IEE_OSO_2008_09

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					                                                 Dnr 2008-0114




                              Final Version

Initial Environmental Evaluation
                 SWEDARP 2008/09
              Oden Southern Ocean




Mount Erebus, Antarctica January 8, 2008      Photo: Cecilia Selberg




         Swedish Antarctic Research Programme
          SWEDISH POLAR RESEARCH SECRETARIAT
      P.O. BOX 50003, SE-104 05 STOCKHOLM, SWEDEN
           Final Initial Environmental Evaluation                                                                          Dnr 2008-0114
           Oden Southern Ocean 2008/09

           Swedish Polar Research Secretariat                                                                                      2008-10-23




CONTENTS

1.       INTRODUCTION ........................................................................................................................4
     1.1         BACKGROUND AND SCIENTIFIC PURPOSE ...............................................................................4
     1.2         SCOPE OF THE INITIAL ENVIRONMENTAL EVALUATION...........................................................5
2.       DESCRIPTION OF THE EXPEDITION ..................................................................................6
     2.1         ODEN SOUTHERN OCEAN 2008/09.........................................................................................6
3.       ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT ASSESSMENT FOR OSO 2008/09 ......................................8
        3.1.1    The biogeochemical cycle of organo-halogens in Polar Regions and its implication for
        atmospheric ozone depletion ..........................................................................................................8
        3.1.2    Dynamics and evolution of epidemic diseases in Antarctic and Arctic seals...................9
        3.1.3    Towards an understanding of the biogenic forcing of the carbon fluxes in the Southern
        Ocean 10
        3.1.4    Processes driving the CO2 system and fluxes in the sea ice and seawater in the
        Amundsen and Ross Seas, Southern Ocean..................................................................................11
        3.1.5    Circulation of warm oceanic water and glacier melt water in the Amundsen Sea – Ross
        Sea shelf region, Western Antarctica............................................................................................12
        3.1.6    Biophysical variability in regions of the Southern Ocean with contrasting climatic
        response – the eastern Amundsen and Ross Seas.........................................................................13
        3.1.7    Controls on climate active gases by Amundsen Sea ice biota........................................14
        3.1.8    Mechanisms behind non-Redfieldian P cycling in water masses of the Southern Ocean,
        new insights from x-ray spectromicroscopy and electrodialysis ..................................................15
        3.1.9    Occurrence and Deposition of Aerosol Black Carbon across the Atlantic and in
        Western Antarctica .......................................................................................................................16
        3.1.10      Summary....................................................................................................................17
     3.2      PREVENTION OF INTRODUCTION OF NON-NATIVE SPECIES ....................................................18
     3.3      CUMULATIVE IMPACTS.........................................................................................................18
     3.4      ALTERNATIVE AREAS ...........................................................................................................18
     3.5      THE ZERO ALTERNATIVE ......................................................................................................18
     3.6      GAPS OF INFORMATION AND OTHER UNCERTAINTIES ...........................................................18
     3.7      CONCLUSION........................................................................................................................19
APPENDIX 1 – NEH ENVIRONMENTAL CODE OF CONDUCT..............................................20

APPENDIX 2 – SCAR CODE OF CONDUCT FOR FIELD WORK ............................................21

APPENDIX 3 – RADIOACTIVE MATERIALS USE PROTOCOLS FOR THE ODEN ............22

APPENDIX 4 – A STUDY OF THE ICE-BREAKER ODEN IN POLAR OPERATIONS .........26

APPENDIX 5 – TECHNICAL DETAILS FOR THE MULTIBEAM ECHO SOUNDER AND
THE SUB BOTTOM PROFILER ......................................................................................................39



The IEE has been compiled by:                                                         Cecilia Selberg
                                                                                      Environmental Officer
                                                                                      Swedish Polar Research Secretariat
                                                                                      P.O. Box 50003
                                                                                      SE-104 05 Stockholm
                                                                                      Sweden




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   NON-TECHNICAL SUMMARY

   The initial environmental evaluation (IEE) indicates that environ-
   mental impacts from the planned activities most likely will be small.
   Minor or transitory environmental impact is expected from the logistic
   activities. Therefore, from an environmental point of view, there is no
   reason not to carry out the planned activities.




  Description of the activity
  Oden Southern Ocean 2008/09 (OSO 2008/09) is a marine research expedi-
  tion in the Southern Ocean during the austral summer of 2008/09. The cruise,
  with the Swedish icebreaker Oden as a platform, is jointly planned and carried
  out by the National Science Foundation Office of Polar Programs (NSF/OPP)
  and the Swedish Polar Research Secretariat (SPRS). The primary cruise track
  will go from South America across the Drake Passage towards Antarctica. At
  the Marginal Ice Zone the ship will follow the ice edge west through the Bel-
  lingshausen and Amundsen Seas, and then southwest through the Ross Sea
  polynya to McMurdo Sound.

  It is difficult to come up with a realistic alternative to OSO 2008/09 that might
  give the same result but with a reduced impact. The largest contribution to en-
  vironmental outputs and associated impacts are related to travels to and from
  Antarctica, as wells as the physical presence in Antarctica. If researchers partici-
  pated in other national expeditions, associated logistic and scientific impacts
  would basically be shunted to those programmes. Also, technology and working
  conditions in Antarctica are limited due to the extreme conditions. Highest pri-
  ority is given to safety and reliability. The identified impacts associated to the
  planned activity are:

  Emissions to air of exhaust fumes and particles from combustion engines.
  The associated impacts are increased concentrations of greenhouse gases and
  aerosols in the atmosphere, contributing to human induced climate change as
  well as altering the physical and chemical properties of the local environment.
  Emissions to air from OSO 2008/09 are expected to be transitory and dissipate
  as negligible concentrations along the ship-track.

  Accidental spills may be expected when handling fuel and chemicals resulting
  in contamination of water, ice and eventually air. Spills from SWEDARP have
  so far been small and are very locally defined. Quantity of accidental spills is
  likely to be very limited and locally defined, associated impacts are therefore
  considered to be minor.




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1.      INTRODUCTION

1.1     Background and scientific purpose
        Swedish polar research covers both the Arctic and the Antarctic and includes all
        fields of science with an emphasis on research related to climate and the envi-
        ronment. Participation in international science programs as well as international
        collaboration on logistics and other operational matters receive high priority.

        The icebreaker Oden (Figure 1) is a Class 1A icebreaker with research laborato-
        ries including a sea water intake system, and a multibeam sonar with a sub bot-
        tom profiler. Basic ship data on the Oden can be found at:
        http://www.sjofartsverket.se/templates/SFVXPage____1077.aspx

        The primary mission of the Oden is to lead the annual break-in of the
        McMurdo Ship Channel in the Ross Sea. In addition to the necessary 5 weeks
        of transit from South America to the McMurdo Sound Ice Edge, Ross Sea,
        NSF/OPP and SPRS will be providing dedicated science days for transects or
        stations. The total number of scientists, teachers and media participants will be
        around 34. The scientific objective of the cruise will be to collect a range of data
        in sectors of the Antarctic seas that are rarely visited and data-sparse.




        Figure 1. Oden in Antarctica 2007/08                             Photo: Jakob Wegelius




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1.2     Scope of the initial environmental evaluation
        The scope of the environmental evaluation presented in this study is the scien-
        tific activities carried out during the OSO 2008/09.

        For logistic activities on Oden, an environmental impact assessment (EIA) was
        compiled in 1993, see Appendix 4. The study showed that the environmental
        impact for Oden during polar operations is low or negligible. At most, minor
        and transitory negative impacts can be expected from the usage of fossil fuels,
        which will result in emissions to air. Emissions are expected to be transitory and
        dissipate as negligible concentrations along the ship-track. The waste manage-
        ment system at Oden guarantees that all waste will be taken care of by person-
        nel at Oden and Raytheon, in accordance with the Antarctic Treaty. Since OSO
        2008/09 will not visit any terrestrial areas, the cumulative impact is considered
        being negligible and to have less than minor or transitory impacts.

        The main modification of Oden since the 1993 EIA is the installation of a mul-
        tibeam echo sounder with an integrated sub bottom profiler. Technical details
        of the sonar are attached in Annex 5. The multibeam will be operated during
        transits in the Southern Ocean and in the survey areas on the Antarctic conti-
        nental shelf.

        Debate over underwater sound and its effects on marine mammals has gener-
        ated some discussions lately within the Antarctic Treaty community. Presently
        there is a lack of coherent policy framework for evaluating the environmental
        impacts of underwater noise pollution. There are no regulations that specifically
        address the operations of sonars, or other ship-borne transmissions of sound,
        in Antarctica. Greater concern has been directed towards the use of lower fre-
        quency acoustic sources, which is commonly used during seismic reflection sur-
        veys.

        According to SCAR, in their “Report on marine acoustics and the Southern
        Ocean” (ATCM 29, WP41), the high output and broad width of the acoustic
        swath transmitted from a multibeam vessel makes displacement of animals
        more likely, although the fore and aft beam widths of multibeams are still small
        and the pulse length is very short making the risk of insonification above tem-
        poral threshold shift levels quite small. So the likelihood of auditory or other in-
        juries to marine animals seems low or non existent. Also, the sub bottom pro-
        filer on Oden is equipped with a function so it always starts in low power,
        which will avoid shocking any nearby marine mammals. Hence, environmental
        impact resulting from the use of the multibeam sonar with the integrated sub
        bottom profiler is considered to be less than minor or transitory.

        Again, since an EIA for Oden in polar operations has been done, this paper will
        not further investigate environmental impacts for the icebreaker. However, im-
        pacts from scientific programmes are included in the environmental evaluation,
        because individual projects are subject for change from season to season.




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2.      DESCRIPTION OF THE EXPEDITION

2.1     Oden Southern Ocean 2008/09
        The primary cruise track will go from South America across the Drake Passage
        towards Antarctica (see Figure 2). At the Marginal Ice Zone the ship will follow
        the ice edge west through the Bellingshausen and Amundsen Seas, and then
        southwest through the Ross Sea polynya to McMurdo Sound. This primary
        track can be extended by up to 20 dedicated science days for transects, water
        column profiles and ice stations.




        Figure 2. Oden track from Sweden to Antarctica 2008/09




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  Preliminary timetable Oden Southern Ocean 2008/09

   Date                      Activity
   13-28 October 2008        Mobilization of equipment in Landskrona, Sweden
   29 October 2008           Oden departs from Sweden
   28-29 November 2008       Science party and SPRS staff embark in Montevideo, Uruguay
   7 December 2008           Start of Scientific Research
   10 January 2009           Oden arrives at the McMurdo Sound ice edge, Ross Sea
   13 January 2009           Science party redeploys by air to Christchurch, New Zealand
   April 2009                Demobilization of Oden in Sweden


  Data sharing
  The proposed research is highly interdisciplinary and interdependent. All data
  collected by US and Swedish investigators during the expedition shall be avail-
  able to all participants immediately following initial quality control and quality
  assurance processing by individual investigators. At the same time, all investiga-
  tors shall respect intellectual ownership of specific hypotheses and lines of sci-
  entific inquiry. All data is expected to be posted to scientific databases within
  two years of collection. The participants are also expected to adhere to the IPY
  Data Policy and requests regarding data accessibility recently issued by the Sci-
  entific Committee on Antarctic Research, SCAR, and the Scientific Committee
  on Oceanic Research, SCOR, of the International Council for Science, ICSU.




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3.        ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT ASSESSMENT FOR OSO
          2008/09
          Sweden is responsible for the environmental impact assessment for the Swedish
          activities during OSO. The procedure follows to a large extent COMNAP’s
          “Guidelines for Environmental Impact Assessment in Antarctica”. The assessment is
          based on information obtained from principal investigators (PI).


3.1.1     The biogeochemical cycle of organo-halogens in Polar Regions
          and its implication for atmospheric ozone depletion

          PI: Katarina Abrahamsson, Chemical and Biological Engineering, Chalmers

          The major objective of the proposed project is to contribute to the quantitative
          understanding of the key biogeochemical interactions and feedbacks between
          the ocean and the atmosphere, and how these affect and are affected by climate
          and environmental changes. This project will specifically study the emissions of
          some biologically produced volatile halogenated organic compounds (halo-
          carbons). Several of these compounds have been identified as ozone-depleting
          and are subject to present or future regulation under international agreements
          such as the Montreal Protocol. This project brings together experienced US and
          Swedish investigators to investigate the controls by sea-ice biota on the produc-
          tion and degradation of key climate-active gases in the Pacific sector of the
          Southern Ocean. We hypothesize that the productivity, biomass, physiological
          state and species composition of ice algae will determine the production of or-
          ganohalogens; and that heterotrophic co-metabolism within the ice will break
          down these compounds to some extent, depending on the microbial commu-
          nity structure and productivity. Interactions at the atmosphere-snow-ice-ocean
          interfaces will be investigated. Of special concern are the changes in irradiance,
          temperature and salinity that have been predicted, which will change not only
          the ocean and atmosphere chemistry, but also the composition of species in the
          marine ecosystem.

          Sampling methods and equipment
          Continuous water sampling will be performed through the clean surface water
          inlet of the ship and discrete water samples will be collected from the rosette
          sampler. Continuous air sampling will be performed through a teflon tube
          mounted on the ship. Ice cores will be collected at specific ice stations, as well
          as brine and snow. Incubation experiments will be performed in the lab in a
          specially designed incubator. All measurements of halocarbons will be per-
          formed directly on the ship. The halocarbons will be pre-concentrated with a
          purge-and trap system prior to the determination with gas chromatography and
          mass spectrometry. Experiments will be conducted in order to establish chemi-
          cal degradation rates as well as chemical production rates. Here, experiments
          will be conducted to establish the “chlorinating and brominating capacity” of




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          water, snow and ice, i.e. indirect measurements of hypochlorite and hypobro-
          mite. The incubations will be performed at ambient conditions in a specially de-
          signed freezer. The rate of photosynthesis and the identification of key species
          are available through our collaboration with Prof. Walker Smith. Also, hydro-
          gen peroxide will be measured as an indicator of oxidative stress. These deter-
          minations will be performed by fluorescence.

          Environmental impact
          The project includes handling hazardous substances and will also generate haz-
          ardous waste. Waste management practices for Oden has been developed in or-
          der to minimise the risk of contaminate the ship and the environment. Chemi-
          cals, such as solvents, will be used and let out. In small concentrations, these
          agents will be broken down relatively fast in the environment and considered
          not to cause any harm. The project will make use of electronic instruments for
          measurements of parameters in the water column, and will not cause any envi-
          ronmental impact. Incubation experiments will be carried out in the C14 van.
          (Related environmental impacts will be discussed below, see section p 3.1.7).

3.1.2     Dynamics and evolution of epidemic diseases in Antarctic and Arc-
          tic seals

          PI: Tero Härkönen, Swedish Museum of Natural History

          Since Antarctic seal species have not been exposed to exploitation for more
          than 50 years, most populations are expected to have reached their asymptotic
          population sizes, often termed carrying capacity (K). Fluctuations in population
          numbers are in such cases often linked to food limitation, predation, disease, or
          catastrophic events leading to mass mortality. Such events have been docu-
          mented in the 1950s, when a majority of crab eater seals in investigated areas
          died. Serum samples collected during the SWEDARP expedition in 1989
          showed that the likely cause for the mass mortality was a canine distemper epi-
          demic, that seem to have circulated among crab eater seals and leopard seals
          ever since. We suggest a program focusing on the potential role of infectious
          diseases for the population dynamics of Antarctic seals. A general core issue is
          to explore processes involved in the evolution of disease resistance, where the
          epidemiology and immunogenetics of canine distemper in the Antarctic seals
          will be investigated in parallel with phocine distemper in Arctic and North Sea
          seals. Mummified seals will also be sampled in McMurdo area with authoriza-
          tion from NSF.

          Sampling methods and equipment
          To catch a minimum of 100 and maximum 200 crab eater seals. Leopard, ross
          and weddel seals opportunistically. Sample each seal (serum, nasal and anal
          swabs, DNA, faeces. The seals will be caught by nets and handled without the
          usage of drugs. Each seal will be held in captivity for a maximum of seven min-
          utes.




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          Environmental impact
          It’s prohibited to collect and catch animals without permission according to the
          Swedish Antarctic Act (2006:924). The sampling of seals will made with great
          care and by experienced personnel only. All sampling will be done accordingly
          to standard methods that are accepted in the scientific community, SCAR Code
          of Conduct for the use of Animals for Scientific Purposes in Antarctica
          (http://www.scar.org/about/constitution/animalconduct.html).
          The environmental impact will be considered as minor or at most transitory.

3.1.3     Towards an understanding of the biogenic forcing of the carbon
          fluxes in the Southern Ocean

          PI: Melissa Chierici, Marine Chemistry, Göterborg University

          The Southern Ocean is responsible for about 40% of the total oceanic uptake
          of anthropogenic CO2. The large potential sink is due to the potential for
          strong heat loss, high biological production, as well as the existence of high
          winds and rough seas that favor CO2 gas exchange. However, additional in-
          formation regarding the processes driving the oceanic CO2 system is required
          to evaluate the response of the changes in the marine environment to under-
          stand the subsequent feedback of the oceanic system. During recent decades
          the SAM has been in a strongly positive phase and involved an intensification
          of the polar vortex and has caused increased wind-induced upwelling in the SO
          leading to a reduced CO2 uptake. The aim of this project is to quantify the
          mechanisms driving the CO2 system and the air-sea flux in areas with varying
          water column stratification, ice thickness and freshwater input in the Pacific
          sector of the SO. We will estimate the biologically mediated CO2 drawdown,
          gas exchange, the effect of freshwater input on the carbon flux in the water col-
          umn. Data from three earlier expeditions will be used to evaluate the correlation
          between the CO2 system and the coupled parameters as to investigate the pos-
          sibility to derive pCO2 values from remotely-sensed data in addition to ship
          based observations. We will also initiate a study of the marine-atmospheric
          coupling and its influence on the CO2 air-sea fluxes in different biogeochemical
          regimes.

          Sampling methods and equipment
          Collect seawater both underway from seawater tap in the lab or from the Ro-
          sette sampler for water column studies. Flow-through systems will also be cou-
          pled on-line on the ships seawater supply. Equipment: spectrophotomer for pH
          measurements, Potentiometric titration for total alkalinity, coulometric titration
          for DIC analysis, chlorophyll fluorescence sensor, oxygen photometric sensor,
          filter unit for filtration of seawater for discrete chlorophyll measurements.
          Freeze in filters (for chlorophyll a analysis) in -80 C freeze. Sampling underway
          during the whole cruise on-line measurements and/or manual sampling from
          seawater tap. Interested in ice edge, seasonal ice zone. Sampling section of wa-
          ter column in the upper 3 to 500 meters on a CTD section from the open water
          to the fast ice. Important to get samples from different areas (no ice, light ice




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          cover, heavy ice). Sampling preferably one ice station for each section in the
          marginal ice zone and (to collect sea ice, brief stop of the ship) one full ice sta-
          tion in the fast ice. Melt ponds and sea ice and underlying water will be sam-
          pled.

          Environmental impact
          The project includes handling hazardous substances and will also generate haz-
          ardous waste. Waste management practices for Oden has been developed in or-
          der to minimise the risk of contaminate the ship and the environment. Other
          chemicals, such as solvents will, be used and let out. These agents will be bro-
          ken down relatively fast in the environment and considered not to cause any
          harm. Sampling of plankton is considered to result in negligible environmental
          impacts. The project will make use of electronic instruments for measurements
          of parameters in the water column, and will not cause any environmental im-
          pact. To sum up, given that routines are followed related impacts are consid-
          ered to be less than minor.


3.1.4     Processes driving the CO2 system and fluxes in the sea ice and
          seawater in the Amundsen and Ross Seas, Southern Ocean

          PI: Agneta Fransson, Earth Sciences, Oceanography, Gothenburg University

          The aim for the proposed project is to investigate the poorly known mecha-
          nisms and processes controlling the carbon dioxide (CO2) system and the CO2
          fluxes in the sea-ice-air interface as well as in the water column of the Amund-
          sen and Ross Seas, Southern Ocean. The project will provide new insights into
          the CO2 system and biogeochemical processes within the sea ice, the CO2
          fluxes between the ocean, sea ice and atmosphere and in the underlying water
          using in-situ measurements of the carbonate system parameters in sea ice and
          seawater during field work onboard the I/B Oden and laboratory experiments,
          in combination with gas-flux calculations and biogeochemical models. The
          proposed project will provide an understanding of how changes in the proc-
          esses effect sea-ice-air CO2 fluxes, the vertical transport of carbon and the se-
          questration of the anthropogenic CO2, due to brine release from sea ice, in a
          changing Southern Ocean.

          Sampling methods and equipment: Methods and equipments are jointly
          shared with Dr. Melissa Chieirci.Water sampling methods: underway water
          sampling from seawater intake and discrete water sampling from rosette/CTD.
          Sea ice sampling with sea ice drill and ice saw.

          Environmental impact: Same as above, see p. 3.1.4.




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3.1.5     Circulation of warm oceanic water and glacier melt water in the
          Amundsen Sea – Ross Sea shelf region, Western Antarctica

          PI: Göran Björk, Earth Sciences, Oceanography, Gothenburg University

          In this project we will study the circulation warm Circumpolar Deep Water
          (CDW) and the spreading of glacier melt water in the Amundsen Sea - Ross Sea
          area of Western Antarctica during an expedition with the Swedish icebreaker
          Oden December-January 2008/2009. The mass balance of the large ice sheets
          bounded on the Antarctic continent is of global significance since they have the
          potential to alter the sea level. The West Antarctic ice shelves are vulnerable to
          melting by the heat contained in the relatively warm (CDW) that crosses the
          shelf and circulates below the ice shelves (floating tongues of glacier ice). Re-
          cent observations show that the ice shelves are thinning with about 5 m/yr.
          These changes are accompanied by thinning of the continental ice sheets near
          the cost and higher glacier speeds, presumably due to melting and thinning of
          the ice shelves. The low salinity melt water formed by melting of glacier ice
          eventually leaves the shelf and becomes an important ingredient in the freshwa-
          ter budget of the southern ocean and influence the sea ice formation. In the
          present project we will study cross shelf flow of warm CDW and buoyant melt
          water by observations along several hydrographic sections. The specific objec-
          tives are: 1) Trace and characterize the inflow of warm CDW along several
          poorly investigated deep channels at the Amundsen Shelf. 2) Trace the flow of
          glacier and sea ice melt-water along the Amundsen Sea and Ross Sea shelf re-
          gion and off the shelf break.

          Sampling methods and equipment
          Sea water sampling from rosette/CTD, with several oceanographic sections in
          the Amundsen Sea plus two cross shelf sections towards Ross Sea. Approxi-
          mately 100 stations of 1 hour give 4 days station time. Total length of sections
          is about 720 nm.

          Environmental impact
          The project will make use of electronic instruments for measurements of pa-
          rameters in the water column, environmental impact is considered to be less
          than minor.




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3.1.6     Biophysical variability in regions of the Southern Ocean with con-
          trasting climatic response – the eastern Amundsen and Ross Seas

          PI: Raymond Sambrotto, Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory, Columbia Uni-
          versity, Sharon Stammerjohn, University of California, Santa Cruz and Xiaojun
          Yuan, Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory, Columbia University

          The overarching objective of this proposal is to investigate physical and bio-
          geochemical variability in the Amundsen and Ross Seas, two regions which
          show contrasting responses to climate change. Specifically, we will address the
          extent of CDW intrusions along the shelf, assess freshwater inputs from glacial
          melt and changes in sea ice production, and examine the biogeochemical fluxes
          in response to the different physical environments, all in the context of surface
          forcing associated with large-scale climate patterns. The region from the west-
          ern Antarctic Peninsula to the Ross Sea is one of the least sampled in the
          Southern Ocean. It also is undergoing some of the most conspicuous changes
          that have been observed at high latitudes. These changes include the thinning
          and collapsing of ice shelves and contrasting regional changes in the duration of
          the sea ice season. The Circumpolar Deep Water (CDW), a water mass of par-
          ticular significance to physical and biological dynamics, regionally floods the
          continental shelf, directly threatening the stability of ice shelves, and hence the
          ice sheet. Some of these important variables appear to be influenced by large-
          scale climate forcing associated with El Nino – Southern Oscillation (ENSO)
          and the Antarctic Dipole (ADP). Linking the climate sensitive aspects of this
          region to the changes in local ocean physics and biogeochemical fluxes is a key
          focus of this proposal. Access to this region is made possible by a five year, US-
          Swedish cooperative agreement (starting 2007-08) using the Class 1A Swedish
          icebreaker, Oden that will pass through the southeast Pacific region on her way
          to the annual break-in of the McMurdo Ship Channel in the Ross Sea. During
          the 2008-09 field season, we propose to conduct CTD/XBT/nutrients/δ18O
          sampling along three transects: the eastern Amundsen Sea, eastern Ross Sea,
          and in the Pacific Centre of Antarctic Dipole. We see Oden 2007-08 & 2008-09
          as the initial phases of a multi-year field campaign to study the relationships be-
          tween the climatically sensitive physical forcing and the biologically mediated
          fluxes of nitrogen, phosphorus and carbon. The relationship of phosphorus to
          the other nutrients is of particular interest because it appears to deviate signifi-
          cantly from average ocean ratios, and this unusual nutrient ratio can be trans-
          mitted to lower latitudes by Southern Ocean water masses.

          Sampling methods and equipment
          Upper ocean characteristics will be sampled using a CTD along each of the
          proposed transects, while elsewhere along the ship’s track (preferably near last
          year’s ship track), XBTs will be dropped to characterize the thermal structure. A
          few CTD casts (preferably near 140W) will be conducted along the ship track to
          serve as calibrations of XBT data.




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          Environmental impact
          The project will only make use of electronic instruments for measurements of
          parameters in the water column, and will not cause any environmental impact.
          Regarding the usage of XBTs the PI’s hold a permit, issued by National Science
          Foundation (NSF) 2004, which allows the Polar programs to drop 800 XBTs
          during a period of 5 years. In the end of each program year, NSF submits a full
          accounting report to SCAR including the number of XBT drops.

3.1.7     Controls on climate active gases by Amundsen Sea ice biota

          PI: Patricia Yager, University of Georgia, Walker Smith, Virginia Institute of
          Marine Science and Mark Dennett, Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution

          Convincing evidence now confirms that polar regions are changing rapidly in
          response to human activities. Although the total extent of Antarctic seasonal sea
                       6    2
          ice (15 x 10 km ) has not yet changed significantly as a result of climate change,
          regional reductions or growth can be extensive and coupled to climate-sensitive
          global cycles such as ENSO and the Southern Annular Mode. Model projec-
                                                                                             6
          tions indicate anthropogenic reductions in Antarctic sea ice area by 2 to 6 x 10
              2
          km (or up to 40%; IPCC 2007) over the next century. Changes in sea ice extent
          and thickness will have profound implications for productivity, food webs and
          carbon fluxes at high latitudes, since sea ice biota is a significant source of bio-
          genic matter for the ecosystem. While sea ice is often thought to be a barrier to
          gas exchange between the ocean and the atmosphere, it more likely functions as
          a source or sink for climate-active gases such as carbon dioxide and ozone-
          depleting organohalogens. Since controls on the production and destruction of
          these gases are very likely coupled to the extent and type of microorganisms liv-
          ing at or near this critical interface, changes in both the extent and type of sea
          ice will greatly affect the balance between the marine environment and the bio-
          sphere. Understanding critical feedbacks between climate and the marine bio-
          sphere becomes increasingly urgent as we project rates of change into the fu-
          ture. This project brings together experienced US and Swedish investigators to
          investigate the controls by sea-ice biota on the production and degradation of
          key climate-active gases in the Pacific sector of the Southern Ocean. We hy-
          pothesize that 1) the physical properties of the sea-ice environment will deter-
          mine the community structure and activities of the sea ice biota; 2) the produc-
          tivity, biomass, physiological state and species composition of ice algae will de-
          termine the production of specific classes of organic carbon, including organo-
          halogens; 3) heterotrophic co-metabolism within the ice will break down these
          compounds to some extent, depending on the microbial community structure
          and productivity, and 4) the sea ice to atmosphere fluxes of CO2 and organoha-
          logens will be inversely related. Although sea-ice biota has been studied for
          decades, the Oden cruise affords an important and unique opportunity to study
          their impact on climate-sensitive biogeochemistry. The planned Antarctic tran-
          sect covers more than 3000 miles of the ice-covered Pacific sector, allowing us
          to examine a large range of sea-ice conditions and types, normally unavailable
          within a single expedition. This high environmental variability will permit mul-
          tivariate analyses that should provide new insights into relationships between




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          climate-active gas fluxes, microbial activity and community structure, and
          physical variables potentially measurable by satellite.

          Sampling methods and equipment
          To investigate these issues, we will collect seawater and suspended particles us-
          ing a CTD/rosette system (with winch). Some samples will be analysed in a lab
          van dedicated to radioisotope use since the project require the use of 14C. In
          addition to above-described van the project will use lab space and the following
          equipment: a –80°C freezer, a –20° freezer, +2°C refrigeration, a clean (e.g.,
          MilliQ) pure water supply, a chemical hood, a microcentrifuge, a vacuum line or
          pumps, a small autoclave, a muffle-oven, and an ice machine.

          Environmental impact
          The project includes handling hazardous substances and will also generate haz-
          ardous waste. Waste management practices for Oden and radioactive materials
          use protocols for Oden (Appendix 3) has been developed in order to minimise
          the risk of contaminate the ship and the environment. Other chemicals, such as
          solvents will, be used and let out. These agents will be broken down relatively
          fast in the environment and considered not to cause any harm. Sampling of
          plankton is considered to result in negligible environmental impacts. The pro-
          ject will make use of electronic instruments for measurements of parameters in
          the water column, and will not cause any environmental impact. To sum up,
          given that routines are followed related impacts are considered to be less than
          minor.



3.1.8     Mechanisms behind non-Redfieldian P cycling in water masses of
          the Southern Ocean, new insights from x-ray spectromicroscopy
          and electrodialysis

          PI: Ellery Ingall, Georgia Institute of Technology and Jay Brandes, Skidaway
          Institute of Oceanography

          This proposal aims to further our research objectives regarding phosphorus cy-
          cling in the Southern Ocean by taking advantage of a short notice opportunity
          to use a polar ship facility. Our research interests are highly synergistic with the
          December 2008/January 2009 US Sweden science program planned for the
          Icebreaker Oden. Our proposed research also meets other requirements of the
          SGER program, including the application of new expertise and approaches for
          oceanographic research including x-ray spectromicroscopy and electrodialysis
          techniques. The potential for transformative findings stemming from these new
          techniques has been recently demonstrated in a Science paper examining P cy-
          cling in a coastal oceanographic setting (Diaz et al., 2008). Here, the proposed
          preliminary research is aimed at demonstrating the efficacy of these new ap-
          proaches to solving long-standing oceanographic mysteries in the Southern
          Ocean.




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          Sampling methods and equipment
          Our effort will focus on sampling (using CTD/rosette) and isolating dissolved
          and particulate materials from 0- 1000m water column profiles along a merid-
          ional transect in sea ice covered waters of the Southern Ocean. Samples will be
          taken on an Oden cruise during the austral summer of 2008 to gather prelimi-
          nary data to determine whether 1) the sinking and remineralization behaviour
          and composition of dominant P storage pools result in a relatively shallow re-
          generation of P relative to C and N in and near sub-Antarctic mode water for-
          mation regions; 2) the unusual nutrient uptake ratios in the Southern Ocean are
          associated with cold-water diatom growth; 3) environmental factors lead to un-
          usual nutrient uptake strategies for diatom growth; 4) unique cellular storage
          and conversion processes lead to enhanced P uptake relative to C and N in
          Antarctic surface waters; 5) the dissolved organic phosphorus produced in the
          Southern Ocean contributes to the observed non-Redfieldian P uptake and
          remineralization patterns. Synchrotron-based x-ray spectromicroscopy will be
          used to map and chemically characterize P and associated elements in organ-
          isms and particulates at sub-micron scales. Electrodialysis will allow chemical
          characterization of the most representative DOM samples yet recoverable.
          Combining these techniques with traditional methods, our work will generate
          new and unique insights on Southern Ocean P cycling.

          Environmental impact
          Chemicals, such as solvents and staining solutions, will be used and collected
          accordingly to the ship waste regulation. In small concentrations, these agents
          will be broken down relatively fast in the environment and considered not to
          cause any harm. The project will make use of electronic instruments for sam-
          pling the water column, and will not cause any environmental impact.



3.1.9     Occurrence and Deposition of Aerosol Black Carbon across the
          Atlantic and in Western Antarctica

          PI: Rebecca M. Dickhut, Virginia Institute of Marine Science and Henrik Kylin,
          Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences

          Aerosol black carbon (BC) is emitted during fossil fuel and biomass combus-
          tion. BC particles absorb solar radiation and are a major contributor to global
          warming after. BC undergoes long-range atmospheric transport with rain and
          snow scavenging being the primary removal mechanisms for BC from the tro-
          posphere. BC in snow reduces its reflectance and therefore can have a direct
          impact on climate. BC in snow also increases its absorbance of solar radiation
          and which affects snowmelt. The Antarctic Peninsula is one of the most rapidly
          warming regions on Earth. The western peninsula, Bellingshausen and Amund-
          sen Seas have recently experienced declines in sea ice extent and duration, and
          glacier fronts are retreating. Atmospheric BC levels are 4-10 times higher on
          the peninsula than elsewhere in Antarctica. Various physical reasons lead to the




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      hypothesis that atmospheric deposition of BC is greater along the Antarctic
      Peninsula than continental Antarctica, resulting in BC levels in snow that are
      within the range predicted to impact the timing and duration of the snowmelt
      season. We will measure BC levels in snow and air to obtain spatial distribution
      data of BC in Antarctic; data that can be used to assess the impact of BC on the
      cryosphere of western Antarctica, and determine regional and global climate
      forcing of anthropogenic BC. As a complement we will also measure BC in air
      over the Atlantic, and gain data on some organic pollutants not previously stud-
      ied in Antarctica.

      Sampling methods and equipment
      Continuous air sampling from an upper deck towards the bow of the ship.
      Continuous surface seawater sampling in the wet/clean lab. Deep water sam-
      ples from a rosette and/or in situ pumps whenever possible. Sea ice/snow
      samples if possible. Plankton tows in the Amundsen and Ross Seas outside the
      Marginal Ice Zone and inside the coastal polynyas, if possible.

      Environmental impact
      Chemicals, such as solvents, will be used and collected accordingly to the ship
      waste regulation. Sampling of plankton is considered to result in negligible envi-
      ronmental impacts. The project will make use of electronic instruments for
      measurements of parameters in the water column, and will not cause any envi-
      ronmental impact.

3.1.10 Summary
      As a conclusion, negative environmental impacts from the scientific pro-
      grammes are likely to be less than minor or transitory. Indirectly, several of the
      scientific projects participating in OSO 2008/09 will increase general under-
      standing of certain parameters important for the global change processes. This
      will eventually have a positive impact on the environment by scientifically
      documenting the changes in environment and making scenarios for the likely
      future impacts on a larger scale for the global environment.




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3.2     Prevention of introduction of non-native species
        Humans have introduced a wide range of alien, and in many cases invasive,
        species to Antarctica and the sub-Antarctic islands. These include microbes, al-
        gae, fungi, bryophytes, vascular plants, invertebrates, fish, birds and mammals.
        These species have come to survive, and in some cases dominate, terrestrial,
        freshwater, and marine habitats, and in the sub-Antarctic are causing consider-
        able damage by way of local species extinctions and wholesale alteration of eco-
        systems. Alien species arrive in a multitude of ways: in clothing and personal
        baggage, attached to fresh vegetables, in vehicles, affixed to the hulls of ships
        and inflatable rubber boats, and as unwanted passengers on anchor chains, in
        sea chests and in ballast water.

        In order to prevent the accidental introduction and spread through human ac-
        tivity of any alien organism or substance that may have an unwanted impact on
        Antarctic species or ecosystems, SPRS has endorsed SCAR’s “Code of Conduct
        for Field Work: Transfer of Alien Species to Antarctica and sub-Antarctic Is-
        lands and Between Location Transfer of Species”, see Annex 2.



3.3     Cumulative impacts
        Since OSO 2008/09 will not visit any terrestrial areas, the cumulative impact is
        considered being negligible and to have less than minor or transitory impacts.
        It is very difficult to estimate cumulative impacts on pelagic marine environ-
        ments. There are very few visits in the areas the expedition will visit, and the
        cumulative impacts will most likely be negligible.



3.4     Alternative areas
        There are no relevant alternatives to the chosen areas.



3.5     The zero alternative
        The zero alternatives imply that no activities will be carried out. It is considered
        to entail no additional consequences for the environment, as opposed to a
        situation when the areas are visited. This situation, however, will deprive scien-
        tist of an important logistical framework, which is necessary in order for them
        to carry out their research.



3.6     Gaps of information and other uncertainties
        Current understanding of many aspects of Antarctic biology and ecology is
        poor. The identification and classification of Antarctic species, especially inver-
        tebrates and micro-organisms, is at a rudimentary stage. Ecological processes
        that govern life in Antarctic soils, in the Southern Ocean, and at the ice edge are
        only beginning to be understood. Information on the status and trends of Ant-




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        arctic fauna and flora is fragmentary at best. More research and monitoring are
        required to track trends in basic environmental parameters in the Antarctic. Ac-
        cess to and logistics in remote Antarctic areas are a major challenge to research-
        ers. New techniques, including remote sensing, and further studies will shed
        light on these critical areas.

        Another uncertainty concerning the Oden operations is that the existing EIA is
        from 1993, and there is a need to update the study.

        The limits of current knowledge and methodology of evaluation process must
        be recognized before potentially harmful development is undertaken. Knowl-
        edge of the synergies and interlinkages present in the natural environment will
        never be sufficient to accurately predict the exact impacts of a project. This cir-
        cumstance contributes to uncertainties regarding the environmental assessment
        process. We must tread carefully where the consequences of our actions cannot
        be foreseen. SPRS refer to our environmental code of conduct during the
        whole expedition, see Appendix 1.



3.7     Conclusion
        The initial environmental evaluation indicates that unavoidable environmental
        impacts from OSO 2008/09 associated with scientific activities are considered
        to be less than minor or transitory. At most minor or transitory impact will re-
        sult from the logistic activities. A summary of the identified activities that might
        lead to an environmental impact is presented below in table 1.

        Table 1. Summary of the activities identified that can have an impact on the environment.
                                    Less than minor          Minor or           More than minor
        Activity/action              Or transitory       transitory impact     or transitory impact
                                        impact
        Logistics Oden
        Ship facilities                     X
        Underwater noise                    X
        Waste management                    X
        Chemical management                 X
        Fuel management                                          X
        Science Programme                   X



        Thus, from an environmental point of view there are no reasons not to perform
        OSO 2008/09, assuming that the expedition is conducted within the frame-
        work described in this IEE.




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APPENDIX 1 – NEH ENVIRONMENTAL CODE OF CONDUCT

- Environmental Code of Conduct
Vegetation (Appendix II of the Protocol refers)
Vegetation is scarce and sensitive. Do not collect or interfere without a permit.
   Avoid trampling
   Do not collect plants or harmfully interfere without a permit
   Be aware of the risk of introducing non-native species

Birds and mammals (Appendix II of the Protocol refers)
Birds and mammals are more stressed than they appear. Taking or interference is not allowed without a
permit.
    Keep your distance (do not approach) and be quiet and calm in presence of seabirds
    and seals.
    Do not use motorized vehicles closer than 200 meters from bird colonies (and be
    aware that pilots have been advised to keep helicopters/aircraft at a distance of at
    least 2000 meters from bird colonies)
    Do not handle animals without a permit
    Be aware of the risk of introducing diseases to Antarctic wildlife

Site Management (Appendix III and V of the Protocol refers)
A site should always be left in its natural condition.
    Always bring with you all garbage and other material when you leave a site
    Do not collect fossils and rocks, or in other manners deface the surface, unless for
    authorized research purposes
    Do not damage or remove historic remains

Waste and Pollutants (Appendix III and IV of the Protocol refers)
No waste is to be left in Antarctica and pollutants are not to be released into the environment
   Minimize waste before you leave for Antarctica by removing unnecessary packaging
   material
   Separate metal and glass from the waste stream, and dispose of all waste in appropri-
   ate designated containers.
   Avoid fuel spills by utilizing absorbents when handling fuel.
   Clean up all fuel spills

Protected Areas (Appendix V of the Protocol refers)
Some sites have been designated as Protected Areas. Do not enter without a permit.
   Protected Areas are protected for a purpose, e.g. for physical/ biological occur-
   rences, scientific value, etc. You should respect this designation.
   Do not enter a protected area without a permit.
   If you have a permit, be sure to adhere to the permit conditions and be sure to bring
   the permit with you in the field




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APPENDIX 2 – SCAR Code of Conduct for field work:
Transfer of alien species to Antarctica and Sub-Antarctic Islands and between
location transfer of species


Risk assessment
As part of the field work planning process the following simple risk assessment is conducted.
Risk assessment questions:
    1. Has any equipment/ equipment cases/ field clothing/ boots, planned for use in
         the subantarctic/Antarctica been used in other natural environments, particularly
         alpine or polar environments?
    2. What are the means needed to clean this equipment/ equipment cases/ cloth-
         ing/boots?
    3. Will the field party be visiting more than one major locality?
    4. If yes, how will the field party ensure that equipment/ equipment cases/ cloth-
         ing/boots do not carry diaspores between sites?


Field work
The following recommendations are made with regard to field work.
Field planning
If field work requires moving between major ice-free localities, aim to conduct field
work in low diversity localities before high diversity localities.

Equipment
    1. When designing field equipment, reduce the capacity of the equipment to carry
       additional material and make the equipment easy to clean and sterilize.
    2. If equipment can not be cleaned effectively, do not use this equipment between
       major localities but take multiple sets of equipment (eg planktonic nets).
    3. Be aware of where equipment cases are stored and that these cases do not accu-
       mulate dust or invertebrate infestations.
    4. When cleaning items be particularly vigilant in removing soil, seeds and bryo-
       phyte propagules (including leaves).




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APPENDIX 3 – Radioactive materials use protocols for the Oden


Protocols for use of radioactive materials on I/B ODEN
The following procedures have been agreed upon by the Swedish Polar Research Secre-
tariat (SPRS), the National Science Foundation Office of Polar Programs (NSF/OPP),
Raytheon Polar Services Corporation (RPSC) and the scientists responsible for radioiso-
tope work on the cruise ODEN Southern Ocean 2008/09 (Patricia Yager, Walker Smith).
The procedures are designed to uphold and strengthen the “zero tolerance” contamina-
tion policy on ODEN.
All activities on ODEN are governed by Swedish legislation and regulations. As with ra-
dioisotope work within United States Antarctic Program (USAP), standard RADTRAK
procedures and methodologies (www.usap.gov/vesselscienceandoperations/documents/ ThingsY-
ouNeedToKnow.pdf) will also be followed onboard ODEN to avoid risk to human or envi-
ronmental health. This document outlines a series of specific additional protocols in-
tended to insure that the ODEN is available for use of enriched radioisotope tracer work
while still preserving it as a “clean” platform for natural abundance radioactive and stable
isotopic research. To this end, the following set of operating protocols is to be applied for
the 2008/09 ODEN cruise and for any subsequent cruise work. All scientists using iso-
topes will be familiar not only with the usual regulations and procedures, but also with the
special shipboard practices to conform to a “zero tolerance” contamination policy for the
ODEN. Routines onboard shall continuously be evaluated and the protocols can, in
agreement by the SPRS and NSF representatives onboard, be revised if needed to uphold
“zero tolerance” standards.
The use of a portable isotope laboratory van will be the primary means of insulating ra-
dioactive work from the rest of the ship. This van has a refrigerator and freezer that will
be kept in that van and never used in other vans or within the ship’s labs. Also, the
equipment and furniture in the Isotope Van will be kept isolated and will remain inside
the van. Similarly, furniture, equipment, and other materials from outside the Isotope Van
will not be taken into that van. Aside from certain incubations in the cold van (see be-
low), all materials used in the Isotope Van, including protective gear and clothing, must
remain in the Isotope Van for the duration of the cruise. After the Isotope Van is used
for radioisotopes, it must be thoroughly cleaned and certified by swipe tests to be clean at
the end of the cruise. As soon as the van is installed on the ship, during the cruise, and
until the van is removed from the ship, strict limited access rules will apply. All persons
entering the van at any time must change shoes and put on disposable shoe covers, a lab
coat or coveralls, and gloves as they step into the van and then remove such covers be-
fore exiting the van. A clean mat, a stool, and space for clothes and shoes will be placed
just inside the entrance for changing.




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Specific procedures for radioisotope wok on ODEN
     1) The only radioactive isotope tracer allowed on ODEN is carbon 14 (14C).

     2) Prior to scientists or their isotope stocks boarding the vessel, the ODEN (in-
     cluding relevant portable vans) will be swipe tested for low-level radioisotope
     contamination. Standard UNOLS swipe protocols will be followed, procured
     by RPSC) and implemented by the University of Miami’s Tritium Laboratory
     (UMTL). Prior to the cruise, a subset of comparable pre-cruise swipes will be
     collected and sent to the National Ocean Sciences Accelerator Mass Spectrome-
     try Facility (NOSAMS). A comparable set of swipe tests will be made follow-
     ing demobilization. Comparison and standardization of the two methods has
     not been performed before; thus our results will establish a baseline for the ship
     while at the same time enhancing future swipe protocols for all research vessels.
     Any areas found to be contaminated pre-cruise should be isolated and cleaned
     as soon as possible to avoid further spreading. In the event of post-cruise con-
     tamination found above pre-cruise levels, PIs will work closely with ship own-
     ers, SPRS, Swedish scientists, and RPSC to clean the ship to everyone’s satisfac-
     tion; future isotope use aboard ODEN will depend on it. The costs for such
     cleaning will be carried by the responsible party according to the shipping con-
     tract.

     3) As part of the procedure for obtaining authorization to use radioisotopes on
     the ODEN, the PI must submit an application via PolarICE which includes in-
     formation on the amount and type of 14C to be used, protocols for the experi-
     ments in which these isotopes will be used, and how radioactive waste will be
     stored or disposed. This should include the proposed location of the work and
     procedures for storage and manipulation, for isolation and control of samples,
     for containment and cleanup of spills, and for the disposition of liquid and
     solid waste. All such information is to be shared with SPRS and will be included
     in the application to Swedish authorities, which is a prerequisite for radiation
     work onboard.

     4) At least one of the senior US PIs (Yager, Smith) will be available at all times
     to oversee all radioactive operations. SPRS and RPSC will jointly appoint a des-
     ignated “Radioisotope Technician” onboard who will perform all swipe tests
     and continuously evaluate the procedures to ensure that all isotope work is per-
     formed according to the “zero tolerance” standard. The researchers shall also
     monitor their work areas following procedures outlined by the NSF Permit and
     the home institute RSO.

     5) All radioactive isotope tracer work must be restricted to the Isotope Van.
     This specifically means all work with open containers that contain radioiso-
     topes. Carefully sealed and well-protected sample bottles can be carried out of
     the Isotope Van and incubated in the refrigerated van. Secondary containment
     and protective transfer vessels must be used to carry any bottles from the Iso-
     tope Van to the incubator. It must be ensured that the exterior surfaces of




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  sample bottles and transfer containers are free of radiation as detected by a liq-
  uid scintillation counter (LSC) prior to transport out of the Isotope Van. Sec-
  ondary containment (pool tubs) will also be used with any radioactive materials
  inside the Isotope Van. The isotope van will be equipped with monitoring
  equipment (LSC) for swipe tests.

  6) Any sample manipulation must be performed within the Isotope Van. Any
  storage of enriched isotopes, supplies used for radiation work, or radioactively
  tagged samples must use the refrigerator and freezer within the Isotope Van.
  No samples from radiation experiments may be stored outside the Isotope Van.

  7) When working in the Isotope Van, workers must use shoes, booties, lab
  coat/coveralls and gloves that remain inside the van at all times. Raytheon will
  provide booties, gloves and disposable “sticky mats” inside the doors of the
  van. All shoes and protective gear used in the Isotope Van must thus remain
  within the Isotope Van for the duration of the cruise. At the end of the cruise,
  they are to be treated as radioactive waste.

  8) Efficient absorbent traps will be used to capture volatile forms of 14C (spe-
  cifically, 14CO2) rather than vent directly to the atmosphere. A pristine hood
  with an absorber is to be furnished for the Isotope Van by RPSC prior to the
  departure of the cruise from Sweden.

  9) Once it is mounted on the vessel, access to the Isotope Van is strictly lim-
  ited to only those isotope workers who are properly trained and prepared to
  follow all restrictions. A Restricted Zone will be established and clearly
  marked, encompassing no less than the Isotope Van and the refrigerated van
  for incubations. No unauthorized personnel will cross into this zone. Authori-
  zation for access to the Isotope Van and/or the Restricted Zone is to be agreed
  upon in advance by the relevant PIs (Yager and Smith), the Science coordinator
  (Tannerfeldt) and the Captain. This restriction will be relayed to the science
  party and the crew and officers by the relevant PIs (Yager and Smith), the Sci-
  ence coordinator (Tannerfeldt) and the Captain. No radioisotope enriched
  substances may leave the Restricted Zone.

  10) Equipment that is used for radioisotope experiments at the scientist’s home
  lab or on other vessels, even if not used for radioisotope experiments during
  the specific cruise, may not be brought onboard except for use within the Iso-
  tope Van. These materials must be properly packaged to assure their clean
  transfer to and from the van.

  11) Swipe tests to be measured on the Liquid Scintillation counter onboard will
  be taken daily in the Isotope Van by the researchers during periods of radioac-
  tive work, and extensive swipe tests of the public areas of the ship will be un-
  dertaken once a week during the cruise by the designated Radioisotope Techni-
  cian. Swipes shall be taken on each occasion, noting the exact location and date
  of each swipe. Every second week, these tests will include a subset of at least
  four swipes collected and stored for possible supplementary AMS measure-




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  ments, if post-cruise swabs would indicate contamination (i.e. for “forensic”
  purposes).

  12) Radioactive waste materials (both liquid waste and solid waste) generated in
  the Isotope Van must remain there until the end of the cruise at McMurdo
  when it can be carefully removed, assuring first that all surfaces are clean of po-
  tential trace contamination. During the cruise all radioactive waste is stored in-
  side the Isotope Van.

  13) At the end of a cruise and prior to leaving the ship, the Isotope Van must
  be carefully cleaned and swipe tests conducted for contamination of bench,
  sink, and floor surfaces or of refrigerator and freezers. If further cleaning is
  warranted, testing after cleaning will be conducted until the surfaces meet the
  UMTL standards for a radioisotope vans. Even during times when the van is
  considered “clean” by the UMTL standards, all workers must put on disposable
  shoe covers and gloves as they step into the van and remove such covers before
  exiting the van, and access will continue to be restricted.

  14) Swipes collected pre and post cruise for more sensitive LSC and AMS
  analyses shall be submitted to UMTL, who will coordinate with NOSAMS, as
  soon as possible but not to exceed one month after collection. For this mission
  in 2008-09, RPSC will arrange to have the swipe tests conducted in spaces
  aboard the vessel just outside of the Isotope Van on the deck and in other areas
  trafficked by the people conducting radioisotope work, such as the CTD area,
  both ends of the main lab, and other spaces where appropriate. It is anticipated
  that approximately 8 AMS samples will be run on each of the pre and post mis-
  sion baseline surveys and only where parallel samples run at UMTL show val-
  ues at or below the high sensitivity LSC detection limits. The costs for analysis
  are to be carried by NSF/OPP, being the responsible party for radioisotope
  work on OSO 2008/09. The results of the analyses shall immediately be dis-
  tributed to NSF (Jim Karcher and Kelly Falkner), SPRS (Magnus Tannerfeldt),
  RPSC (Bob Kluckhohn) and the responsible scientists (Patricia Yager and
  Walker Smith).

  15) There shall be no exceptions to these radiation rules for the ODEN.




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APPENDIX 4 – A study of the ice-breaker Oden in polar operations




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APPENDIX 5 – Technical details for the Multibeam echo sounder
and the Sub Bottom Profiler




                                                                     39
   EM 122
   12 kHz multibeam echo sounder
 •	 Depth	range	from	20	to	
    11000	m
 •	 Swath	width	up	to	6	times	
    water	depth/30	km
 •	 Focused	beams	for	
    transmission	and	reception
 •	 High	density	and	multiping	
    modes	for	increased	resolution

 •	 Up	to	864	soundings	per	ping

 •	 Yaw,	pitch	and	roll	
    stabilization

 •	 High	accuracy

 •	 Seabed	image	(sidescan)	data	
    display	and	recording
 •	 Water	column	data	display	and	
    recording	
 • Modular	design,	beamwidths	           operator defined limits. In multiping      The EM 122 transducers are modular
   0.5	to	4	degrees                      mode, 2 swaths are generated per           linear arrays in a Mills cross
 •	 Dual	and	triple	frequency	           ping cycle, with up to 864 soundings.      configuration with separate units for
    versions	possible                    The beam spacing is equidistant or         transmit and receive. The projector
 •	 Integrated	subbottom	profiler	       equiangular.                               array is available as 0.5, 1,2, or 4
    available                               In high density mode more than          degree resolution, while the receive
                                         one sounding can be produced               array is available as 1,2, or 4 degrees.
 •	 Mammal	protection                    per beam, such that the horizontal             The receive transducer is
                                         resolution is increased and is almost      wideband. In conjunction with a
The EM 122 12 kHz multibeam echo         constant over the whole swath.             separate low frequency transmit
sounder is designed to perform seabed                                               transducer, the EM 122 may
mapping – bathymetry and seabed          EM 122 uses both CW pulses and FM          optionally be able to deliver sub-
imagery- to full ocean depth with        sweep pulses with pulse compression        bottom profiling capabilities with a
an unsurpassed resolution, coverage      on reception, in order to increase the     very narrow beamwidth. This system
and accuracy. It represents a major      maximum useful swath width.                is known as the SBP 120 Sub-Bottom
improvement from previous models             The transmit fan is split in several   Profiler.
by offering significantly larger swath   individual sectors, with independent
width, improved data density, and        active steering, according to              Dual or triple frequency versions can
greatly improved resolution. Beam        accomplish compensation for the            be obtained by integration with other
focusing is applied both during          vessel movements: yaw, roll and            EM multibeams at 30, 100 or
reception and transmission.              pitch.                                     300 kHz.
   EM 122 is equipped with a
function to reduce the transmission      With multi-ping ( two swaths per
power in order to avoid hurting          ping) the transmit fan is duplicated
mammals if they are close by.            and transmitted with a small
                                         difference in alongtrack tilt. The
The system has up to 288 beams/432       applied tilt takes into account depth,
soundings per swath with pointing        coverage and vessel speed to give
angles automatically adjusted            a constant sounding separation
according to achievable coverage or      alongtrack.
                                                  EM 122 performance data

Operating frequency...................................................................................................................................... 12 kHz
Depth range ............................................................................................................................................20-11000 m
Swath width ..................................................................................................................6 x Depth, to approx 30 km
Pulse forms...................................................................................................................................CW and FM chirp
Swath profiles per ping ....................................................................................................................................1 or 2
Motion compensation:
- Yaw .................................................................................................................................................... ± 10 degrees
- Pitch ................................................................................................................................................... ± 10 degrees
- Roll .................................................................................................................................................... ± 15 degrees
Sounding pattern .............................................................................................. Equi-distant on bottom/equiangular
Depth resolution of soundings .......................................................................................................................... 1 cm
High resolution mode........................................................................................................ High Density processing
Sidelobe suppression.....................................................................................................................................- 25 dB
Suppression of sounding artefacts .................................................................... 9 frequency coded transmit sectors
Beam focusing ...................................................................... On transmit (per sector) and on reception (dynamic)
Beamforming method .............................................................................................................................Time delay
Gain control ............................................................................................................................................. Automatic
Swath width control .............................Manual or automatic, all soundings intact even with reduced swath width
Seabed imagery/sidescan sonar image ........................................................................................................Standard
Water column display..................................................................................................................................Standard
Mammal protection .....................................................................................................................................Standard
Multi frequency operation.......................................... Yes, by integration with EM 3002, EM 710 and/or EM 302
Sub bottom profiling ........................................................................................... Yes, by integration with SBP 120




                                                          Versions of EM 122
 System	version                       0.5 x 1                   1x1                     1x2                     2x2                     2x4                 4x4
 Transmit	array	[deg]                150 x 0.5                150 x 1                 150 x 1                 150 x 2                 150 x 2              150 x 4
 Receive	array	[deg]                   1 x 30                  1 x 30                  2 x 30                  2 x 30                  4 x 30              4 x 30
 No	of	beams/swath                      288                     288                     288                      288                     144                 144
 Max	no	of	                             432                     432                     432                      432                     216                 216
 soundings/swath
 Max	no	of	swaths                         2                       2                       2                       1                       1                    1
 per	ping
 Max	no	of                              864                     864                     864                      432                     216                 216
 soundings/ping




                                                                                                                                  306105 / Rev.A / September 2006


    Kongsberg Maritime AS
    Strandpromenaden 50                              Telephone: +47 33 02 38 00
    P.O.Box 111                                      Telefax: +47 33 04 47 53
    N-3191 Horten,                                   www.kongsberg.com
    Norway                                           subsea@kongsberg.com
SBP 120 Sub Bottom Profiler

Multiple simultaneously stabilised beams
Excellent penetration - full ocean depth operation




                                                     855-164773 / Rev.A
                                               System description


Introduction                                              chirps, the system offers CW pulses, hyperbolic chirps
   The SBP 120 Sub bottom profiler is an optional         and Ricker pulses. SBP 120 is offered as a three, six
extension to the highly acclaimed EM 120 multibeam        and twelve degree system. For the three degree system
echo sounder.                                             the frequency dependent (narrowband) source level is
   The receive transducer hydrophone array used by        above 220 dB re 1 µPa @ 1m between 3.5 kHz and 6.5
the EM 120 is wideband, and by adding a separate          kHz. The peak electrical power consumption is below
low frequency transmit transducer and appurtenant         8 kW.
electronic cabinets and operator stations, the EM
120 may be extended to include the sub-                                Beam stabilisation
bottom profiling capability provided by                                   The SBP 120 beams are electronically
the SBP 120.                                                           stabilized for roll and pitch. It can also be
                                                                       steered to take into account bottom slope,
Purpose                                                                and the generation of several athwartship
    The primary application of the SBP                                 beams is possible.
120 is to do imaging of sediment layers
and buried objects. Image quality is                                   Ping rate
influenced by:                                                            In the transmit mode “normal” the
• The spatial resolution of the system; its                            SBP 120 pings once and then waits to
  ability to distinguish objects separated                             collect the return signal. Maximum ping
  in angle and/or range. The spatial                                   rate is 4 Hz. In the transmit mode “burst”
  resolution is given by two separate                                  the system allows a number of pulses to
  system properties:                                                   be launched into the water before the first
  - The angular resolution is given by the                             return signal. In the “unsynchronized
    array geometry.                                                    burst” mode the system is set to ping at
  - The range/time resolution is given by                              a constant rate: The transmit- and receive
    the signal bandwidth.                                              periods are interlaced so that a high
• The ping rate relative vessel speed.                                 constant ping rate can be maintained even
  Dense probing alongtrack gives                                       in deep waters
  smoother pictures.                                                      The SBP 120 can be synchronized to
• The angle of incidence of the transmit                               the EM 120 or other external equipment
  beam. The echoes received are                                        by selecting external trigger. During
  essentially caused by specular reflections                           synchronized operation the rule is that the
  at interfaces between layers of different                            SBP 120 can only ping while waiting for
  acoustic impedance.                                                  the first bottom return. In transmit mode
                                                                       “burst” this means we will achieve only a
Key specifications                                                     piecewise dense sampling of the bottom.
   The SBP 120 Sub bottom profiler
has a much narrower beamwidth than a                                   Transducer arrays
conventional sub bottom profiler with                                     The SBP 120 transmit transducer has
correspondingly lesser smearing. It thus                               a physical width of 80 cm, a depth of
provides deeper penetration into the                                   35 cm, and a length depending on the
bottom, and higher angular resolution.                                 requested beamwidth. For a symmetrical
   The normal transmit waveform is a                                   footprint on the seabed, the length of the
linear chirp (which is an FM pulse where                               transmitter array must be equal to the
the frequency is swept linearly). The outer limits for    length of the EM 120 receive array. The transmit array
the start and stop frequencies of the chirp are 2.5 kHz   is mounted in parallel with the vessel’s keel (normally
and 7 kHz, providing a maximum vertical resolution of     side by side with the multibeam echo sounder’s
approximately 0.3 milliseconds. In addition to linear     transmit transducer).
Data logging and real-time processing                           Cabinets and Operator Station
   The data produced by SBP 120 is logged in the                   The transmitter and receiver electronic circuitry
Topas raw format or in the SEG-Y format that allows             required for the SBP 120 Sub bottom profiler is
post-processing by standard seismic processing                  housed in a separate cabinet of the same size as the
software packages.                                              EM 120 Transceiver Unit. The EM 120 Preamplifier
                                                                Unit contains preamplifiers for the common receiver
                                                                array and frequency splitting circuitry. The operator
                                                                interface and display system is implemented on a
                                                                dedicated operator station.




              Typical display window
                                                                            Interfaces:
                                                                            Ethernet and
                                                                            Serial lines:
                                                                            - Sound Velocity near Transducers/
                                                                              Sound Speed Sensor
                                                                            - Depth and bottom slopes
                                                                            - Navigation & Positioning -systems
                                                                            - Clock
                                                                                                                                                                                                           Optional




                                                                                                                                                                                                                (CD6321D)
                                                                                                        Operator Station                                                     Beamformer Unit


                                                                                                                                                             Internal
                                                                                                                                                            Ethernet


                                                                             Internal                                                                                                         System Trigger out
                                                                             Ethernet
                                                                                                        Remote On / Off                                                                    Other external Trigger
                                             Interface: (serial line)
                                             - Attitude (roll, pitch and heave)                                                                                    Control
                                                                                        Int. Ethernet
                                                                                                        Int. Ethernet
                                                                                                                        Trigger out
                                                                                                                                      Trigger in




                                                                                                                                                                                                     EM 120
                                                                                       SBP 120                                                                      EM 120
                                                                                       Transceiver                                                                  Transceiver
                                                                                       Unit                                                                         Unit



                                                                                                                                                   EM 120                                    EM120
                                                                                                                                                   TX Trigger                                Preamplifier
                                                 SBP120                                                                                                                                      Unit
                                                 RX/TX
                                                 Junction Box
                                                                                  –




                                                                                   9
                                                                                                                                                                   Hydrophone Signals
                                                                                                                                                                                                   -- 16
                                                                                                                                                    --




                                                       -- 2x4                                                                                        8
                                                                                                                                                                                                     EM 120



                                                                         Sub Bottom Profiler                                                                    EM 120
                                                                         Transmit transducer array                                                              Receive transducer array


                                                                                  Typical system configuration
                                                        Technical specifications


Operational specifications                                                  Dimensions and weights. main units
Frequency sweep range...........................2.5 to 7 kHz                Element:
Number of beams per ping.................... maximum 11                        Length...................................................... 184 mm
Maximum ping rate.............................................4 Hz             Width: ...................................................... 184 mm
Beamwidth, 5 kHz (along x across):                                             Height:..................................................... 270 mm
    Transmit................................. 3/6/12 x 30 degrees              Weight: ......................................................12.5 kg
    Receive .................................. 50 x 3/6/12 degrees          Frame (3 degrees):
Beam spacing ......................................... ≤ 15 degrees            Length.................................................... 7450 mm
Fan width ............................................... ≤ 30 degrees         Width ....................................................... 800 mm
Pulse length.......................................... 0.4 to 100 ms           Height (including elements) .................... 350 mm
Range sampling rate...................................20.48 kHz                Weight (including elements) ....................1150 kg
Pitch stabilisation ..................................................Yes   Cable Connection Unit:
Roll stabilisation ...................................................Yes      Weight ..........................................................45 kg
Heave compensation .............................................Yes            Weight, four units .......................................180 kg
Depth resolution...............................................0.3 ms          Total weight (3 degrees system)...............2530 kg
Transducer geometry.................................Mills cross             Transceiver Unit:
                                                                               Width: ...................................................... 600 mm
External sensors                                                               Height:................................................... 1400 mm
• Position                                                                     Depth ....................................................... 630 mm
• Heading                                                                      Weight: ............................. Approximately 170 kg
• Motion sensor (Pitch, roll and heave)
• External clock
• Depth, bottom slope angles and sound velocity
  information (from the EM 120)




Please note: Kongsberg Maritime is engaged in continuous development of its products and reserves the right to
change specifications without notice. Survey results have been used with the permission of Service Hydrographique et
Océanographique de la Marine (SHOM).



  Kongsberg Maritime AS
  Strandpromenaden 50                               Telephone: +47 33 02 38 00
  P.O.Box 111                                       Telefax: +47 33 04 47 53
  N-3191 Horten,                                    www.kongsberg.com
  Norway                                            E-mail: subsea@kongsberg.com

				
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