarina and Quiteni - Kepashiato road will not make a
significant difference to the natural relief given that they will consist mainly of repairs to the
surface and increases in the radius of some of the bends. This impact has been classified as
direct, moderately significant, temporary and unavoidable.




EIA Gas Pipeline Camisea-Lima                                                         Vol I 5.1-27
Increase of Risk of Instability of Slopes

Instability of embankments is the most frequent effect and carries greater risk in the jungle, it
is inherent in the construction of accesses. It will be generated by the clearing and
earthmoving work, principally on the steepest sectors (> 20%) of the access track to PS-2.
Normally the hillside profile would be in relative equilibrium for the natural conditions the
more so when covered with vegetation. The clearing, felling and cutting required to build the
roadbed and increase bend radii could cause the slopes to become unstable and this could
become severe (leading to landslides). In carrying out the cuttings the typical cross sections
will be adapted to the characteristics of the terrain and embankments will be kept below 3 m
in height. This impact has been classified as indirect and of very little significance because of
its short duration.

Increase of Landslides

The high level of dynamism in the jungle (landslides and settlement) and the creation of
embankments, there may be an increased risk of landslides. Such processes will occur
basically in morphologically fragile zones and sectors with steep gradients, produced by
clearing of the vegetation and leveling of the access tracks. To prevent this impact the
leveling of the access road to PS-2 and increase in curve radius of the existing roads will be
adapted to the characteristics of the terrain, a geotechnical study will be carried out of the
steep slopes, terraces will be made in the existing cutting (with a horizontal ratio of 1.5/1) and
erosion control measures will be designed. The impact has been classified as of very little
significance because of the measures implemented, indirect and of moderately likely to occur.

Soil

Changes to the Soil

The area used to build the access road to PS-2 (10 Km. by 5 m wide), pipeline section storage
(14.36 ha), camps and machinery parking areas (18.00 ha) will total 37.36 hectares. The
topsoil will be removed for the construction of the access road only and from areas where the
machinery parking areas are to be built (20% of the camp area), which will be located in
woodland that has already been intervened; the impact will be of low magnitude because of
the characteristics of the soil, affected by the actions of man. Although the area of the access
road is considered as lost land, the topsoil will be removed and used to rehabilitate other
areas.

Based upon these criteria and the location of the installations, the impact has been classified
as direct, isolated and of little significance in the construction of the access roads and of very
little significance in the installation of the camps and machinery parking areas.

Compacting of Soil

The construction of the access road to PS-2, the improvements to other access roads and
implementation of the camps and machinery parking areas (only 20% of the camp area in 4
sectors equivalent to 3,60 ha) will produce compacting of the soils and consequent alteration
of the moisture regime. The effects on the soil will be moderately severe in the zone where
the access road is to be built; in areas where the camps and storage facilities will be built it


EIA Gas Pipeline Camisea-Lima                                                         Vol I 5.1-28
will not be significant (classified as of very little significance) because the components
involved will be portable. On the machinery parking areas infrastructure will have to be
provided for maintenance and repair of the machinery (a concrete surface).

During closing of these installations the area will be de-compacted and replanted. The impact
during the logistics activities has been classified as moderately significant, isolated and
mitigable.

Increase of Erosion

The construction of the access road (in the Igoritoshiari basin) will generate laminar erosion
by surface water runoff, especially on loose, fine grained soils on gradients greater than 20%.
This effect is more extensive and less noticeable as soil is removed leaving behind the larger
particles. Removal of the vegetation will leave the soils temporarily without protection against
erosion by wind and water. On the site of the access road, the soils belong to subclasses
suitable for forestry and there is a risk of water-driven erosion because of the gradient.

Erosion control measures were specified in order to mitigate this risk by using felled timber to
erect fencing. This impact has been classified as moderately significant, localized in
accordance with the progress of the work and mitigable.

Hydrology

Changes to the Characteristics of Rivers

The construction of gullies on the access road to PS-2 and on the small creeks will
temporarily alter the flow characteristics. These changes could have an adverse effect on
aquatic habitats and water quality by increasing the amount of sediment in the water. The
increase in flow rates in the rainy season will restore the altered watercourses.

The design of the access road includes the construction of pontoons, gullies and additional
infrastructure in order to maintain the natural drainage. This impact, therefore, has been
classified as of very little significance in this activity.

Temporary Changes to Flow Volumes

The extraction of water from the Manugali River to be used for compacting the base or road
bed of the access road will temporarily affect the flow rate. The project specifies that less than
30% of the existing flow should be extracted and that this should not affect downstream water
use. This impact has been classified as of very little significance, direct and temporary.

Water Quality

Water Turbidity

The clearing, earthmoving and additional infrastructure during construction of the access road
to PS-2 will cause an increase in solids in suspension in the watercourses crossing this road
(Quarry creek, wp 72+700 and the Igoritoshiari River, wp 74+500).



EIA Gas Pipeline Camisea-Lima                                                         Vol I 5.1-29
This effect will occur principally during construction of the road surface and gullies arising
from direct mechanical action on the sediments, which will be isolated and temporary. This
impact has been classified as of little significance (because of the small area involved),
temporary and mitigable.

Vehicles traffic on these roads means that gullies will have to be provided for creeks to cross
the roads. Each time a vehicle crosses a small creek the concentration of suspended particles
will temporarily increase. This impact has been classified as moderately significant and
temporary.

Vegetation

Loss of Vegetative Coverage

The construction of the access road to PS-2 will affect 5 ha of secondary forest. The camp
installations, machinery parking area and storage area will cover 4.9 ha. Camps will be
located in areas that have already seen human intervention as a preventive measure.

The areas used for the temporary infrastructure will recover their coverage of vegetation
shortly after the construction of the gas pipeline and related infrastructure is completed, so
there will be no significant loss of land to vegetation and fauna. The impact for the
construction of the access roads has been classified as moderately significant and for
construction of the installations as of very little significance and temporary.

Loss of Individuals of Protected Species

The opening of the access road to PS-2 could cause the loss of some species of economic and
ecological importance. Compliance with restrictions on clearing of vegetation away from the
area to be used for construction of the access road and directional felling will avoid
unnecessary damage and clearing. The this impact has been classified as of little significance
and unavoidable. The closure program will also encourage the use of species native to this
forest, listed in chapter 2.8 of Volume II of the EIS.

Loss of Habitats

The clearing of vegetation from the area where the access road to PS-2 will be built will
reduce the habitats of individual animals, especially small mammals, invertebrates and
reptiles. Changes in the food chain form an associated risk, which could affect predators such
as the larger mammals. Loss of habitat is considered moderately significant in the area where
the road will be built, as it consists of forest that has already experienced human intervention,
see the vegetation map (map 2.8-1). The same applies to the areas to be used for temporary
infrastructure.

Risk of Fires

Given that the jungle on this stretch has suffered human intervention, there is a risk of fires.
Fires could be caused by project activities (operation of the camp and machinery parking
areas) or by slash and burn clearing carried out mainly by the incomer population of upper
Urubamba. The impact has been classified as of very little significance and with a low


EIA Gas Pipeline Camisea-Lima                                                        Vol I 5.1-30
probability of occurrence. The EMP, therefore, establishes contingency measures in the event
of an outbreak of fire.

Fauna

Loss of Individuals of Protected Species

The construction and improvement of access roads and construction of the camps, machinery
parking and storage areas will take place in secondary forest. It is unlikely that individual
animals of economic and/or ecological importance will be affected.

The risk of fauna loss through hunting is very small as the policy of TGP for this project is to
prohibit hunting and fishing and those who infringe this disposition will be severely dealt
with. Another source of risk to fauna will be vehicle traffic (animals being run over). The
impact has been classified as of very little significance very unlikely to occur.

5.1.2.3 Description of Impacts - Quarrying

A series of potential quarries has been identified from which to extract construction material
for the gas pipeline. The areas proposed for the extraction of materials are riverbank beaches
or flood plains, which will be exploited dry and in a lineal fashion. The quarries are: Mantalo
River wp 60+895, creeks wp 76+177, wp 77+677 and 81+033, Cumpirusiato River wp
106+067, creeks wp 112+737 and wp 135+237 and Apurímac River wp 161+237.

Negative Impacts

Relief and Geodynamics

Increase of Changes to the Relief

Areas have been identified for the extraction of materials, located on riverbank beaches or
flood plains close to the gas pipeline. The effect of this exploitation will be visual, caused by
the depressions generated during extraction of materials. This effect will disappear during the
rainy season when the rivers deposit new materials in the depressions generated.

During process quarries will be opened along the length of the right of way for the extraction
of fine materials. Extraction will lead to moderate alterations to the landscape, which will
affect its visual impact. This impact has been classified as moderately significant and
unavoidable.

Increase of Risk of Instability of Slopes

Extraction of materials from the quarries may generate unstable zones on the slopes. Changes
to the stability of slopes will depend on the height of the quarry and the gradient of the sector.
Taking into account the high degree of dynamism of this sector landslides are possible.
Gradients will be appropriate to the relief of the terrain during extraction. This impact has
been classified as of very little significance, localized and mitigable.




EIA Gas Pipeline Camisea-Lima                                                         Vol I 5.1-31
Hydrology

Changes to the Characteristics of Rivers

The extraction of materials from river banks or low-lying areas will modify the courses of the
rivers or creeks. Bearing in mind that in some cases up to 85% of a quarry's potential will be
extracted, the impact will be visual and has been classified as direct, temporary and of very
little significance. During the rainy season surface water runoff will find the system of
drainage changed and will return it to a condition similar to the original by depositing
sediments.

5.1.2.4 Description of Impacts – Clearing and Leveling (additional infrastructure)

Negative Impacts

Relief and Geodynamics

Increase of Changes to the Relief

Impacts will occur principally during leveling of the terrain (cuttings, embankments and the
use of explosives) and will be reduced during the construction of the additional infrastructure.
Leveling of the right of way will be carried out throughout the length (wp 0+000 to 182+000),
most of which will be 35 m wide but 25 m wide in areas where the vegetation is in a good
state of preservation. Considering that most of the route traverses the upper slopes of this hilly
region the effect on the relief will be of medium magnitude, susceptible to mitigation
measures.

A typical cross section of the gas pipeline (on hilltops) shows that cutting and embankment
work will not significantly alter the natural relief. The greatest effect will be visual on the
steepest sectors where the gas pipeline is to be built. The base line identified areas where this
could be significant: waypoints wp 42+000 – 72+000, wp 75+000 – 102+500, wp 105+000 –
130+000, wp 131+000 – 154+000 and wp 156+500 – 181+500. This impact has been
classified as of significant, direct, temporary and unavoidable during leveling work. As far as
the additional infrastructure is concerned, the impact has been classified as moderately
significant. When the work is completed, the site will be rehabilitated and this will contribute
to the recovery of the surrounding area.

Increase of Risk of Instability of Slopes

Instability of embankments is the most frequent effect and carries greater risk in the jungle.
This will be caused by the opening of the right of way (clearing and felling) and leveling
(cuttings and embankments) of the surface in sensitive areas or those susceptible to landslides
where the gas pipeline will be built. Normally the hillside profile would be in relative
equilibrium for the natural conditions. In this zone the rainfall, lithology, topography and
gravity will add to the instability created by the cutting.2.


2
 Cutting into a hillside creates an escarpment, which causes the slippage or displacement of surface material tending to restore the natural
equilibrium relative to the hillside.



EIA Gas Pipeline Camisea-Lima                                                                                               Vol I 5.1-32
Under these conditions it is possible that the cutting carried out during the clearing work will
increase the risk of landslides, which could eventually be severe. During leveling the typical
cross sections will be adapted to the characteristics of the terrain. Stabilization work will be
carried out and embankments will be designed according to the gradients to reduce the
probability of landslides and settlement.

The map of the physical sensitivity of the study area (map 4.1-1) shows those terrains liable to
become unstable. The locations identified are: wp 42+000 – 72+500,
wp 75+000 – 102+500, wp 105+000 – 130+000, wp 131+000 – 154+000 and wp 156+500 –
181+500.

The stretch between the Apurímac River and the Sachapampa River (wp 156+500 to
181+500) has a complex structure and a high risk of impacts because of the steep gradient, for
which reason a detailed geotechnical study is required.

The use of explosives could destabilize the slopes or accelerate external geodynamic
processes. The controlled blasting to be used in the project activities will prevent severe
effects on the environment. The impact has therefore been classified as moderately
significant, indirect and mitigable.

Increase of Landslides

The high level of dynamism in the jungle and especially in the jungle perimeter creates a risk
of landslides. These events occur in morphologically fragile zones as a result of clearing the
vegetation, making cuttings and other work which modifies the ecosystem.

Earthmoving during leveling of the right of way and during construction of the access roads
could increase the likelihood of landslides, which could become very severe. To prevent this
impact, the cuttings will be adapted to the characteristics of the terrain and a geotechnical
study will be carried out in unstable areas with steep gradients. As a result, embankments or
berms and other protective works will be built, which will increase the affected area but will
prevent landslides.

Cuttings in unstable areas will produce a greater risk of erosion or landslides (see previous
item). The areas identified (classified as moderately significant) as being susceptible to these
effects are located at waypoints wp 75+000 – 90+000, wp 93+500 – 100+000, wp 104+500 –
108+000, wp 121+000 – 122+000, wp 144+000 – 149+500, wp 151+500 – 154+000 and wp
156+500 – 164+00. The impact has been classified as moderately significant, indirect and of
moderate probability during clearing and leveling operations and of very little significance
during construction of the additional infrastructure.

Soil

Alteration of Soils

The clearing, felling, cuttings, embankments and blasting along the length of the gas pipeline
route will affect areas under cultivation (coffee, cacao, cassava and fruit) forest and protected
areas (Apurímac Restricted Zone and primary forest) in the valleys of the rivers Urubamba,
Apurímac, Chunchabamba and Sachapampa. The alteration will consist of removal of the


EIA Gas Pipeline Camisea-Lima                                                         Vol I 5.1-33
topsoil, limiting its productive potential on the right of way and surface installations. Table 5-
12 lists the land use capacity and current use being made of the land, defining the level of
impact.

in the affected agricultural areas, soils with productive capacity will be separated to prevent
them being lost and may be replaced when construction of the gas pipeline is complete. This
impact has been classified as very significant in these sectors, unavoidable and correctable.

The areas where soil alteration will be moderately significant are located at waypoints wp
0+000 – 1+000, wp 7+500 – 8+500 and where the gas pipeline crosses the rivers Urubamba,
Mantalo, Comerciato, Cumpirusiato and Apurímac (valleys).

Table 5-12     Comparison of Soil Changes, According to Land Use Capacity and Current
               Use
                                                  Temporarily Affected
                                                          (ha)
                     Jungle                                              Level of Impact %
                                                  Right of Study Area
                                                  Way (Ha)       (Ha)
                      Intensive cultivation (A3s)   3.91        723.42         0.54
                      Permanent crops                          3057.68         0.00
                                                   48.20       2977.53         1.62
   Land Use Capacity Forestry                      210.75    24553.38          0.86
                                                   171.71    16536.88          1.04
                      Pasture                      17.16       2472.96         0.69
                      Protection                   30.24       8699.36         0.35
                                                   352.54    167184.20         0.21
                      Woodland
                                                   117.15    11835.89          0.99
                       Crops                       7.42      1131.98           0.66
      Current Use
                       Urban or settled areas     68.55      7510.79           0.91
                       Cultivated pasture          0.81       87.76            0.92
                       Barren or unproductive      2.26      603.71            0.37

Soil Compacting

Construction of the gas pipeline will compact the subsoil on the right of way during leveling
(cuttings and embankments) and while it is in use during construction. This will produce
changes in the permeability, seepage and subsurface runoff regimes. These effects may be
significant in zones identified as being physically sensitive, located at waypoints wp 0+000 –
1+000, wp 7+500 – 8+500 and where the gas pipeline crosses the rivers Urubamba, Mantalo,
Comerciato, Cumpirusiato and Apurímac.

This impact has been classified as very significant, temporary and unavoidable in these
sectors.

Increase of Erosion

The construction of the gas pipeline will produce an increase in laminar erosion caused by
surface runoff, especially in areas where the soil is loose and fine grained and the gradient is


EIA Gas Pipeline Camisea-Lima                                                          Vol I 5.1-34
steep. This effect is more extensive and less noticeable as soil is removed leaving behind the
larger particles. Loss of vegetation will leave soils temporarily unprotected from erosion by
wind and water, exposing the terrain to the direct action of rainfall, triggering erosion.

The soils identified as sub-associations (Xse-C3se and Xse-F3se) in the steep, very steep and
extremely steep sectors of Quintiarina, Kepashiato, Shimaa, Kepashiato and Quellomayo, are
at high risk of erosion by water, which will increase the susceptibility of the landscape. These
areas are located between the following waypoints: wp 000+000 – 10+500, wp 15+000 –
19+500, wp 23+500 – 43+000, wp 46+000 – 50+000, wp 51+000 – 68+500, wp 83+500 –
89+000, wp 90+000 – 102+500, wp 112+000 – 118+00, wp 123+000 – 130+000, wp
134+000 – 136+000, wp 138+500 – 152+500, wp 165+000 – 182+9.

This process already exists in the region due to extensive agriculture that has deforested large
areas, both level and mountainous, regardless of their suitability for agriculture.

During construction and rehabilitation of the gas pipeline route and during the closure phase,
temporary erosion control measures will be specified to mitigate the impact. These
preventive, corrective and mitigation measures for erosion control are given in the
environmental management plan. The criteria described classify this impact as moderately
significant, localized in accordance with the progress of the work and mitigable.

Hydrology

Changes to the Characteristics of Rivers

River crossings in the jungle sector will employ horizontal directional drilling (rivers
Apurímac, wp 155+000 and Urubamba, wp 11+000) and excavation for the other rivers
(digging of trenches in two phases in the middle of the river), thus the normal water flow will
not be interrupted and aquatic species will be unaffected. The following rivers cross the gas
pipeline route: wp 38+000, river wp 42+000, Poyentimari wp 49+700, Mantalo wp
Igoritoshiari wp 74+300, Cumpirusiato wp 102+800, Poyentimari wp Santa Ana wp 128+200,
Comerciato wp 130+300, Chunchubamba wp 162+700, Sachapampa wp 181+800 and various
creeks (wp 12+500, 27+600, 28+700, 72+600, 77+500, 102+300, 103+300, 104+500,
154+300 and 156+000).

Directional drilling will not cause any change in the flow of the rivers. Crossings by open
cutting will temporarily affect the watercourses when the trenches are dug in the riverbeds.
The material from the trenches will be disposed of in such a manner as not to affect the
natural flow of water. This effect will disappear when the gas pipeline is covered.

The construction of gullies in small creeks may affect the gradient over a small area. Changes
in the riverbeds will alter the river's energy regime, causing erosion and effects on aquatic
habitats as well as its sediment carrying capacity. The effects of altering the natural
characteristics of creeks and rivers has been classified as of very little significance, direct and
temporary. The rise in river levels during the rainy season will fill and reshape the affected
areas, returning them to a condition similar to that before the project was carried out.




EIA Gas Pipeline Camisea-Lima                                                          Vol I 5.1-35
Water Quality

Water Turbidity

Opening (clearing and felling) and leveling of the right of way will cause an increase in solids
in suspension in the rivers during this construction phase. This effect will occur principally
during crossing of rivers and creeks (previous item) because of direct mechanical action on
the sediments, which will be isolated and temporary. In areas where the vegetation will be
cleared, erosion of the right of way will also add sediments to the water. To prevent this
source of sediment, temporary and permanent erosion control measures during the
construction and closure phases respectively. This impact has been classified as moderate
(because of the area involved), temporary and mitigable.

The effect will be greatest on the steeper riverbeds consisting of clayey materials, where the
increase in suspended particles will reduce water quality and clarity and introduce organic and
inorganic contaminants. The reduction in transparency will, in turn, reduce the productivity
(photosynthesis) of algae and macrophytes. The effects of this sedimentation will be more
acute on gravel habitats which are important in the life cycles of certain species of fish.

On creeks that supply water to communities or villages and in aquatic environments that
contain greater biological wealth or are in a better state of preservation, such as the rivers
Shimaa and Comerciato, temporary measures will be taken to control sediment (barriers of
vegetable materials or rice bales). This impact has been classified as moderately significant
and temporary. The EMP includes measures to be employed when operating machinery in
watercourses.

Vegetation

Loss of Vegetation

Opening the right of way (clearing and felling) will cause a loss of vegetation on the gas
pipeline route. This is estimated at approximately 592.21 hectares of forest, woodland and
pastures. The greatest loss of vegetation (100 m3/ha) will occur in the areas of primary forest
located between waypoints wp 0+000 – 10+500, wp 12+500 – 19+500, wp 23+500 –
43+000, wp 46+000 – 51+000, wp 54+000 – 57+000, wp 62+500 – 64+500, wp 67+500 –
72+000, wp 83+500 – 89+000, wp 90+500 - 102+000 - wp 112+000 - 116+000 wp 128+500 -
130+000, wp 134+000 - 153+000 and wp 165+000 - 181+500, affecting some 50% of the
trees and the shrubs, herbaceous species and crops in certain sectors. Primary forest accounts
for 59.00% (348.28 hectares) of the total area of the right of way, the right of way will be
narrower in areas where the vegetation is in a good state of preservation (15 m plus 50%).

Agriculture in the upper Urubamba has reduced the area of primary forest in this area by
78.78 Ha. (see Table 5-13). Both the project design and the EMP prohibit the clearing of
vegetation outside the area assigned to the gas pipeline. Also, trees will also be felled in such
a manner that the effect on the surrounding vegetation is minimized. The impact has therefore
been classified as highly significant.




EIA Gas Pipeline Camisea-Lima                                                        Vol I 5.1-36
Table 5-13      Length and Surface Area to be Cleared and Volume of Usable Timber
                                                      Length               `´Area**              *Volume
                    0escription
                                                      (Km.)                  (Ha)                 m3/ha
           Primary forest
           Dwarf mountain forest                    30684.77                107.40               10739.67
           Large mountain forest                    24917.20                62.29                 6229.30
           Large pre-mountain forest                33429.00                83.57                 8357.13
           Small pre-mountain forest                27147.58                95.02                 9501.65
           Sub-total                                116178.05               348.28               34827.75
           Affected areas
           Secondary vegetation                     30406.26                106.42
           "Pacales"                                16780.17                58.73
           Agricultural influence                   22508.24                78.78
           Sub-total                                69694.67                243.93
           Total area cleared                       185872.72               592.21
          * Considering an average of 100 m3/ha
          ** Calculation based on cleared area with a maximum width of 35 m and 25 m in areas where the vegetation is in
          a good state of preservation.


Vegetation in a good state of preservation was found in the sector between the rivers
Chunchubamba and Sachapampa (mountain forest) wp 165+000 to181+500. This has a
complex structure and is highly susceptible to impacts due to the steep gradient. The
importance of this area is increased by the presence of protected or endangered species such
as orchids and species of podocarpaceae (CITES, INRENA 1997) as well as valuable timber-
producing species (podocarpaceae, lauraceae, meliaceae). These characteristics mean that this
zone has been classified as highly sensitive to the project activities . therefore the right of way
will be narrower to reduce the impact.

Loss of Individuals of Protected Species

Species that are protected under Peruvian law and species of economic and ecological
importance have been identified in the zone. The elimination of vegetation can cause a
reduction in the species of ecological interest mentioned in chapter 2.8 Ecology and
Vegetation in volume II.

Compliance with the restrictions on clearing vegetation other than on the route of the gas
pipeline, as well as directional felling avoid unnecessary damage to vegetation not affected by
the project. This impact has thus been classified as unavoidable and highly significant, given
the quantity of forest along the route. These species will also be used during replanting.

Loss of Habitats

Elimination of plants during clearing and felling on the route will alter and reduce habitats on
the right of way. In this sector the vegetation coverage serves as a living and/or nesting place
for a number of species. Loss of habitat is considered significant in the case of primary forest
and the Apurímac Restricted Zone (wp 18+000 to 74+500), where birds and mammals of
interest can be found, as well as in the forest of the Sachapampa River (wp 167+000 to
179+000) because of their state of preservation. The effects of loss of habitat will be greater



EIA Gas Pipeline Camisea-Lima                                                                                      Vol I 5.1-37
for invertebrates, birds and mammals. This impact has been classified as of little significance,
indirect and unavoidable in the area where the roadway is to be built (at wp 183+700).

The construction will fragment ecosystem habitats in different sectors. The effect will be of
greater interest in areas of primary forest, because of the loss of vegetation where animals
live, roost or shelter. This impact has been classified as of little significance, unavoidable,
temporary and indirect. It is thought that this sector of jungle, because of its large area, is used
as a refuge by species form other areas.

Fauna

Loss of Individuals of Fauna

The opening (clearing and felling) and leveling of the right of way could cause the loss of
fauna of economic and ecological importance, especially invertebrates, amphibians, reptiles
and rodents may be killed by the machinery as they are less nimble. Nevertheless larger
animals will migrate and will not be affected by these activities.

The species that could be affected in the zone are those that live in the primary forest.
Sections where the right of way will be narrowed and strict control will be exercised over the
leveling work (cuttings and embankments). In addition, the width of the right of way will be
reduced and a monitoring program will be included for the above-mentioned species.

The presence of humans and the noise will drive fauna away, so few individuals will be lost.
This impact has been classified as of little significance, temporary and unavoidable. The
workers area restricted to the working area of the right of way and are prohibited from
hunting or fishing, this measure must be complied with strictly. In addition, a program of
environmental awareness for the employees will be drawn up and implemented and will
include topics on the importance of fauna with special emphasis on endemic species.

Landscape

Fragmentation of the Landscape

The area affected during the construction of the gas pipeline is 592.21 hectares, which is
equivalent to 1.08% of the total surface area of the sector under study. Because of the width of
the right of way and the vegetation this fragmentation will only be visible in prominent
locations and the tops of hills. Replanting during the closure phase will reduce the effect of
this impact.

During operation of the gas pipeline re-growth of the vegetation will counteract the
fragmentation of the landscape. Therefore, this impact has been classified as of little
significance and mitigable.




EIA Gas Pipeline Camisea-Lima                                                           Vol I 5.1-38
Positive Impacts

Conservation and Protection of Archaeological Sites

As part the construction of the gas pipeline, TGP will define and protect any archaeological
sites found. Sites where archaeological evidence has been identified are located in the Las
Malvinas sector (on the left bank of the Urubamba River - ceramic shards) far from the right
of way; in the native community of Aendoshiari (fragments of ceramics) located at
coordinates 677 848 E and 8 579 549 N; in the incomer community of Alto Shimaa (ceramic
fragments) located at coordinates 702 008 E and 8 614 177 N and on the right bank of the
Apurímac River between co-ordinates 8 571 062 N 658 520 E, 8 571 119 N 658 531 E, 8 571
113 N 658 546 E on cultivated land. The evidence consists only of fragments of vessels,
possibly for domestic use, of relatively late origin, probably 1400 bc.

The use of the right of way during construction may expose the archaeological zones to
depredation. TGP will have a resident archaeologist registered with the INC, who will
examine areas where archaeological evidence is found during the gas pipeline clearing and
leveling work. The archaeologist will, after coordinating with the INC, identify any
archaeological remains and prepare reports. All the information generated will be sent to the
INC.

5.1.2.5 Description of the Impacts - Mounting of the Gas Pipeline and Pumping
        Stations

Negative Impacts

Relief and Geodynamics

Increase of Changes to the Relief

Mounting of the pumping stations (04) and shut-off valves (05) will affect the relief because
of the leveling activities (cuttings, embankments, compacting) and construction of the
foundation. An area of 10.40 hectares will be leveled for the stations and 2.10 hectares for the
valves. During leveling the typical cross sections will be adapted to the characteristics of the
terrain to prevent landslides. The effect on the these areas will be mainly visual and slight
compared to the extent involved.

This impact has been classified as of little significance, direct and unavoidable.

Soil

Changes to the Soil

Installation of the stations and valves during the process of clearing and leveling of the 10.40
hectares will alter the soil by eliminating vegetation and because the topsoil will be removed
when cuttings and embankments are being built. On these areas alteration will also imply a
permanent change in the land use pattern (for the useful life of the project).



EIA Gas Pipeline Camisea-Lima                                                        Vol I 5.1-39
Productive soils will be separated during leveling so that they can be used during closure of
the construction phase. This impact, therefore, has been classified as of little significance and
unavoidable.

Soil Compacting

Installation of the pumping stations and valves will compact the soil over an area of 10.40 ha.
This will produce changes in the permeability, seepage and subsurface runoff regimes and
will be significant in zones identified as at risk from landslides (item before soil compacting
during opening and leveling).

The impact has been classified as of little significance and unavoidable.

Water Resources

Temporary Changes to Flow Volumes

Extraction of water from the rivers or creeks for the hydrostatic tests will temporarily affect
the flow rate of the watercourses to be used. A volume of 23,000 m3 will be needed and will
be obtained from surface water sources. The project specifies that less than 30% of the
existing flow should be extracted and that this should not affect downstream water use.
Alteration of the waters in this sector has been classified as moderately significant, direct and
temporary.

Vegetation

Loss of Vegetation

In the areas where the pumping stations and shut-off valves are to be located it is estimated
that approximately 10.40 hectares of forest, partially forested and pasture land will be lost.
Most of the loss of vegetation (100,00 m3/ha) will occur at PS-1 located between waypoints
wp 0+000 (3.2 ha) and PS-3 wp 168+000 (4.00 ha) and 0,42 ha for the shut-off valves (wp
10+800, wp 49+500, wp 57+500, wp 102+500 and wp 154+700) 50% of which will consist of
trees with the rest shrubs and herbaceous species.

Both the project design and the EMP prohibit the clearing of vegetation outside the area
assigned to the installations. This clearing will employ directional felling in order to minimize
the effect on the surrounding vegetation. This impact has been classified as of little
significance considering the extent of the forest in this sector.

Loss of Individuals of Protected Species

Clearing and felling the vegetation may result in the loss of species of ecological interest
identified in chapter 2.8 Ecology and Vegetation of volume II, which includes a detailed list
of species.

Compliance with the restrictions on clearing vegetation other than on the installations and
directional felling will avoid unnecessary damage to vegetation not affected by the project. In
accordance with these criteria, this impact has been classified as of little significance and


EIA Gas Pipeline Camisea-Lima                                                        Vol I 5.1-40
unavoidable. Similarly, the closure program must benefit the use of these species for
replanting.


5.1.3   OPERATION PHASE


Most of the negative impacts will cease at the end of the construction activities, leaving
principally those impacts that are unavoidable and of very little significance, such as
generation of suspended particles and gasses and an increase in noise due principally to the
operation of the pumping stations and maintenance the access roads. The risk of water and
soil pollution by spillages, explosions or fire should be considered, as well as the risk that
natural phenomena will affect the project (earthquakes, landslides and deterioration of the
pipeline by corrosion).

During this phase the benefits of operating the gas pipeline will become apparent. These
include generation of employment in the short, medium and long term (this analysis is
included in the social impact study) an improved trade balance and improved air quality in
industrial areas.

The following activities could generate impacts in this jungle stretch:

  Operation of the pumping stations.
  Transport of natural gas (NG),
  Transport of natural gas liquids (NGL),
  Maintenance of the pipelines,
  Maintenance of the pumping stations.
  Maintenance of the service access tracks and
  Maintenance of the roadway (right of way).

5.1.3.1 Negative Impacts

Air Quality

Increase in Combustion Gas Emissions

The pumping stations will use internal combustion engines fuelled by natural gas. In addition,
the pumping stations are fitted with flare stacks which light automatically when it is necessary
to reduce the pressure and eliminate scraping fluids. A small amount of traffic will be
necessary for maintenance of the gas pipeline. The combustion process will produce carbon
monoxide (CO), sulphur dioxide (SO2), nitrogen oxides NOx, and volatile organic
compounds. Emissions of combustion gasses will be a low magnitude impact mitigable by the
use of natural gas which is a clean fuel. A list of emissions from the three pumping stations is
given in Table 5-14.




EIA Gas Pipeline Camisea-Lima                                                        Vol I 5.1-41
This impact has been classified as of little significance, direct and unavoidable. The
equipment and machinery will be maintained in good condition, which will keep emission
levels low (see Table 3-2 in Legal Framework).

Table 5-14          Inventory of Gas and Particle Emissions from Pumping Stations
                                         Pumping Station                                                 Pumping Station
               Gas                                                    Pumping Station No. 2
                                             No. 1                                                            No. 3
                                                                        Pumps                          Pumps
                                     Pumps           Generator                     Generator                    Generator
                                                                       1000 kw                        1250 kw
                                    900 kw (2)        750 kw                        350 kw                        350 kw
                                                                          (2)                           (2)
                                                                           tons / month
  Carbon monoxide (CO)                  19.40             8.10           21.60        3.80              27.00     3.80
  Sulphur dioxide (SO2),                25.60            24.60            32.8            5.7           41.00     5.70
  Nitrogen oxides (NOx)                 16.00             6.60           17.60            3.10           22.2     3.10
  Toc                                   82.40             8.00           91.60            3.80          114.4     3.80
  Particles                             19.20              8.0           21.40            3.8           26.80     3.80
 Estimated emissions from pump motors operating continuously, at 75% of capacity and for 17,520 hours a year.


Increase in Particulate Material

Vehicle traffic will generate particles in suspension. The quantity of emissions will vary
throughout the route in accordance with the traffic, the degree of soil cohesion and moisture
on the right of way and access roads. Low traffic volumes during this phase mean that the
effect will be of low magnitude. This impact has been classified as of very little significance,
direct, temporary and unavoidable.

Noise

Increase of Noise Levels

The pumping stations will generate noise within the installations. The design of these
installations will reduce noise levels to 45 dBA at the station boundaries and they will be
below the WHO guidelines. Personnel working near the pumps will use ear protectors in areas
where the noise exceeds 75 dBA. The noise will have no effect on housing as there are none
near the pumping stations and existing noise levels are similar to those that will be generated
by the project.

Another source of noise will be vehicle traffic during maintenance of the stations and gas
pipeline, which will be sporadic and take place only during the day; speed will be controlled
(30 Km./h) in sensitive areas, so the noise generated will be low and intermittent.

In accordance with these criteria, this impact has been classified as direct, of very little
significance and unavoidable.




EIA Gas Pipeline Camisea-Lima                                                                                    Vol I 5.1-42
Relief and Geodynamics

Increase of Landslides

The effects of rainfall and gravity may cause changes to the relief, affecting access to the gas
pipeline and other installations for maintenance. This impact has been classified as of little
significance, direct, temporary and possible. In the event of landslides, mitigation measures
such as stabilization of gradients will be carried out, together with erosion control work
complemented by replanting.

Soils

Risk of Soil Pollution

Accidental escapes of natural gas (NG) or natural gas liquids (NGL) during operation will
cause soils pollution. the likelihood of such escapes and their magnitude will be reduced by
preventive measures incorporated into the design. These will consist of shut-off valves fitted
every 30 Km. approximately, and in strategic locations as well as the installation of a SCADA
system for detecting leaks.

This impact has been classified as of little significance in the event of occurrence, since it
would affect the quality of the soil and vegetation in the location of the spillage. An analysis
of the possible magnitude and destination of the NGL is given in the contingency plan. The
response and mitigation of spillages is included in the contingency plan.

Water Resources

Corrosion of Pipelines

The soil on the jungle stretch is very wet and this could have a corrosive effect on the gas
pipeline (corrosion of the pipelines), there is also a vast network of creeks that could also
affect the pipelines. This risk has been minimized by the use of polyethylene cladding and
cathodic protection on the gas pipeline. In addition, the condition of the gas pipeline will be
evaluated using intelligent scrapers to measure the thickness and condition of the pipe walls.
If a section is found to be affected it will be replaced to prevent leaks or spillages.

Water Quality

Risk of Water Pollution

In the event of a spillage of NGL, there would be a risk of surface and underground water
pollution. The impact levels are defined in the contingency plan. The impact on surface
watercourses would depend on whether the spillage reached them and on the speed of the
response. The impact on water quality would mean that it would be temporarily unsuitable for
human use, but could be so used when the cleaning work was completed. The impact on
aquatic fauna will depend on the size of the affected water course and its flow rate during the
accident. Areas where NGL accumulates will be affected if the volume of the spillage
displaces the water column significantly. The specific gravity of NGL (0.64) means that it
would float on larger areas of water without affecting the water column and the impact would


EIA Gas Pipeline Camisea-Lima                                                        Vol I 5.1-43
be felt by mosquitoes and larvae living on the surface. Accidental spillages of fuel could reach
watercourses, although this is a remote possibility because little fuel will be used during
operations. TGP will train its personnel in spillage prevention and response. This impact has
been classified as of very little significance.

The EMP includes a contingency plan for spillages of hydrocarbons. The use of sediment
traps will reduce the possibility of water pollution to a minimum.

Vegetation

Risk of Fires

The operation of the gas pipeline in sectors with a lot of vegetation implies the risk of fires in
the event of a collapse, which could also result in an explosion, affecting the vegetation.
There is a very low likelihood of this impact occurring.

Fauna

Loss of Individuals of Protected Species

The right of way and access roads could encourage commercial hunting of birds and
mammals. Birds of the families Tinamidae and Psittacidae are hunted to be sold as pets or a
source of feathers for use in handicrafts. Among the mammals, hunting could have a greater
effect on deer (Cervidae), which provide large quantities of food. TGP will employ a team of
monitors to prevent the right of way and access tracks being used for hunting.

Some ground-dwelling animals, principally rodents and reptiles, continually cross the right of
way and access roads to areas offering more food and/or safer refuge, with the risk that they
may be run over. This effect will be of very low magnitude because traffic in the zone will be
sporadic, maintenance of the surface installations will be carried out using helicopters mainly
and vehicles only occasionally. This impact has been classified as of little significance.

Barrier Effect to Fauna Mobilization

The pumping stations and shut-off valves and access roads will form barriers to the movement
of local woodland fauna, but this will be little significance. This will have a lesser effect on
birds and mammals when they have adapted to the presence of humans and the infrastructure,
because of design characteristics and rehabilitation of the affected areas. This impact,
therefore, has been classified as of very little significance and moderately likely.




EIA Gas Pipeline Camisea-Lima                                                         Vol I 5.1-44
Table 5-15          Summary of Impact Evaluation for the Pre-Construction Phase
 Environment                                                                                                          Location
                     Environmental Impacts                        Elements Responsible                                                                 Effect      Condition        Probability          Magnitude
 Components                                                                                                       (Waypoints Or Sites)
                                                                                   Gas Pipeline Pre-Construction Phase (Design and Studies)
                                                        Road and air traffic, transport of supplies On existing roads, on areas designated for
                 Increase in gas emissions                                                                                                            Negative      Direct     Unavoidable, temporary Low
                                                        and materials.                              storage areas and existing helipads (15 areas).
 Ai r Quality
                                                        Road and air traffic, transport of supplies On existing roads, on areas designated for
                 Increase in particulate material                                                                                                     Negative      Direct     Unavoidable, temporary Low
                                                        and materials.                              storage areas and existing helipads (15 areas).
                                                        Road and air traffic, transport of supplies On existing roads, on areas designated for
    Noise        Increase in noise levels                                                                                                             Negative      Direct     Unavoidable, temporary Low
                                                        and materials.                              storage areas and existing helipads (15 areas).
                                                        Clearing of vegetation on helipads and                                                                                 A low probability of
                 Increased risk of unstable slopes                                             Helipads, camps and tracks.                            Negative      Indirect                        Low
                                                        access roads.                                                                                                          occurrence
    Relief
                 Increased risk of landslides and Clearing of vegetation on helipads and                                                                                       A low probability of
                                                                                         Helipads, camps and tracks.                                  Negative      Indirect                        Low
                 slumping.                        access roads.                                                                                                                occurrence
                                                                                                       Helipads, camps and tracks, in the Apurímac
                 Alteration of soils                    Clearing tracks.                                                                              Negative      Indirect   Unavoidable               Low
                                                                                                       and upper Urubamba valleys
                                                                                                       Helipads, camps and tracks, Apurímac and
     Soil        Increased erosion                      Clearing tracks.                                                                              Negative      Indirect   Moderate probability      Low
                                                                                                       upper Urubamba valleys.

                                                        Road and air traffic, transport of supplies                                                                            Very a low probability
                 Risk of soil pollution                                                             Road and air traffic.                             Negative      Indirect                          Low
                                                        and materials.                                                                                                         of occurrence
                                                        Road and air traffic, transport of supplies                                                                            Very a low probability
 Water Quality   Risk of surface water pollution.                                                   Road and air traffic.                             Negative      Indirect                          Low
                                                        and materials.                                                                                                         of occurrence
                                                        Clearing of vegetation on helipads and
  Vegetation     Loss of vegetation                                                            Helipads, camps and tracks.                            Negative      Direct     Unavoidable               Low
                                                        access roads.
                                                        Clearing the vegetation. Road and air Helipads, camps and tracks, in the Apurímac
    Fauna        Temporary migration of species                                                                                                       Negative      Indirect   Unavoidable               Low
                                                        traffic, transport of supplies and materials. and upper Urubamba valleys
                                                                                                      Helipads, camps and tracks, in the Apurímac
  Landscape      Alteration of the landscape            Clearing the vegetation.                                                                      Negative      Direct     Very low probability      Low
                                                                                                      and upper Urubamba valleys
Archaeological Discovery       of      archaeological                                                  Helipads, camps and tracks, in the Apurímac
                                                        Clearing the vegetation.                                                                      Beneficial    Indirect   Very low probability      Low
   Remains     sites                                                                                   and upper Urubamba valleys




EIA Gas Pipeline Camisea-Lima                                                                                                                                                                         Vol I 5.1-45
Table 5-16         Summary of Impact Evaluation for the Construction Phase
 Environment                                                                                                              Location
                  Environmental Impacts                         Elements Responsible                                                                       Effect    Condition        Probability        Magnitude
 Components                                                                                                           (Waypoints or Sites)

                                                                                             Gas Pipeline Construction Phase
Summary of Generated Impacts
                                                   Operation of machinery and equipment during
                                                                                                                                                                                 Unavoidable,           Low and
                  Increase in gas emissions        clearing, leveling, construction of access tracks, wp 0+000 – 182+000                                  Negative    Direct
                                                                                                                                                                                 temporary              medium
                                                   camps, machinery parking areas and others.
  Air Quality
                                                   Operation of machinery and equipment during
                  Increase     in   particulate                                                       wp 0+000 – 182+000 (on a strip 20 to 30 meters                             Unavoidable,
                                                   clearing, leveling, construction of access tracks,                                                     Negative    Direct                            Low
                  material                                                                            wide on the right of way)                                                  temporary
                                                   mobilization and others.
                                                                                                                                                                                 Moderate probability
                                                                                                       wp 0+000 – 182+000 and on camps, machinery                                                     Low and
     Noise        Increase in noise levels         Operation of machinery during the activities.                                                          Negative    Direct     of   occurrence    -
                                                                                                       parking and storage areas, among others                                                        medium
                                                                                                                                                                                 temporary
                                                   Operation and movement of machinery and                                                                                       Very        a      low
                                                                                              wp 0+000 – 182+000 and on camps, machinery
      Soil        Risk of soil pollution           equipment, transport of fuels, storage and                                                             Negative    Indirect   probability          of Low
                                                                                              parking and storage areas, among others
                                                   refueling.                                                                                                                    occurrence
                                                                                                                                                                                 Very        a      low
                                                   Discharge or spillage of contaminants: waste, oils                                                                                                    Low and
 Water Quality    Risk of water pollution                                                             In the rivers, creek and others sources of water.   Negative    Indirect   probability          of
                                                   and grease, lubricants, etc.                                                                                                                          medium
                                                                                                                                                                                 occurrence
                                                                                                       wp 0+000 – 182+000 and camps, machinery
                                                                                                       parking and storage areas, the Apurímac
                  Local migration of species All gas pipeline construction activities                  Restricted Zone (wp 16+000 to 71+500) and the      Negative    Indirect   Unavoidable            Medium
                                                                                                       stretch between the rivers Chunchubamba and
     Fauna                                                                                             Sachapampa.
                                                   Construction of the gas pipeline, camps,                                                                                      Moderate probability
                  Barrier    effect           to                                                  wp 0+000 – 182+000 and on camps, machinery
                                                   machinery parking and storage areas and access                                                         Negative    Direct     of   occurrence    - Medium
                  movement of fauna                                                               parking and storage areas.
                                                   tracks.                                                                                                                       temporary
                                                 The logistics activities (construction of access
                                                 track to PS-2, mobilization), quarrying activities,
                  Alteration        of       the                                                      wp 0+000 – 182+000 and on camps, machinery                                 Moderate probability
   Landscape                                     opening and leveling of the route (felling, clearing                                                     Negative    Direct                          Medium
                  landscape                                                                           parking and storage areas, quarries and others                             of occurrence
                                                 and infilling) and accumulation of construction
                                                 materials
                                                                                                  wp 0+000 al 19+500, 32+000 to 43+000, wp
                                                                                                                                                                                 Very        a      low
 Archaeological   Discovery                  of Construction of the gas pipeline and access track 62+500 to 72+000, wp 90+500 to 112+000, wp
                                                                                                                                                          Negative    Indirect   probability          of Low
    Remains       archaeological sites          to PS-2.                                          128+500 to 134+000, wp 152+500 to 167+500
                                                                                                                                                                                 occurrence
                                                                                                  and wp 179+000 to 182+000.




EIA Gas Pipeline Camisea-Lima                                                                                                                                                                         Vol I 5.1-46
 Environment                                                                                                   Location
                 Environmental Impacts                   Elements Responsible                                                                Effect    Condition        Probability           Magnitude
 Components                                                                                                (Waypoints Or Sites)
                                                                                   Gas Pipeline Construction Phase
Summary of Impacts – Logistics, Transport of Pipeline Sections and Camps
                                          Clearing and earthmoving during construction of Manugali River sector (10 Km.), camps (wp 0
              Effect on the relief        the access track to PS-2, improvement, storage Malvinas, wp 80 Chimpiarina, wp 106 Kepashiato     Negative    Direct     Unavoidable                 Medium
                                          areas camps and machinery parking areas.          and wp 160 Monterrico), storage areas, etc.
    Relief       Increased risk of unstable Clearing and earthmoving, principally on the
                                                                                         Idem                                               Negative    Indirect   Unavoidable                 Medium
                 slopes                     steeper sectors (gradient > 20%).
                                            Clearing and earthmoving, principally on the
                 Increase in landslides                                                  Manugali River sector (10 Km.),                    Negative    Indirect   Unavoidable                 Medium
                                            steeper sectors (gradient > 20%).

                                            Clearing and earthmoving during construction of Manugali River sector (10 Km.), camps (wp 0
                 Alteration of soils        the access track to PS-2, improvement, storage Malvinas, wp 80 Chimpiarina, wp 106 Kepashiato   Negative    Direct     Unavoidable                 Medium
                                            areas camps and machinery parking areas.        and wp 160 Monterrico), storage areas, etc.
     Soil                                   Construction of access track to PS-2, road
                                                                                                                                                                   Moderate probability        Low and
                 Soil compacting            improvements and construction of camps and Idem                                                 Negative    Indirect
                                                                                                                                                                   of occurrence               medium
                                            machinery parking areas (4 sectors).
                                            Construction of access track to PS-2 and road                                                                          Unavoidable,
                 Increased erosion                                                        Manugali River sector (10 Km.),                   Negative    Indirect                               Medium
                                            improvements.                                                                                                          temporary
                 Alteration       to       the Construction of access track to PS-2 and road
                                                                                             Rivers Manugali and Igoritoshiari              Negative    Indirect   Unavoidable                  Low
                 characteristics of rivers     improvements.
   Water
  Resources                              Construction of access track to PS-2, road
                 Temporary alteration of
                                         improvements, camps and machinery parking Rivers Manugali and Igoritoshiari                        Negative    Direct     Unavoidable                  Low
                 flow rates
                                         areas.

                                            Clearing,      earthmoving     and     additional
 Water Quality   Water turbidity            infrastructure during construction of the access Rivers Manugali and Igoritoshiari              Negative    Direct     Unavoidable                  Low
                                            track to PS-2

                                            Clearing of access track to PS-2, road Manugali River sector (0 Km.), camps (wp 0
                 Loss of vegetation         improvements, camps, machinery parking and Malvinas, wp 80 Chimpiarina, wp 106 Kepashiato       Negative    Direct     unavoidable                 Medium
                                            storage areas.                             and wp 160 Monterrico), storage areas, etc.
                 Loss of individuals from
                                          Idem                                                Idem                                          Negative    Indirect   unavoidable                 Medium
  Vegetation     protected species
                 Loss of habitat            Idem                                              Idem                                          Negative    indirect   unavoidable                 Medium
                                                                                                                                                                   Very        a      low
                 Risk of fires              Operation of camps and storage areas              Idem                                          Negative    indirect   probability          of      Low
                                                                                                                                                                   occurrence
                 Loss of individuals from Clearing of access track to PS-2, road
                                                                                                                                                                                               Low and
    Fauna        important       protected improvements, camps, machinery parking and Idem                                                  Negative    indirect   unavoidable
                                                                                                                                                                                               medium
                 species                   storage areas.



EIA Gas Pipeline Camisea-Lima                                                                                                                                                                Vol I 5.1-47
  Environment          Environmental                                                                                 Location
                                                              Elements Responsible                                                                    Effect    Condition   Probability    Magnitude
  Components              Impacts                                                                                (Waypoints Or Sites)
                                                                                            Gas Pipeline Construction Phase
Summary of Impacts – Quarrying
                                                                                                     Mantalo River wp 60+895, creeks wp 76+177, wp
                   Increased effect on the                                                           77+677 and 81+033, Cumpirusiato River wp
                                           Extraction of materials.                                                                                  Negative    Direct     Unavoidable     Medium
                   relief                                                                            106+067, creeks wp 112+737 and wp 135+237
   Relief and
                                                                                                     and Apurímac River wp 161+237.
  Geodynamics
                   Increased     risk       of                                                                                                                                              Low and
                                                 Extraction of materials.                            Idem                                            Negative    Indirect   Unavoidable
                   unstable slopes                                                                                                                                                          medium

                   Alteration      to    the
 Water Resources   characteristics of creeks Extraction of materials.                                Idem                                            Negative    indirect   Unavoidable      Low
                   or rivers
Summary of Impacts – Clearing, Leveling and Construction of Additional Infrastructure
                                         Impacts will occur principally during leveling of
                                                                                           Wp 0+000 to 182+000 by 35 m wide and 25 m
               Increased effect on the the terrain (cuttings, embankments and the use                                                                                                      High and
                                                                                           wide in areas with vegetation in a good state of          Negative    Direct     Unavoidable
               relief                    of explosives) and to a lesser extent during                                                                                                      Medium
                                                                                           preservation.
                                         construction of the additional infrastructure.
                                               Impacts will occur principally during leveling of
                                                                                                 wp 42+000 – 72+500, wp 75+000 – 102+500, wp
                   Increased     risk       of the terrain (cuttings, embankments and the use                                                                                               Low and
     Relief                                                                                      105+000 – 130+000, wp 131+000 – 154+000 and         Negative    Indirect   Unavoidable
                   unstable slopes             of explosives) and to a lesser extent during                                                                                                 medium
                                                                                                 wp 156+500 – 181+500.
                                               construction of the additional infrastructure.
                                                 Impacts will occur principally during leveling of   wp 75+000 – 90+000, wp 93+500 – 100+000, wp
                                                 the terrain (cuttings, embankments and the use      104+500 – 108+000, wp 121+000 – 122+000, wp
                   Increase in landslides                                                                                                            Negative    Indirect
                                                 of explosives) and to a lesser extent during        144+000 – 149+500, wp 151+500 – 154+000 and
                                                 construction of the additional infrastructure.      wp 156+500 – 164+00.
                                                                                                   Wp 0+000 to 182+000 by 35 m wide, valleys of
                                                 Clearing and leveling (felling,         cuttings, the rivers Urubamba, Apurímac, Chunchubamba
      Soil         Alteration of soils                                                                                                               Negative    Direct
                                                 embankments and use of explosives).               and Sachapampa. In primary forest in the ARZ,
                                                                                                   less than 15 m wide.




EIA Gas Pipeline Camisea-Lima                                                                                                                                                             Vol I 5.1-48
   Environment          Environmental                                                                           Location
                                                          Elements Responsible                                                                       Effect    Condition    Probability      Magnitude
   Components              Impacts                                                                         (Waypoints Or Sites)
                                                                                      Gas Pipeline Construction Phase
  Summary of Impacts – Clearing, Leveling and Construction of Additional Infrastructure
                                                                                               wp 0+000 – 1+000, wp 7+500 – 8+500 and where
                                            Leveling (cuttings and embankments) and the gas pipeline crosses the rivers Urubamba,
                  Soil compacting                                                                                                                   Negative    Indirect    Unavoidable        Medium
                                            construction of the access road.                   Mantalo,    Comerciato,   Cumpirusiato   and
                                                                                               Apurímac.
                                                                                              waypoints wp 000+000 – 10+500, wp 15+000 –
        Soil                                                                                  19+500, wp 23+500 – 43+000, wp 46+000 –
                                                                                              50+000, wp 51+000 – 68+500, wp 83+500 –
                                            Opening of the right of way (clearing and felling
                  Increased erosion                                                           89+000, wp 90+000 – 102+500, wp 112+000 –             Negative    Indirect    Unavoidable        Medium
                                            the vegetation).
                                                                                              118+000, wp 123+000 – 130+000, wp 134+000 –
                                                                                              136+000, wp 138+500 – 152+500, wp 165+000 –
                                                                                              182+000.
                  Alteration      to    the
                                            Leveling and construction of the additional Rivers          Urubamba,    Comerciato,   Mantalo,
  Water Resources characteristics of creeks                                                                                                         Negative    Indirect    Unavoidable         Low
                                            infrastructure near to sources of water.          Apurímac, Sachapampa and others.
                  or rivers
                                              Leveling and construction of the additional Rivers   Urubamba,    Comerciato,             Mantalo,                                              Low and
   Water Quality    Water turbidity                                                                                                                 Negative    Indirect    Unavoidable
                                              infrastructure near to sources of water.    Apurímac, Sachapampa and others.                                                                    medium

                                              Opening of the right of way (clearing and felling                                                                                               Medium to
                    Loss of vegetation                                                          wp 0 – 182+ 000.                                    Negative    Direct      Unavoidable
                                              the vegetation).                                                                                                                                  high
                    Loss of individuals
                                            Opening of the right of way (clearing and felling wp 0 – 182+ 000, principally primary forest areas                                               Medium to
     Vegetation     from          important                                                                                                         Negative    Indirect    Unavoidable
                                            the vegetation).                                  (ARZ and between wp 165+000 and 179+000).                                                         high
                    protected species
                                              Opening of the right of way (clearing and felling wp 0 – 182+ 000, principally primary forest areas                                             Medium to
                    Loss of habitat                                                                                                                 Negative    Indirect    Unavoidable
                                              the vegetation).                                  (ARZ and between wp 167+000 and 179+000).                                                       high
                    Loss of individuals
                                            Clearing activities (clearing and felling) and wp 0 – 182+ 000, principally primary forest areas
                    from          important                                                                                                         Negative    Indirect    Unavoidable        Medium
                                            leveling of the route.                         (ARZ and between wp 167+000 and 179+000).
                    protected species
       Fauna
                    Local migration       of Clearing activities (clearing and felling) and wp 0 – 182+ 000, principally primary forest areas
                                                                                                                                                    Negative    Indirect    Unavoidable        Medium
                    species                  leveling of the route.                         (ARZ and between wp 167+000 and 179+000).
                                                                                                                                                                              Moderate
                    Fragmentation of the Clearing activities (clearing and felling) and                                                                                                       Low and
     Landscape                                                                          wp 0+000 – 182+000                                          Negative    Indirect    probability of
                    landscape            leveling of the route.                                                                                                                               medium
                                                                                                                                                                             occurrence
                    Conservation          and
   Archaeological                                                                              In the sectors identified as having archaeological
                    protection             of Construction of the gas pipeline                                                                      Positive    Direct     Low probability     Medium
      Remains                                                                                  potential
                    archaeological sites.




EIA Gas Pipeline Camisea-Lima                                                                                                                                                                Vol I 5.1-49
  Environment                                                                                               Location
                Environmental Impacts                  Elements Responsible                                                                      Effect    Condition     Probability        Magnitude
  Components                                                                                            (Waypoints Or Sites)

                                                                                   Gas Pipeline Construction Phase
  Summary of Impacts - Installation of the Gas Pipeline, Pumping Stations, Shut-Off Valves, Etc.
                                                                                           wp 0+000, wp 70+500, wp 168+000 and sites
                                                                                                                                                                                            Low    and
     Relief     Effect on the relief      Installation of pumping stations, valves, etc.   where the valves are to be installed (every 35 Km.   Negative    Direct     Unavoidable
                                                                                                                                                                                            medium
                                                                                           approximately). – 5 units)

                                                                                           wp 0+000, wp 70+500, wp 168+000 and sites
      Soil      Alteration of soils       Installation of pumping stations, valves, etc.   where the valves are to be installed (every 35 Km.   Negative    Direct     Unavoidable          Medium
                                                                                           approximately) – 5 units

                                                                                           wp 0+000, wp 70+500, wp 168+000 and sites                                   Moderate
                                                                                                                                                                                            Low    and
                Soil compacting           Installation of pumping stations, valves, etc.   where the valves are to be installed (every 35 Km.   Negative    Indirect   probability     of
                                                                                                                                                                                            medium
                                                                                           approximately). – 5 units                                                   occurrence

    Water       Temporary alteration of Installation of the gas pipeline and hydrostatic Rivers   Urubamba,   Comerciato,     Mantalo,
                                                                                                                                                Negative    Direct     Unavoidable          Medium
   Resources    flow rates              testing.                                         Apurímac and Sachapampa and sources of water.

                                                                                         wp 0+000, wp 70+500, wp 168+000 and sites
                                          Installation of pumping stations, valves, etc.
   Vegetation   Loss of vegetation                                                       where the valves are to be installed (every 35 Km.     Negative    Direct     Unavoidable          Medium
                                          Clearing of the vegetation.
                                                                                         approximately) – 5 units




EIA Gas Pipeline Camisea-Lima                                                                                                                                                               Vol I 5.1-50
Table 5-17       Summary of Impact Evaluation for the Operation Phase
 Environment                                                                                                    Location
                  Environmental Impacts                    Elements Responsible                                                            Effect    Condition        Probability          Magnitude
 Components                                                                                                 (Waypoints Or Sites)
                                                                                    Operation of the Gas Pipeline
                                                 Operation of the pumping stations and
                 Increase in gas emissions                                             wp 0+000 - 182+000                                 Negative    Direct         Unavoidable             Low
                                                 vehicle traffic.
  Air Quality
                 Increase    in    particulate
                                                 Vehicle traffic                               wp 0+000 - 182+000                         Negative    Direct         Unavoidable             Low
                 material
                                                 Operation of the pumping stations and
     Noise       Increase in noise levels                                              wp 0+000 - 182+000                                 Negative    Direct         Unavoidable             Low
                                                 vehicle traffic.
                                            The effect of rainfall on the right of way
    Relief       Increase in landslides                                                 wp 0+000 - 182+000 and access tracks              Negative    Indirect       Unavoidable             Low
                                            and access tracks.
                                            Leakages of natural gas (NG) or natural gas
     Soil        Risk of soil pollution     liquids (NGL) and operation of the wp 0+000, wp 70+500, wp 168+000                            Negative    Indirect       Unavoidable             Low
                                            pumping stations
                 Deterioration of pipelines The soil characteristics (moisture) and in                                                                            A low probability of
   Hydrology                                                                            wp 0+000 - 168+000 and creeks                     Negative    Direct                                Medium
                 through corrosion          creeks.                                                                                                                   occurrence
                                                 Operation of the gas pipeline vehicle traffic                                                                    A low probability of
 Water Quality   Risk of water pollution                                                       Sources of water (rivers and creeks)       Negative    Indirect                               Low
                                                 on the right of way and access tracks.                                                                               occurrence

                                                 Operation of the gas pipeline (natural gas - wp 0+000, wp 70+500, wp 168+000 and shut-                          Very a low probability
  Vegetation     Risk of fires                                                                                                            Negative    Indirect                               Low
                                                 NG).                                         off valves                                                             of occurrence

                 Loss of individuals from                                                                                                                        Moderate probability
                                             Use of the access tracks and right of way.        wp 0+000 - 182+000                         Negative    Indirect                               Low
                 important protected species                                                                                                                       of occurrence
    Fauna
                                                 The infrastructure of the pumping stations, wp 0+000, wp 70+500, wp 168+000 and shut-                           Moderate probability
                 Barrier effect                                                                                                           Negative    Indirect                               Low
                                                 shut-off valves and use of the access tracks off valves and maintenance access tracks.                            of occurrence




EIA Gas Pipeline Camisea-Lima                                                                                                                                                             Vol I 5.1-51
  5.1     ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACTS - JUNGLE ....................................................... 5.1-1
     5.1.1    PRE-CONSTRUCTION PHASE (STUDY AND DESIGN) ........................ 5.1-17
       5.1.1.1 Negative Impacts .................................................................................... 5.1-17
       5.1.1.2 Positive Impacts ..................................................................................... 5.1-20
     5.1.2    CONSTRUCTION PHASE ......................................................................... 5.1-21
       5.1.2.1 Description of General Impacts.............................................................. 5.1-21
       5.1.2.2 Description of the Impacts – Logistics and Camps ................................ 5.1-27
       5.1.2.3 Description of Impacts - Quarrying ....................................................... 5.1-31
       5.1.2.4 Description of Impacts – Clearing and Leveling (additional infrastructure)
                5.1-32
       5.1.2.5 Description of the Impacts - Mounting of the Gas Pipeline and Pumping
       Stations 5.1-39
     5.1.3    OPERATION PHASE ................................................................................. 5.1-41
       5.1.3.1 Negative Impacts .................................................................................... 5.1-41



Table 5-2      Environmental Impact Identification Matrix .................................................... 5.1-3
Table 5-3      Environmental Impact Severity Matrix (Summary) ......................................... 5.1-5
Table 5-4      Impacts in Order of Severity ............................................................................ 5.1-7
Table 5-5      Summary of Impact Evaluation for the Pre-construction Phase ...................... 5.1-9
Table 5-6      Summary of Impact Evaluation for the Construction Phase .......................... 5.1-11
Table 5-7      Summary of Impact Evaluation for the Operation Phase ............................... 5.1-13
Table 5-8      Linear Analysis Matrix of Environmental Impacts – Construction Phase ..... 5.1-15
Table 5-9      Linear Analysis Matrix of Environmental Impacts – Operation Phase ......... 5.1-16
Table 5-10       Inventory of Monthly Gas Emissions*....................................................... 5.1-22
Table 5-11       Inventory of Monthly Particles Emissions ** ............................................ 5.1-23
Table 5-12       Comparison of Soil Changes, According to Land Use Capacity and Current
Use              5.1-34
Table 5-13       Length and Surface Area to be Cleared and Volume of Usable Timber .... 5.1-37
Table 5-14       Inventory of Gas and Particle Emissions from Pumping Stations ............. 5.1-42
Table 5-15       Summary of Impact Evaluation for the Pre-Construction Phase ............... 5.1-45
Table 5-16       Summary of Impact Evaluation for the Construction Phase ...................... 5.1-46
Table 5-17       Summary of Impact Evaluation for the Operation Phase ........................... 5.1-51




EIS Pipeline Carriage System Camisea-Lima                                                                       Vol I   5-53

								
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