olive by cuiliqing

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									                        ‫اﺳﺘﺮاﺗﻴﺠﻴﺔ ﺗﺼﺪﻳﺮ‬
                       ‫زﻳﺖ اﻟﺰﻳﺘﻮن اﻷردﻧﻲ‬
                       Export Strategy for Jordanian Olive Oil




Ministry of Planning
Jordan has a
6000-Year
Tradition!


A homeland of
the cultivated
olive tree…
  Luckily, olive oil is the most
 widely appreciated edible oil in
    the world because of its
nutritional value and gastronomic
               quality
Olive oil lies at the core of the health pyramid
For Jordan:

          The olive tree is a natural renewable resource

          A dry land crop that conserves scarce water

          A principal crop in the agricultural sector

          Olive oil has medical & nutritional value

          Many social & cultural practices associated with olives

          Valuable olive byproducts

          Creates jobs
The Jordan Olive Oil Market

has been isolated from the

  International Olive Oil

       Community
Integration
                                                                                                                                  Cluster Strategy
Olive Oil Producing Countries
                1050      1020

                    900

                    750


                    600           558
        '000 tons




                    450                   410


                    300


                    150                            103
                                                           60        60       50        45         40        15
                                                                                                                      10            8          7      6.5        5
                     0
                                  Italy




                                                                     Turkey




                                                                                                                                                      Cyprus
                                                                                        Portugal
                                                                              Morocco
                                                           Tunisia




                                                                                                   Algeria




                                                                                                                      Argentina

                                                                                                                                  Palestine

                                                                                                                                              Libya
                                                   Syria
                                          Greece
                          Spain




                                                                                                             Jordan




                                                                                                                                                               Lebanon
                    The 10th olive oil producing country in 2001
                                                      Cluster Strategy
In Jordan:

             15 million olive trees

             One million trees are planted annually

             Good varieties for producing high

             organoleptic quality

             Hand picking of olives

             Processing lines in mills are produced

             and installed by experienced and

             reputable companies



         A potential to produce high quality olive oil
                                          Cluster Strategy
Farming olives in Jordan, two patterns:

    Rain-fed farming:
      • 850 thousand dunums
      • Small farms
      • Traditional farming.
      • Minimal use of chemicals
      • Low productivity
      • Low production cost (Each
         kg of oil costs JD 0.6)
    Irrigated farming:
       • 253 thousand dunums
       • Large farms
       • High productivity
       • High production cost (Each
          kg of oil costs JD 1.30)
                                                                     Cluster Strategy
Olive Oil Production:

                    30
                                                                       27

                    25                   23
                                                       21
                    20
        '000 tons



                         16                                                    15
                    15                          14
                                  11
                    10
                                                                 7
                    5


                    0
                         1994     1995   1996   1997   1998   1999    2000    2001




                              Olive oil production is cyclical
                                                                Cluster Strategy
The Olives:
        The olive varieties planted in Jordan enable the production of
        extra virgin olive oil with high organoleptic qualities (aroma &
        taste)
Nabali olives:           Rasie’ olives:           Souri olives:
- A very high oil          - The percentage of oil      - Oils have an intensely
  content between 28         content varies form 15%       fruity aroma and
  to 33%                     to 28%                        very differentiated
- Oils have a nice light   - Oils have a medium            organoleptic
                             fruitiness with hints of
  to medium fruitiness                                     characteristics much
                             green and apple
- A sweet flavor with      - the taste is very sweet       appreciated not only
  light to medium            with grassy notes with        in Jordan but in the
  pungency                   almost imperceptible          entire region
- A pleasant almond          bitterness and pungency
  aftertaste


                           Good Variety Olives
                                                                                           Cluster Strategy
The Mills:

                           30
                                27
  78 mills installed and   25
  distributed all over
                           20
  Jordan
  Process lines produced   15
                                        11
  and installed by         10                     8        7
  experienced and                                                  5       5       5
                            5                                                               3        3       3
  reputable enterprises                                                                                                 1
  The equipment fulfils     0




                                                                                                    Karak
                                                                                           Madaba
                                                          Balqa




                                                                          Zarqa
                                                 Ajloun




                                                                  Amman




                                                                                                                       Ma'an
                                        Jerash




                                                                                                            Tafeileh
                                Irbid




                                                                                  Mafraq
  all hygiene and food
  processing
  requirements and
  enables producing
  high quality olive oil
                           Well equipped mills
                                                        Cluster Strategy
Olive procurement:
       Harvesting: Most of the
       farmers harvest olives
       either during early stages
       or very late stages of
       maturity, which
       negatively affects
       amount of oil produced

       Mixing olives:
       This attitude negatively affects the quality of oil produced

       Delivery of olives: Most of the farmers deliver their olives
       in plastic & fabric bags, which deteriorates the quality of oil
       produced

                        Needs Improvement
                                                      Cluster Strategy
Mills:

         • Last season, most of the mills worked below their actual
           capacities: some the of mills that have 3 or more lines,
           prefer to operate 2 lines, due to the irregular and small
           amounts of olives

         • The farmers do not cooperate with each other: each
           refuses to mix his olives with those of the others




                        High production cost
                                                     Cluster Strategy
Mills:

         Most of the mills lack awareness of professional
             managerial tools:
         •   Cost control
         •   Cost accounting
         •   Product quality standards and control
         •   Good manufacturing practices




                          High production cost
                                                                                                    Cluster Strategy
Mills:

                                           Does Jordan need More mills?
                     50
                                                          Olive Production

                     40                                   Production Capacity of the mills


                     30
         '000 tons




                     20

                     10

                      0




                                                                                                Karak
                                                      Balqa




                                                                                       Madaba
                                                                               Zarqa
                                             Ajloun




                                                              Amman




                                                                                                                   Ma'an
                                  Jerash




                                                                                                        Tafeileh
                          Irbid




                                                                      Mafraq

   Future investments should be directed towards improving
                 storage & bottling facilities
                                                                          Cluster Strategy
Mills:

                                    Annual surplus of olive oil
                     10


                      8


                      6
         '000 tons




                      4


                      2


                      0
                          95/96   96/97   97/98   98/99   99/00   00/01     2001/2002   2002/2003*


                                                                            * Estimated




                     Increasing need for proper storage facilities
                                                        Cluster Strategy
Mills:
         A 16-Kg tin
         can: Most of
         the olive oil
         production is
         stored and sold
         in tin cans of
         16-Kg capacity




 Such storage encourages bulk, instead of bottling purchasing, weakens
   packaging , reduces quality control, discourages taste preferences
                                                                                       Cluster Strategy
Quality:

           According to the International standards, there are 4 types of
           virgin olive oil
                                         International Olive Oil Standards
                                                                                      Crude    Refined
                       Extra             Ordinary Lampante                            Olive     Olive     Olive
                M.U.   Virgin   Virgin    Virgin    Virgin       Refined     Olive   Residue   Residue   Residue
      Acidity   (%)     1.0        2       3.3      > 3.3          0.5        1.5     > 0.5      0.5       1.5



           According to the Jordanian olive oil standards, there is only
           one type of olive oil
               JORDANIAN OLIVE OIL CHARACTERISTICS
                                               Refined
                              Virgin  Refined    olive
                              Olive    olive   pomace
                     M.U.       Oil     oil       oil
           Acidity
            max       %         3.3     0.3       0.3




Non compliance with International Standards (One type of olive
                             oil)
                                                     Cluster Strategy
Quality:


 No                       Most of the          The consumers pay
 segmentation of      +   consumers are not    the same price for
 the different            aware of the olive   good and bad quality
 types of olive oil       oil they consume     olive oil



                                               2.125 JD per kg is
                                               the only price in
                                               non-differentiated
                                               olive oil market



                          No quality control
                                                                               Cluster Strategy
                  International                               Olive Tree
Quality:
               Grades of Olive Oil
                                                                Olives

                    Virgin Olive Oils                           Mills                  Pomace

                                                                                      Extraction
 Extra                        Ordinary        Lampante                                  Crude
                Virgin
 Virgin                        Virgin           Virgin                                Pomace Oil
Excellent      Good           Acidity < 3.3   Acidity > 3.3
organoleptic   organoleptic
properties     properties                                         Refining Process
Acidity < 1    Acidity < 2
                                                       Refined Olive           Refined Olive
                                                            Oil                 Pomace Oil

                                                                      Adding Virgin
                                                                        Olive Oils
   Extra
                  Virgin                                                                Olive
   Virgin                                                  Olive
                  Olive                                                                Pomace
  Olive Oil                                              Oil (<1.5)
                 Oil (<2)                                                             Oil (<1.5)
    (<1)
                                                          Cluster Strategy
Quality:

           The only chemical test done, in some cases and upon
           request, is the acidity analysis.

           There are 4 entities that can conduct chemical analysis for
           olive oil:
                    Royal Scientific Society
                    Jordan Institute for Standards and Metrology
                    Ministry of Health
                    Amman Greater Municipality

           Yet, equipment need improvements


                             No quality control
                                                           Cluster Strategy
Quality:

           • Olive oil is sold in the local market without content control
             or inspection
           • No control on compliance with labeling requirements




                             No quality control
                                                                                   Cluster Strategy
Demand

                                             Olive Oil Consumption
                       25

                       20

                       15
       kg per capita




                       10

                       5

                       0
                            Greece   Spain   Italy   Syria   Tunisia   Jordan Lebanon Morocco Algeria

                                                                                 Source: Based on IOOC data




Although Jordan is a producing country, consumption per capita
               is considered low, 4 kg per capita
                                                                  Cluster Strategy
Demand

     • Consumption habit:
        Consumption habits have started moving toward buying
        small amounts of packaged olive oil instead of 16 kg tin
        cans

     • The SUBSTITUTE:
        Due to the higher                        16
        prices of olive oil,
                                                 12
        consumers use


                                 kg per capita
        vegetable oils; corn                     8

        oil, soybean oil,                        4
        sunflower oil. With
                                                 0
        prices from 0.64 –                            Olive Oil      Vegetable Oil
        0.88 JD per Liter
                                                                  Cluster Strategy
Demand

                                         Local Prices
                      3




                      2
          JD per kg




                      1




                      0
                          1995   1996   1997   1998     1999      2000          2001
                                                               Source: Based on information
                                                               provided by local producers.




a. There is no clear and identified pricing strategy, and
b. although the trend of the prices is declining, yet these prices still
   considered high for most of the Jordanians
                                                                      Cluster Strategy
Demand
                    30                  Local Consumption
                                       Consumption      Production
                    25


                    20
         '00 tons



                    15

                    10


                    5


                    0
                         1994   1995      1996   1997   1998   1999      2000       2001

                                                                 Source: Based on IOOC data




                          Consumption adapts to supply
                                                                Cluster Strategy
Distribution


    5% of oil
      Millers

                                                       Bottling
                Directly to   Institutions
Source          consumers        (Gov,
of oil          during the       Banks,      Traders          Wholesale
                 pressing         etc.)
                  season          Bids




     Growers                                       Indepen.     Whole      Super
     95% of oil                                     outlets     sales     Markets
                                                         Cluster Strategy
Distribution


      70% of olive oil is sold in
    5% of oil
                                            30% of olive oil is sold
        bulk (16-Kg tin can)                  packed & branded
      Millers
   • No quality control                      • No quality control
   • Lack of product segmentation            • Low level of product
                                                   Bottling
                                                segmentation
   • One price for only one
               Directly to  Institutions     • Consumer has options to
Source undifferentiated oil
               consumers       (Gov,            pay different prices for
of oil Deterioration with time
   •
               during the      Banks,    Traders        Wholesale
                                                different brands and
                pressing        etc.)
   • Inadequate storage conditions
                 season         Bids            different sizes
                                             • No control on
                                                compliance with labeling
       Growers                                  requirements
                                              Indepen.   Whole     Super
     95% of oil                                outlets   sales    Markets
 Most of the consumers are not aware of what type of olive oil
                       they consume
                                          Cluster Strategy
Recommendation
     1.    Quality
     2.    Quality
     3.    Quality
     4.    Quality
     5.    Quality
     6.    Quality
     .
     .
     .
     .
     .
          Quality


     Adopt and implement International Standards
                     Export Strategy




Jordan Olive Oil…
An Export Strategy
                                                    Export Strategy
International Olive Oil Market
                         Main Producers 2001/2002

                Others
                 18%

                                                      Spain
                                                      42%

               Greece
                17%

                                 Italy
                                 23%



 Spain, Italy and Greece contribute to 82% of the world’s olive
                         oil production
                                                                                          Export Strategy
International Olive Oil Market
                                    World Consumption & Production
                      3
                                 Production       Consumption


                      2
       million tons




                      1




                      0
                          1990    1991   1992   1993   1994   1995   1996   1997   1998   1999   2000   2001




 The world market is growing continuously, where production
               and consumption are balanced
                                                                                            Export Strategy
International Olive Oil Market

                               Main Exporters and Importers
          300                                                     300
                          Main Exporters                                      Main Importers

          200                                                     200
million tons




                                                   million tons
          100                                                     100




               0                                                    0
                    EU   Tunisia   Turky   Syria                        USA   EU   Brazil   Australia   Japan   Canada




                   The largest exporter is the second largest importer?
                                                   Export Strategy
International Olive Oil Market

                      1000                      Production+Imports

                                                Consumption+Exports
          '000 tons



                      500




                        0
                             Spain    Italy           Greece




       Italy always has a deficit
       Spain and Greece always have a surplus
       Spain and Greece supply Italy
                                                         Export Strategy
International Olive Oil Market
                                World’s Consumption


                     3000



                     2000
          '00 tons




                     1000



                       0
                            Consumption 1991      Consumption 2002




      Consumption increased by 53% within one decade
                                                                        Export Strategy
International Olive Oil Market
                                  Non-traditional Markets
                      200
                                      Consumption 1991         Consumption 2002

          '000 tons   150



                      100



                      50



                       0
                            USA   Japan   Canada   Australia   France   Germany   UK




• Consumption is boosting in the non traditional markets, (non
  producing countries)
• Most of the olive oil consumed is extra virgin
                                                                      Export Strategy
Jordan Olive Oil Exports

               1000




                             Exports          Average
        tons



               500




                 0
                      1994   1995      1996    1997     1998   1999     2000   2001




Although a producing country, average olive oil exports do not
         exceed 300 tons per year (last eight years)
                                                    Export Strategy
Main Markets


                                  Ukraine   Sudan
                           U.S.A.   4%      0.23%
                   Qatar   9.6%
                   0.21%
               U.A.E.
               11%


                                                       Saudi Arabia
                                                          53.2%
                  Kuwait
                  21.8%




Jordan’s exports are mainly concentrated in the Gulf Countries,
                           (86.2%)
                                                                    Export Strategy
Moreover;

                 Kuwait   Qatar   Saudi Arabia    U.A.E.   Israel   U.S.A    Ukraine
         700


         600


         500


         400
      tons




         300


         200


         100


             0
                  1994    1995    1996     1997     1998     1999     2000    2001




                           Sporadic and Irregular
                                                         Export Strategy
and …

        • Most of Jordan’s olive oil exports are in bulk
        • Since International olive oil standards are not fully applied
          in Jordan, only one type of non-differentiated virgin olive
          oil is exported
        • Jordanian exporters start exporting at the end of the
          season, where local prices of olive oil decline
                                                                                Export Strategy
but …

                    5          Local Olive Oil Prices      International Olive Oil Prices


                    4


                    3
        JD per kg




                    2


                    1


                    0
                        1995    1996      1997      1998      1999      2000      2001      2002 *




Although the price of Jordanian olive oil is not competitive, the
                       gap is narrowing
                                                      Export Strategy
and …

         Jordanian Extra Virgin Olive Oils have some characteristics
        that distinguish them: a fragrant aroma of ripen olives with
          hints of apple and other mature fruits and a remarkable
             sweet taste with almost total absence of bitterness




                  A taste that suits all palates
                                                    Export Strategy
Also, there is a regional opportunity


        Saudi Arabia has started to look for
          alternative supplier of Spanish
           While skills and learning can best occur at the
        regional level where the taste of Jordanian olive oil
        is considered suitable and a window of opportunity
                                exists




Jordan’s export strategy best focus on exporting quality olive oil
   regionally in the short term, and globally in the long term
                                          Short-term export strategy
Overall marketing objectives
           Build an image for Jordan:
                Create awareness of Jordan as a supplier of high
                quality olive oil
           Market penetration:
                Make product available to consumers
                                              Short-term export strategy
Tracks

         I.    Create Jordan Olive Oil Export Group (JOOEG):
                Setting up an association of exporters to overcome
                risks and weaknesses and exploit opportunities and
                strengths


         II.   The Taste:
                Making the mild, differentiated taste of Jordanian
                olive oil the corner stone of the communication
                strategies
                                            Short-term export strategy
Jordan Olive Oil Export Group (JOOEG):

      Strengths and + Geographical proximity
      opportunities + Similar culture/ same language
                      + Rising demand for Extra Virgin olive oil
                      + Quality Jordanian product that suits regional
                        tastes


      Weaknesses      - Lack of image of Jordan as a high quality
      and threats       olive oil exporter
                      - Lack of a sustainable information system
                      - Very limited export experience in olive oil
                      - Inadequate packaging and labeling
                      - Lack of company/ product image and brand
                        awareness in the Gulf
                      - Relatively high prices
                                           Short-term export strategy
The Action Plan

       1. A market research study in Saudi Arabia and the rest of
          GCC countries
       Contents:
             Legal framework, custom duties and tax system
             Market size, total imports, market segments
             Distribution channels, retail system
             Retail prices of competitors
             Consumer habits
             Label requirements, types of packaging
             Organoleptic description of competing olive oils
             Most common means of promotion and advertising
       Timing: 2 to 3 months


Target markets should be prioritized according to the results of
                         the study
                                             Short-term export strategy
The Action Plan

       2. Analysis of strengths and weaknesses for each of the
          JOOEG member companies
       Contents:
             Financial resources
             Sales force
             Suitability of product (Oil, brands, packages and labels)




           Acquire training in marketing techniques
                                          Short-term export strategy
The Action Plan

       3. “Olive Oil from Jordan” Logotype:


       This logotype should be designed for incorporation in all
       promotional materials and product labels of the JOOEG
       member companies




                          Design logo
                                            Short-term export strategy
The Action Plan

       4. A roadshow:


       Jordan olive oil seminar and exhibition
       Theme: Discover the Extra Virgin Olive Oil of Jordan

                  “Jordan Gold, the Sweet Extra Virgin Olive
                                     Oil”

                             “Oils of the Holy land ”

                           “The Liquid Gold of Jordan”


       Timing: December 2002 or January 2003
                                                  Short-term export strategy
The Action Plan

       4. A roadshow:


       Main target groups: Trade and Media
       Contents :
                  6000-year tradition
                  Jordan is a Member of the IOOC
                  Olive cultivation, oil production, main varieties
                  Quality control and standards
                  Health benefits
                  Olive oil and Mediterranean cuisine
                  Olive oil tasting, (Jordan olive oil vs. other origins)
       Promotional material: A booklet with the same theme and
          content of the seminar including a directory of Jordan olive
          oil brands
                                              Short-term export strategy
The Action Plan

       5. JOOEG participation in Saudi Food 2003, 12th INT’L Food,
          Equipment & Catering show:

       Date: 2-6/3/2003, Riyadh Exhibition Center
       JOOEG stand: 30 meter square minimum
       Stand’s requirements:
                  Eye-catching decorations
                  TV screen
                  A counter to allow for the performance of olive oil
                  tasting
                                        Short-term export strategy
JOOEG Stand at Saudi Food 2003


        Company 1       Company 2          Company 3




                      Tasting Counter


        T.V Screen



                         Aisle
                                          Short-term export strategy
The Action Plan

       5. JOOEG participation in Saudi Food 2003, 12th INT’L Food,
          Equipment & Catering show:
       Promotional materials:
            A booklet, same as suggested for the seminar
            Flyer
            Poster; map of Jordan with the primary producing
            regions and varieties
            Video, should be filmed during the next harvest
            seasonJOOEG participation in Saudi Food 2003, 12th
            INT’L Food, Equipment & Catering show:
                                            Short-term export strategy
The Action Plan

       6. The marketing mix of JOOEG companies


       1. Product and Labeling:
          JOOEG companies should agree to share some basic
          elements:
              Type of oil: Certified good quality Extra Virgin.
              Organoleptic characteristics: Sweet and smooth
              with total absence of bitterness
              Package: Glass bottles and/ or very good quality tin
              cans
              Labels: Should include “Olive Oil from Jordan”
              Logotype. Bottles should display a common back label
              or neck tag
                                            Short-term export strategy
The Action Plan

       6. The marketing mix of JOOEG companies


       2. Place:
          The choice of channels will be entirely an individual
          decision of each JOOEG member
       3. Price:
          Each company will set its own price policy taking into
          consideration that the prime market target is to attain
          market penetration; thus the price policy should try to
          lower the prices to a point that makes market
          penetration feasible
                                            Short-term export strategy
The Action Plan

       6. The marketing mix of JOOEG companies


       4. Promotion:
       JOOEG member companies should contribute a percentage
          of their sales to finance generic promotional activities
                                             Long-term export strategy
The Action Plan: Marketing objectives


       Build an
                      Create awareness of Jordan as a supplier of
       image for
       Jordan         high quality extra virgin olive oil in the
                      potential target markets: USA, Canada,
                      Singapore/ Hong Kong, Australia, EU, Japan




       Market
       penetration    Make product available to consumers
                                            Long-term export strategy
The Action Plan: Tracks
       I.   The Consortium:
               An association of companies aiming to penetrate
               foreign markets through a unified sales force and
               marketing strategy

       II. Taste:
              Making the mild, differentiated taste of high quality
              Jordanian Extra Virgin Olive Oil, the cornerstone of
              the communications strategy
                                           Long-term export strategy
The Action Plan
       1. Pre-consortium Phase:
              Identification of the potential member companies
              Viability analysis
              Preliminary market research
              Formulation of objectives and mission
              Internal operation regulations

       Timing: 6 months-1 year




An expert should lead the potential member companies through
                       this critical phase
                                           Long-term export strategy
The Action Plan

       2. Creation of the consortium
       3. Selection of the general manager of the consortium
       4. Design of product
       5. Formulation of marketing strategy and plan
                                          Long-term export strategy
One single market strategy
       1. Product:
          Type of oil: A product range of certified high quality
          extra virgin olive oil
          Organoleptic qualities: Sweet and smooth with slight
          or no bitterness
          Brand: One single national brand; “Jarrah”
          Packaging: High quality packaging
          Labeling: A unified label while mentioning the name of
          the member company supplying the oil

       2. Place (Distribution):
          Upper segment of the market (gourmet sector)
                                             Long-term export strategy
One single market strategy
       3. Promotion:
          Totally integrated promotional activities

       4. Price:
          Integrated pricing policy
                                        Long-term export strategy




                                      arrah®
 Jarrah
                                  c o n s o r t i u m
  c o n s o r t i u m
     Extra Virgin
      Olive Oil
          Product of
The Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan


  Jarrah by:

            Company name

  1 QT. 1.8 FL. OZ. (1 LITER)
                                       Long-term export strategy




                                  Extra Virgin
                                   Olive Oil
 Jarrah
  c o n s o r t i u m
     Extra Virgin
      Olive Oil
          Product of
The Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan


  Jarrah by:

            Company name

  1 QT. 1.8 FL. OZ. (1 LITER)
                                                 Long-term export strategy




                                            Product of

 Jarrah
  c o n s o r t i u m
     Extra Virgin
                                  The Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan

      Olive Oil
          Product of
The Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan


  Jarrah by:

            Company name

  1 QT. 1.8 FL. OZ. (1 LITER)
                                                  Long-term export strategy




 Jarrah
  c o n s o r t i u m
     Extra Virgin                 Jarrah by:
      Olive Oil

                                               Company name
          Product of
The Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan


  Jarrah by:

            Company name

  1 QT. 1.8 FL. OZ. (1 LITER)
                                             Long-term export strategy




 Jarrah
  c o n s o r t i u m
     Extra Virgin
      Olive Oil
          Product of
The Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan


  Jarrah by:

            Company name

  1 QT. 1.8 FL. OZ. (1 LITER)

                                  1 QT. 1.8 FL. OZ. (1 LITER)
                                                 Long-term export strategy
Sensory analysis of virgin olive oil
           (the panel test method)

    Flavor: Combination of olfactory-
             gustatory-tactile sensations

    Positive attributes
        Fruity     Fresh, pleasant, delicious
                   aroma
        Sweet      Pleasant and smooth taste
        Bitter     Taste of grass or leaves
        Pungent    Tactile sensation

     Negative attributes (defects)
        Fusty      Fermented olives
        Musty      Olives stored with humidity
        Metallic   Prolonged contact with metallic surfaces
        Rancid     Oxidation

          Oils with defects should not reach the market

								
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