>The Best Is Yet To Come
A wise person once said, “Nothing is constant
but change.” That’s pretty true, unless you’re
trying to get change from a vending machine.
Speaking of change, those of us in the
Consultant Vendor Sales Group are thrilled with
the birth of the new AT&T. Some of our team
Solutions for Success once had business cards that read, “Pacific
Telephone” (part of AT&T prior to divestiture), then “Pacific Bell,”
Consultant/Vendor Sales Group
and “SBC”. Now we’ve emerged as the new AT&T (with the acqui-
To Encrypt Or Not see P. 6 sition of AT&T Corp.) We’re happy because this most recent
change gives us amazing local, global and wireless network
Your Personal Information Revealed see P. 13 continued on pg. 2
Digital Solutions for Disabled see P. 14
UPDATE Special Repor t On Executives
AT&T – Official US Olympic Team Partner see P. 17
>What Makes You Successful Today?
Heritage of Innovation see P. 18 We asked several telecom consultant executives to provide insight
into their thoughts about Success. Each has been in business for
years. They responded with refreshing candor, chockfull of invalu-
>AT&T Company Overview able tips on Success. Our sincere THANKS to these very busy
professionals for taking time to enlighten us.
I Don’t Do What I Don’t Do
The new AT&T is the largest telecommunications company in the The reason I believe I’m successful is because I follow my own
United States and one of the largest in the world. motto: ‘I don’t do what I don’t do.’ Too many people are afraid to
It is the global company that will set the industry standard for a new tell their client or customer that they are not familiar with a
era of integrated communications and entertainment services. Today, product, application or an idea. They think that by not having all the
the new AT&T has IP-based (Internet Protocol) network capabilities, answers, they look weak in their field. I only do what I know I am
assets, and resources that are widely regarded as unsurpassed in best at, comfortable with and enjoy doing. Anything beyond those
the marketplace, enabling the company to lead the industry in using three aspects of my practice are not worth anyone’s time. I’ve
the language of the Internet to deliver innovative services that inte- found in my consulting experience that the most money I make are
grate voice, data and video. The combined IP assets of the new AT&T the jobs I don’t take.
will enable innovations that neither the pre-merger SBC nor pre- Jacque Mercier, Principal, Eagles Soar Communications
merger AT&T could have accomplished on its own. firstname.lastname@example.org
continued on pg. 3 continued on pg. 2
>HP & Cingular Wireless Solution
HP and Cingular Wireless recently announced the HP iPAQ hw6500
series Mobile Messenger, the first Pocket PCs in the United States
to use Cingular’s high-speed EDGE network.
This sleek smart device, delivers wireless email and an array of appli-
cations that offer users access to the digital content and services they
need for truly effective global communication and mobile productivity.
continued on pg. 2
Data with David. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . pg. 5
Extra Space Storage Inc. Contract . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . pg. 7
Why Not WiMax? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . pg. 8
Contract With Molina Healthcare . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . pg. 12
Cingular MEdia Net Simplifies Wireless Internet Experience . . . . pg. 12
Telemark Gold Awards For Customer Satisfaction . . . . . . . . . . . . pg. 12
New Mobile2Home Calling Service . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . pg. 13
Stress Demystified . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . pg. 15
New Southern California Area Code Coming . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . pg. 15
10 Steps To Presenting An Effective Web Conference . . . . . . . . . pg. 16
AT&T Internet Security News Network . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . pg. 17
Some Executives At The New AT&T . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . pg. 19 Working to keep your communications going 24/7 for over 125 years.
Cingular Launches Enhanced Push To Talk Service . . . . . . . . . . . pg. 19 Courtesy AT&T Archives & History Center
Continued from page 1 client and give them all the information they Continued from page 1
UPDATE SPECIAL REPORT ON EXECUTIVES need so they can make an educated choice. KARI’S KORNER
I Treat People How I Want To Be Treated There’s no such thing as a “one size fits all”
‘Success’ is a personal measurement. We solution in today’s telecom world. Not sur- resources for making integrated communica-
all meaure it different. I don’t measure it in prisingly, all our new business has been tions and entertainment a reality. And along
dollar terms. from referrals. I receive referrals from cus- with Cingular Wireless (the new AT&T owns
tomers and vendors. I consider both a big 60% of it), we want to give you anywhere, any-
I Treat People How I Want To Be Treated time communications. But even though there
win because it shows that I’m not only
This is a good rule in life and it really works have been a lot of changes in telecom lately,
doing a good job but also treating everyone
at work. And, it’s a very simple philosophy some things never change--the companies
fairly and with respect. Here are some of my
to learn. who came together to form our “new” com-
Tips for Success:
Be A Team Player pany have been around for more than 125
Seize the day
In our personal and business lives, we are years! We’ve always stressed Innovation,
Be organized, plan and get things done. Quality, Reliability and Customer Care. Your
not the center of our universe. In life, I need
Don’t procrastinate. Success remains our mission. We have a
to team with my kids to achieve the best
results. In business, there are many people Learn the trade from the inside out passion to assist you. Please contact our liai-
involved (in projects) --some not as “strong” Wherever possible, listen and learn. Under- son managers (see back cover).
as we’d like. But we need to get them to a standing each part of the telecom puzzle is Thank you,
level they contribute in a positive fashion. essential to delivering a successful system
All members of a project have their own or solution. 415.542.4516
agendas--some positive; some to benefit Provide a high level of customer service
themselves at the expense of the team…. Customer interface and good synergy are Kari Aguinaldo, CVSG Leader
I try to help them be a member of a team, essential to a succssful installation or project. P.S. Speaking of change, you
leading by example. If there is a problem,
Strategize with the client may have noticed the new
it’s all about the solution, not the weak link,
No one knows their business like they do. logo. The three dimentional
not to fingerpoint. My job is to show them
Find out what’s important to them. It may AT&T globe represents the expanding breadth
this is how a team can be successful.
surprise you. Design a system or solution and depth of services that the new AT&T
Create Loyal Relationships that meets their own unique needs. family of companies provide to customers. It
By treating people as an equal, by promot- also symbolizes AT&T global presence.
Get involved as early as possible
ing a team strategy, I’ve learned to develop
relationships that have promoted loyalty It’s never too early to start planning, even
from both sides. For instance, I’m not going when the building is still on the drawing board.
to be the biggest buyer of services from a Look at all the options Continued from page 1
HP & CINGULAR WIRELESS SOLUTION
vendor, but I’ll likely get better treatment The best choice is not always the most obvious.
than someone who is a bigger buyer The HP iPAQ hw6500 series is the first gen-
Provide all appropriate options to the client
because I have worked at developing rela- erally available Cingular-enabled device to
Give them the pros and cons of each so have an integrated global positioning satel-
tionships that speak beyond $$$.
they can make the right decision. lite (GPS) receiver. Cingular will sell two
Always Be Accessible
Quality is everything versions of the Mobile Messenger, the
Both clients and vendors can always find me. hw6515 featuring a 1.3-megapixel camera
Do it right the first time.
I’m very responsible and try to answer all calls, and the hw6510, which will come without a
even if to say I’m busy and will call back. Often Build relationships with vendors and service
providers on whom you can trust and rely camera. The HP iPAQ hw6500 series also
there’s a 30-second question I can answer, boasts a unique combination of digital wire-
stopping the game of phone/voice mail tag. I Bottomline: you’ll know you are making your
less voice and data capabilities, including
carry a PDA and respond. This makes every- customers happy when the referrals start
access to Cingular’s nationwide EDGE net-
one feel I’m in the flow of everything going on. rolling in.
work, built-in keyboard, and Bluetooth™
Have Happy, Long Term Clients John N. Lambert, Managing Principal, Lambert & wireless technology.
I don’t lose clients. I perform the services Cingular’s EDGE network is the largest and
agreed upon and I feel I give them a good fastest national wireless data network in
value for their dollar. I work the relationship the United States, with availability in
which drives the loyalty. Make Your Customers Successful
If you make your customers successful, 13,000 cities and towns and along more
Doug Kanner, President, RFM Group than 40,000 miles of interstate highways.
email@example.com you’ll be successful. Making them success-
ful requires several things, including: To help simplify the implementation of wire-
Understand How Your Customer Understandable ongoing commmunication less solutions, HP and Cingular have
Uses Telecommunications Careful listening collaborated with 14 application providers
Working closely with the client helps me Making sure everyone’s on the same page to create the HP Mobility Solutions
understand how they use telecommunica- Keeping up on the daily developments in Evaluation Center (www.hp.com/go/mobile-
tions, what potential uses for telecom are technology and business practices evaluation), a one-stop shop for diverse
viable and what is most important to them. Delivering what you promise & what’s mobility solutions and know-how for note-
Then I make a solid recommendation. In expected books, tablet PC and handheld devices.
developing a recommendation, the most Jagdish Kohli, Ph.D.
important consideration is to be ethical and Jagdish_kohli@yahoo.com “When I look at the future, it’s so bright
provide all appropriate options to the client. The opinions expressed in this column are those of the individual that it burns my eyes.”
I customize the options to that particular executives and not those of the AT&T family of companies.
Continued from page 1 United States and globally. Cingular is the Global, National, Mid-Size, Regional and
AT&T COMPANY OVERVIEW nation’s largest U.S. wireless carrier, with Government Portfolio
spectrum in 49 states. Further, the Business customers benefit from access to
The new AT&T family of companies serves mil-
Cingular relationship expands the new a single source for comprehensive local,
lions of customers around the globe, including
AT&T’s ability to provide a range of innova- national, global and wireless services. The
global, national, mid-size, regional and govern-
tive and flexible solutions that integrate new AT&T companies provide an industry-
ment customers. It delivers an unsurpassed
wireless and wireline communications. leading portfolio of advanced IP and
portfolio of traditional and IP-based voice,
broadband Internet, data transport, wireless traditional networking solutions for both
Global Reach voice and data. All services are matched
and video services. It also offers online and
The new AT&T provides services to virtually with an array of consulting and manage-
print directory publishing and advertising.
every country and territory in the world, pro- ment services, providing businesses with
viding international voice service in 240 professional support options for every ele-
Key Facts on the New AT&T Companies
countries, linking 400 carriers and offering ment of network planning, design,
One of the world’s most advanced and powerful IP
remote access via 19,500 points of pres- deployment and ongoing management.
backbone networks, carrying 4.6 petabytes (4.9
ence in 149 countries around the globe. Enterprise customers also benefit from the
billion megabytes) of traffic on an average
business day to nearly every continent and Cingular delivers the widest international industry’s most powerful online service
country, with up to 99.999% availability. coverage of any U.S.-based wireless car- portal, which enables a range of automated
One of the world’s largest providers of IP-based rier, giving customers the ability to make sales and service functions.
communications services for businesses, with an calls using an internationally enabled The world’s leading CIOs are increasingly rec-
extensive portfolio of Virtual Private Network phone on six continents and 170 coun- ognizing the new AT&T as their global IT or
(VPN), Voice over IP (VoIP) and other offer- tries, with wireless data roaming in 70 information technology strategic partner and
ings, all backed by innovative security and countries for laptops, hand-held devices networking integrator of choice – thanks to
support capabilities. and other data services. the company’s relentless focus on delivering
The new AT&T VoIP service portfolio is one the industry’s most reliable service, most
of the most extensive in the market today, Mass Market: Consumer and Small- globally consistent portfolio, and the most
enabling enterprises to migrate seam- Business Portfolio advanced network management and security
lessly between VoIP and TDM services. The new AT&T companies provide an unsur- tools. The new AT&T leadership in IP services
The new AT&T is the only provider to passed array of voice, wireless, entertain- is evident in the customers it serves:
deliver interoperability with the world’s ment, and IP/data communications products Virtually all of the Fortune 1000 companies
five leading IP PBX vendors. and services for consumers and small busi- All of the Standard & Poor’s (S&P) 500
No. 1 U.S. provider of broadband DSL. Has 6.5 nesses. The new AT&T companies will expand companies
million lines in service and a major Wi-Fi the reach of comprehensive, innovative serv-
ice bundles provided by the SBC companies, Services include:
provider, making it a leader in delivering IP- Access and local services
based services to residential and small- enabling millions of new consumers and busi-
nesses to take advantage of discounted Contact management services
pricing and a single bill for wireline and wire- Data/managed data services
No. 1 U.S. wireless provider. Holds a 60 percent
less voice and data, broadband Internet and Hosting
ownership of Cingular Wireless, which has
messaging services. The new AT&T portfolio Integrated offers
52.3 million customers.
of services is perhaps the most robust in IP and IP-VPN services
No. 1 U.S. provider of local voice services.
today’s market, featuring choice, value and Long distance voice
No. 1 U.S. provider of long distance voice services.
convenience across a range of service Network integration and consulting
World’s largest directory publisher. Delivers 110 options that includes:
million directories a year and publishes Security and business continuity
Broadband DSL. Voice and data CPE
more than 700 different directories in 13
Wi-Fi connectivity at more than 18,000 hot Voice over IP
states, as well as online.
spots in the United States and the world, Enterprise mobility
World leader in transport and termination of whole-
offering broadband service for on-the-go
sale traffic. Recognized by numerous experts
customers in a total of 42 countries. Wholesale Offerings
for its industry-leading wholesale services
Home and small-business networking. The new AT&T wholesale organization is a
Wireless services. global leader in transport and termination of
U.S. Presence Satellite television and, beginning with wholesale traffic. It offers a comprehensive
limited rollouts in 2006, IPTV entertain- wholesale solutions portfolio that is widely
Through its affiliates and subsidiaries, the
ment services. regarded by industry experts as being indus-
new AT&T is the largest U.S. provider of
broadband DSL, long distance and local Local and long distance voice services. try-leading. Wholesale services from the
voice services. The company serves mil- Messaging services and call manage- combined company benefit carriers, wireless
lions of customers, with concentration in ment features. operators, cable providers, and Internet
Arkansas, California, Connecticut, Illinois, IP and Layer 2 data transport services. Service Providers (ISPs) by offering complete,
Indiana, Kansas, Michigan, Missouri, Directory services, listings and advertising. end-to-end solutions locally, as well as glob-
Nevada, Ohio, Oklahoma, Texas and In addition, the new AT&T companies will ally, all from one provider. The new AT&T
Wisconsin. These 13 states cover about focus on quickly adapting communications wholesale organization can help businesses
one-third of the U.S. population. innovations that start in the enterprise to grow by extending their footprint, strengthen-
bring the same benefits to small-business ing their network infrastructure, making their
Via its Cingular relationship, the new AT&T
and residential customers. internal business operations more efficient
is able to deliver a range of wireless voice
and complementing their existing offers with
and data services to customers across the
new value-added application services.
The new AT&T wholesale organization offers Employees Worldwide
a robust portfolio that recognizes the 197,100 (SBC: 157,600; AT&T: 39,500 —
unique needs of wholesale customers such as of 9/30/05)
as the following: Industry Ranking
Wireless Operators. The new AT&T wholesale If ranked at merger close among the 2005
organization offers services that meet Fortune 500, the combined company would
unique requirements of wireless opera-
place 12th on the full U.S. list and 24th on
tors, from traditional voice applications to
the full global list.
high-capacity data applications over a
secure next-generation network. Community Support
Cable Operators. The new AT&T wholesale The new AT&T also inherits a proud heritage
group allows cable operators to offer to of corporate citizenship that will continue to
their end-user customers an array of be an integral part of the company’s future.
voice, data and video services solutions, The new AT&T and its employees are com-
all delivered over a reliable, secure state- mitted to enriching and strengthening the
of-the-art network. communities they serve through financial
Wireline Carriers. The new AT&T scalable support and volunteerism.
network infrastructure enables carriers to Since 1984, SBC Communications Inc. and
seamlessly expand their networks, as the SBC Foundation have contributed more
well as to offer to their end-user cus- than $1 billion to nonprofit organizations
tomers a robust portfolio of voice, video around the country. Likewise, the AT&T
and data services. Foundation has been a significant sup- Serving you for over 125 years
ISPs. The new AT&T wholesale organiza- porter of education, civic causes, the arts
tion provides ISPs with the flexibility to and culture. With the creation of the new Bell’s invention of the telephone and the found-
scale and successfully deliver to their AT&T, the predecessor foundations will be ing of the company that became AT&T. As the
end-user customers new voice, data and combined and are expected to invest more parent company of the Bell System, AT&T pro-
video applications over a reliable, secure vided what was by all accounts the best
than $60 million in philanthropic giving.
state-of-the-art network. telephone service in the world.
Networks The new AT&T is proud to be a company
sponsor of the Pioneers, the world’s largest The Bell System was divested in 1984 by an
The new AT&T owns and operates world-class
industry-sponsored community volunteer agreement between the former AT&T and the
local, national and global wireline, wireless
organization. Approximately 197,000 U.S. Department of Justice, in which AT&T
and IP/data networks, including one of the
employees and retirees of the former SBC agreed to divest itself of its local telephone
world’s most advanced and powerful IP back-
Communications Inc. and former AT&T operations but retain its long distance, R&D
bone networks, which uses multiprotocol
Corp. serve their communities through the and manufacturing arms. Out of the divesti-
label switching (MPLS) technology to enable
Pioneers. In 2004, Pioneers from both ture was born SBC Communications Inc.
seamless integration of multiple networking
former companies donated 8.5 million (formerly known as Southwestern Bell Corp.).
technologies. This reliable, high-performance
infrastructure enables businesses to evolve hours to community outreach activities – In the face of dramatic changes to the com-
toward IP and support diverse applications more than $140 million worth of time. petitive landscape triggered by the
while still taking advantage of their existing Recognition Telecommunications Act of 1996, SBC
network infrastructure. The new AT&T companies are the recipients Communications Inc. embarked upon a
of numerous industry and national awards series of acquisitions to establish itself as a
The company’s U.S. networks include:
and recognition. Honors include: global communications provider: Pacific
50.2 million access lines (SBC-only Telesis Group (1997), Southern New England
access lines). America’s Most Admired Telecommunica-
tions Company (Fortune magazine, 1996 – Telecommunications (1998) and Ameritech
6.5 million DSL lines. Corporation (1999).
Access to more than 18,000 Wi-Fi hot 1998, 2000 – 2004)
spots in 42 countries. Named as a leader in Gartner’s Magic With the merger of AT&T Corp. and SBC
Cingular’s wireless network includes: Quadrants for U.S. Network Providers, Communications Inc., the new AT&T is now
Global Network Service Providers and one of the largest global telecommunica-
Superior spectrum availability in the
Asia/Pacific Network Service Providers tions and networking companies.
nation’s top 100 markets.
(Gartner Inc., 2004) Investor Information
A fully digital, GSM/GPRS infrastructure
Best Customer Portal in the Industry; Ticker Symbol
across its footprint.
chosen for “highest overall level of prod-
EDGE wireless broadband across its footprint. NYSE: “T”. A Fortune 500 company, the new
uct integration, provisioning, tools and
UMTS broadband, which is currently being AT&T is one of the 30 stocks that make up
feature support” (Yankee Group, 2005)
deployed to deliver higher-speed broad- the Dow Jones Industrial Average.
CIO Enterprise Value Award in High Tech,
band services in metro markets. Traded
telecom and utilities category (CIO maga-
The new AT&T’s global backbone network zine, 2005) AT&T Inc. common stock is listed on the
includes: 1,500 managed MPLS nodes in New York Stock Exchange and the Swiss
America’s 50 Best Companies for
80 countries. Exchange and is traded on the London
Minorities (Fortune magazine, 2004)
75,000 MPLS customer ports. Corporate History Stock Exchange through the SEAQ
28 data centers. International Markets facility.
The birth of the new AT&T is, in large measure,
410,000 fiber route miles
the culmination of the evolution of telecommu- 2004 Revenues
Headquarters nications in the United States. AT&T’s roots SBC Communications Inc. – $40.7 billion
San Antonio, Texas stretch back to 1876, with Alexander Graham AT&T Corp. – $30.5 billion
for delay (latency), delay variation (jitter), contracted amount is dropped at the PE
Data with David bandwidth, packet loss, and availability. router in the MPLS network. Any remaining
These parameters form the basis of CoS. bandwidth can be utilized for lower priority
>The new AT&T One of the new features made available by (C2-C4) traffic. Thus it's important for cus-
offers robust IP- MPLS is support for CoS. In January 2005 tomers to conform their traffic to the traffic
SBC implemented CoS on our Provider Edge profile contract they have purchased. The
MPLS based Routers in order to manage the multitude of maximum percentage of Real Time traffic
products applications such as streaming video, voice service categories are: 0%, 20%, 40%, 60%
In the May 2004 Update I over IP e-commerce and other services.
, and 100% Real Time. These are stated as a
wrote about a new product Customers using CoS queuing classify and percent of port size and a premium is
offering called SBC PremierSERVSM Network-based mark classes of traffic by the origination appli- charged for the percent of C1 traffic only.
Virtual Private Network (NVPN). The article reviewed cation on their network so that varying Customers are allowed to float C2 - C4 traffic
this product that is an overlay to the SBC national IP service levels can be enforced throughout the up to 100% of port size. For example, if a cus-
backbone that uses Cisco Systems routers and network. This allows their network to prioritize tomer has ordered the 40% service category,
Multiprotocol Label Switching (MPLS) technology to the real time traffic inside their network, and but is only transmitting 10% Real Time traffic,
deliver highly differentiated network services. I on the link from the Customer Edge (CE) they may transmit 90% lower priority traffic.
reviewed the industry trends, products features, Router to the Provider Edge (PE) Router. Once The percentages are representative of the
benefits and target customer profiles. The article traffic is marked, it will contain the same customer's data stream and are not meant
may be viewed at http://www.sbc.com/cvsg. At that markings as it traverses multiple hops to represent the percentage of bandwidth
time SBC had not yet introduced multiple classes of through the NVPN network. available. Depending upon the transport
service for voice, data and video for this product. type, speed ordered, and the VoIP codec
This article will discuss the added feature, Class of AT&T Offers Four Classes of Service used, actual throughput and available band-
Service (CoS) queuing we began providing in AT&T offers four classes of service on our width could vary considerably. A customer
January 2005 on our Provider Edge Routers. And MPLS based products. It's important to note needs to define their application priorities
with the acquisition of AT&T, we now have three new that AT&T does not mark IP traffic, but only and service categories carefully, because the
MPLS based products for our customers. They respects the markings placed on the traffic by way they mix the data priorities can have a
include: IP enabled Frame Relay, a PVC-less Layer 2 the customer. CoS is usually set by the end profound impact on their data throughput
product; Enhanced VPN, providing full CPE manage- device, such as the VoIP phone, the video and network performance.
ment; and MPLS Private Network Transport. Early server, or the database access application.
next year we plan to offer AT&T VPN which is very The four classes offered are: Additionally, the 100% C1 traffic service pro-
similar to our embedded SBC NVPN product that file refers to bandwidth remaining after
C1 (Real Time) is designed for high speed
making allowances for a small percentage of
supports both Frame and ATM in a managed and interactive video and voice applications.
customer managed environment. overhead reserved for traffic control, such as
This CoS takes priority over all other
Our MPLS based products are designed to routing updates and “keep alive” messages.
options, and is used for applications that
help business customers reduce cost, There is also a misconception that marking
are sensitive to latency, availability, and
all traffic as C1 will enhance the overall deliv-
increase productivity, improve responsive- jitter - such as voice and video.
ery of customer traffic. In fact, the reverse is
ness, build resilience and let them focus on C2 (Interactive) is designed for critical
true. Marking all traffic as C1 will have the
their core competencies. To understand applications that require priority treat-
same effect as not having Quality of Service
Class of Service queuing we must first begin ment. Applications using this CoS include
enabled, i.e., a network guarantee to provide
with an emerging network technology called one-way video broadcast systems that
predictable results. Traffic shaping and priori-
MPLS that provides a range of cost-effective, require a delivery confirmation within a
tization will only work if there are multiple
simplified networking options for customers. short period of time or database activity.
classes of traffic on the interface.
C3 (Enhanced) is designed for low frame
MPLS technology provides differentiated CoS
loss and low delay requirements. This CoS Summary
levels that will support video and voice appli- is designed to transport non-mission criti-
cations. This technology works by switching AT&T uses CoS components in the MPLS net-
cal, yet delay sensitive applications such
packets based on labels, rather than routing. work to provide a greater value to the
as SNA applications or streaming video.
At a simple level, MPLS computes routing enterprise customer. The network has an SLA
C4 (Standard) is designed for bursty traffic
decisions and assigns a label or “tag” telling with minimal delay/latency requirements. of 99.99% uptime in order to offer a highly
a switch or router where to send a packet. By Applications would include e-mail, Internet available service. It allows for traffic group-
implementing label switching technology, traffic or other services that do not rely on ings with specific attributes; class levels are
devices are not making any decisions so short delivery return messages. This used to prioritize traffic; policies are used to
packets are switched rather than routed. This would include most computer-to-computer control network resources; and CoS is based
virtual routing and forwarding technology elim- applications. on per hop behavior, i.e., each node is respon-
inates the need for encryption and sible for managing its own traffic flow. CoS
In addition to the four classes of service
authentication, and can achieve much higher described above, C1 traffic also needs to allows AT&T to provide the enterprise cus-
performance levels moving data through the be shaped according to the service profile. tomer with the tight SLAs essential to
core network than address-based routing. It's Service profiles control the amount of C1 services such as VoIP and interactive video.
the ability to “tag” packets that allows data traffic that the customer is permitted to By deploying these specific CoS mechanisms
for video, voice, or low priority transmission to pass on a site by site basis. This is also to manage latency, jitter, bandwidth and
be identified and routed accordingly. known as the “traffic contract.” packet loss on a network, AT&T can achieve
the level of end-to-end CoS that our enter-
AT&T has defined traffic profile contracts
Class of Service (COS) Queuing specifying the maximum amount of traffic that prise customers require.
CoS is defined as the measure of perform- can be marked as C1 (Real Time). These cat-
ance for a transmission system that reflects egories define the amount of Real Time (C1)
its transmission quality and service availabil- data they wish to send, relative to their other
ity. Different applications have varying needs types of data. Real Time traffic exceeding the Tom David is a CVSG Liaison Manager and can be
reached at firstname.lastname@example.org
is slower, but the exchange of keys is very complicated for them or takes them away
Jerr y Hinek
easy. Each person can send a public key in from their “real work”. If you make it a
clear text to the other, and then use the other requirement, they will start to consider it
>Encryption Decisions person’s public key to encrypt the message. what they need to do.
The message is only revealed by the recipi-
Executive Summary ent’s private key, which is not shared. Sharing Encryption on a Network
The decision to use encryp- the key is easy, but the communication is Information on a network or over the air-
tion is different for each slowed by the slow encryption. waves is vulnerable to interception. Anyone
participant in the decision. on the network could eavesdrop on all mes-
Management may want to sages going over the wire, or someone with
protect information with encryption, tech- In the combination method, a key-pair is
used only to exchange a secret key which a receiver could “listen in” to messages
nology implementers know what encryption going over the air. Information is often most
products and technologies are available will allow the rest of the message to be
encrypted and decrypted quickly. The secret at risk when it’s traveling. Fortunately that’s
and technology users tend to want the tech- also when encryption is at its best.
nology to do all the work. Users frequently key is used for only one session or for one
won’t encrypt if they have the choice even if message, then discarded. This is the way Secure Web Pages
it’s just one extra keystroke or checkbox. In information is encrypted on secure Internet Secure web pages are the best example of
addition encryption is normally more appro- web sites. Sharing a secret key becomes the best use of encryption. Web pages can be
priate for information in transit over a easy and communication is accomplished protected with Secure Sockets Layer (SSL).
network or on mobile devices than it is for with the faster encryption. The web browser and the web server manage
information stored on disk or tape, but not Key Strength the security. Most likely E-commerce would
always. Sometimes it’s better not to spend Key strength is an important factor to con- not be possible without SSL or some equiva-
the money on encryption but use better sider. Key strength is a way of describing how lent to protect credit card numbers or online
access controls to protect your information. difficult it is for a third person do discover the banking PINs from interception. The user
key that reveals the meaning of the mes- doesn’t even have to know this is going on,
Introduction sage. Two things determine key strength. although the knowledgeable user will see the
Encryption is fascinating technology, built on First is always the size of the key, or the https in the Universal Record Locator (URL) or
complex but understandable mathematics. In number of random characters. The second is page address. If you need to protect confi-
theory it’s one of the best ways to conceal the the means used to generate those random dential information on a web page, SSL is
meaning of information. In practice, of characters. If keys are too short or the way your best bet.
course, you will find a more complex picture. they are generated is not well thought out, SSL requires that the web server and the
People often resist using encryption for day to keys can be discovered easily using modern, web browser exchange a public key so that
day things and poor implementation can off-the-shelf computers. a secret key can be generated and shared
leave weaknesses that the mathematics for the transmission of the information.
can’t control. This article will discuss the deci- Human Factors This all happens computer to computer.
sion to apply encryption to information on People like the idea of encryption, they just Some web pages allow the user to click a
different devices and media. don’t like it or trust it when they have to partic- button to turn on the security. The one
ipate in the process. When the infrastructure is weakness with SSL is that the strength of
Encryption Key Overview set up so the machines decide when and how the security is determined by the settings
Encryption depends on encryption keys, to encrypt, and handle the key exchange, on the web browser of the person accessing
strings of random characters, and some people are happy to let that happen, and even the website. If the user settings call for
keys are better than others. There are two more confident in using the infrastructure to short encryption keys, those are used.
primary, sophisticated ways to encrypt: share personal and financial information. Wireless Networks
either with a secret key or with a pair of Somehow when people actually have to make I love my wireless network at home. I’ve
keys known as a public key/private key pair. the encryption decision, they either don’t only got 2 computers, but I don’t have to
Each method has advantages and disad- bother or don’t think about it, unless the moti- string a CAT5 wire from the DSL connection
vantages. A lot of encryption technology vations are really strong. to another room to work (or surf) on my
combines the two to get the most benefit. People like online banking, bill paying and laptop. Unlike SSL, the user has to be the
Secret Key tax filing. They are convenient and the tech- system administrator. The user has to take
Encryption between two persons or entities nology assures the security; individuals the time to configure both ends of the com-
with a shared, secret key tends to be very fast, don’t have to make the encryption decision. munication with the protocol and the
but requires that the two parties have a People don’t like to encrypt E-mail because encryption key. Once it’s set up, it’s more
secure way to share their secret key. You can’t it takes time to manage their own and other like SSL, the devices do the rest.
just send the key in advance in clear text: the people’s keys. It just feels like too much While it’s not that hard to configure the
secret key is confidential information, and work for what should be easy - sending a encryption, a lot of people don’t bother.
could be duplicated by anyone who could see message. It may just be that encryption has Vendors make it easier and easier, but the
it, allowing a third party to read the message. not matured enough; not enough people are components will work without the security
So speed is the benefit, but sharing the key is doing it to be generally accepted yet. and many people just want instant gratifica-
the weakness. If you are encrypting informa- If you need your employees to encrypt e- tion. There’s no easy solution; you have to
tion for your own storage and not to transmit, mail or hard drives you will have to get over your own resistance and do it.
secret key is the way to go. communicate this policy clearly along with Protect your home or office network from
Key Pair the reasons. You will need their buy-in to your neighbors’ teenagers or the person
Encryption between two persons or entities implement encryption successfully. People driving by looking for a free connection.
who each have a public key and a private key will find ways to avoid security if it becomes
Protocol Choices person in the next seat or at the next table officer in the Gulf War who had a laptop
This paragraph gives technical details on the may be shoulder-surfing. By allowing stolen from his car in London causing a revi-
equipment you buy when you want to have a employees to work from remote locations, sion of the invasion plans and punishment
wireless network. If you don’t want any tech- you have also permitted that employee to for the officer?
nical detail at all, skip to the next paragraph. display that information in airport waiting Several banks last year received bad pub-
There are 3 flavors of encryption for an areas, in hotel lobbies or in Starbucks. licity when backup tapes, containing clear
802.11 wireless network: Wired Equivalent Business to Business text personal financial customer informa-
Privacy (WEP), Wi-Fi Protected Access (WPA) This is an ideal situation where encryption tion, were lost or stolen. Their customers
and WPA2. WEP has known vulnerabilities can both lower costs and enable productivity were not happy.
and hackers have utilities to make it easy to gains. The demands for business to busi- It’s worth the extra effort and money to buy
crack. WPA improved on WEP and WPA2 is ness communications no longer allow you to devices that contain encryption code or soft-
the latest version of WPA. The router and call your supplier and order a thousand more ware that will encrypt your information on any
adapter have to be capable of, and config- widgets. Computers can place these orders media you can carry out of the building.
ured to use, the same protocol or your a lot faster without holidays or sick days. It
secured network won’t work for you. Not all used to be when businesses needed security Conclusion
Peripheral Component Interconnect (PCI) they had to pay for private-line, dedicated cir-
adapters will support the stronger encryption cuits between locations. Today encryption 1. Encryption is best suited for networks
and the ones that do are more expensive. allows two businesses to keep the privacy at and is most likely to be used where sys-
Still, if you are buying your first wireless a fraction of the cost. The reduced cost tems, not people, turn on the encryption.
router or it’s time to upgrade to the newer allows smaller businesses to take advantage Not enough people have gotten used to
faster ones, spend the money to get the of faster communications. Good security, encrypting.
higher level of security. Then turn it on. wisely used, can help your business to grow. 2. Encryption is very important on any
Working away from Work mobile device or media that contains
The ability to work from remote locations Disk Drives and Mobile Devices or Media valuable or sensitive information.
can be a win-win situation for employer and The decision to use encryption when you are 3. Information can be encrypted on storage
employee. It’s one situation where people not sending the information over a network is devices where only one person needs
are willing to make the effort to use encryp- more complicated. Do a lot of people need access.
tion so they can get the obvious benefits. access? Do you have other means of pro-
4. Encryption on disk drives, especially
Employees on call 24/7 don’t have to get tecting the information that may be more
where more than one or two persons
dressed and drive to work in the middle of appropriate? Is the information stored on a
need access, probably is not as benefi-
the night to fix a problem or to get informa- device that could be lost of stolen? Is there
cial as other means to control access.
tion to make a decision. Employees who a suitable encryption product available at a
travel can be productive in hotel rooms or at reasonable price? Unfortunately there is no 5. Make sure to secure your wireless net-
customer sites. Encryption makes this pos- easy encryption, such as SSL, for storage works. Easy for you is also easy for
sible. Yes, good security can actually help devices or mobile media (e.g. diskettes, everyone else. Taking the time to turn on
you be more productive. tape, CD’s DVD’s or USB drives). There’s the security will make it harder for anyone
nothing really cheap and easy. You really to listen in.
A Virtual Private Network (VPN) turns the
Internet into a secure information pipeline. have to want it to get it.
Through authentication and encryption a Lots of Users
computer in the office and a remote com- The more people who legitimately need
puter on the Internet establish a virtual access to information, the less likely you Jerry Hinek is a Senior Business Security Manager
private-line connection. Even though the are to get any benefit from encryption on for SBC Services. He earned an MBA in
packets of the message can be sent any- your storage devices. The more people who Information Management and is a Certified
where on the Internet before reaching their need access to a secret key to read the Information Security Professional.
destination, their meaning is hidden until information, the less secret the key. It’s just
revealed at the other end. that simple. You have to do something else
to protect the information. On the other “The pen is the tongue of the mind.”
Original VPN required both computers to have
compatible VPN software, but some recent hand, if you’re the only user, then you Miguel De Cervantes
VPN (Clientless VPN) makes use of SSL and should weigh the value of the information
web browsers to have the privacy without the against the risk that the device could be
accessed by a hostile third party. Extra Space Storage Inc. Contract
need for VPN software. This makes it possi-
ble to use any web browser on any computer. Mobile Devices or Media AT&T announced recently it has won a
Remember that security is often a trade off. If you keep sensitive information on any two-year, $1 million contract from Extra
Using an insecure computer for the VPN con- mobile devices such as a laptop, Universal Space Storage Inc. to provide voice net-
nection could compromise any information Service Bus (USB) drive, Personal Digital working services. Extra Space Storage
left on the computer. Public-use computers at Assistant (PDA), Apple Computer iPod®, digi- recently acquired Storage USA, making it
a trade show might not be the best bet for tal camera, cell phone or wrist watch, then the second largest self-storage operator
working remotely if you leave your secrets for you should buy devices that will encrypt the in the United States, with more than 630
the next person to review. information and protect it with a password. properties in 34 states.
Limitations Laptops are stolen every day. USB drives can AT&T networking services have enabled the
be left behind accidentally. PDAs are lost, company to improve operational efficiency
Never forget that encryption will do you no iPod’s and cameras are attractive to thieves. and customer service while providing an
good if you do your work or read sensitive
Do you remember the story of the British estimated 45 percent savings.
information in a public place where the
base stations may need to be unobtrusively WiMax Network Architecture
mounted on the roofs of homes or build- By using a robust modulation scheme,
ings, rather than towers on mountains. WiMax delivers high throughput at long
> Why Not WiMax? *********************************** ranges with a high level of spectral effi-
WiMax stands for “World- ciency that is also tolerant of multi-path
Key: The most common WiMax configuration con- fading. “Dynamic adaptive modulation”
wide Interoperability for sists of a base station mounted on a building or
Microwave Access Forum.” allows a WiMax base station to exchange
tower that communicates on a point to multi-point throughput for range. For example, if the
Many operators and service basis with subscriber stations located in businesses
providers may be unfamiliar base station cannot establish a robust link
and homes. 802.16a has up to 30 miles of range to a distant subscriber using the highest
with the details of the IEEE with a typical cell radius of 4 - 6 miles. Non-line-of-
802.16 standard, but this wireless technol- order modulation scheme, 64 QAM
sight performance and throughputs are optimal (Quadrature Amplitude Modulation), the
ogy has the potential to revolutionize the within this typical cell radius.
broadband wireless access industry. modulation order is reduced to 16 QAM or
*********************************** QPSK (Quadrature Phase Shift Keying),
WiMax was formed in April 2001, in prepa-
802.16a also provides an ideal wireless back- which reduces throughput but simultane-
ration for the original 802.16 specification
haul technology to connect 802.11 wireless ously increases effective range.
published in December of that year.
According to the WiMax Forum, the group’s LANs and commercial hotspots to the To accommodate easy cell planning in both
aim is to promote and certify compatibility Internet. 802.16a wireless technology gives licensed and unlicensed spectrum world-
and interoperability of devices based on the businesses the ability to flexibly deploy new wide, WiMax also supports flexible channel
802.16 specification, and to develop such 802.11 hotspots in locations where tradi- bandwidths – it fosters scalability. For exam-
devices for the marketplace. Members of tional wired connections may be unavailable ple, if an operator is assigned 20 MHz of
the organization include Airspan, Alvarion, or too time consuming to provision. This capa- spectrum, that operator could divide it into
Analog Devices, Aperto Networks, bility offers service providers around the globe two sectors of 10 MHz each, or 4 sectors of
Ensemble Communications, Fujitsu, Intel, a flexible new way to stimulate growth of the 5 MHz each. By concentrating RF power on
Nokia, OFDM Forum, Proxim, and Wi-LAN. residential broadband access market seg- increasingly narrow sectors, the WiMax
ment, especially in areas where cable modem operator can increase the number of users
WiMax 802.16 technology is expected to
or DSL services simply aren’t available.
while maintaining good range and through-
enable multimedia applications with wire-
With shared data rates of up to 75 Mbps, a put. To scale coverage even further, the
less connection and, with a range of up to
single “sector” of an 802.16a base station – operator can re-use the same spectrum in
30 miles, enable networks to have a wire-
where sector is defined as a single trans- two or more sectors by creating proper iso-
less last mile solution. The 802.16
mit/receive radio pair at the base station – lation (physical separation) between base
standard, the “Air Interface for Fixed
provides sufficient bandwidth to simultane- station antennas to avoid interference. In
Broadband Wireless Access Systems,” is
ously support more than 60 businesses with other words, WiMax allows for carefully engi-
also known as the IEEE WirelessMAN air
T1-level connectivity and hundreds of homes neered frequency re-use.
interface. This technology is designed from
the ground up to provide wireless last-mile with DSL-rate connectivity, using 20 MHz of In addition to supporting a robust and
broadband access in the Metropolitan Area “channel bandwidth”. To support a viable dynamic modulation scheme, the IEEE
Network (MAN), delivering performance com- business model, service providers need to 802.16 standard also supports technologies
parable to other broadband services such sustain a mix of high-revenue business cus- that increase coverage, including mesh topol-
as traditional cable, DSL, or DS-1 offerings. tomers and a high-volume of residential ogy and “smart antenna” techniques. As
subscribers. 802.16a helps meet this radio technology improves and costs drop,
802.16 wireless technology will provide a
requirement by supporting differentiated the ability to increase coverage and through-
flexible, cost-effective, standards-based
service levels, which can include guaranteed put by using multiple antennas to create
means of filling existing gaps in broadband
T1-level services for business, or best effort transmit and/or receive diversity will greatly
coverage, and creating new forms of broad-
DSL-speed service for home consumers. The enhance coverage in extreme environments.
band services not envisioned in the wired
802.16 specification also includes robust Privacy and encryption features are also
telecom world. WiMax is basically the next
security features and the Quality of Service included in the 802.16 standard to support
generation of the wireless local loop (WLL)
(QOS) needed to support services that secure transmissions and provide authenti-
concept. But the development of WiMax is
require low latency, such as voice and video. cation and data encryption.
taking a much more solid, constructive,
802.16 voice service can be either tradi-
growth-oriented approach than previous
tional Time Division Multiplexed (TDM) voice WiMax Standards and Development
incarnations of WLL technology.
or Voice over IP (VoIP).
Standards are important for the telecom
WiMax: The Wireless MAN Solution *********************************** and wireless industry – really any industry –
Key: The main advantages offered by 802.16 are as because they facilitate economies of scale
In January 2003, the IEEE approved the follows:
802.16a standard which covers frequency that can bring down the cost of equipment,
1. The ability to quickly provision service, even in areas ensure interoperability, and reduce invest-
bands between 2 GHz and 11 GHz. The
that are hard for wired infrastructure to reach; ment risk for WiMax operators.
802.16 standard is an extension of the
IEEE 802.16 standard for 10 - 66 GHz that 2. The avoidance of steep installation costs; and
was published in April 2002. These sub 11 3. The ability to overcome the physical limitations Key: Without industry-wide standards, equipment
GHz frequency ranges facilitate non line-of- of traditional wired infrastructure. manufacturers must provide all the hardware and
sight RF connectivity, making the WiMax 4. The ability to complement and interface with software building blocks and platforms by them-
standard an ideal technology for last-mile other wireless broadband technologies such as selves. This includes the chip sets, subscriber
applications. Here’s why: obstacles like 802.11 Wi Fi, and 3G. station gear, WiMax base stations, and element
trees and buildings are usually present, and *********************************** management software used to provision services
and remotely manage the subscriber station. With Some industry observers believe that dard. The 802.16a standard is basically an
the 802.16 standard in place, suppliers can amor- WiMax competes with Wi-Fi. Most informed amendment to the more general 802.16 core
tize their research and development costs over players argue that WiMax is really a com- standard developed in December 2001 by
much higher product volume. The WiMax Forum has plementary technology to Wi-Fi, particularly IEEE Task Group 1. The core 802.16 specifi-
facilitated this standards activity. in the metro arena. They see it as a broad- cation was an air interface standard for
*********************************** band wireless alternative to cable or DSL, broadband wireless access systems using
and believe that certified WiMax products point-to-multipoint infrastructure designs,
Standards also specify minimum perform- will begin to appear in the enterprise operating at radio frequencies between 10
ance criteria for equipment, enabling a market in mid-2005, while residence WiMax GHz and 66 GHz. It targeted an average band-
common broadband wireless access base- products will provide solutions that are width performance of 70 Mbps and peak data
line (platform) that equipment most cost-effective that fixed solutions in rates up to 268 Mbps. It addresses the
manufacturers can use as the foundation rural or greenfield areas. requirements of both licensed and unlicensed
for ongoing innovations and faster time-to- implementations, and supports point-to-multi-
market. With its broad industry support, the In April 2002, the IEEE published their
802.16 standard for Broadband Wireless point networks as well as mesh topologies
802.16 standard lets device manufacturers within the unlicensed region.
and solutions vendors do what they do Access (BWA), also known as WiMax.
best: achieve overall price/performance 802.16 specifies the details of the air inter- But the 802.16a standard wasn’t complete
improvements and open mass-market faces for Wireless Metropolitan Area in many peoples’ minds. It applied only to
opportunities that cannot be equaled by Networks (MANs). And while there are some line-of-sight deployment in licensed spec-
proprietary approaches. similarities between Wi-Fi and WiMax, in trum, didn’t address non line-of-sight
other respects they could not be more dif- (NLOS) transmission, neglected to offer any
The WiMax Forum is a non-profit corporation ferent. Spectrum was allocated globally for conformance guidelines and ignored ongo-
formed by equipment and component suppli- 802.16 implementation through a two-year, ing development of the similar European
ers, including Intel Corporation, to promote open-consensus procedure that involved HiperMAN standard. The 802.16a collec-
the adoption of WiMax-compliant equipment hundreds of engineers from major carriers tion of amendments took into account the
by operators of broadband wireless access and vendors around the world. emergence of licensed and license-exempt
systems. The organization is working to facil- Consequently, 802.16, while still a nascent broadband wireless networks operating
itate the deployment of broadband wireless technology, enjoys global acceptance and between 2 GHz and 11 GHz, with support
networks based on the IEEE 802.16 stan- what will be a relatively trivial implementa- for non line-of-sight architectures that could
dard by helping ensure the compatibility and tion phase once it becomes more widely not be supported in higher frequency
interoperability of broadband wireless deployed. Furthermore, the capabilities of ranges. Support for NLOS performance was
access equipment. This is similar to how the the standard are impressive. Whereas Wi-Fi one of primary PHY [physical layer] differ-
Wi-Fi Alliance promoted the IEEE 802.11 Wi offers megabits of nominal bandwidth over ences in 802.16a. 802.16a was developed
Fi standard for wireless LANs. service distances of 300 feet, WiMax offers with the requirements of lower frequencies
Several industry players are leading WiMax’s 100 Mbps over a service radius of several in mind. The amended standard also
implementation. The first of these is Intel, miles. And because it is orthogonal, it does allowed for WiMax deployment in varying
which is making heavy investments into not require line of sight for connectivity. channel capacities to address the different
WiMax as part of a strategy to take the lead Over the last few years 802.16 has under- amounts of spectrum carriers may own
in WiMax the same way they did in Wi-Fi with gone a series of modifications, resulting in from market to market, and in different
Centrino. Their research shows that many the existence of various flavors of the origi- parts of the world.
people use their PDAs, broadband equipped nal standard including 802.16a and
mobile phones and laptops to access data 802.16e. They are discussed below. 802.16e
networks while mobile, a phenomenon that is 802.16e is under development as an exten-
causing a significant number of communities 802.16a sion of 802.16a. Its potential impact is
to build metro-based broadband access enormous in that it adds mobility to
areas to serve them. IEEE 802.16a was ratified in January 2003
as an extension to the original 802.16 stan- 802.16a systems.
Table 1: 802.16 WiMax Standard Evolution
802.16 802.16a/REVd 802.16e
Completed Dec. 2001 802.16a: Jan 2003
802.16 REVd: Q3 2004 Estimate: 2nd half of 2005
Spectrum 10 to 66 GHz < 11 GHz < 6 GHz
Channel Conditions Line-of-sight only Non line-of-sight Non line-of-sight
Bit Rate 32 to 134 Mb/s at 28 MHz Up to 75 Mb/s at 20 MHz channelization Up to 15 Mb/s at 5 MHz channelization
Modulation QPSK, 16 QAM and 64 QAM OFDM 256, OFDMA
64 QAM, 16 QAM, QPSK, BPSK Same as REVd
Mobility Fixed Fixed and Portable Mobility, Regional Roaming
Channel Bandwidths 20, 25 and 28 MHz Selectable channel bandwidths between Same as REVd
1.25 and 20 MHz, with up to 16 logical
Typical Cell Radius 1 to 3 miles 3 to 5 miles; Maximum range 30 miles 1 to 3 miles
based on tower height, antenna gain and
transmit power (among other parameters)
*********************************** equipment vendors and overseeing testing many businesses, to the extent that these
Key: The addition of mobility could support the end- of the products at third-party labs in order organizations may actually re-locate to
to-end needs of a subscriber in both fixed and to certify them for interoperability. areas where broadband service is available.
mobile environments. However, the addition of *********************************** In today’s marketplace, local exchange car-
mobility has a potentially major impact in an area Key: In the long-term future, the vision is for WiMax riers have been known to take three months
that not many may be considering. Observers may to become a last-mile access technology integrated or more to provision a DS-1 circuit for a
say that WiMax represents a real threat to Wi-Fi. in laptops and other end-user devices. But in the business customer, if the service is not
But given that WiMax spectrum has already been near term, it probably will have the most viability for already available in the building. WiMax
allocated around the world, mobile WiMax repre- backhauling the rapidly increasing volumes of traf- technology enables a service provider to
sents more than a potential threat to Wi-Fi, it fic being generated by Wi-Fi hot spots. This would provision service with speed comparable to
represents a huge threat to 3G. Billions of dollars reflect an end-to-end wireless “last mile”, all the a wired solution in a matter of days, and at
have been spent since 2001 on 3G spectrum, with way to the end users’ device ! a significantly lower cost.
minimal deployments to date. Now 802.16e-based ***********************************
WiMax holds the promise of wireless broadband ***********************************
Key: 802.16a technology also facilitates instantly-
connectivity with global reach. 3G begins to appear WiMax has key benefits for carriers and configurable, “on demand” high-speed connectivity
as just another option. operators. By choosing interoperable, stan- that can support hundreds or even thousands of
*********************************** dards-based equipment, the operator users for Wi-Fi hotspots, for temporary events such
lowers the risk of deploying broadband wire- as trade shows In this context, WiMax operators
Given that the ultimate goal of 802.16 is to less access systems.
provide a technology solution that will could use 802.16a solutions for backhaul to the
Economies of scale due to standardiza- core network. Current (wireless) technology makes
bridge the gap between fixed and mobile tion will help reduce monetary risk.
wireless systems, 802.16e will allow it possible for the service provider to scale-up or
Operators are not locked in to a single scale-down service levels, literally within seconds of
Wireless ISPs (WISPs) to enter and take
vendor, or small group of vendors, a customer request.
over a market with minimal investment in
because base stations will interoperate
infrastructure, then offer a complete pack- ***********************************
with subscriber stations from different
age of services ‘to subscribers. Wireless “On demand” connectivity also benefits
broadband, in the form of WiMax, could also businesses such as construction sites, that
compete favorably with such options as Ultimately, operators will benefit from lower- have irregular broadband connectivity
cable modem and DSL (in fact, some ana- cost and higher-performance equipment, as requirements. “On demand” last-mile
lysts refer to WiMax as wireless DSL). See equipment manufacturers rapidly create broadband service such as WiMax repre-
Table 1 for a comparison of the three exist- product innovations based on a common, sents a significant new profit opportunity for
ing WiMax standards, illustrating the standards-based platform. any carrier willing to deploy it.
technology’s evolution. Supplementing Gaps In Cable and DSL Coverage
WiMax Application Options
WiMax is absolutely still in its nascent The cost and complexity associated with
stage. Members of the WiMax forum are The WiMax standard will help the telecom
traditional wired cable and telephone infra-
working together to carefully plot the evolu- industry provide wireless solutions across
structure have resulted in significant
tion of 802.16 from a vague standard into multiple broadband segments.
broadband coverage gaps in the U.S. and
a marketable technology. Common ambition Wireless Carrier Backhaul Network across the globe. Early attempts to use
and experience deploying Wi-Fi serve as wireless technology to fill these coverage
Long-haul and Internet backbone providers
their guide rails. gaps have involved a number of proprietary
in the U.S. are required to lease lines to
WiMax is not Wi-Fi - not yet, anyway - but the third-party service providers, an arrange- solutions for wireless broadband access
next evolution in broadband wireless has ment that tends to make wired backhaul that have fragmented the market without
set off down Wi-Fi’s path. Wi-Fi, based on relatively affordable. The result is that only providing significant economies of scale.
the 802.11 standard, once claimed only a about 20 percent of cell base stations are A surprisingly large number of areas in the US
sparse, polka dot pattern of hot spots backhauled wirelessly in the U.S. With the and throughout the world still don’t have
around the globe, but that pattern is becom- possible removal of the leasing requirement access to broadband connectivity. Providing a
ing denser by the day - much faster than by the FCC, U.S. wireless (cellular) providers wireline broadband connection to a currently
wireline broadband technologies could. Its may look to 802.16-based wireless back- underserved area through cable or DSL can
success has given proponents of broad- haul as a more cost-effective alternative to be a time-consuming, expensive process.
band wireless access, whose visions of leased lines. The robust bandwidth of
success have proved mirages before, Practical limitations prevent cable and DSL
802.16a technology makes it an excellent
reason to hope again. technologies from reaching many potential
choice for backhaul to support commercial
broadband customers. Traditional DSL can
The WiMax Forum, comprised of more than enterprises such as hotspots, as well as
only reach about 18,000 feet (3 miles) from
100 companies, is gathering a broad array point-to-point backhaul applications.
a telco central office, and this limitation
of vendors and service providers from Broadband On-Demand means that many urban and suburban loca-
around the world that will contribute to the tions cannot obtain DSL connectivity. Cable
Last-mile broadband wireless access can
success of WiMax. Advancing the technol- also has its limitations. Many older cable
help spur the deployment of 802.11
ogy to market depends largely on the ability networks have not been equipped to pro-
hotspots and home/small office wireless
of this industry cooperative, which will vide a “return” channel, and equipping
LANs, especially in areas not served by
shape an intentionally vague standard into these networks to support high-speed
cable or DSL or in areas where the local
something more marketable and receptive broadband can be expensive. The cost of
telco may have a long lead time for provi-
to mass deployment. The key objective con- deploying cable is also a significant deter-
sioning broadband service. Broadband
sists of devising specifications for product rent to the extension of wired broadband
Internet connectivity is mission critical for
interoperability across a wide range of
service in areas with low subscriber density. with a local Wireless Internet Service Provider WiMax is not a new technology - it is a more
This is because the capital outlay required (WISP) to deliver Internet access service. innovative and commercially viable adapta-
to implement the cable, which is mostly Recent statistics show that there are more tion of a proven technology that is delivering
labor costs for trenching, would take a long than 2,500 WISPs who take advantage of broadband services around the world today.
time to recoup, if it could be recouped at all. license-exempt spectrum to serve over 6,000 In fact, wireless broadband access systems
The low subscriber density is the mitigating markets in the U.S. [Source: ISP-Market from WiMax Forum members are already
factor. Even if all potential customers 2002]. On an international basis, most deployed in more than 125 countries
bought into the service, their low numbers deployments are in licensed spectrum, and around the world. These leading equipment
would likely not be sufficient to cover the are deployed by local exchange carriers who providers are on a migration path to WiMax.
cost of supplying cable to the area(s). require customers to purchase voice services Proceeding With Caution
For wireline telcos, WiMax could prove in addition to high-speed data. This is
because in these areas the wired infrastruc- For now, WiMax proponents are hopeful
cheaper and easier to install than DSL, and about the prospect for broad market deploy-
the evolution toward 802.16e’s mobile ture either does not exist or does not offer
the quality to support reliable voice, let alone ment, but they are also trying to keep that
capability in the future could help telcos hope from mutating into too much hype. It’s
compete better with the wireless carriers. high-speed data. This is essentially a wireless
local loop (WLL) application. in the backs of everyone’s minds that over-
Also, WiMax with mobility could provide a investment, too much marketing hype and
broadband evolution for mobile carriers that Extendable Wireless Access exorbitant product cost were among the fac-
have not yet decided about 3G. WiMax will As the number of Wi-Fi hotspots proliferates tors that killed off a previous generation of
surely get the attention of wireless carriers, at a blazing pace, users will naturally want to broadband wireless service providers,
because 3G CDMA (EV-DO) operates at be wirelessly connected, even when they are namely LMDS and MMDS. Sprint purchased
lower rates than WiMax. 802.16e should outside the range of the nearest hotspot. The MMDS spectrum licenses, launched “Sprint
reach the marketplace sometime in late IEEE 802.16e extension to 802.16a intro- Broadband” service around 2000, only to
2006 or 2007. duces roaming capabilities which will allow grandfather the service around 9 months
*********************************** users to connect to a WISP even when they later. This isn’t to say that many carriers
Key: The current generation of proprietary wireless roam outside their home or business, or go to who’ve purchased LMDS and MMDS
systems are relatively expensive for mass deploy- another city that also has a WISP . licenses won’t eventually put them to use
ments because, without a standard, few economies again at some point in the future. How
of scale are possible. This scenario also limits pro- Licensing that’s done is the million dollar question.
curement leverage of WiMax carriers. Standardizing The WiMax Forum has no intentions of navi- WiMax Forum members believe the mis-
a technology leads to more equipment manufactur- gating the jumble of international spectrum takes of the past have helped them
ers getting “into the game”, which is good for policy to bring the licensed frequencies into contribute to a detailed, revised standard
operators because it gives them additional leverage the WiMax fold. The Forum has selected a and a product certification plan that broad-
with manufacturers when negotiating. few bands that meet the world’s needs, and band wireless didn’t have 5 years ago. This
*********************************** they’ve formed a regulatory group that will time around, Wi-Fi now exists as a last mile
Cost and deployment inefficiencies will work towards harmonization. Essentially, the complement that paves the way for WiMax.
change with the launch of standards-based WiMax Forum is concentrating on two critical Theoretically, WiMax will be a natural exten-
systems based on WiMax. The range of bands: the 2.5 GHz or MMDS band, and 3.5 sion of something that already exists: Wi-Fi.
802.16a solutions, the absence of a line of GHz – by far the most abundant broadband ***********************************
sight requirement, high bandwidth, and the spectrum allocated across international bor- Key: With the advent of a standard and economies
inherent flexibility and low cost of WiMax- ders. There are other bands under of scale driving down equipment prices and improv-
type service helps to overcome the consideration that WiMax could support, but ing performance, many analysts predict a virtual
limitations of traditional wired and propri- the Forum and most of its vendor members explosion in the market for broadband wireless. In-
etary wireless technologies. have chosen to concentrate their energies on Stat/MDR forecasts the market will grow to more
Service providers seeking to build broadband those two bands. Since WiMax is intended to than $1.2 billion by 2007.
infrastructure in developing countries should be a specification that enables volume sales ***********************************
take fiber as far as they can practically take through standardization, the objective is to
generate a lot a buzz about a few spectral Perhaps one of the most exciting aspects of
it, then go wireless. WiMax technology will WiMax – one with the potential to make this
allow these companies to deploy broadband bands rather than little interest in numerous
bands. The Forum is getting approached by a significantly bigger market - is the evolution
quicker and cheaper. For any carrier looking to to true mobility. The WiMax Forum worked
fill the holes in their cable or DSL networks, many governments that want to know how
they can them work toward harmonization. aggressively to incorporate mobile capabili-
wireless is the most viable solution today. ties into the 802.16 standard by the end of
This is because the cost of wireless compo- *********************************** 2004. In the 2006 timeframe, it’s expected
nents has dropped dramatically since the late Key: As is the case with so many other wireless tech- that WiMax will be incorporated into end-user
1990s, and WiMax standardization – like any nologies, the U.S. is unique when it comes to the devices like notebook computers and PDAs
technology standardization - will facilitate potential of broadband wireless. While the rest of the along with Wi-Fi and Bluetooth, enabling the
widespread deployment. world is jumping on the 3.5 GHz spectrum, regulation delivery of wireless broadband directly to the
Areas Underserved By Broadband has kept those bands off of the table in the U.S. While end user - at home, in the office and on the
there is discussion of opening up the similar 3.6 GHz move. This potential could allow for true end-
Wireless Internet access based on the WiMax band at the FCC, most of the U.S.’s hopes lie in the 2.5
standard is also a natural choice for under- to-end wireless communications, a truly
GHz MMDS held by Sprint and Nextel. Neither of gorundbreaking moment first in the world of
served rural and outlying areas with low these carriers have announced any WiMax-related
population density. In such areas, local utili- wireless communications. In the 2007 time-
plans to date for their MMDS spectrum. frame, it’s expected that WiMax will be
ties and governments usually work together
*********************************** integrated into 3G phones along with Wi-Fi,
providing a simplified network connection for MEdia Net Live Ticker
voice and data. The WiMax Forum is driving a
>Cingular MEdia Net Simplifies Taking MEdia Net’s convenience and simplic-
common platform for harmonization between Wireless Internet Experience ity one step further, Cingular also has
Cingular Wireless recently announced a sig-
standards that will enable users to remain introduced MEdia Net Live Ticker. For the first
nificant upgrade to its MEdia Net service
connected wherever they go. time in the industry, MEdia Net Live Ticker
that dramatically simplifies the way more
But for all of the industry hope and hype delivers pre-selected content, such as break-
than 30 million of its customers access the
that has been placed at the feet of WiMax, ing news, weather and sports information,
wireless Internet on their mobile phones.
the technology remains today in an early, directly to consumers’ phone displays without
The enhanced MEdia Net provides cus-
pre-market stage. the need to touch a single button or incur any
tomers with the quickest access to favorite
charge for accessing the initial information.
Market success for WiMax is not assured. online content, and is the first wireless
Though analysts believe the WiMax market Internet service to offer breakthrough levels MEdia Net Live Ticker provides zero-click
will be worth anywhere from $2 billion to $5 of personalization. Cingular’s more than 30 access to specific personalized headlines
billion by 2009, the defining aspects of that million customers with data-capable hand- and content. Information rolling across the
anticipated growth remain to be pinpointed. sets will be automatically migrated to the “ticker” at the bottom of the phone display is
It’s very likely that the initial service providers new MEdia Net over the next several weeks. updated automatically several times daily to
adopting WiMax in 2005 will be wireless The new MEdia Net dramatically reduces the keep consumers current with their favorite
ISPs, many of whom already are demanding number of clicks it takes to retrieve online news, weather, sports and entertainment con-
pre-certified products from vendors. information on consumers’ wireless phones. tent; all without pressing a button. MEdia Net
Now, with just one or two clicks on the Live Ticker updates in the background when
WiMax has the potential to be the great the phone is idle and does not disrupt the
equalizer in broadband access - to close phone’s keypad, customers can gain access
to news and entertainment headlines, sports phone’s normal usage.
the gap of the digital divide, which has
never been more within reach. scores, financial quotes, local weather, and With MEdia Net Live Ticker, consumers will
more. Cingular’s introduction of a personal- receive “bites” of headline-style information
ized “phone page” enables users to add and that appear on their phone’s display. The cus-
remove whatever content they wish to see. tomer can then delve one-level deeper and
Cingular has worked closely with leading con- “snack” on a brief synopsis of the informa-
Paul Bedell is Associate Director of Product tent providers, including CNN for news, ESPN tion. If the customer then decides to “feast”
Management for the PremierServ Hosted IP for sports, E! Online for entertainment, The on additional information beyond what has
Service. Paul is also an Adjunct Faculty member at been provided, they can use MEdia Net to
Weather Channel for weather, and Univision
Chicago’s DePaul University and a published access the wireless Internet and retrieve the
author. This article is an excerpt from his new book, for Spanish-language content.
full story. Charges are only incurred if the cus-
“Wireless Crash Course – SECOND EDITION”. To make it even easier for Cingular’s cus- tomer chooses to open the MEdia Net
The opinions expressed in this feature are those of tomers, the company has taken the first step session to get the full story. MEdia Net Live
Mr. Bedell and not of the AT&T family of companies. by linking localized content to the customer’s Ticker is launching on the Motorola V557 for
billing zip code. Therefore, when customers the holidays, with more handsets featuring
access the new MEdia Net, they will see their this service to come in the new year.
local weather, sports team scores, movie the-
atre listings and more on their first visit – all MEdia Net services can be purchased on a
>Contract with Molina Healthcare tied to their zip code. MEdia Net then pro- pay-as-you-go basis ($0.01 per KB), or
included in a MEdia Net package, ranging in
AT&T recently announced that Molina vides customers the control to move beyond
these initial settings to further personalize price from $4.99 for 1MB of data usage to
Healthcare Inc. has signed a three-year, $7.2
their experience right from their phone. $19.99 for unlimited data usage.
million contract for an Internet Protocol
Virtual Private Network (IP VPN) that will pro-
vide the company with a full range of voice
and data networking services. >Telemark Gold Awards For of customer satisfaction. The three Gold
Awards AT&T received are for Secure Data
Molina Healthcare operates health plans in Customer Satisfaction Transfer, Installation Not Disrupting and
California, Indiana, Michigan, New Mexico, AT&T Inc. Internet Protocol Virtual Private Satisfaction With Prior Pilot Installation.
Utah and Washington, as well as 21 pri- Network (IP VPN) services “seem to be hitting
AT&T received five “Excellent” ratings for its
mary care clinics located in Northern and new heights,” according to the most recent
Network Availability, Operational Guarantees,
Southern California. Telemark Services customer satisfaction
International Performance, End-to-End
survey. AT&T Inc. has received more Telemark
Molina Healthcare turned to AT&T for a net- Network Management and Bills in Currency of
Gold Awards than any other global carrier in
working solution that will allow the company Choice. AT&T also met or exceeded bench-
the most recent global IP customer satisfac-
to take advantage of newer, more cost-effi- mark satisfaction levels for 31 of the 32
tion survey results issued by the marketing
cient technologies and allow for future attributes measured.
services firm in December 2005.
expansion efforts. The AT&T solution inte-
AT&T was also ranked “Best in Class” in
grates voice and data services and enables According to the Telemark survey, AT&T is
seven of the report's 32 key categories. They
Molina Healthcare to take advantage of new the operator with the greatest number of
are Secure Data Transfer, Value for Money,
technologies like VoIP (Voice over Internet “Outstanding” performances in this latest
Ability to Meet Customers' Requirements,
Protocol), which offers additional features report, winning three in total.
Installation Not Disrupting, Operational
and operational efficiencies. In addition, the A Telemark Gold Award is bestowed for satis- Guarantees, Prior Pilot Installation and Bills in
network provides increased productivity and faction scores rated at more than 20 percent Currency of Choice. AT&T outperformed all
an improved customer service experience for above the benchmark standard, which repre- competitors on Prior Pilot Installation and
members and providers. sents the attainment of an exceptional level Operational Guarantees.
They could possibly sell addresses to other money comes out, the patron of the ATM will
club owners so upcoming show information simply think the machine is out of order and
could be mailed out. They could determine move on, unknowingly leaving their card
>What Your the types of shows most 5’ 6” brunettes of a number and PIN for a bad guy to harvest.
Magnetic Stripe certain age and weight were most interested During my research, I also read many arti-
Says About You in. Or use the information gathered about our cles that claim hotel keycards not only store
physical attributes for direct marketing pur- your room number and your checkout date,
Recently, my ID was checked
poses. The possibilities are practically but also store your name and credit card
at a local club offering a con-
endless, and for the most part sound some- information. The good news is, that informa-
cert. It wasn’t because I look young; everyone
what harmless. But, as with most subjects I tion falls under the urban legend category.
had to go through the indignity. When my
write about, there is a criminal element lurk- Hotel keycard coders are not hooked up to a
driver’s license was swiped through the card
ing out there, ready to take advantage of our hotel’s billing system.
reader, my age was displayed on a board in
large, red lights. I watched while others were The bad news is, criminals do use the
also carded, and after getting over the fact cards, but they use them as blanks. They
that I was probably the oldest person there, I erase what is on the keycard and replace it
began to wonder, how did they get that infor- Skimming takes place when a corrupt
employee working at a reputable business with stolen credit card information. That
mation from a simple card swipe? How much way, if they are arrested, law enforcement
do the magnetic stripes on the back of my swipes a card’s magnetic stripe into a
hidden card reader before processing the only finds an old hotel key in their posses-
credit cards and license say about me? sion and not a fraudulent credit card.
payment. The unauthorized copy can then
I decided to investigate and began looking be sold and/or cloned into a new card.
for a card reader. Someone else uses your account informa- What Can You Do?
tion to pay for merchandise they will enjoy, Never let your card out of your sight.
What I Learned and you get the bill. Shield the key pad with your free hand
Card readers are readily available online when entering your PIN.
The one thing the skimmers can’t grab is
from merchants who sell point-of-sale Be aware of your surroundings.
the CVS code, at least not from a card
equipment. Obtaining the software is a little Review your monthly statements carefully.
swipe. The CVS code is the 3-digit code
trickier. It is very expensive; much more Monitor your credit report.
most often printed on the back of the card,
than I was willing to pay for my little experi- Try to use ATMs you are familiar with and
but it is not encoded in the magnetic stripe.
ment. But, after some additional searching use on a regular basis.
on the Internet, I not only found some free So, how do skimmers bypass the approved And finally, just for safe measure, keep
software, I also located instructions on how card readers? They use the data collectors I your hotel key card and destroy it later.
to build my very own card reader. mentioned earlier. Data collectors are battery
Unfortunately, I also ran into a few sites operated card readers. They can read mag-
selling data collectors, which are card read- netic stripes as well as bar codes. The newest
ers that scan and store card numbers for breed of these data collectors are so small,
unscrupulous uses. More on that later. they can be stored on a key ring, and can be Nancy Grover, Regional Manager-SBC Corporate
completely concealed in the palm of a hand. Information Security, is responsible for the com-
Magnetic stripes are divided into three
The information of up to 1500 cards can be pany’s critical systems, including the core network
tracks. Most credit cards only use tracks 1 and the Network Operating Centers. She is a
stored and then uploaded to a computer at a
and 2. Track 1 generally holds the primary Certified Information Security Professional and an
later time. Some of these devices even have
account number, the cardholder’s name, a Information Systems Security Architecture
a quick-erase button so all the information can
country code, and the expiration date. Professional (Network Security Architecture).
be dumped in a hurry if needed. The skim-
Track 2 also holds the card number, country The opinions expressed in UPDATE are not neces-
mers know that in many states it is a crime to sarily those of the AT&T family of companies.
code and expiration date. Some cards acquire and store this information without the
make use of track 3 where the PIN is stored permission of the cardholder.
in an encrypted format. New Mobile2Home calling service in CT
They also know that credit card fraud goes
When I slid my own cards through my new Speeding the long-awaited integration of
largely unpunished, and that the Secret
card reader that is exactly what I found. In wireless and wireline services, AT&T Inc.
Service cannot investigate unless the loss
fact, some cards, like my HMO card, AAA and Cingular Wireless recently announced a
to the true card holder reaches $2,000 for
card and my grocery store club card had limited trial launch of a new service that
each single transaction. Therefore, they
even less information than that. I was feel- gives residents unlimited calling to and
keep purchases from each business below
ing pretty good about the lack of from their Cingular Wireless mobile tele-
that magic number, many times just dump-
information being shared, until I scanned phone number and their primary phone line.
ing the card and moving onto another after
my driver’s license. each purchase. As many of the transactions The service trial, called Mobile2HomeTM, is
States that use magnetic stripes on their take place across state lines, local law available to qualified Connecticut cus-
driver’s licenses use all three tracks. Every enforcement is unable to get involved even tomers with combined-billed local and
bit of information that is written on the front though the loss may be less than $2,000. Cingular Wireless service. The Mobile2-
of the license is stored on those tracks. Home feature will be available for $5.99 a
Skimming can also occur at ATM machines or
Which means that the club owner who was month for each wireless phone only to
gas stations. Devices have actually been
scanning licenses for admittance to the Connecticut residential customers of the
placed over the card reader that will gather
show could have potentially gathered and new AT&T companies with a home phone
your information. A brochure or deposit enve-
stored all kinds of personal information line and who combine their Cingular
lope holder can hold a small camera, which
from each of the patrons. Wireless bill with their local phone service
can record your PIN as you type it in. When no
bill. The trial runs through Feb. 25, 2006.
blind or sighted users. With a five-way joy- of greater collaboration between students
Jagdish Kohli, Ph.D.
stick and two control keys in some phones, within lectures.
Digital Solutions for we can cycle through the comprehensive The opportunities for collaboration are
menus, easily making selections with a enriched by the wide variety of content that
People with click of a joystick. can be interchanged even between different
Disabilities Below is a sample of some of the features types of PDA. Such collaboration by means
A small but significant part provided with Mobile Speak software loaded of document exchange may be particularly
of the society has some into some smart phones for the visually valuable means of “inclusion” for students
form of physical or psychological handicap. impaired: with communication difficulties.
Biology at birth, accidents in life, aging of Hear incoming and outgoing calls The idea is to enable people with disabili-
human mind and body or absence of human Check logs for missed calls, received ties to enjoy anytime, anywhere access to
interconnectedness are some of the rea- calls, or merely review dialed numbers assistive technology using commodity wire-
sons attributed to explain these handicaps. Access incoming caller ID information less devices. The first example of such a
The following statistics reflect the magni- Manage contacts as well as dial numbers service is a portable, low-cost speech syn-
tude of the problem for people with only from its directory thesis system that runs on
vision and hearing impairment: Check for appointments wireless-enabled, commodity PDAs. In this
Although estimates vary, there are approxi- Access calendar information project researchers have enhanced the text-
mately 10 million visually impaired people Write and read text messages to-speech capability of a standard PDA by
in the United States. Approximately 1.3 mil- Write, read, and send e-mails developing a series of custom “buttons”
lion Americans are legally blind. Write notes and journal entries that can be tapped by the user to quickly
Approximately 28 million Americans have a Create to-do lists form spoken words to convey common
hearing impairment. Hearing loss affects thoughts or basic needs, like ordering in a
17 in 1,000 children under age 18. Some campus cafe. Current capabilities include
Hear the battery status as well as signal
314 in 1,000 people over age 65 have the ability to type text or tap the buttons on
hearing loss and 40 to 50 percent of a PDA, sending the information over a wire-
people 75 and older have a hearing loss. Produce multi-media files using a sound
less link to a server, with the resulting
and video recorder
Continued developments in digital technolo- synthesized speech played back on the
Take, send, or store pictures using digital PDA. This application already runs on some
gies are assisting many people with camera
disabilities and providing new business prototypes and research work is underway
Synchronize all contact and calendar to address many more applications for dis-
opportunities for companies engaged in cre- details between the phone and PC.
ating digital solutions for different disabilities. abled including location based services.
Use your phone as a wireless modem by
Digital solutions bring people with handicaps SMS for Hearing Impaired
connecting to your PC via Bluetooth, Infra-
into the main stream of the society. This Today’s mobile telephony has not left the
Red, or USB to manage e-mail or surf the web
allows them to fully participate in the ongoing hearing impaired out of its purview. The abil-
Perform day to day calculations using
economic and social development towards ity to hear is no longer a prerequisite for
accessible four-function calculator
building an all ‘inclusive’ society. utilizing mobile phones and stay connected
Optional MP3 player
with the society. SMS (Short Message
Digital Solution Examples PDAs for Disabled Service) -a text messaging service- is so
The following examples illustrate as to how Department of Electronics and Electrical simple, quick and affordable that mobile
digital solutions are improving the function- Engineering at University of Glasgow, UK phone users are utilizing it with greater fre-
ing capabilities of people with vision and has been using Personal Digital Assistants quency-- including those that are hearing
hearing impairments: (PDAs) for a number of disabled students in impaired. This is just the beginning and
Speech Enabled Mobile Phones order to enhance their learning capability. many other powerful multimedia services
The PDA can be a useful enabling technol- including sending video messages will add
Mobile Speak software provides easy new communication capabilities for the
ogy for students with physical or cognitive
accessibility to the powerful functionality hearing impaired.
disabilities. For example, for those students
and data management features of mobile
with visual impairments and dyslexia it is The power of multimedia messaging technol-
phones, heretofore inaccessible to those
useful to be able to customize interface ogy is that `nothing is impossible for the deaf
who are visually impaired. When Mobile
attributes, such as color and font size. except hearing’ sends out a message of
Speak is installed on a compatible cell
phone, it converts text into crisp, easy to For students with communication or confi- encouragement. Communication among
understand speech using a text-to-speech dence difficulties a PDA can provide themselves and their normal fellow beings is
engine. The speech is heard through the assistance via its “beaming function”. Most the biggest challenge faced by the hearing
phone’s internal speaker or Bluetooth head- PDAs provide a beaming facility (either via impaired. Sign language has been around for
phones. Instead of proprietary note takers infra-red or Bluetooth technology) to enable millions of years. Long before cave men
or several mobile devices, each performing the exchange of information both from PDA to learnt the power of words, actions were the
a separate task, blind people can do exactly PDA and between PDAs and other devices. medium used to communicate. Today, sign
what their sighted counterparts have been Therefore in class, students can write their language is the most natural form of commu-
doing for some time: Buy and carry one questions out and beam them to their col- nication among the deaf and does not entail
single device to handle multiple communi- leagues or tutor. This is helpful for anyone accurate knowledge of a spoken language.
cations and data management functions. with speech impairment as well as those who Currently available and evolving multimedia
lack the confidence to ask a question in front messaging services allow many hearing
A number of mobile phones come with pow- impaired people to lead very normal lives,
of their peers. The increased opportunity for
erful features and functionality, and virtually talking and laughing away.
communication also provides the possibility
all of those features are easily accessed by
Digital Solution Benefits
There are many more digital solutions possi-
>Stress Demystified corrosive emotional and physical repercus-
sions. In many cases, the cumulative effect
ble by using speech recognition and speech By Jagdish Kohli, Ph.D. of continued stressful events leads to dis-
synthesis technologies. People traveling Stress is the body’s normal response to ease within the mind or body.
overseas can carry handheld pocket size deal with life’s everyday situations in our Have we ever noticed that certain people
devices for language translations. While in imperfect world. In handling any event, our seem to adapt quickly to stressful circum-
Beijing the device can talk in Chinese, in body’s automatic nervous system gets into stances and take things in stride? They’re
Paris in French and Rome in Italian. These action and provides the energy hormones cool under pressure and able to handle prob-
are text-to-speech or speech-to-speech appli- needed for that situation. After dealing with lems as they come up. Researchers have
cations of technology for all people. the occurred event the body goes through a identified the qualities that make some
Key benefits of digital solutions include: recovery phase to restore its normal state people seem naturally resilient even when
Affordable and meaning solutions of equilibrium. This natural process contin- faced with high levels of stress. If we want to
ues within our bodies as various pleasant build our resilience to stress, work on devel-
A transparent and all “inclusive” world
and unpleasant events occur in our daily oping the following attitudes and behaviors:
A more productive society
life. The following points summarize some Think of change as a challenging and
A more connected world
key attributes of stress: normal part of life.
Providing personal access solutions to mil- Stress is a feeling that’s created when we
lions of people with disabilities can bring Respond to life’s daily events. Don’t react
react to particular events. to them.
them into the main stream of the society.
It’s the body’s way of rising to a challenge See setbacks and problems as tempo-
Device manufactures and network providers
and preparing to meet a tough situation rary and solvable.
have recognized this multi billion dollar prod-
with focus, strength, stamina, and height- Believe that we will succeed if we keep
uct and service opportunity for people with
ened alertness. working toward our goals.
disabilities. Accelerating the creation of new
digital solutions for disabled will bring many Stress varies from one person to another. Focus on what matters most in life and
economic and social benefits to the society. Our perception of a situation creates dif- ignore unessential activities.
ferent levels of stress. Be confident and take action to solve
Our attitude towards life contributes to problems that crop up.
different levels of stress. Focus on solving the problem in hand and
One person’s stress could be another live in the moment.
person’s motivation. Success is getting ‘what you like’ but sat-
Jagdish Kohli is an independent consultant with
specialization in Mobile Technologies, Networks A change in the normal state of “mind isfaction is ‘liking what you get’.
and applications. He can be reached at and body” is an indicator of stress. Build strong relationships and keep com-
email@example.com mitments to family and friends.
Any number of factors can trigger stress
based on our physiology. The following are Stay connected with your environment.
New Southern California Area Code Coming some of the key causes of body and mind Have a support system and ask for help.
All customers who currently have a 310 stress in our complex world: Participate regularly in activities for relax-
Area Code will keep the 310 Area Code. Over exertion in our daily work life and ation and fun.
Phone numbers with the new 424 Area not enough rest for the body can result in Enjoy healthy and balanced meals every day.
Code can only be issued after Aug. 26, 2006. excessive stress. Develop a “feel good” attitude towards
To prepare for mandatory 1+10-digit Eating unbalanced food, excessive drink- life and its journey.
dialing on July 26, 2006, all customers ing, daily smoking, consuming recreational
should begin the habit of dialing 1+10- By managing our own stress level we can
drugs can create stress. enhance the quality of our own life and
digits beginning Dec. 31, 2005.
Poor time management skills, inability to share our joy with peers, family members,
Beginning July 26, 2006, 1+10-digit dial-
delegate and absence of good organiza- friends and other people we may come in
ing will be required to complete calls. All
tion can cause stress. contact every day.
customers with 310 and 424 area codes
must dial 1+10 digits on all calls, includ- Negative emotions associated with the “Nothing gives one person so much advan-
ing those within and between the 310 or feelings of guilt, unexpressed anger, low tage over another as to remain always cool
424 Area Codes. self esteem, worry and depression can and unruffled under all circumstances.”
result in stress.
The Telecom Carriers serving California – Thomas Jefferson
have launched a public education program Unrealistic desires and lack of resources to
so customers will understand the change. fulfill these desires can create a lot of stress. Dr. Kohli conducts on-site workshops on “tech-
Tenuous interpersonal relationship can niques of stress reduction”.
During the past 10 years, telecom car-
riers successfully implemented 50 Area cause psychological stress. The opinions expressed in this article are those of
Code overlays throughout the U.S. to Dr. Kohli and not those of the AT&T family of com-
Most of us thrive on stress. Stress keeps panies. There are a lot of trained professional
make telephone numbers available to us engaged in the world and helps us mental health practitioners who can be consulted
meet growing demand. define what’s important. Short bursts of on the matter of stress.
The above information was provided by the stress may even strengthen the immune
Joint Telecommunications Carriers about system. Long bursts of stress and frequent “Don’t let the noise of others’ opinions
the California Public Utility Commission’s occurrences disturb the normal functioning drown out your own inner voice. Have the
decision to introduce the 424 area code of our automatic nervous system and
overlay in Southern California. Contact your courage to follow your heart and intuition.”
create toxins in the body. Extended stress
Liaison Manager for further information. diminishes our natural defenses and has Steve Jobs
1. Choose The Right Web Conference Product After writing your presentation speech, you’re
Victoria Nissen Most web conferencing services are ‘reser- ready to create your PowerPoint slides.
vationless’ or 24/7 which means that a 3. Break the Ice and Connect With Your Audience
>10 Steps To web conference can be setup whenever you
Since the audience can’t see you, you need
Presenting An like without making any reservations before-
to establish an immediate visual connec-
Effective Web hand. In some cases, usually when there
tion with the audience, and the first slide is
Conference are hundreds of participants in the audi-
ence, reserving a conference at a specific your opportunity to introduce yourself to
How would you like to give a your unseen audience.
presentation to an audience time for a specific number of participants is
around the globe without leaving your office? required. Check with your vendor for these This first slide may include a photo of your-
types of options. self, your company or your product. Let’s
With the combined technological advances say your business, “Fast Running Shoes” is
of personal computers, the Internet, teleph- Before you choose a vendor, also know the
features and functionalities you’ll need during marketing new running shoes. You may
ony and email, anyone can now setup a show a photo of yourself or even a photo of
virtual meeting room, called a web confer- your presentation. A training session will
require different features than a sales and your product, Since your audience can’t see
ence, and speak to people around the you in person, your audience needs to feel
world. A sales and marketing presentation, marketing presentation. Ask yourself the type
of conference you’re giving and what you need comfortable with you, as if they personally
the introduction of a new product or virtual know you. You can choose a PowerPoint
classroom training can be done without the from your audience. Do you need to ask ques-
tions, poll the audience, or whiteboard? slide with two sides; on the left-hand side of
boundaries of time and place. the slide is your photo, and on the right is
The features and functionalities of web con- text with a few lines about you, your com-
Web Conferencing ferences or virtual meetings are rapidly pany or your title and phone number..
Web conferencing is a service that allows improving to resemble in-person meetings,
and a few are listed below: 4. Choose Your Words Carefully
two or more people to ‘share’ a computer
screen remotely so that everyone on the The host can see a list of those present in Each slide should contain no more than 3-4
web conference is viewing the same ‘host’ the meeting; this list is updated automati- lines… just short bullet points. The audience
computer screen. For each web conference, cally as people join and leave the conference. will see the points but listen to what you have
there is a “host or moderator” who is the Audience participants can ‘chat’ with to say. It’s important that the words you
person who runs the conference and pres- other participants using a feature similar choose for each bullet reflects your meaning
ents the information and “participants” who to “instant messaging”. clearly and concisely.
are the audience members or receivers of Participants and the host can chat with WRONG WAY
the information presented. each other.
Participants can raise a hand and ask the FAST RUNNING SHOES
Web conferencing typically does not require Company has been in business for a little
any special equipment other than a computer, host questions.
A host can ask questions of the audience. more than 13 years
with certain minimum requirements, that is We offer 7 styles of running shoes for the
able to connect to and browse the Internet. Hosts can poll the audience.
For work sessions, whiteboarding is a tool whole family
PowerPoint slides, Excel spreadsheets, live Introduction of our latest new shoe is
web pages and just about any file that can be that can be utilized by anyone in the meeting.
The conference can be recorded for play- next week
opened on the host’s desktop can be pre-
sented during the conference. back later to those who missed it or want Rewrite these bullet points to be more con-
to view it again. cise. The audience should be LISTENING TO
Prior to the introduction and availability of web YOU, not reading the slides while you’re
2. Organize Your Presentation
conferencing, the presenter or moderator was talking.
required to travel and meet with the audience Now that you have setup your web confer-
in person. Through web conferencing, or vir- encing service, you have tested it and been BETTER WAY
tual meetings, both the moderator and the trained, you’re ready to start preparing and FAST RUNNING SHOES
participants can save time and money on organizing your presentation.
In business since 1992
travel while using their time more efficiently. Describe your reason for the presentation in Seven family styles
Technological advances in web conferencing one sentence such as “the purpose of my January 15 introduction
create virtual meeting centers that are interac- presentation is to explain the introduction and
marketing of a new product”. Let’s say your Also, do not talk about something that is
tive, visual and capable of many applications not on a slide. It’s too confusing for the
previously done in person such as: company is called “Fast Running Shoes”, and
you’re introducing a new shoe. Create an intro- audience and impossible to follow along.
One-time training sessions
duction, a body and a conclusion by writing out 5. Make it Visual
the presentation in a speech format. Your slides should all “tell a story”. For
Sales and marketing presentations
Determine the number of words for your example, instead of reporting the number of
Business presentations to global offices shoes sold as just a number, paint a picture
Corporate financial updates presentation. It takes about 80 words to
speak for 30 seconds, and that’s probably for the audience that shows the story.
Previews of new websites or changes in
current websites enough information for one slide. So if you WRONG WAY
want to present 20 slides for a 30 minute FAST RUNNING SHOES
Once you have decided to host a web confer- presentation, your speech should probably
ence, follow these ten steps to create and SALES 2003 1,200,500
be around 1,600 words. The rest of the con-
present a web conference that impresses your SALES 2004 1,800,000
ference time is used for questions and
audience and effectively communicates your answers, polling the audience, ad libbing at Don’t leave it up to the audience to figure out
message while saving both time and money. times and even changing slides. the information. Show them that sales were
“up” from 2003 to 2004. They’ll thank you for As you rehearse, tell the story behind each
not forcing them to analyze the figures. slide. Remember, you’re painting a picture;
BETTER WAY your audience sees your bullet points and,
simultaneously, listens to your description.
FAST RUNNING SHOES This is similar to showing a painting by
SALES 2003 1,200,500 Picasso and telling the audience about the
SALES 2004 1,800,000 background, passion, personal involvement
>AT&T Returns As Official Partner
With the addition of the arrow you have and work that went into a piece of art that of the U.S. Olympic Teams
communicated more without saying a word. makes it so special. You may think that your In a move reaffirming its commitment to the
Although you’ll talk about last year vs. this presentation isn’t as spectacular as a Olympic spirit and to its role as a global
year, the audience can “see” what you’re Picasso, but you can still reach for the pas- leader in communications, the new AT&T, in
saying more easily without having to ana- sion behind your slide. conjunction with the United States Olympic
lyze the information. Remember to paint a Committee (USOC), recently announced that
Time your presentation so that it’s long
picture keeping in mind that the audience it will again be an Official Partner of the U.S.
enough to get your message across but not
should be able to understand the slides Olympic Team, providing significant financial
long enough to bore your audience.
with little explanation. support, products and services to America's
10. Use Vocal Variety summer and winter athletes.
6. Keep The Audience Interested
Vocal Variety is more important than ever. AT&T will serve as the Official Telecommuni-
There are many ways to keep the audience’s Remember, the audience feels what you feel. cations Services Partner of the U.S. Olympic
attention beyond your own words and visuals. Team for the upcoming Olympic Winter Games
Stand while delivering the presentation. This
PowerPoint offers the presenter great tools to in Torino, Italy, which start on Feb. 10, and the
gets your energy levels up. Those who are
keep the attention of your audience such as 2008 Olympic Games in Beijing, China.
listening will tune into someone who seems
slide and background options like:
to care about the presentation. A presenter The sponsorship announcement by the new
with low energy comes across as uninter- AT&T marks a return to the Olympic
Design templates esting and puts the audience to sleep. Movement for the world-renowned com-
Gesture wildly so they feel your words as pany. AT&T had shared the global spotlight
A slide that is visually attractive will main- well as hear them. If you’re talking about with the U.S. Olympic Team from 1984 to
tain the attention of the audience longer higher sales raise your hands in the air. 2004, bringing Americans closer to their
than one that is not. Other methods of increasing energy include athletes and the Olympic Games.
7. Poll Your Audience punching the air with your fists, swaying With the recent acquisition of AT&T by SBC
Speaking of boring your audience, it’s a good your body back and forth or even pretending Communications Inc. and the decision to
idea to poll your audience every ten minutes that the people are in the room. rename the combined companies AT&T
or so to make sure they’re paying attention. Tape the presentation in rehearsal and play it Inc., the sponsorship with the USOC is a
By polling the audience, you can ask a ques- while you’re running through the PowerPoint key element in the new AT&T's commitment
tion of them about the presentation and see Slides. You may want to change a few bullet to support the new brand with the most
how many responses you receive. If only half points or change the order of the slides. extensive multimedia advertising campaign
of the audience responds, perhaps you’ve in the history of either SBC or AT&T.
lost their attention. Conversely, if they all Official Partner is the highest level of
respond, you’re right on track. domestic sponsorship available within the
8. Question Your Audience USOC, with Official Partner companies like
Victoria Nissen is an expert on web conferencing AT&T providing the most significant amount
You can ask them how they’re enjoying the
tools and applications. The Seton Hall grad has of resources, products or services in sup-
presentation or simply test them on mate- more than 20 years in sales and is an accom- port of the U.S. Olympic Team. As such,
rial presented thus far. plished writer and speaker. Vicky recently reached AT&T may leverage the benefits of Official
This is especially important within a training the finals in a Toastmasters International Partner-level companies such as marketing
function to see if the audience understands Southern California Humorous Speech Contest.
rights to the U.S. Olympic Team.
As the Official Telecommunications Services
As the presenter, you’ll be able to ask a AT&T Internet Security News Network Partner for the U.S. Olympic Team, the new
question that has a “Yes and No” response AT&T Inc. recently unveiled AT&T Internet AT&T will also help sponsor U.S. Olympic
or a “multiple choice” response; then ask Security News Network (AT&T ISNN), a first- Team trials, as well as exhibitions of various
the audience participants to answer. If your of-its-kind 24/7 video Webcast that provides sports. The company will also introduce pro-
question is “Do you understand the material enterprises with critical security news and grams for the upcoming Olympic Winter
so far?”, you’ll receive the aggregate number information, helping them to stay abreast of Games that leverage AT&T broadband tech-
of responses, for example, 78, yes; 14, no. the latest security issues and remain one nologies in support of the U.S. Olympic
Talk with your vendor to setup this function if step ahead of malicious activities proliferat- Team. Details on those programs will be
you’re unfamiliar with this feature. ing on the Internet. announced before the 2006 Torino Games.
9. Rehearse Your Presentation AT&T ISNN is exclusively available to sub-
Now that you have prepared your slides, scribers of the company's flagship alerting AT&T Sponsors Famous Golf Event for 21st Year
you’re ready to rehearse your presentation. and monitoring service, AT&T Internet
ProtectSM. The news network delivers up-to- The AT&T Pebble Beach National Pro-Am
Rehearing a web presentation is just as Golf Tournament takes place from February
important as rehearing a speech. You want to date information from security experts and
forensic analysts directly to subscribers' 6-12, 2006 on California's beautiful
be sure that your high energy, focus and pas- Monterey Peninsula.
sion will be evident to the listening audience. desktops, around the clock.
>The New AT&T: A Heritage of and William Shockley who later shared the
Nobel Prize. The transistor replaced
in 1914. Bell companies produced more
than 1,200 defense projects and trained
Innovation and Service vacuum tubes, serving as the foundation thousands of military communications
The new AT&T is the latest chapter in a rich for the development of modern electronics people. Today, the new AT&T will continue
history of achievement and leadership in the and made possible the marriage of com- its commitment to supporting our troops,
evolution of communications. In fact, with puters and communications. providing phone cards and other telecom-
the new AT&T, the brand associated with the First commercial modem (1958, AT&T). munications support.
invention of the telecommunications industry AT&T began pioneering the laser the Since 1984, SBC Communications Inc.
is now leading the reinvention of the com- same year. When coupled later with hair- and the SBC Foundation have contributed
munications and entertainment industry. thin, ultrastrong glass fibers, this more than $1 billion to nonprofit organi-
This heritage can be traced directly back to technology transmits billions of bits of zations around the country. Likewise, the
Alexander Graham Bell’s genius and per- information each second. AT&T Foundation has been a significant
sistence. The journey that began with his First call transmitted from space (1962, supporter of education, civic causes, the
invention of the telephone in March 1876 AT&T), via Telstar I from AT&T Chairman arts and culture. With the creation of the
has led to extraordinary technological Frederick Kappel to U.S. Vice President new AT&T, the predecessor foundations
advancements and a culture of unwavering Lyndon Johnson. will be combined and are expected to
dedication to customer service. Unix computer operating system (Bell have approximately $60 million available
Following are a few milestones from this Labs, 1969), which later becomes the for charity and community-giving.
more-than 120-year history. underlying language for the Internet, Today, 250,000 employees and retirees
which was launched that year. of SBC Communications Inc. and AT&T
A Tradition of Innovation First commercial cellular service (AT&T Corp. serve their communities through
The new AT&T inherits a rich tradition of and Ameritech, 1983). the Telecom Pioneers. In 2005, SBC
meaningful innovation from its predecessor Pioneers donated 8.4 million hours to
The creation of AT&T Laboratories continues
companies, which combined have almost community outreach activities – more
this commitment to develop and deliver mean-
6,700 patents issued or pending worldwide. than $140 million worth of time.
ingful innovation across market segments, from
Researchers and engineers at AT&T Labora- residential to small-business to enterprise.
tories, founded in 1925, have received seven
Nobel Prizes and developed some of the A Legacy of Service 1876 Alexander Graham Bell’s (a Scottish
world’s major technological inventions, includ- immigrant fascinated with sound since
The new AT&T also inherits a proud heritage
ing the transistor, the solar cell and the childhood) curiosity and growing expertise in
of corporate citizenship that will continue to
communications satellite. speech and sound lead him to experiment
be an integral part of the company’s future.
with telegraphy. He is experimenting with a
SBC Laboratories, established in 1988, has AT&T and its employees are committed to
liquid transmitter in March 1876, when his
been an industry leader in the development of enriching and strengthening the communi-
message to his electrical assistant,
DSL and other broadband Internet transport ties that they serve through financial
Thomas Watson, revolutionizes the world. In
and delivery systems, wireless data networks support and volunteerism.
another room, Watson clearly hears Bell’s
and new technologies and applications for net- Founded in 1911, the Telecom Pioneers
voice transmitted over the wire as he says,
working and enterprise business needs. is the world’s largest industry-related, vol-
“Mr. Watson, come here. I want you.”
unteer organization. With more than
The new AT&T’s predecessor companies 1877 Alexander Graham Bell and two
625,000 members across the U.S.,
pioneered new technologies and developed financial associates form Bell Telephone
Canada and Mexico, the Pioneers con-
promising new products and services in a Company. There are 778 phones in oper-
tribute millions of volunteer hours to their
wide range of areas, including: ation and one employee – Thomas
communities every year, including books
IP network management. Watson, paid $3 a day and a one-tenth
for children, services for the elderly,
Optical technology. interest in the company.
homes for the needy and packages for
Automatic speech recognition. troops overseas. 1885 AT&T is formed as a subsidiary of the
Next-generation text-to-speech products. American Bell Telephone Company. Its mis-
From the blizzard of 1888 and the San
Voice over Internet Protocol technologies. sion: Build the first long distance network.
Francisco earthquake of 1906, to Hurrica-
nes Andrew in 1992 and Katrina in 2005, 1894 Alexander Graham Bell’s patents expire.
Following is just a sampling of the innovations
AT&T and SBC have responded to national Within 10 years, 6,000 independent tele-
that are a part of the new AT&T’s heritage:
disasters with emergency communications phone companies open across the country.
Loading coils (1899, AT&T), which reduce
services and financial support. 1899 AT&T acquires the assets of American
the rate at which telephone signals weaken
In 1930, Bell companies began teaching Bell Telephone to become the parent of the
along a line, enabling longer telephone lines.
customers how to use new dial service with Bell System. By 1899, there are 1,322,000
Three-element vacuum tube (1914, AT&T)
demonstrations at schools, meetings and phones and 45,553 Bell employees.
as an amplifier, which enabled completion
other events. This tradition continues today 1927 AT&T begins transatlantic telephone
of the first transcontinental line.
with customer education for emerging tech- service between the United States and
Coaxial cable for broadband transmission
nologies, as well as a public education London via radio.
(1929, AT&T), patent filed by AT&T
program that delivers tips, guidance and 1935 AT&T completes the first around-the-
tools for creating an emergency communi- world call.
First commercial, radio-based phone serv-
cations plan to help families maintain 1977 AT&T opens its first Network
ice (1946, Southwestern Bell), the first in
contact during uncertain times. Operations Center in Bedminster, N.J.
the country. AT&T developed the theory of
cellular telephony soon after. While almost 70,000 Bell employees 1983 In Chicago, AT&T and Ameritech (the
served in World War II, the telephone name for the new parent for the Bell com-
The transistor (Bell Labs, 1947), invented
became an essential part of the war effort panies in Illinois, Wisconsin, Michigan,
by scientists John Bardeen, Walter Brattain
Indiana and Ohio) launch the first com- continues to move from a consumer-
mercial cellular service in the country. oriented voice company to an enterprise-
>Cingular Launches Enhanced
1984 The Bell System ceases to exist in focused network company. Push To Talk Service
the settlement of an antitrust suit requir- 2003 SBC completes its move into long Cingular is enhancing the way businesses
ing AT&T to divest itself of local phone distance service in all 13 of its states. and consumers communicate as it intro-
service, creating seven regional bell oper- SBC expands services to business cus- duces a next generation Push to Talk (PTT)
ating companies. tomers with next-generation voice and service. The service will operate across the
1995 As the holding company for the Bell data networking with a portfolio of man- largest Push to Talk coverage area in
companies in Missouri, Kansas, Oklahoma, aged Internet Protocol products, including America, and brings a host of new,
Arkansas and Texas, Southwestern Bell Voice over IP. unmatched features including:
Corp. changes its name to SBC Commu- 2004 Cingular acquires AT&T Wireless to Availability – unique icons allow Cingular PTT
nications Inc. create the nation’s largest wireless users to see if other PTT customers are
1996 AT&T moves through a modern provider, the strongest spectrum position available before making a PTT call.
transformation by restructuring into in the country and a presence in the Quick Group Calling – allows users to select
three separate companies: AT&T, the nation’s top 100 markets. individuals from their contacts and instantly
services provider; Lucent Technologies, AT&T introduces extensive VoIP service – place a group call. In addition to this
the equipment company; and NCR, the CallVantage – and commits to entering impromptu group calling, customers can also
computer company. the top 100 markets this year. The com- pre-establish groups in their contact list (up
1997 In its first acquisition since the pany also announces a withdrawal from to 30 groups) and call up to 20 people.
Telecommunications Act of 1996, SBC the consumer market to focus on busi- Convert to Cellular – enables a PTT call to be
Communications Inc. expands its capabil- ness networking and VoIP. AT&T Internet converted to a regular wireless voice call.
ities by acquiring Pacific Telesis Group, Data Centers will increase to 25 with new Calls with up to 20 participants can be con-
the parent company of Pacific Bell and ones in Frankfurt, Paris, Tokyo and verted effectively creating a mobile
Nevada Bell, for $16.5 billion. London, further expanding its interna- conference call.
1998 SBC Communications Inc. acquires tional network. By integrating walkie-talkie and traditional
SNET for $6.5 billion, tracing its heritage 2005 SBC and AT&T announce a $16 billion cellular technology, Cingular provides a
to the world’s first commercial telephone agreement to merge and create the indus- refined PTT service that can be used by
exchange. try’s premier provider of next-generation families, executives or employees at job
1999 In the largest telecom acquisition in integrated communications and entertain- sites. With one click a PTT user can access
American history, SBC acquires ment through leadership in Internet their list of individuals and groups and see
Ameritech for $75 billion and builds a Protocol, integrated wireless/wireline serv- who is available and who is not. One more
wireline footprint now covering 13 states. ices and increasedcompetitiveness in the click and they are instantly speaking to the
Focused on data transmission, SBC begins enterprise business market. person or the whole group (up to 20
offering business customers new network SBC announces that it will adopt the people). If a quick PTT call turns into a
options, announces the largest rollout of DSL AT&T, Inc. name following approval of its longer discussion, simply convert the call to
service in the industry, and adds TV to its acquisition of AT&T. cellular. In addition, the service offers:
lineup through a strategic agreement with an SBC/AT&T merger is finalized; the com- Call Waiting – gives customers the option to
industry-leading satellite television provider. bined companies form AT&T Inc. accept or decline a second incoming call
AT&T acquires TCI, which becomes AT&T whether currently on a PTT or regular cellular call.
Broadband and acquires MediaOne the next Contact Alerts – lets customers receive alerts
year to become the country’s largest cable
Some Executives at the new AT&T when a contact becomes available.
company. Accelerating the competition Edward E. Whitacre Jr. – Chairman and Chief Voice Messaging – leave a voice message with
between cable and traditional telecommuni- Executive Officer one person or a group of people directly in
cations, AT&T Corp. redefines its role as an James W. Callaway – Group President - AT&T their current cellular voicemail box.
agent of telecommunications transformation. Integration Call Me Alerts – allows a user to urgently let
2000 A joint venture between SBC someone know they need to talk. A user
Communications Inc. and BellSouth Corp. James W. Cicconi – Senior Executive Vice
President - External and Legislative Affairs receiving a “Call Me Alert” can instantly
creates Cingular Wireless. place a PTT call back by pressing the dedi-
AT&T Corp. begins a reorganization that James D. Ellis – Senior Executive Vice cated PTT key.
focuses on leadership in the expanding President and General Counsel
The service also uses a single phone number
networking field — just as data traffic on Karen Jennings – Senior Executive Vice for both cellular and PTT service, eliminating
its network exceeds voice traffic for the President-Human Resources and the need to remember two numbers.
first time. Over the next two years, the Communications
company creates and spins off AT&T Cingular offers unlimited PTT service features
James S. Kahan – Senior Executive Vice to meet the needs of consumers and busi-
Wireless and AT&T Broadband.
President-Corporate Development nesses. These features offer unlimited
2001 SBC enters a strategic alliance with
Richard G. Lindner – Senior Executive Vice minutes, national coverage and no hidden
Yahoo! to provide co-branded, premium
President and Chief Financial Officer charges for group or national calls.
DSL and dial-up Internet access. Consumers on a Cingular Nation Plan can
2002 SBC moves to a single national Forrest E. Miller – Group President AT&T add service for $9.99 a month per line.
brand to reflect its position as a national Communications Corp. Those on Family Plans can select a $19.99
telecommunications leader. Randall L. Stephenson – Chief Operating Officer feature that gives up to five family members
Adopting the slogan, “The world’s net- on the account unlimited access to the serv-
working company,” AT&T deploys a Rayford Wilkins, Jr. – Group President - Interna-
ice. Businesses can add a PTT service option
nationwide, intelligent optical network and tional, Directory and Sterling Commerce
to each line of service for $9.99 per month.
Register For Our February 8th Streaming Broadcast
News on AT&T and Cingular Wireless
You’re invited to participate in the next
Streaming Broadcast from 9-11am PST
February 8, 2006. Topics will be the new
company, Cingular Mobile Professional
Solutions, Disaster Recovery and the latest
company news. Please contact your Liaison
Manager (1.800.552.5299) to register & get
the URL. Thank You for your participation.
CVSG-TV host Kari Aguinaldo interviews
Dr. Jagdish Kohli, Ph.D. at a recent broadcast.
AT&T Wins Contract From Snap-on Inc. Yellowpages.com Launch
AT&T Inc. recently announced it has won The AT&T Yellow Pages business has
a three-year global networking services become a more formidable force in the
contract from Snap-on Inc. to support its online directory world, with the launch of
growing global business. Snap-on is a a new web site that brings together three
leader in professional tools, diagnostics leading Internet yellow pages into a single
and equipment. Terms of the contract URL – the new yellowpages.com.
were not disclosed. SBC and BellSouth partnered last Novem-
AT&T will provide an Internet Protocol ber to acquire yellowpages.com with the
Virtual Private Network (IP VPN) enabling goal of unifying their two high-volume online
Snap-on to integrate its European network directories – SMARTpages.com and Real-
of 19 locations across France, Germany, the Pages.com, respectively – into an Internet
Capturing the Magic Netherlands, Portugal, Spain, Sweden and Yellow Pages that would be the leading
These two business executives were spot- the United Kingdom. The AT&T solution also online resource for finding local business
ted reading the latest UPDATE at the new paves the way for Snap-on to evolve to a information. The new yellowpages.com, which
Hong Kong Disneyland Resort. THANKS to converged voice and data-networking plat- launched publicly Dec. 1, combines the
alert reader Oscar Rockwell for snapping form for future IP applications. expertise of those directories into a single
the shot and sending it to us. If you catch Through the secure VPN, Snap-on gains site which has a fresh look and feel and
folks reading UPDATE in an unusual setting, the attributes of a private data network offers new features to attract both con-
please send a digital shot to our editor. It within a shared network infrastructure. sumers and advertisers.
will be much appreciated.
CVSG Resources For You
1. Website: sbc.com/cvsg 3. Breaking News on CVSG Listserver
2. CVSG Hotline – 1.800.552.5299 4. Streaming News Broadcasts
(Call your Liaison Manager to subscribe to the Listserver or UPDATE, and to participate in Broadcasts)
Consultant/Vendor Sales Group
Toll-Free Hotline 1.800.552.5299 (for any other number, toll charges may apply.)
Kari Aguinaldo Tom David Craig MacDonald
CVSG Leader Liaison Manager Editor/ Communications/ Seminars/ Conferences
415.542.4516 949.855.5055 714.284.2370
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Helps Consultants and Vendors in the following area codes:
213, 310, 323, 424, 562, 626, 661, 805, 818 UPDATE
Note: At presstime, the company was taking steps to change the official name of all subsidiaries and certain groups. The names designated in this issue of UPDATE may change.