Documents
Resources
Learning Center
Upload
Plans & pricing Sign in
Sign Out

IEE_OSO_2009-10

VIEWS: 7 PAGES: 51

									                                                             Dnr 2009-0129




 Initial Environmental Evaluation (IEE)
                       SWEDARP 2009/10
                    Oden Southern Ocean




The Icebreaker Oden in Antarctica, December 2008                  Photo: Magnus Tannerfeldt




     Swedish Antarctic Research Programme (SWEDARP)
                        Swedish Polar Research Secretariat
                                P.O. Box 50003
                              SE-104 05 Stockholm
                                    Sweden
           Final Initial Environmental Evaluation                                                                            Dnr 2009-0129
           Oden Southern Ocean 2009/10
            Swedish Polar Research Secretariat                                                                                      2009-10-13


CONTENTS

NON TECHNICAL SUMMARY……………………………………………………...3

1.       INTRODUCTION............................................................................................................. 5
     1.1          BACKGROUND AND SCIENTIFIC PURPOSE ...............................................................................5
     1.2          SCOPE OF THE INITIAL ENVIRONMENTAL EVALUATION...........................................................5
2.       DESCRIPTION OF THE SCIENTIFIC EXPEDITION ......................................... 7
     2.1          ODEN SOUTHERN OCEAN 2009/10.........................................................................................7
3.       ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT ASSESSMENT FOR OSO 2009/10..................... 9
     3.1      IMPACT IDENTIFICATION AND EVALUATION FROM SCIENTIFIC ACTIVITIES .............................9
        3.1.1   Measurement of Cosmic Ray Response Function for an Ice Cherenkov Detector...........9
        3.1.2   Measurement of Cosmic Ray Response Functions for an Ice Cherenkov Detector .......11
        3.1.3   Induced defences against ultraviolet radiation in Antarctic marine and freshwater
                systems............................................................................................................................13
        3.1.4   History of, and mechanisms leading to, post-LGM retreat of the West Antarctic Ice
                Sheet ...............................................................................................................................15
        3.1.5   History of, and mechanisms leading to, post-LGM retreat of the West Antarctic Ice
                Sheet ...............................................................................................................................18
        3.1.6   Ice sheet dynamics and processes along the West Antarctic continental Shelf..............19
        3.1.7   Atmosphere-Ice-Ocean Interactions in the Eastern Ross Sea........................................23
        3.1.8   Summary.........................................................................................................................24
     3.2      PREVENTION OF INTRODUCTION OF NON-NATIVE SPECIES ....................................................24
     3.3      CUMULATIVE IMPACTS.........................................................................................................25
     3.4      ALTERNATIVE AREAS ...........................................................................................................25
     3.5      THE ZERO ALTERNATIVE ......................................................................................................25
     3.6      GAPS OF INFORMATION AND OTHER UNCERTAINTIES ...........................................................25
     3.7      CONCLUSION........................................................................................................................26
APPENDIX 1 – THE ICEBREAKER ODEN ................................................................... 27

APPENDIX 2 – NEH ENVIRONMENTAL CODE OF CONDUCT......................... 30

APPENDIX 3 – SCAR CODE OF CONDUCT FOR FIELD WORK: ........................ 31

APPENDIX 4– A STUDY OF THE ICE-BREAKER ODEN IN POLAR
OPERATIONS........................................................................................................................... 32

APPENDIX 5 – TECHNICAL DETAILS FOR THE MULTIBEAM ECHO
SOUNDER AND THE SUB BOTTOM PROFILER ....................................................... 45



The IEE has been compiled by:                                                           Cecilia Selberg
                                                                                        Environmental Officer
                                                                                        Swedish Polar Research Secretariat
                                                                                        P.O. Box 50003
                                                                                        SE-104 05 Stockholm, Sweden




                                                                             2
Final Initial Environmental Evaluation                           Dnr 2009-0129
Oden Southern Ocean 2009/10
Swedish Polar Research Secretariat                                  2009-10-13




  NON-TECHNICAL SUMMARY
  Description of the activity
  Oden Southern Ocean 2009/10 (OSO 2009/10) is a marine research expedi-
  tion in the Southern Ocean during the austral summer of 2009/10. The cruise,
  with the Swedish icebreaker Oden as a platform, is jointly planned and carried
  out by the National Science Foundation Office of Polar Programs (NSF/OPP)
  and the Swedish Polar Research Secretariat (SPRS). The primary cruise track
  will go from McMurdo Sound, Antarctica across the Drake Passage towards
  South America. At the Marginal Ice Zone the ship will follow the ice edge
  through Ross Sea polynya and Amundsen Sea, and then Bellingshausen sea to
  Punta Arenas, Chile (Figure 1).




       Drake Passage




     Bellings-
     hausen Sea


                                             McMurdo Station

        Amundsen
        Sea
                               Ross Sea




  Figure 1. Antarctica




                                     3
Final Initial Environmental Evaluation                               Dnr 2009-0129
Oden Southern Ocean 2009/10
Swedish Polar Research Secretariat                                         2009-10-13


  It is difficult to come up with a realistic alternative to OSO 2009/10 that might
  give the same result but with a reduced impact. The largest contribution to en-
  vironmental outputs and associated impacts are related to travels to and from
  Antarctica, as wells as the physical presence in Antarctica. If researchers partici-
  pated in other national expeditions, associated logistic and scientific impacts
  would basically be shunted to those programmes. Also, technology and working
  conditions in Antarctica are limited due to the extreme conditions. Highest pri-
  ority is given to safety and reliability. The identified impacts associated to the
  planned activity are:

  Emissions to air of exhaust fumes and particles from combustion engines.
  The associated impacts are increased concentrations of greenhouse gases and
  aerosols in the atmosphere, contributing to human induced climate change as
  well as altering the physical and chemical properties of the local environment.
  Emissions to air from OSO 2009/10 are expected to be transitory and dissipate
  as negligible concentrations along the ship-track.

  Accidental spills may be expected when handling fuel and chemicals resulting
  in contamination of water, ice and eventually air. Spills from SWEDARP have
  so far been small and are very locally defined. Quantity of accidental spills is
  likely to be very limited and locally defined, associated impacts are therefore
  considered to be minor.



  Figure 2. Pictures from Antarctica 2008/09




                                                                  Photo: Magnus Tannerfeldt




                                       4
      Final Initial Environmental Evaluation                                Dnr 2009-0129
      Oden Southern Ocean 2009/10
      Swedish Polar Research Secretariat                                        2009-10-13


1.      INTRODUCTION

1.1     Background and scientific purpose
        Swedish polar research covers both the Arctic and the Antarctic and includes all
        fields of science with an emphasis on research related to climate and the envi-
        ronment. Participation in international science programs as well as international
        collaboration on logistics and other operational matters receive high priority.

        The icebreaker Oden (see Figure 3) is a Class 1A icebreaker with research labo-
        ratories including a sea water intake system, and a multibeam sonar with a sub
        bottom profiler. Basic ship data on the Oden can be found in Appendix 5 or at:
        http://www.sjofartsverket.se/templates/SFVXPage____1077.aspx

        The primary mission of the Oden is to lead the annual break-in of the
        McMurdo Ship Channel in the Ross Sea. In addition to the 5 weeks of transit
        from the McMurdo Sound Ice Edge, Ross Sea to South America NSF/OPP
        and SPRS will be providing dedicated science days for transects or stations. The
        total number of participants will be around 28 and the total number of crew
        will be 22. The scientific objective of the cruise will be to collect a range of data
        in sectors of the Antarctic seas that are rarely visited and data-sparse.




         Figure 3. Oden 2008/09

1.2     Scope of the initial environmental evaluation
        The scope of the environmental evaluation presented in this study is the scien-
        tific activities carried out during the OSO 2009/10.




                                              5
Final Initial Environmental Evaluation                               Dnr 2009-0129
Oden Southern Ocean 2009/10
Swedish Polar Research Secretariat                                        2009-10-13


  For logistic activities on Oden, an environmental impact assessment (EIA) was
  compiled in 1993, see Appendix 4. The study showed that the environmental
  impact for Oden during polar operations is low or negligible. At most, minor
  and transitory negative impacts can be expected from the usage of fossil fuels,
  which will result in emissions to air. Emissions are expected to be transitory and
  dissipate as negligible concentrations along the ship-track. The waste manage-
  ment system at Oden guarantees that all waste will be taken care of by person-
  nel at Oden and Raytheon, in accordance with the Antarctic Treaty. One pro-
  ject participating in OSO 2009/10 will visit terrestrial areas if there is an oppor-
  tunity, considering weather and ice-situation. The cumulative impact is yet con-
  sidered being negligible and to have less than minor or transitory impacts since
  the small amount of water sampling will not disturb or harm the sensitive and
  untouched ecosystem.

  The main modification of Oden since the 1993 EIA is the installation of a mul-
  tibeam echo sounder with an integrated sub bottom profiler. An updated EIA
  concerning including this modification is presently in progress. Technical details
  of the sonar are attached in Appendix 4. The multibeam will be operated during
  transits in the Southern Ocean and in the survey areas on the Antarctic conti-
  nental shelf.

  Debate over underwater sound and its effects on marine mammals has gener-
  ated some discussions lately within the Antarctic Treaty community. Presently
  there is a lack of coherent policy framework for evaluating the environmental
  impacts of underwater noise pollution. There are no regulations that specifically
  address the operations of sonars, or other ship-borne transmissions of sound,
  in Antarctica. Greater concern has been directed towards the use of lower fre-
  quency acoustic sources, which is commonly used during seismic reflection sur-
  veys.

  According to SCAR, in their “Report on marine acoustics and the Southern
  Ocean” (ATCM 29, WP41), the high output and broad width of the acoustic
  swath transmitted from a multibeam vessel makes displacement of animals
  more likely, although the fore and aft beam widths of multibeams are still small
  and the pulse length is very short making the risk of insonification above tem-
  poral threshold shift levels quite small. So the likelihood of auditory or other in-
  juries to marine animals seems low or non existent. Also, the sub bottom pro-
  filer on Oden is equipped with a function so it always starts in low power,
  which will avoid shocking any nearby marine mammals. Hence, environmental
  impact resulting from the use of the multibeam sonar with the integrated sub
  bottom profiler is considered to be less than minor or transitory.

  Again, since an EIA for Oden in polar operations has been done, this paper will
  not further investigate environmental impacts for the icebreaker. However, im-
  pacts from scientific programmes are included in the environmental evaluation,
  because individual projects are subject for change from season to season.




                                       6
      Final Initial Environmental Evaluation                              Dnr 2009-0129
      Oden Southern Ocean 2009/10
      Swedish Polar Research Secretariat                                      2009-10-13


2.      DESCRIPTION OF THE SCIENTIFIC EXPEDITION

2.1     Oden Southern Ocean 2009/10
        The joint Swedish and American Oden Southern Ocean 2009/10 expedition
        will start in McMurdo Sound, Ross Island, Antarctica and follow the Antarctic
        coastline across the Ross Sea, the Amundsen Sea and the Bellingshausen Sea,
        across the Drake Passage towards Punta Arenas in Chile.

        The scheduled period for this cruise is from February to March of 2010, using
        the Swedish icebreaker Oden. This cruise will give the scientists a unique op-
        portunity to do research in an area which otherwise is very hard to get to.

        This primary ship track can be extended by up to 22 dedicated science days for
        transects and science. The entire cruise will last for 32 days and will consist of
        28 scientists and technicians together with a crew of 22.




                    Figure 4. Oden track 2009/10




                                            7
Final Initial Environmental Evaluation                              Dnr 2009-0129
Oden Southern Ocean 2009/10
Swedish Polar Research Secretariat                                      2009-10-13




  The science onboard covers a wide spectrum, from astroparticle physics,
  through ecology and oceanography to geology. Each project is described in
  greater detail below (see paragraph 3.1.1 - 3.1.7). Data collecting will con-
  tinuously take place throughout the cruise. One experiment will actually take
  data during the entire voyage from Sweden to Antarctica and back, while
  others require stops along the way for sampling. One of the main scientific
  goals is to get a better understanding of what lead to the retreat of the West-
  ern Antarctic Ice Sheet (WAIS) after the last glacial maximum and much
  time will be spent in Marguerite Bay and Pine Island Bay.


  Preliminary timetable for Oden Southern Ocean 2009/10


   Date                   Activity
   October-November       PI meeting/Workshop – Oden in Landskrona, Sweden
   November 10            Mobilization of equipment in Landskrona
   November 20            Oden departs from Sweden
   January 8              Oden arrives at the McMurdo Sound ice edge, Ross Sea
   January 8-28           Ice breaking period
   January 28             Oden bunkers in McMurdo
   February 3             Science party and SPRS staff arrival to Christchurch, New
                          Zeeland
   February 5             Science party and SPRS staff takes off from Christchurch to
                          McMurdo by aircraft
   February 8             Science party and SPRS staff embark in McMurdo
   March 14               Oden reaches Punta Arenas
   March 15-20            Demobilization in Punta Arenas, Chile


  Data sharing

  The proposed research is highly interdisciplinary and interdependent. All data
  collected by US and Swedish investigators during the expedition shall be avail-
  able to all participants immediately following initial quality control and quality
  assurance processing by individual investigators. At the same time, all investiga-
  tors shall respect intellectual ownership of specific hypotheses and lines of sci-
  entific inquiry. All data is expected to be posted to scientific databases within
  two years of collection.

  The participants are also expected to adhere to the IPY Data Policy and re-
  quests regarding data accessibility recently issued by the Scientific Committee
  on Antarctic Research, SCAR, and the Scientific Committee on Oceanic Re-
  search, SCOR, of the International Council for Science, ICSU.




                                      8
        Final Initial Environmental Evaluation                                         Dnr 2009-0129
        Oden Southern Ocean 2009/10
        Swedish Polar Research Secretariat                                                2009-10-13


3.        ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT ASSESSMENT FOR OSO
          2009/10
          Sweden is responsible for the environmental impact assessment for the Swedish
          activities during OSO. The procedure follows to a large extent COMNAP’s
          “Guidelines for Environmental Impact Assessment in Antarctica”. The assessment is
          based on information obtained from principal investigators (PI).

3.1       Impact identification and evaluation from scientific activities

3.1.1     Measurement of Cosmic Ray Response Function for an Ice Cher-
          enkov Detector

          PI: Allan Hallgren, Uppsala University
              (Collaboration with Paul Evenson)
          This project will do a so called latitude scan of particle radiation, mostly
          originating from the Sun, using an instrumented block of ice. 160 similar ice
          blocks at the geographic South Pole where they will constitute the IceTop
          detector. IceTop is the on-ice part of the IceCube observatory (see
          icecube.wisc.edu). IceTop measures cosmic radiation, including the particle
          radiation emitted from the Sun. As such it be part of a world wide network
          of detectors. This latitude scan with an ice block on Oden will make it possi-
          ble to calibrate the response of the 160 ice blocks at the South Pole. The con-
          tribution from IceTop to the information about the Solar particle emission
          will by this calibration become much enhanced. This emission is highly
          variable and correlated to the Solar cycle.




          Figure 5 (Left) Two IceTop detectors in position, ready to be filled with water and allowed
          to freeze. Figure 6 (Right) Digital Optical Module (DOM) frozen into the ice viewing
          what is now a 2 meter diameter by 90 cm high clear ice Cherenkov detector.




                                                   9
Final Initial Environmental Evaluation                                         Dnr 2009-0129
Oden Southern Ocean 2009/10
Swedish Polar Research Secretariat                                                  2009-10-13


  The IceTop has an interesting sensitivity to low energy cosmic radiation. The
  low energy response is obtained by rate and amplitude measurements in single
  ice blocks. The large number of blocks and the low geomagnetic cutoff at the
  South Pole makes IceTop a unique and very sensitive detector for this radia-
  tion. Of particular interest is the emission from the Sun of particle radiation.
  This emission is highly variable and correlated to the Solar Cycle. The partially
  installed IceTop array detected already in December 2006 a strong Ground
  Level Enhancement. A report on this measurement is being submitted for pub-
  lication.

  The calculated detector system response to radiation need though to be verified
  by measurement. A well known technique used for this purpose is the latitude
  survey in which a detector is shipped over many latitudes and the detected
  pulses amplitude and rate is constantly measured. The Earth magnetic field is
  providing an energy filter and it is possible to calibrate the detector. A calibra-
  tion also makes the data obtained more useful when comparisons are done with
  detectors at other locations on the Earth.




  Figure 7. Calculated increase in a sea level neutron monitor based on the spectrum derived
  from IceTop (heavy black circles) compared with the counting rate of several near sea level neu-
  tron monitors. Traces for Oulu, Apatity, Mawson, Norilsk and Barentsburg are labeled
  while those for Cape Schmidt, Fort Smith, Inuvik, Nain, Peawanuck, Tixie Bay, and
  Thule are not.

  Sampling methods and equipment
  Data is recorded continuously from the instrumentation that is placed on-
  board the ship. The ice block, about 3 m^3, is in a freezer container. The Ice
  block has four optical modules detecting the light produced in the ice by the
  radiation and the signals are sent to data acquisition computers placed in the
  apparatus room of Oden. The full data is stored on board for later full analy-
  sis, monitoring information will be transmitted regularly. The latitude scan




                                            10
        Final Initial Environmental Evaluation                               Dnr 2009-0129
        Oden Southern Ocean 2009/10
        Swedish Polar Research Secretariat                                       2009-10-13


          uses the Earth magnetic field as analysis magnet for the radiation. No par-
          ticular stops are required, the correlation between detector data and position
          will be obtained through recorded GPS data. (For more information about the
          project, see also 3.1.2).

          Environmental impact
          The equipment will only measure the intensity of cosmic radiation and no sam-
          ples will be taken. There are no chemicals, gases or hazardous substances
          brought onboard for this project. The environmental impact is therefore con-
          sidered to be insignificant.


3.1.2     Measurement of Cosmic Ray Response Functions for an Ice Cher-
          enkov Detector

          PI: Paul Evenson, University of Delaware
              (Collaboration with Allan Hallgren)

          We propose to determine a complete set of cosmic ray response functions for
          the ice Cherenkov detector used in the surface air shower array that is part of
          the IceCube neutrino observatory now under construction at the South Pole.
          This would be accomplished by means of a latitude survey conducted by install-
          ing a detector mounted in a portable freezer on the icebreaker Oden and re-
          cording data on the 2009-2010 voyage from Sweden to McMurdo and return.
          The project would advance understanding of the acceleration and transport of
          solar energetic particles by enhancing the ability of the IceTop air shower array
          to measure details of solar energetic particle spectra. Specific objective of solar
          physics research with IceTop are to:

          • Enable high resolution observations of the spectra of solar particles with
          momentum above 1 GV.
          • Extend the sensitivity for detection of high energy particles by approximately
          two orders of magnitude to better understand the circumstances under which
          the sun can accelerate these particles.
          • Examine the relationship between particle event size and spectral shape. Fac-
          tors that determine the apparent size of a GLE, and even whether the size is
          primarily determined by acceleration or propagation, are at present quite poorly
          understood.

          Solar science, an international partner, travel by conventional and novel means
          to intriguing places, combined with the connection with the international
          IceCube project at the South Pole, provide an ideal opportunity to achieve edu-
          cation and outreach goals. By providing UWRF undergraduates with research
          experiences, it will demonstrate how students can make meaningful contribu-
          tions to cutting-edge science. (For more information about the project, see also
          paragraph 3.1.1).




                                              11
Final Initial Environmental Evaluation                                       Dnr 2009-0129
Oden Southern Ocean 2009/10
Swedish Polar Research Secretariat                                              2009-10-13




  Figure 8. Determination of a response function from latitude survey data

  Sampling methods and equipment
  Data is recorded continuously from the instrumentation that is placed on-
  board the ship. The ice block, about 3 m^3, is in a freezer container. The ice-
  block has four optical modules detecting the light produced in the ice by the
  radiation and the signals are sent to data acquisition computers placed in the
  apparatus room of Oden. The full data is stored on board for later full analy-
  sis, monitoring information will be transmitted regularly. The latitude scan
  uses the earth magnetic field as analysis magnet for the radiation. No par-
  ticular stops are required, the correlation between detector data and position
  will be obtained through recorded GPS data.




  Figure 9 and 10. Freezer container used for 3NM 64 latitude surveys on the Polar Star
  and Polar Sea

  Environmental impact
  The equipment will only measure the intensity of cosmic radiation and no sam-
  ples will be taken. There are no chemicals, gases or hazardous substances
  brought onboard for this project. The environmental impact is therefore con-
  sidered to be insignificant.




                                          12
        Final Initial Environmental Evaluation                                       Dnr 2009-0129
        Oden Southern Ocean 2009/10
        Swedish Polar Research Secretariat                                               2009-10-13



3.1.3     Induced defences against ultraviolet radiation in Antarctic marine
          and freshwater systems

          PI: Lars-Anders Hansson, Lund University

          Our project addresses how organisms in freshwater and marine ecosystems
          handle one of the most hostile environments on earth with respect to ultravio-
          let (UV) radiation. The project has a strong basic science profile by focusing on
          adaptations among a group of crustacean zooplankton that is able to adjust the
          photoprotective pigmentation in accordance with the present UV threat. We
          expect to find the strongest pigmented zooplankton on earth in Antarctic
          freshwaters, i.e. will be able to assess the potential reaction norm with respect
          to pigmentation. In addition to the basic science, the project will provide pre-
          dictive knowledge regarding how organisms handle elevated UV levels, which
          are currently increasing also in temperate systems. Our study includes four parts
          1) quantification of different pigments, 2) UV effects on community composi-
          tion, 3) assessment of potential differences in the ecotoxicological fingerprints
          of marine and freshwater zooplankton, and 4) monitoring of Antarctic lakes in
          order to compare with an already existing database on Arctic systems. Studies
          will be performed both as monitoring of marine and freshwater habitats, as well
          as experimental studies of specific mechanisms. The general aim with the pro-
          ject is to connect large-scale global changes, biodiversity and evolutionary ecol-
          ogy, which has the potential to reveal intriguing predictions regarding the func-
          tioning and dynamics in present and, especially, future aquatic ecosystems.




          Figure 11. The relation between the different photoprotective pigments carotenoids and
          MAAs in freshwater copepods. (Hylander & Hansson, unpublished). The circle indicates the
          hypothezised situation in Antarctic lakes.




                                                   13
Final Initial Environmental Evaluation                                     Dnr 2009-0129
Oden Southern Ocean 2009/10
Swedish Polar Research Secretariat                                             2009-10-13




  Figure 12. The ratio between abundances of copepods and cladocerans along a latitudinal
  gradient, showing a U-shaped response from the equator to Arctic Siberia and Alaska
  (n=66; data from Attayde (Brazil), Hansson and the ECOFRAME EUconsortium (un-
  publ.). The circle indicates the hypothezised situation in Antarctic lakes.


  Sampling methods and equipment
  Studies will be performed both as monitoring of marine and freshwater habi-
  tats, as well as experimental studies of specific mechanisms. In field we will
  estimate UV depth penetration by lowering a UV meter into the water. We
  will also take up water from different depths with a water sampler and filter
  out zooplankton. In lab we will take pictures of the zooplankton and also ex-
  tract pigments with help of ethanol and methanol. Extracts will be stored in
  freezer and brought back to Sweden.

  Environmental impact
  The project includes handling hazardous substances onboard the Oden and will
  also generate hazardous waste which is brought back to Sweden. Waste man-
  agement practices for Oden has been developed in order to minimise the risk
  of contaminate the ship and the environment. Furthermore, when sampling wa-
  ter, it is directly filtered and returned back to the lake at once and only plankton
  samples are taken from the site. Each sample takes about 30 minutes and leaves
  no trace behind. The environmental impact is considered less than minor.




                                          14
        Final Initial Environmental Evaluation                           Dnr 2009-0129
        Oden Southern Ocean 2009/10
        Swedish Polar Research Secretariat                                  2009-10-13



3.1.4     History of, and mechanisms leading to, post-LGM retreat of the
          West Antarctic Ice Sheet

          PI: Martin Jakobsson, Stockholm University
              (Collaboration with John Anderson)

          This project aims to investigate mechanisms that led to the retreat of the
          Western Antarctic Ice Sheet (WAIS) from the Antarctic continental shelf
          since the Last Glacial Maximum. These potential mechanisms include sea
          level rise, thinning due to rapid ice stream discharge, subglacial melt-water
          under-penning, and under-melting by warm deep water. Sediment cores will
          be acquired and analyzed to obtain constraints on the timing of ice sheet re-
          treat from the continental shelf using radiocarbon ages of the oldest glacial
          marine deposits overlying till. The multibeam and subbottom profiler on the
          icebreaker Oden will be used to map geomorphic features, such as grounding
          line wedges, indicating pauses in the retreat of the ice sheet from the conti-
          nental shelf, and the depths of iceberg furrows allowing the estimation of the
          depth of the grounding line when massive calving events associated with ice
          sheet break-up occurred.




          Figure 13. Oden track in Antarctica 2008/09




                                             15
Final Initial Environmental Evaluation                           Dnr 2009-0129
Oden Southern Ocean 2009/10
Swedish Polar Research Secretariat                                   2009-10-13




  Figure 14 (Left) Examples of geomorphic features imaged within troughs on
  thecontinental shelf. Mega-scale glacial lineations are associated with rapid
  flow of ice streams above a deforming bed. They occur where the ice sheet
  flowed across sedimentary strata. Figure 15 (Right) Drumlins occur in at the
  transition between bedrock and sedimentary strata and mark a zone of paleo-ice
  stream acceleration (Wellner et al.,2001).




                                                       Figure 16. Existing
                                                       cores with radiocarbon
                                                       ages for oldest gla-
                                                       ciomarine sediments
                                                       resting above till. These
                                                       indicate that the ice
                                                       sheet retreated from
                                                       Marguerite Bay at about
                                                       8 ka. X=proposed core
                                                       location.




                                     16
Final Initial Environmental Evaluation                          Dnr 2009-0129
Oden Southern Ocean 2009/10
Swedish Polar Research Secretariat                                  2009-10-13


  Sampling methods and equipment
  This geophysical and geological program involves sediment coring, with a
  12 m long piston corer and 3 m long Kasten corer, and multibeam mapping
  as well as subbottom profiling. The coring program aims to obtain cores at
  approximately 25-30 sites along the cruise track from the eastern Ross Sea to
  the Bellingshausen Sea. However, there are two specific focus areas for the
  coring program: Marguerite Bay and Pine Bay. The specific selection of cor-
  ing sites in these areas will be made after multibeam mapping and subbottom
  profiling. The Oden has a Kongsberg EM 122 1°x1° multibeam system in-
  stalled that operates with a frequency of 12 kHz. This multibeam bathymet-
  ric sonar is complemented with Kongsberg’s SBP 120 chirp sonar profiler
  that transmits pulses in the frequency range of 2-7 kHz. CTD stations will be
  required for the multibeam mapping activities in order to calibrate the sys-
  tem with respect to sound speed changes in the water column. In between
  CTD stations, expendable probes may be used including XBTs, XSVs, and
  CCTDs (Sippican). The sediment cores will be logged on board the Oden us-
  ing a Multi Sensor Core Logger (MSCL) measuring the sediment physical
  properties p-wave velocity, bulk density and magnetic susceptibility.

  Environmental impact
  The multibeam, operating around 12 kHz, generates acoustic pulses with
  source levels up to 211 dB relative to 1 µPa at a distance of 1 m from the
  transducer while the chirp sonar may reach above 220 dB in the bandwidth
  between 3.5 and 6.5 kHz. Both systems that are integrated by using the same
  receiver array applies so called soft starts, some time referred to as “Mam-
  mal protection” startup. The MSCL contains a well shielded CS137 source,
  which is used to emit gamma rays in order to estimate sediment bulk density
  of the acquired sediment cores. The project will also make use of electronic
  instruments for measurements of parameters in the water column (CTD).
  Regarding the usage of XBTs the PI’s hold a permit, issued by National Sci-
  ence Foundation (NSF) issued in October 1, 2009 with expiration date Sep-
  tember 30, 2014, which allows the Antarctic programs to drop XBT in Ant-
  arctica. Since the Swedish Polar Research Secretariat and the NSF have signed
  a cooperation agreement, it also applies to Swedish scientists on board Oden.
  In the end of each program year, NSF submits a full accounting report to
  SCAR including the number of XBT drops. The environmental impact is
  considered to be less than minor or transitory.




                                     17
        Final Initial Environmental Evaluation                           Dnr 2009-0129
        Oden Southern Ocean 2009/10
        Swedish Polar Research Secretariat                                   2009-10-13



3.1.5     History of, and mechanisms leading to, post-LGM retreat of the
          West Antarctic Ice Sheet

          PI: John Anderson, William Marsh Rice University
              (Collaboration with Martin Jakobsson)

          The proposed project calls for an investigation of mechanisms that led to the
          retreat of the ice sheet from the West Antarctic continental shelf since the
          Last Glacial Maximum. These mechanisms include sea-level rise, thinning
          due to rapid ice stream discharge, subglacial meltwater under-pinning, and
          under-melting by warm deep water. To accomplish this objective we will
          need to obtain better constraints on the timing of ice sheet retreat from the
          continental shelf using radiocarbon ages of the oldest acimarine deposits
          overlying till. We will also conduct an analysis of geomorphic features, such
          as grounding line wedges that indicate whether the grounding line was in
          contact with the bed or decoupled from the bed during retreat. Lastly, we
          propose to determine if the retreat of the ice sheet grounding line occurred
          continuously or episodically by mapping grounding zone wedges within and
          adjacent to glacial toughs where paleo-ice streams existed. Another aspect of
          the proposed research calls for an examination of sediments from Marguerite
          Bay and Pine Island Bay that may indicate a meltwater origin and provide
          documentation that subglacial meltwater played a role in ice sheet retreat
          from these areas. In addition, collaborating with French and Polish col-
          leagues we will examine sediment cores from these areas for paleontological
          evidence for warm deep water intrusion onto the continental shelf during the
          time ice sheet retreat was taking place. Lastly, working with Japanese col-
          leagues we will strive to better constrain the West Antarctic Ice Sheet’s re-
          treat from the eastern Ross Sea continental shelf using compound specific
          radiocarbon age dating. The research would focus on three key areas; the
          continental shelf off Marguerite Bay, the continental shelf of Pine Island Bay
          and the eastern Ross Sea continental shelf. Future cruises of the Oden
          would provide opportunities to collect needed swath bathymetry data in
          those areas that have been largely inaccessible, due to sea ice cover, by other
          ships. These data would be used to help identify core sites. It is also antici-
          pated that the Oden will be equipped for gravity coring (Kasten cores) dur-
          ing the 2009 season and that we would begin collecting cores in areas where
          radiocarbon ages are needed to help constrain grounding line retreat.




                                             18
        Final Initial Environmental Evaluation                           Dnr 2009-0129
        Oden Southern Ocean 2009/10
        Swedish Polar Research Secretariat                                   2009-10-13




          Figure 17. Lowe and Anderson’s (2002) ice sheet retreat history for Pine Is-
          land Bay region. Note that there is a virtual lack of data and cores from the
          middle continental shelf.

          Sampling methods and equipment
          See paragraph 3.1.4 above.

          Environmental impact
          See paragraph 3.1.4 above.


3.1.6     Ice sheet dynamics and processes along the West Antarctic conti-
          nental Shelf

          PI: Frank Nitsche, Columbia Lamont Earth Observatory

          Understanding the behaviour of ice sheets and their response to climate change
          is crucial for predicting potential impacts of global warming and sea level
          change. An essential component of predictive ice sheet models is their calibra-
          tion and verification based on past behaviour. Necessary reconstructions of




                                             19
Final Initial Environmental Evaluation                              Dnr 2009-0129
Oden Southern Ocean 2009/10
Swedish Polar Research Secretariat                                      2009-10-13


  past ice sheet extent and ice flow have strongly improved by analyzing subma-
  rine glacial morphology on previously glaciated continental margins. Especially
  the identification of cross-shelf troughs created by paleo ice streams provides
  valuable information on location and orientation of previous ice flow. One area
  of particular interest is the Amundsen Sea sector of the West Antarctic Ice
  Sheet (WAIS) where recent observations identified substantial thinning of the
  Antarctic ice sheet. This project will map and analyze the distribution of cross-
  shelf troughs and the related paleo ice flow pattern along the entire continental
  margin of the Bellingshausen and Amundsen Seas and thus significantly extend
  previous studies that focused mainly on two major trough systems in front of
  the Pine Island Glacier and in the central Bellingshausen Sea. Comparing loca-
  tion and shape of these cross-shelf troughs with present ice flow will lead to
  new insights into the different processes that created them and may indicate
  large-scale differences in ice sheet dynamics of today compared to previous gla-
  ciations. This analysis requires good bathymetry information. Building upon our
  previous, successful bathymetry compilation of the Amundsen Sea we will gen-
  erate the first bathymetry compilation of the entire margin. We will integrate
  available and new swath bathymetry data that will be collected by the Oden,
  which has the unique capability to acquire high-quality swath bathymetry data in
  areas with dense ice cover, and thus will fill critical gaps in the existing data.
  The new bathymetry compilation will be used to identify cross-shelf troughs,
  and determining their geometries, including width, depth, and orientation. Us-
  ing information about present ice flow, such as balance velocity maps, we will
  compare the distribution of the cross-shelf troughs with present ice stream lo-
  cations and identify troughs that can be linked to present ice streams or to
  smaller outlet glaciers. Cross-shelf troughs that correspond to neither of those,
  or appear too large to be formed by small outlet glaciers, will indicate the loca-
  tions of previous ice streams that are different from present ones, and thus in-
  dicate major changes in ice flow pattern of the WAIS. Comparison with size
  and geometry of depositional features on the continental slope will provide ad-
  ditional indication if a trough drained large areas of the ice sheet or just a
  coastal glacier. The results will be integrated into a new conceptual model that
  describes the ice flow pattern during previous glaciations. The intellectual mer-
  its of the proposed activity include improved understanding and reconstruction
  of the paleo dynamics of the WAIS, and potential differences compared to the
  present ice sheet, which should provide important constrains for ice sheet
  models. This project will also enhance knowledge on the formation of cross-
  shelf troughs and provide improved bathymetry compilations that will benefit
  many other activities in the area.

  The goal of this project is to map and analyze the distribution of cross-shelf
  troughs along the West Antarctic continental margin and improve our under-
  standing of paleo ice flow and related processes along the margin. During
  the Oden expedition early 2010 we will acquire multibeam bathymetry and
  sub-bottom profiler data that will be used to identify and to characterize
  these cross-shelf troughs and to improve existing bathymetric maps of the
  area.




                                      20
Final Initial Environmental Evaluation                             Dnr 2009-0129
Oden Southern Ocean 2009/10
Swedish Polar Research Secretariat                                      2009-10-13




  Figure 18. Overview of West Antarctica with existing bathymetry compilation
  arked with orange. BEDMAP bathymetry is used for areas outside the bathym-
  etry compilations. Ice flow on the continent is indicated by ice balance veloci-
  ties (Budd and Warner, 1996) and the outline of major ice drainage basins
  (Rignot and Thomas, 2002).




  Figure 19. Sketch of relations between ice-stream locations, glacial troughs,
  and sediment deposits along the Antarctic Peninsula (Amblas et al., 2006).

  Sampling methods and equipment
  For multibeam and sub-bottom profiler acoustic signals are sent from the
  hull mounted transducers to the seafloor and the return signal is recorded.
  For CTD measurements a probe is lowered over the bow of the ship on a ca-
  ble. Sensors measure temperature, salinity, and pressure continuously while
  the probe is lowered towards the seafloor. It is possible that XBT sensors are
  used instead of the CTD if the situation requires it.




                                      21
Final Initial Environmental Evaluation                                         Dnr 2009-0129
Oden Southern Ocean 2009/10
Swedish Polar Research Secretariat                                                  2009-10-13




  Figure 20. Existing multibeam data (red) and single beam (blue) bathymetry data from the
  study area. Obvious data gaps are located on the Bellingshausen Shelf, central and western
  Amundsen Sea, as well as along the margin between Amundsen and Ross Sea.




  Figure 21. Study area with known troughs (gray), slope deposits (brown), and proposed
  tracks (red line). Question marks indicate critical gaps in the existing bathymetry data.

  Environmental impact
  The multibeam, operating around 12 kHz, generates acoustic pulses with
  source levels up to 211 dB relative to 1 µPa at a distance of 1 m from the
  transducer while the chirp sonar may reach above 220 dB in the bandwidth
  between 3.5 and 6.5 kHz. Both systems that are integrated by using the same
  receiver array applies so called soft starts, some time referred to as “Mam-
  mal protection” startup. The MSCL contains a well shielded CS137 source,
  which is used to emit gamma rays in order to estimate sediment bulk density
  of the acquired sediment cores and the environmental impact for this activity
  is therefore considered to be less than minor or transitory. The project will
  also make use of electronic instruments for measurements of parameters in




                                            22
        Final Initial Environmental Evaluation                                       Dnr 2009-0129
        Oden Southern Ocean 2009/10
        Swedish Polar Research Secretariat                                                2009-10-13


          the water column, but this will not cause any environmental impact and is
          considered less than minor. Regarding the usage of XBTs the PI’s hold a
          permit, issued by National Science Foundation (NSF) issued in October 1,
          2009 with expiration date September 30, 2014, which allows the Antarctic
          programs to drop XBT in Antarctica. In the end of each program year, NSF
          submits a full accounting report to SCAR including the number of XBT
          drops. To sum up the environmental impact is considered to be less than mi-
          nor or transitory.


3.1.7     Atmosphere-Ice-Ocean Interactions in the Eastern Ross Sea

          PI: Alejandro Orsi, Texas A&M University

          This project will investigate processes controlling the flow of warm Circumpo-
          lar Deep Water onto the Antarctic continental shelf in the eastern Ross Sea us-
          ing moorings deployed during the 09/10 ODEN cruise. Two moorings will be
          deployed to record current, temperature, salinity and pressure in the interior of
          the Sulzberger and Little America Troughs. High resolution conductiv-
          ity/temperature/depth (CTD) measurements will be taken to characterize the
          summer regional water mass stratification and circulation, the boundaries and
          spreading of water masses, and to infer mixing histories and interactions with
          the sea-ice and continental ice. The moorings will be left out for one year, with
          2010 deployment and 2011 recovery.




          Figure 22. Map of the eastern Ross Sea (ERS) showing past (colored) and proposed
          (dasched lines) ocean sections, moorings (red stars), and AWS sites (purple hexagons).




                                                   23
        Final Initial Environmental Evaluation                              Dnr 2009-0129
        Oden Southern Ocean 2009/10
        Swedish Polar Research Secretariat                                      2009-10-13


          Sampling methods and equipment
          We will profile the full water column for temperature, salinity (density),
          dissolved oxygen (T/S/DO) and currents, using a SeaBird CTD system and
          LADCP provided by TAMU. Water samples will also be collected for S to
          monitor CTD/rosette performance.

          We will deploy two short (300 m long) bottom moorings to acquire the first
          long-term (~1-year) records of current, temperature, salinity (conductivity) and
          pressure in the interior of the Sulzberger and Little America Troughs.

          Environmental impact
          Two bottom moorings will be deployed for one year. There is a small risk
          not getting those back up again next season due to a bad weather condition
          or the ice situation. The project will also make use of electronic instruments
          for measurements of parameters in the water column and will not cause any
          environmental impact. The project does not include handling of any hazard-
          ous substances and will not generate hazardous waste. To sum up the envi-
          ronmental impact is due to above circumstances considered to be less than
          minor or transitory.

3.1.8      Summary
          As a conclusion, negative environmental impacts from the scientific pro-
          grammes are likely to be less than minor or transitory. Indirectly, several of the
          scientific projects participating in OSO 2009/10 will increase general under-
          standing of certain parameters important for the global change processes. This
          will eventually have a positive impact on the environment by scientifically
          documenting the changes in environment and making scenarios for the likely
          future impacts on a larger scale for the global environment.

3.2       Prevention of introduction of non-native species
          Humans have introduced a wide range of alien, and in many cases invasive,
          species to Antarctica and the sub-Antarctic islands. These include microbes, al-
          gae, fungi, bryophytes, vascular plants, invertebrates, fish, birds and mammals.
          These species have come to survive, and in some cases dominate, terrestrial,
          freshwater, and marine habitats, and in the sub-Antarctic are causing consider-
          able damage by way of local species extinctions and wholesale alteration of eco-
          systems. Alien species arrive in a multitude of ways: in clothing and personal
          baggage, attached to fresh vegetables, in vehicles, affixed to the hulls of ships
          and inflatable rubber boats, and as unwanted passengers on anchor chains, in
          sea chests and in ballast water.

          In order to prevent the accidental introduction and spread through human ac-
          tivity of any alien organism or substance that may have an unwanted impact on
          Antarctic species or ecosystems, SPRS has endorsed SCAR’s “Code of Conduct
          for Field Work: Transfer of Alien Species to Antarctica and sub-Antarctic Is-
          lands and Between Location Transfer of Species”, see Appendix 2.




                                              24
      Final Initial Environmental Evaluation                               Dnr 2009-0129
      Oden Southern Ocean 2009/10
      Swedish Polar Research Secretariat                                        2009-10-13




3.3     Cumulative impacts
        The cumulative impact from the water sampling and the multibeam echo
        sounder are considered being negligible and to have less than minor or transi-
        tory impacts. It is very difficult to estimate cumulative impacts on pelagic ma-
        rine environments. There are very few visits in the areas the expedition will
        visit, and the cumulative impacts will most likely be negligible even if OSO
        2009/10 will visit terrestrial areas.

3.4     Alternative areas
        There are no relevant alternatives to the chosen areas.

3.5     The zero alternative
        The zero alternatives imply that no activities will be carried out. It is considered
        to entail no additional consequences for the environment, as opposed to a
        situation when the areas are visited. This situation, however, will deprive scien-
        tist of an important logistical framework, which is necessary in order for them
        to carry out their research.

3.6     Gaps of information and other uncertainties
        Current understanding of many aspects of Antarctic biology and ecology is
        poor. The identification and classification of Antarctic species, especially inver-
        tebrates and micro-organisms, is at a rudimentary stage. Ecological processes
        that govern life in Antarctic soils, in the Southern Ocean, and at the ice edge are
        only beginning to be understood. Information on the status and trends of Ant-
        arctic fauna and flora is fragmentary at best. More research and monitoring are
        required to track trends in basic environmental parameters in the Antarctic. Ac-
        cess to and logistics in remote Antarctic areas are a major challenge to research-
        ers. New techniques, including remote sensing, and further studies will shed
        light on these critical areas.

        Another uncertainty concerning the Oden operations is that the existing EIA is
        from 1993, and there is a need to update the study.

        Another uncertainty concerning the Oden operations is that the existing EIA is
        from 1993, and there is a need to update the study concerning the Multibeam
        and the Sub bottom Profiler. However, the update is presently under progress
        and is calculated to be completed during the autumn 2009.




                                             25
      Final Initial Environmental Evaluation                                      Dnr 2009-0129
      Oden Southern Ocean 2009/10
      Swedish Polar Research Secretariat                                               2009-10-13


        The limits of current knowledge and methodology of evaluation process must
        be recognized before potentially harmful development is undertaken. Knowl-
        edge of the synergies and interlinkages present in the natural environment will
        never be sufficient to accurately predict the exact impacts of a project. This cir-
        cumstance contributes to uncertainties regarding the environmental assessment
        process. We must tread carefully where the consequences of our actions cannot
        be foreseen. SPRS refer to our environmental code of conduct during the
        whole expedition, see Appendix 1.

3.7     Conclusion
        The initial environmental evaluation indicates that unavoidable environmental
        impacts from OSO 2009/10 associated with scientific activities are considered
        to be less than minor or transitory. At most minor or transitory impact will re-
        sult from the logistic activities. A summary of the identified activities that might
        lead to an environmental impact is presented below in table 1.

        Table 1. Summary of the activities identified that can have an impact on the environment.
                                    Less than minor          Minor or           More than minor
        Activity/action              Or transitory       transitory impact     or transitory impact
                                        impact
        Logistics Oden
        Ship facilities                     X
        Underwater noise                    X
        Waste management                    X
        Chemical management                 X
        Fuel management                                          X
        Science Programme                   X

        Thus, from an environmental point of view there are no reasons not to perform
        OSO 2009/10, assuming that the expedition is conducted within the frame-
        work described in this IEE.




                                                26
       Final Initial Environmental Evaluation                                         Dnr 2009-0129
       Oden Southern Ocean 2009/10
       Swedish Polar Research Secretariat                                                  2009-10-13


APPENDIX 1 – THE ICEBREAKER ODEN




Arctic Class Icebreaker
Owner and Manager: Swedish Maritime Administration, Norrkoping, Sweden
Builder: Götaverken, Arendal, Sweden
Delivered: 1988

Oden is one of seven icebreakers operated by the Swedish Maritime Administration. Icebreaker ODEN is
designed for escort ice-breaking and for Arctic research operations. ODEN is very flexible and can carry
scientific equipment, container labs, frozen storage, containers, deep drilling equipment for geological
purposes, etc.
Main Characteristics
          Length over all: 107.8 m
          Beam over reamers: 29.4 m
          Beam extreme: 31.0 m
          Beam midships: 25.0 m
          Depth to upper deck: 12.0 m
          Draft operation: 7.0 - 8.5 m
          Displacement: 11.000 - 13.000 tonnes
          Grt: 9.438
          Classification: DNV 1A1 Icebreaker POLAR - 20 E0, Hel DK, CRANE, NAUT-B

Capacities
          Heavy fuel oil: 3380 m3
          Diesel oil: 990 m3
          Lubricating oil: 100 m3
          Fresh water: 310 m3
          Ballast water incl. heeling tanks: 3650 m3
          Fresh water generator: 20 m3/day
          Provision: 80 people in 100 days, can be increased by containers on deck

Performance
          Icebreaking capability: 1.9 m level ice at 3 knots
          Turning radius in 0.8 m ice: 1 ship length
          Speed in open water: 16 knots
          Endurance: 30.000 nautical miles in open sea at 13 knots or 100 days

Machinery
          Propulsion: 4 medium speed 8-cylinder diesel engines, Sulzer ZAL4OS, 2 dual input single
          output reduction gears, 2 CP propellers in nozzles, LIPS
          Total power: 18.0 MW (24.500 hp)




                                                    27
      Final Initial Environmental Evaluation                                     Dnr 2009-0129
      Oden Southern Ocean 2009/10
      Swedish Polar Research Secretariat                                              2009-10-13


         Electric power plant: 4 medium speed 6-cylinder diesel engines
         Jet thruster/hull wash system: Sulzer AT25H
         Heeling system: one emergency diesel
         Total power: 5.4 MW
         Capacity: 2 centrifugal pumps, Scanpump 9.000/11.000 m3/h each, 2 pair of tanks, working
         volume 800 m3, 2 propeller pumps, JW Berg, capacity: 45.000 m3/h each
Deck Equipment
         Towing winch: 150 tonnes towing pull break holding 300 tonnes, Pusnes
         A-frame: 15 tonnes
         Crane on after deck: 10 tonnes at radius 10 m, 1.7 tonnes at radius 32 m, Hydralift
         Sky lift on fore deck: hook load 1.5 tonnes in basket, 0.3 tonnes at 18.7 m, Hydralift
         CONTAINER CAPACITY: 40 TEU, containers can be connected to ship's system, such as
         electricity, communication, water, sewage etc.
Berths onboard
         Crew: 15
         Available: 65
         Total: 80
Accommodation
         CABINS: All cabins are of excellent standard.
         4 cabins type A on 2nd and 3rd deck
         12 cabins type B on 2nd and 3rd deck
         12 cabins type C on 1st deck
         1 owners cabin on 4th deck
         1 spare cabin on 4th deck
         3 spare cabins on 5th deck
         1 mess room for 65-80 people
         2 dayrooms
         1 library
         1 conference room with a small galley
         2 saunas with showers and relaxing rooms
         1 gymnasium
         1 hospital with surgery and dispensary
         2 laundries
         1 radio room (remote controlled from the bridge)
         1 main galley
         1 elevator for 3 people
Nautical equipment
         3 x-band, Sperry Rascar
         1 S-band, Sperry Rascar
         Integrated navigation system with workstations
         GPS - compass
         AECDIS, Adveto
         GPS
         DGPS/Glonass
         Decca
         LoranC
         Director finder
         VHF director finder
         GPS log
         SAL log
         Echo sounder, Simrad
         Deep sea echo sounder, Atlas Deso
         2 gyro compass systems, Sperry Mk 37
         Autopilot, Steer master 2000




                                                  28
      Final Initial Environmental Evaluation                                             Dnr 2009-0129
      Oden Southern Ocean 2009/10
      Swedish Polar Research Secretariat                                                      2009-10-13


Communication
         GMDSS certified acc SOLAS A4
         1 LF/MF/HF transceivers
         1 DSC LF/MF/HF
         1 Satellite, InmarsatB
         3 VHF marine band
         1 DSC VHF
         1 VHF aviation band
         10 portable VHFs
         1 Weather chart telefax
         1 receiver for radarsat images about the ice situation

Internal Communication
         Telephone system
         Emergency telephone system
         Intercom system
         Paging system
         Broadcast video system
         Cassette radio in each cabin

Lifesaving equipment
         2 fully covered lifeboats for 43 people each, 6 inflatable life rafts for 75 people, 2 immersion
         suits for each person, one in the cabin, one in the working area




                                                     29
        Final Initial Environmental Evaluation                                      Dnr 2009-0129
        Oden Southern Ocean 2009/10
        Swedish Polar Research Secretariat                                              2009-10-13


APPENDIX 2 – NEH ENVIRONMENTAL CODE OF CONDUCT

- Environmental Code of Conduct
Vegetation (Appendix II of the Protocol refers)
Vegetation is scarce and sensitive. Do not collect or interfere without a permit.
   Avoid trampling
   Do not collect plants or harmfully interfere without a permit
   Be aware of the risk of introducing non-native species

Birds and mammals (Appendix II of the Protocol refers)
Birds and mammals are more stressed than they appear. Taking or interference is not allowed without a
permit.
    Keep your distance (do not approach) and be quiet and calm in presence of seabirds
    and seals.
    Do not use motorized vehicles closer than 200 meters from bird colonies (and be
    aware that pilots have been advised to keep helicopters/aircraft at a distance of at
    least 2000 meters from bird colonies)
    Do not handle animals without a permit
    Be aware of the risk of introducing diseases to Antarctic wildlife

Site Management (Appendix III and V of the Protocol refers)
A site should always be left in its natural condition.
    Always bring with you all garbage and other material when you leave a site
    Do not collect fossils and rocks, or in other manners deface the surface, unless for
    authorized research purposes
    Do not damage or remove historic remains

Waste and Pollutants (Appendix III and IV of the Protocol refers)
No waste is to be left in Antarctica and pollutants are not to be released into the environment
   Minimize waste before you leave for Antarctica by removing unnecessary packaging
   material
   Separate metal and glass from the waste stream, and dispose of all waste in appropri-
   ate designated containers.
   Avoid fuel spills by utilizing absorbents when handling fuel.
   Clean up all fuel spills

Protected Areas (Appendix V of the Protocol refers)
Some sites have been designated as Protected Areas. Do not enter without a permit.
   Protected Areas are protected for a purpose, e.g. for physical/ biological occur-
   rences, scientific value, etc. You should respect this designation.
   Do not enter a protected area without a permit.
   If you have a permit, be sure to adhere to the permit conditions and be sure to bring
   the permit with you in the field




                                                      30
        Final Initial Environmental Evaluation                                          Dnr 2009-0129
        Oden Southern Ocean 2009/10
        Swedish Polar Research Secretariat                                                      2009-10-13


APPENDIX 3 – SCAR Code of Conduct for field work:
Transfer of alien species to Antarctica and Sub-Antarctic Islands and between
location transfer of species


Risk assessment
As part of the field work planning process the following simple risk assessment is conducted.
Risk assessment questions:
    1. Has any equipment/ equipment cases/ field clothing/ boots, planned for use in
         the subantarctic/Antarctica been used in other natural environments, particularly
         alpine or polar environments?
    2. What are the means needed to clean this equipment/ equipment cases/ cloth-
         ing/boots?
    3. Will the field party be visiting more than one major locality?
    4. If yes, how will the field party ensure that equipment/ equipment cases/ cloth-
         ing/boots do not carry diaspores between sites?


Field work
The following recommendations are made with regard to field work.
Field planning
If field work requires moving between major ice-free localities, aim to conduct field
work in low diversity localities before high diversity localities.

Equipment
    1. When designing field equipment, reduce the capacity of the equipment to carry
       additional material and make the equipment easy to clean and sterilize.
    2. If equipment can not be cleaned effectively, do not use this equipment between
       major localities but take multiple sets of equipment (eg planktonic nets).
    3. Be aware of where equipment cases are stored and that these cases do not accu-
       mulate dust or invertebrate infestations.
    4. When cleaning items be particularly vigilant in removing soil, seeds and bryo-
       phyte propagules (including leaves).




                                                     31
    Final Initial Environmental Evaluation            Dnr 2009-0129
    Oden Southern Ocean 2009/10
     Swedish Polar Research Secretariat                  2009-10-13


APPENDIX 4 – A study of the ice-breaker Oden in polar operations




                                          32
    Final Initial Environmental Evaluation           Dnr 2009-0129
    Oden Southern Ocean 2009/10
    Swedish Polar Research Secretariat                  2009-10-13


APPENDIX 5 – Technical details for the Multibeam echo sounder
and the Sub Bottom Profiler




                                         33
SBP 120 Sub Bottom Profiler

Multiple simultaneously stabilised beams
Excellent penetration - full ocean depth operation




                                                     855-164773 / Rev.A
                                               System description


Introduction                                              chirps, the system offers CW pulses, hyperbolic chirps
   The SBP 120 Sub bottom profiler is an optional         and Ricker pulses. SBP 120 is offered as a three, six
extension to the highly acclaimed EM 120 multibeam        and twelve degree system. For the three degree system
echo sounder.                                             the frequency dependent (narrowband) source level is
   The receive transducer hydrophone array used by        above 220 dB re 1 µPa @ 1m between 3.5 kHz and 6.5
the EM 120 is wideband, and by adding a separate          kHz. The peak electrical power consumption is below
low frequency transmit transducer and appurtenant         8 kW.
electronic cabinets and operator stations, the EM
120 may be extended to include the sub-                                Beam stabilisation
bottom profiling capability provided by                                   The SBP 120 beams are electronically
the SBP 120.                                                           stabilized for roll and pitch. It can also be
                                                                       steered to take into account bottom slope,
Purpose                                                                and the generation of several athwartship
    The primary application of the SBP                                 beams is possible.
120 is to do imaging of sediment layers
and buried objects. Image quality is                                   Ping rate
influenced by:                                                            In the transmit mode “normal” the
• The spatial resolution of the system; its                            SBP 120 pings once and then waits to
  ability to distinguish objects separated                             collect the return signal. Maximum ping
  in angle and/or range. The spatial                                   rate is 4 Hz. In the transmit mode “burst”
  resolution is given by two separate                                  the system allows a number of pulses to
  system properties:                                                   be launched into the water before the first
  - The angular resolution is given by the                             return signal. In the “unsynchronized
    array geometry.                                                    burst” mode the system is set to ping at
  - The range/time resolution is given by                              a constant rate: The transmit- and receive
    the signal bandwidth.                                              periods are interlaced so that a high
• The ping rate relative vessel speed.                                 constant ping rate can be maintained even
  Dense probing alongtrack gives                                       in deep waters
  smoother pictures.                                                      The SBP 120 can be synchronized to
• The angle of incidence of the transmit                               the EM 120 or other external equipment
  beam. The echoes received are                                        by selecting external trigger. During
  essentially caused by specular reflections                           synchronized operation the rule is that the
  at interfaces between layers of different                            SBP 120 can only ping while waiting for
  acoustic impedance.                                                  the first bottom return. In transmit mode
                                                                       “burst” this means we will achieve only a
Key specifications                                                     piecewise dense sampling of the bottom.
   The SBP 120 Sub bottom profiler
has a much narrower beamwidth than a                                   Transducer arrays
conventional sub bottom profiler with                                     The SBP 120 transmit transducer has
correspondingly lesser smearing. It thus                               a physical width of 80 cm, a depth of
provides deeper penetration into the                                   35 cm, and a length depending on the
bottom, and higher angular resolution.                                 requested beamwidth. For a symmetrical
   The normal transmit waveform is a                                   footprint on the seabed, the length of the
linear chirp (which is an FM pulse where                               transmitter array must be equal to the
the frequency is swept linearly). The outer limits for    length of the EM 120 receive array. The transmit array
the start and stop frequencies of the chirp are 2.5 kHz   is mounted in parallel with the vessel’s keel (normally
and 7 kHz, providing a maximum vertical resolution of     side by side with the multibeam echo sounder’s
approximately 0.3 milliseconds. In addition to linear     transmit transducer).
Data logging and real-time processing                           Cabinets and Operator Station
   The data produced by SBP 120 is logged in the                   The transmitter and receiver electronic circuitry
Topas raw format or in the SEG-Y format that allows             required for the SBP 120 Sub bottom profiler is
post-processing by standard seismic processing                  housed in a separate cabinet of the same size as the
software packages.                                              EM 120 Transceiver Unit. The EM 120 Preamplifier
                                                                Unit contains preamplifiers for the common receiver
                                                                array and frequency splitting circuitry. The operator
                                                                interface and display system is implemented on a
                                                                dedicated operator station.




              Typical display window
                                                                            Interfaces:
                                                                            Ethernet and
                                                                            Serial lines:
                                                                            - Sound Velocity near Transducers/
                                                                              Sound Speed Sensor
                                                                            - Depth and bottom slopes
                                                                            - Navigation & Positioning -systems
                                                                            - Clock
                                                                                                                                                                                                           Optional




                                                                                                                                                                                                                (CD6321D)
                                                                                                        Operator Station                                                     Beamformer Unit


                                                                                                                                                             Internal
                                                                                                                                                            Ethernet


                                                                             Internal                                                                                                         System Trigger out
                                                                             Ethernet
                                                                                                        Remote On / Off                                                                    Other external Trigger
                                             Interface: (serial line)
                                             - Attitude (roll, pitch and heave)                                                                                    Control
                                                                                        Int. Ethernet
                                                                                                        Int. Ethernet
                                                                                                                        Trigger out
                                                                                                                                      Trigger in




                                                                                                                                                                                                     EM 120
                                                                                       SBP 120                                                                      EM 120
                                                                                       Transceiver                                                                  Transceiver
                                                                                       Unit                                                                         Unit



                                                                                                                                                   EM 120                                    EM120
                                                                                                                                                   TX Trigger                                Preamplifier
                                                 SBP120                                                                                                                                      Unit
                                                 RX/TX
                                                 Junction Box
                                                                                  –




                                                                                   9
                                                                                                                                                                   Hydrophone Signals
                                                                                                                                                                                                   -- 16
                                                                                                                                                    --




                                                       -- 2x4                                                                                        8
                                                                                                                                                                                                     EM 120



                                                                         Sub Bottom Profiler                                                                    EM 120
                                                                         Transmit transducer array                                                              Receive transducer array


                                                                                  Typical system configuration
                                                        Technical specifications


Operational specifications                                                  Dimensions and weights. main units
Frequency sweep range...........................2.5 to 7 kHz                Element:
Number of beams per ping.................... maximum 11                        Length...................................................... 184 mm
Maximum ping rate.............................................4 Hz             Width: ...................................................... 184 mm
Beamwidth, 5 kHz (along x across):                                             Height:..................................................... 270 mm
    Transmit................................. 3/6/12 x 30 degrees              Weight: ......................................................12.5 kg
    Receive .................................. 50 x 3/6/12 degrees          Frame (3 degrees):
Beam spacing ......................................... ≤ 15 degrees            Length.................................................... 7450 mm
Fan width ............................................... ≤ 30 degrees         Width ....................................................... 800 mm
Pulse length.......................................... 0.4 to 100 ms           Height (including elements) .................... 350 mm
Range sampling rate...................................20.48 kHz                Weight (including elements) ....................1150 kg
Pitch stabilisation ..................................................Yes   Cable Connection Unit:
Roll stabilisation ...................................................Yes      Weight ..........................................................45 kg
Heave compensation .............................................Yes            Weight, four units .......................................180 kg
Depth resolution...............................................0.3 ms          Total weight (3 degrees system)...............2530 kg
Transducer geometry.................................Mills cross             Transceiver Unit:
                                                                               Width: ...................................................... 600 mm
External sensors                                                               Height:................................................... 1400 mm
• Position                                                                     Depth ....................................................... 630 mm
• Heading                                                                      Weight: ............................. Approximately 170 kg
• Motion sensor (Pitch, roll and heave)
• External clock
• Depth, bottom slope angles and sound velocity
  information (from the EM 120)




Please note: Kongsberg Maritime is engaged in continuous development of its products and reserves the right to
change specifications without notice. Survey results have been used with the permission of Service Hydrographique et
Océanographique de la Marine (SHOM).



  Kongsberg Maritime AS
  Strandpromenaden 50                               Telephone: +47 33 02 38 00
  P.O.Box 111                                       Telefax: +47 33 04 47 53
  N-3191 Horten,                                    www.kongsberg.com
  Norway                                            E-mail: subsea@kongsberg.com
   EM 122
   12 kHz multibeam echo sounder
 •	 Depth	range	from	20	to	
    11000	m
 •	 Swath	width	up	to	6	times	
    water	depth/30	km
 •	 Focused	beams	for	
    transmission	and	reception
 •	 High	density	and	multiping	
    modes	for	increased	resolution

 •	 Up	to	864	soundings	per	ping

 •	 Yaw,	pitch	and	roll	
    stabilization

 •	 High	accuracy

 •	 Seabed	image	(sidescan)	data	
    display	and	recording
 •	 Water	column	data	display	and	
    recording	
 • Modular	design,	beamwidths	           operator defined limits. In multiping      The EM 122 transducers are modular
   0.5	to	4	degrees                      mode, 2 swaths are generated per           linear arrays in a Mills cross
 •	 Dual	and	triple	frequency	           ping cycle, with up to 864 soundings.      configuration with separate units for
    versions	possible                    The beam spacing is equidistant or         transmit and receive. The projector
 •	 Integrated	subbottom	profiler	       equiangular.                               array is available as 0.5, 1,2, or 4
    available                               In high density mode more than          degree resolution, while the receive
                                         one sounding can be produced               array is available as 1,2, or 4 degrees.
 •	 Mammal	protection                    per beam, such that the horizontal             The receive transducer is
                                         resolution is increased and is almost      wideband. In conjunction with a
The EM 122 12 kHz multibeam echo         constant over the whole swath.             separate low frequency transmit
sounder is designed to perform seabed                                               transducer, the EM 122 may
mapping – bathymetry and seabed          EM 122 uses both CW pulses and FM          optionally be able to deliver sub-
imagery- to full ocean depth with        sweep pulses with pulse compression        bottom profiling capabilities with a
an unsurpassed resolution, coverage      on reception, in order to increase the     very narrow beamwidth. This system
and accuracy. It represents a major      maximum useful swath width.                is known as the SBP 120 Sub-Bottom
improvement from previous models             The transmit fan is split in several   Profiler.
by offering significantly larger swath   individual sectors, with independent
width, improved data density, and        active steering, according to              Dual or triple frequency versions can
greatly improved resolution. Beam        accomplish compensation for the            be obtained by integration with other
focusing is applied both during          vessel movements: yaw, roll and            EM multibeams at 30, 100 or
reception and transmission.              pitch.                                     300 kHz.
   EM 122 is equipped with a
function to reduce the transmission      With multi-ping ( two swaths per
power in order to avoid hurting          ping) the transmit fan is duplicated
mammals if they are close by.            and transmitted with a small
                                         difference in alongtrack tilt. The
The system has up to 288 beams/432       applied tilt takes into account depth,
soundings per swath with pointing        coverage and vessel speed to give
angles automatically adjusted            a constant sounding separation
according to achievable coverage or      alongtrack.
                                                  EM 122 performance data

Operating frequency...................................................................................................................................... 12 kHz
Depth range ............................................................................................................................................20-11000 m
Swath width ..................................................................................................................6 x Depth, to approx 30 km
Pulse forms...................................................................................................................................CW and FM chirp
Swath profiles per ping ....................................................................................................................................1 or 2
Motion compensation:
- Yaw .................................................................................................................................................... ± 10 degrees
- Pitch ................................................................................................................................................... ± 10 degrees
- Roll .................................................................................................................................................... ± 15 degrees
Sounding pattern .............................................................................................. Equi-distant on bottom/equiangular
Depth resolution of soundings .......................................................................................................................... 1 cm
High resolution mode........................................................................................................ High Density processing
Sidelobe suppression.....................................................................................................................................- 25 dB
Suppression of sounding artefacts .................................................................... 9 frequency coded transmit sectors
Beam focusing ...................................................................... On transmit (per sector) and on reception (dynamic)
Beamforming method .............................................................................................................................Time delay
Gain control ............................................................................................................................................. Automatic
Swath width control .............................Manual or automatic, all soundings intact even with reduced swath width
Seabed imagery/sidescan sonar image ........................................................................................................Standard
Water column display..................................................................................................................................Standard
Mammal protection .....................................................................................................................................Standard
Multi frequency operation.......................................... Yes, by integration with EM 3002, EM 710 and/or EM 302
Sub bottom profiling ........................................................................................... Yes, by integration with SBP 120




                                                          Versions of EM 122
 System	version                       0.5 x 1                   1x1                     1x2                     2x2                     2x4                 4x4
 Transmit	array	[deg]                150 x 0.5                150 x 1                 150 x 1                 150 x 2                 150 x 2              150 x 4
 Receive	array	[deg]                   1 x 30                  1 x 30                  2 x 30                  2 x 30                  4 x 30              4 x 30
 No	of	beams/swath                      288                     288                     288                      288                     144                 144
 Max	no	of	                             432                     432                     432                      432                     216                 216
 soundings/swath
 Max	no	of	swaths                         2                       2                       2                       1                       1                    1
 per	ping
 Max	no	of                              864                     864                     864                      432                     216                 216
 soundings/ping




                                                                                                                                  306105 / Rev.A / September 2006


    Kongsberg Maritime AS
    Strandpromenaden 50                              Telephone: +47 33 02 38 00
    P.O.Box 111                                      Telefax: +47 33 04 47 53
    N-3191 Horten,                                   www.kongsberg.com
    Norway                                           subsea@kongsberg.com

								
To top