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					    The International Plant
    Protection Convention

Regional Workshop for the Near East:
          18-22 July 2009
            Cairo, Egypt
• The IPPC Convention (IPPC)
• IPPC Standards and the SPS
• IPPC administrative framework
• Standard setting
• Implementation and exchange of
• Technical Assistance
    The IPPC Convention

     171 NATIONS

      The IPPC: What we do

• International framework for protection of
  plants from pests
• Standard setting organization
• Facilitate exchange of information
  related to import and export
            IPPC: History
• Original IPPC adopted in 1951
• Revised in 1979
• Revised again in 1997 to be consistent
  with principles of the SPS agreement
  – formalizes Secretariat and standard-
• 171 contracting parties (as of May
      The IPPC: Key principles
• Regulate only when necessary
• Sovereign right to regulate
• Measures should be:
  – consistent with the risk, technically justified and the
    least restrictive
  – non-discriminatory
  – transparent (published)
        The IPPC: Key obligations
• Set up and administer a National Plant Protection
  Organization (NPPO)
• Designate an official IPPC contact point
• Certify exports and regulate imports
• Develop and take into account phytosanitary
• Meet basic reporting obligations
IPPC Standards and the SPS
  WTO-SPS Agreement and the IPPC

• Members shall base their phytosanitary measures
  on international standards or justify deviations
  through risk analysis
• Members shall play a full part in the relevant
  standard setting organization
• Standard setting organizations: Codex, OIE, IPPC
          (Article 3 of the SPS Agreement, Harmonization)
        IPPC and the WTO-SPS
• One of the “three sisters” of international
  standard setting recognized by the SPS
• Identified in the WTO-SPS Agreement as the
  authority for plant health standards
       Importing Country Rights
         and Responsibilities

• Sovereignty to establish phytosanitary measures
• Measures should be based on international
  standards or appropriate risk assessments
• Measures should not discriminate between
• Notification of proposed changes in requirements
IPPC Administrative
          IPPC Framework
  – Administrative bodies of the CPM
• Secretariat
      Commission on Phytosanitary
           Measures (CPM)
• Membership: 171 Contracting parties
• Governing body for the IPPC
• Adopts International Standards for Phytosanitary
  Measures (ISPMs)
• Promotes technical assistance and information
  exchange activities
• Meets annually
      Provisional date & venue for CPM -5 is:
                22-26 March 2010
          FAO headquarters, Rome, Italy
  CPM administrative bodies
• Bureau (7 members)
• Standards Committee (25 members)
• Informal Working Groups
• Expert Working Groups and Technical
• Subsidiary Body on Dispute Settlement
    Standards committee (SC)
• Oversees the standard setting process
• Approves specifications for ISPMs, approves
  draft ISPMs for member consultation, reviews
  member comments, and recommends ISPMs
  for adoption by the CPM
• Group of 25 international technical experts
  from the 7 FAO regions
• Meets two times per year (May and November)
Provisional date & venue for next SC meeting is
             9 – 13 November 2009
          FAO headquarters, Rome, Italy
  Expert Working Groups (EWGs)
• Draft ISPMs, usually meet only once
• Consist of experts nominated by NPPOs
  or RPPOs, selected by the SC and
  approved by the Bureau
• A steward guides the EWG
• Submit draft ISPM to the SC for review

Expert working group on pest risk analysis
  for plants as quarantine pests was held in
  Paris, 25-29 May 2009, to develop a draft
         Technical panels (TPs)
Five TPs have been established on:
• Phytosanitary treatments (TPPT)
• Diagnostic protocols (TPDP)
• Forest quarantine (TPFQ)
• Fruit flies pest free areas and areas of low pest prevalence
• Glossary of phytosanitary terms (TPG)

Call for nominations of experts
Nominations of experts (forest regulatory expert for the
  Technical Panel on Forest Quarantine; English speaking
  member of the Technical Panel for the Glossary of
  Phytosanitary Terms; authors of diagnostic protocol for
  Striga spp) are being evaluated. The deadline for submission
  of nominations was 1 June 2009. Detailed information can
  be found at:
Regional Plant Protection Organizations
 • Meet annually at the technical consultation among
 • Develop regional standards
 • RPPOs:
 APPPC: Asia and Pacific Plant Protection Commission
 CA: Comunidad Andina
 COSAVE: Comite de Sanidad Vegetal del Cono Sur
 EPPO: European and Mediterranean Plant Protection Organization
 IAPSC: Inter-African Phytosanitary Council
 NAPPO: North American Plant Protection Organization
 OIRSA: Organismo Internacional Regional de Sanidad
 PPPO: Pacific Plant Protection Organization
Subsidiary body on Dispute Settlement
• Activities include:
      • Development of dispute settlement
      • Maintenance of roster of phytosanitary
      • Provision of information for the effective
        preparation of a dispute settlement
• Group of 7 international experts from the 7 FAO
Role to protect national plant resources from the
  risks associated with pests

  – food security: protect crops to ensure an abundant,
    high-quality, and varied food supply
  – international trade: strengthen the marketability of
    agriculture in international commerce by meeting
    import requirements, including pest risk analysis
  – environmental protection: preserve natural
    ecosystems and horticultural plant resources
          IPPC Secretariat
• Hosted by the Food and Agriculture
  Organization (FAO) in Rome, Italy
• Implements the work programme
• Supports the development of ISPMs
• Facilitates information exchange
• Provides input into technical assistance
• Facilitates dispute settlement
• Represents the IPPC
Standard setting work programme

• 32 adopted ISPMs

• 75 topics at various stages of
  development on the work programme
   IPPC standard setting work programme

Examples of some topics currently being
   – Pre-clearance for regulated articles
   – Import of plant breeding material
   – Soil and growing media
   – International movement of wood
   – Establishment of pest free places of
     production and pest free production sites for
     fruit flies
Opportunities for country participation in the
         standard setting process

  Add new topics                         Draft ISPM
   to workplan                          Specifications

         Experts to TPs            Comment on
           and EWGs                draft ISPMs

                      Participate at
     Steps in the Standard Setting

•   New topics added to the workplan
•   Standards Drafted
•   Member Consultation
•   Adoption of Standards by CPM
  New Topics Added to the Workplan

• Call for topics for the IPPC standard
  setting work programme
• A biennial call for topics for the IPPC
  standard setting work programme is
  currently underway.
   The deadline for submission is 31 July
   Detailed information can be found at:
    Standards Drafting -- Specifications

• A specification is developed to clarify the scope
  of the standard
• Draft specifications are sent to NPPOs and
  RPPOs for member consultation

 Next specifications to be sent for consultation:
    --Experimental protocol to determine host
      status of fruits to fruit fly (Tephritidae)
                --Inspection manual
Standards Drafting – expert drafting groups

 • Standards are drafted by experts (EWGs or
   TPs) with opportunities for all contracting
   parties to provide input
 • draft standards are reviewed by the Standards
 • all contracting parties and RPPOs have access
   to draft ISPMs online (
 • the Standards Committee sends the draft back
   to experts, or to member consultation
          Member Consultation

• Draft ISPMs are sent for a 100 day comment
• Draft ISPMs are discussed at regional
• Member comments are incorporated into ISPM
  by steward.
• Revised ISPM is reviewed by SC, and may be
  recommended for adoption by CPM
ISPMs for 2009 Member Consultation
 Regular process
 Revision of ISPM No. 7 (Export certification system)
 Revision of ISPM No. 12 (Guidelines for phytosanitary
 Draft ISPM: Design & operation of post-entry quarantine stations
 Amendments to ISPM No. 5 (Glossary of phytosanitary terms)
 Special process
 Draft diagnostic protocol for Thrips palmi (as an annex to ISPM
      No. 27 (Diagnostic protocols for regulated pests))
 Draft phytosanitary treatments: Cold treatments for fruit flies (as
      annexes to ISPM No. 28 (Phytosanitary treatments for
      regulated pests))
 Member Consultation 2009/2010

• Changes in the MC Process
  – 5 members have offered to help compile
    comments in 2009
    • procedures are being developed
    • this will not affect the way in which members
      submit comments
  – Online system for submitting member
    comments is being developed for 2010
Adoption by CPM

• Draft ISPMs sent to CPM for adoption are
  posted on the IPP before CPM
• Members may comment on draft ISPMs
  presented to CPM
• Comments are accepted until 14 days
  before CPM
• Substantive comments are encouraged
ISPMs Adopted by CPM-4
Amendments to ISPM No. 5 (Glossary of
    phytosanitary terms)
An appendix to ISPM No. 5 (Glossary of
    phytosanitary terms) on Terminology of the
    Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD) in
    relation to the Glossary of phytosanitary
A revision of ISPM No. 15 (Regulation of wood
    packaging material in international trade)
ISPM No. 32 (Categorization of commodities
    according to their pest risk)
Eight irradiation treatments as annexes to ISPM
    No. 28 (Phytosanitary treatments for
    regulated pests)
Technical Assistance and
 Information Exchange
     Technical assistance
Countries need to improve their
 protection against phytosanitary
 risks, in order to demonstrate
 compliance with international
 obligations and commitments
 and/or take advantage of new
 trade opportunities.
 Phytosanitary Capacity Evaluation
            (PCE) Tool

• Self-diagnostic technical assistance tool

• Significant component of the IPPC strategy
  for phytosanitary capacity development
Priorities from PCE evaluations
• Promote awareness
• Upgrade national legislation
• Sustainability
• Develop regulatory framework
• Implement operational and management
• Training and improvement of technical
       Technical assistance
• IPPC staff provide phytosanitary support to:

  • FAO technical cooperation programmes (TCPs)
  • Ad hoc workshops (e.g. WTO, SPS)
  • Programmes of other regional and international
    organizations (e.g. IAEA, APO, APEC)

• Purpose is to empower countries to adopt and
  implement lower risk trade practices and
  protect biological resources (diversity and
           Dispute settlement
• Subsidiary Body on Dispute Settlement
• Activities include:
   – Development of dispute settlement procedures
   – Maintenance of roster of phytosanitary
   – Promotion of dispute avoidance
   – Provision of information for the effective
     preparation of a dispute settlement
      Information exchange
• Contracting parties provide:
   • Official contact points
   • Official information on pests and
     phytosanitary measures
• IPPC Secretariat:
   • Provides official documents (ISPMs,
     reports, etc.)
   • Facilitates information exchange
   • Maintains the IPPC website

• The IPPC Convention (IPPC)
• IPPC Standards and the SPS
• IPPC administrative framework
• Standard setting
• Implementation and exchange
  of information
• Technical Assistance
   International Plant Protection Convention
Food and Agriculture Organization of the United
         Viale delle Terme di Caracalla
               00153 Rome, Italy
           Tel: (+39) 06 5705 4812
           Fax: (+39) 06 5705 4819

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