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The Small and Medium-Sized Enterprises _SMEs_ Division of WIPO

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					     Intellectual Property Serving
Entrepreneurship:The Role of the SMEs
           Division of WIPO

               Guriqbal Singh Jaiya
              Director, SMEs Division


    The Small and Medium-Sized Enterprises (SMEs) Division of WIPO
      From Invention to Innovation

While invention depends upon
creativity,
successful technological innovation
requires integrating new knowledge
with multiple business functions.
   The Small and Medium-Sized Enterprises (SMEs) Division of WIPO
               Innovation – What is it?

The creation of new ideas/processes which
will lead to change in an enterprise’s
economic or social potential


[P. Drucker, ‘The Discipline of Innovation’,
Harvard Business Review, Nov-Dec, 1998, 149]
     The Small and Medium-Sized Enterprises (SMEs) Division of WIPO
          What is Innovative Thinking?
– A means of generating innovation to achieve two objectives that are
  implicit in any good business strategy:
   • make best use of and/or improve what we have today
   • determine what we will need tomorrow and how we can best achieve
     it, to avoid the "Dinasaur syndrome«

– Innovative thinking has, as a prime goal, the object of improving
  competitiveness through a perceived positive differentiation from
  others in:
    • Design/Performance
    • Quality
    • Price
    • Uniqueness/Novelty

      The Small and Medium-Sized Enterprises (SMEs) Division of WIPO
          Obstacles to Successful
               Innovation
             •     Competitive position

             •     Market judgement

             •     Technical performance

             •     Manufacturing expertise

             •     Financial resources
The Small and Medium-Sized Enterprises (SMEs) Division of WIPO
                    Innovation
How to classify newness and degree of
innovation and what to focus on:

• New to the firm?
• First in the market?
• First in the world?
• Incremental or radical innovation?
  The Small and Medium-Sized Enterprises (SMEs) Division of WIPO
There are several types of new products. Some are new to the
market, some are new to the firm, and some are new to both. Some
are minor modifications of existing products while some are
completely innovative




The Small and Medium-Sized Enterprises (SMEs) Division of WIPO
       Product Development Strategies



                   Old Product New Product
 Old                    Market                   Product
Market                Penetration              Development

 New                   Market                    Product
Market               Development              Diversification

 The Small and Medium-Sized Enterprises (SMEs) Division of WIPO
       Marketing principles…….
•     Identify opportunities and threats
•     Identify customer needs
•     React to a competitive environment
•     Careful planning to make a New or improved product
•     Use the 4 P’s….
          Product service
          Price
          Promotion
          Place (distribution)
•     Retain flexibility to react to changes

The Small and Medium-Sized Enterprises (SMEs) Division of WIPO
                The Development of Technology: From
                 Knowledge Generation to Diffusion


                                                                IM ITATION

                                            Supply side

  Basic
                Invention         Innovation        Diffusion
Knowledge



                                         Demand side
                                                                ADOPTION



       The Small and Medium-Sized Enterprises (SMEs) Division of WIPO
                   Innovation Process

Invention
                           • The adoption of an
                             innovation by similar firms
                           • Usually leads to product or
Innovation                   process standardization
                           • Products based on imitation
                             often are offered at lower
 Imitation                   prices but with fewer
                             features
   The Small and Medium-Sized Enterprises (SMEs) Division of WIPO
               The Innovation Process
• An innovation starts as an idea/concept that is refined and
  developed before application.
• Innovations may be inspired by reality (known problem).
  The innovation (new product development) process, which
  leads to useful technology, requires:
   – Research
   – Development (up-scaling, testing)
   – Production
   – Marketing
   – Use
• Experience with a product results in feedback and leads to
  incrementally or radically improved innovations.
     The Small and Medium-Sized Enterprises (SMEs) Division of WIPO
                    The Innovation Process
                  Translation of a Creative Idea into Useful
                                 Application

 Analytical            Organizing          Implementation             Commercial
 Planning              Resources                                      Application
                                  To             To Provide:
                   To Obtain:
To Identify:                      Accomplish: Value to Customers
                   Materials
Product                           Organization Rewards to Employee
                   Technology
Design                            Product Design Revenue to Investors
Market             Human Resources
                   Capital        Manufacturing Satisfaction of
Strategy                          Services       Founders
Financial
           The Small and Medium-Sized Enterprises (SMEs) Division of WIPO
Need
                    The Profitability of Innovation




                       Value of an              • Legal protection
                       innovation
  Profits                                       • Complementary
   from                                           resources
Innovation
                        Innovator’s             • Ease of imitation
                          ability to                  of technology
                        appropriate
                       value from an            • Lead time
                         innovation



      The Small and Medium-Sized Enterprises (SMEs) Division of WIPO
                           Appropriating Value from
                                 Innovation
Barriers to Integration
   Different Time                                    Time to
      Orientation
   Interpersonal
                                                     Market
      Orientation               Cross-
   Different Goal                                                          Value
     Orientation              Functional                                Appropriation
    Formality of             Integration/            Product                from
      Structure             Design Teams             Quality             Innovation

    Facilitators of
     Integration                                  Creation of
   Shared Values                                  Customer
   Leaders’ Vision                                  Value
   Budget Allocation
   Effective The Small and Medium-Sized Enterprises (SMEs) Division of WIPO
      Communication
                  Product Life Cycle

                                                   Maturity


                                                              Decline

Sales                              Growth




          Introduction




                                 Time
   The Small and Medium-Sized Enterprises (SMEs) Division of WIPO
         New Product Development
   Stages in a New Product Development process:
• Idea Generation
• Idea Screening
• Concept Development and Testing
• Business Analysis
• Beta Testing and Market Testing
• Technical Implementation
• Commercialization
   The Small and Medium-Sized Enterprises (SMEs) Division of WIPO
      Technology Adoption – Diffusion of Innovation

               Time



Take up Rate

                  Early
                 Adopters         Early      Late
                                 Majority   Majority               Laggards
    Innovators




               Innovators:       venturesome; greatest need
               Early adopters:   opinion leaders; needs driven
               Early majority:   deliberate
               Late majority:    skeptics
               Laggards:         traditionalists; suspicious

  The Small and Medium-Sized Enterprises (SMEs) Division of WIPO
     New Business Models Emerge
    Then…                                          Now…


                                           CRO’s                  CRM’s



                                                      Product
      Product                                       Development
    Development
       Cycle

                                          Tool                    Testing
                                        Companies                 Services



One Integrated                              Many Distributed
  Company                                     Companies

The Small and Medium-Sized Enterprises (SMEs) Division of WIPO
                    New Regional Model Emerge
           Then…                                        Now…
                                                                           Region D
                                             Region A
                                                        Region B
         Manufacturing
                                                                   Region C
                               Research
Trials/Testing
                                 Services
                                                                              Region G

                 Development
                                             Region E        Region F




      Self-contained                           Specialized,
     regional clusters                      networked regions

          The Small and Medium-Sized Enterprises (SMEs) Division of WIPO
        Commercialization Model
 • Strategic Investment is the Foundation of a
      Successful Commercialization Model




The Small and Medium-Sized Enterprises (SMEs) Division of WIPO
           What Investors Look for?

       Novelty; world-class; evidence of commercial
        interest; clear path to market
       Unencumbered, or encumbered by reasonable
        conditions (Equity, royalties)
       Protection (Non-disclosure agreements,
        Patents, Designs, Brands, Copyright)
       IP protected by one or more Patents is the IP
        required to implement the business plan
       “Freedom to Operate”

The Small and Medium-Sized Enterprises (SMEs) Division of WIPO
     Innovation, Intellectual Property
         and Poverty Reduction


       Critical Ingredients for Innovation:
       • Intellectual Capital
       • Human Capital
       • Financial Capital
       • Proximity
       • Social Network Capital
The Small and Medium-Sized Enterprises (SMEs) Division of WIPO
             Complementary Resources


                Manufacturing Distribution


          Finance                            Service
                            Core
                        technological
                          know-how
                                        Complementary
           Marketing                     technologies

                       Other    Other




    Bargaining power of owners of complementary
    resources depends upon whether complementary
    resources are generic or specialized.
The Small and Medium-Sized Enterprises (SMEs) Division of WIPO
                     Alternative Strategies for Exploiting Innovation


                                Outsourcing          Strategic         Joint           Internal
             Licensing            certain            Alliance         Venture       Commercialization
                                 functions

                              Limits                 Benefits of    Shares          Biggest risks &
            Small risk, but
                              investment, but        flexibility;   investment &    benefits.
  Risk &    limited returns
                              dependence on          risks of       risk. Risk of   Allows complete
  Return    also (unless
                              suppliers &            informal       partner         control
            patent position
            very strong       partners               structure      conflict &
                                                                    culture clash

            Few               Allows outside     Permits pooling of the
                              resources &        resources/capabilities of          Substantial
Competing
                              capabilities       more than one firm                 resource
Resources
                              To be accessed                                        requirements


            Konica            Pixar’s movies (e.g.    Apple and      Microsoft      TI’s
Examples    licensing its     “Toy Story”)            Sharp build    and NBC        development of
            digital           marketed &              the            formed         Digital Signal
            camera to         distributed by          “Newton”       MSNBC          Processing
            HP                Disney.                 PDA                           Chips
             The Small and Medium-Sized Enterprises (SMEs) Division of WIPO
               Uncertainty & Risk Management in Tech-based Industries


                                           Selection process for standards and
                       Technological       dominant designs emerge is complex
                        uncertainty        and difficult to predict, e.g. future of 3G
 Sources of
 uncertainty              Market           Customer acceptance and adoption rates
                        uncertainty        of innovations notoriously difficult to
                                           predict, e.g. PC, Xerox copier, Walkman

                       Cooperating with lead users
                       early identification of customer requirements
                             –assistance in new product development

Strategies for                               Limiting risk exposure
managing risk                                —avoid major capital commitments
                                              (e.g. lease don’t buy)
                                             —outsource
                                             —alliances to access other firms’
       Flexibilility                           resources & capabilities
       —keep options open                    —keep debt low
       —use speed of response to adapt
        quickly to new information
         The from and Medium-Sized Enterprises (SMEs) Division of WIPO
       —learn Small mistakes
                         Innovation risk


    RISKS                                             COSTS




RESEARCH              DEVELOPMENT               COMMERCIALISATION

  The Small and Medium-Sized Enterprises (SMEs) Division of WIPO
     Mortality of New Product Ideas




The Small and Medium-Sized Enterprises (SMEs) Division of WIPO
    The “ Right” Innovative Product?

  The right product is one that becomes available at
   the right time (i.e., when the market needs it), and is
   better and/or less expensive that its competition.
  To have the right product, therefore, one must:
     Predict a market need
     Envisage a product whose performance and
      capability will meet that need
     Develop the product to the appropriate time
      scale and produce it.
     Sell the product at the right price

The Small and Medium-Sized Enterprises (SMEs) Division of WIPO
                      Innovation and Competitive
                              Advantage
     Difficult for
  competitors to imitate

Commercially exploitable
 with present capabilities
                                                  Competitive
   Provides significant
                                                  Advantage
   value to customers


          Timely
        The Small and Medium-Sized Enterprises (SMEs) Division of WIPO
        Strategic Entrepreneurship and
                   Innovation
• Entrepreneurship is concerned with:
   – The discovery of profitable opportunities
   – The exploitation of profitable opportunities
• Firms that encourage entrepreneurship are:
   – Risk takers
   – Committed to innovation
   – Proactive in creating opportunities rather than
     waiting to respond to opportunities created by others
       The Small and Medium-Sized Enterprises (SMEs) Division of WIPO
                 Entrepreneurship
Creativity is at the heart of entrepreneurship, enabling entirely new ways
of thinking and working.
Entrepreneurs identify opportunities, large or small, that no one else has
noticed.
Good entrepreneurs also have the ability to apply that creativity—they
can effectively marshal resources to a single end.
They have drive—a fervent belief in their ability to change the way things
are done, and the force of will and the passion to achieve success.
They have a focus on creating value—they want to do things better,
faster, cheaper.
And they take risks—breaking rules, cutting across accepted boundaries,
and going against the status quo.

    The Small and Medium-Sized Enterprises (SMEs) Division of WIPO
                 Entrepreneurship
Defining entrepreneurship is difficult because there is no
universal, clear-cut definition of the term. In its most basic
sense, entrepreneurship is manifest in a business venture when
an individual is able to turn a novel idea into a profitable reality.
In practice, however, entrepreneurship is more multifaceted,
ranging from operating a small business in one’s own home, to
bringing a national franchise to a small town, to turning a new
and unique idea into a high-growth company. Entrepreneurship
can involve starting a business that brings a new store to main
street, offering a product or service previously unavailable to a
community, or acquiring an existing business that has had a
long-standing presence in a community and helping it evolve to
reflect one’s own vision and personality.
     The Small and Medium-Sized Enterprises (SMEs) Division of WIPO
              Entrepreneurship
The word entrepreneurship literally means, "to take or carry
between" in the sense of an economic transaction; to be a
market-maker. It does not literally convey the notion of
innovation that we commonly associate with the term.
Joseph Schumpeter (1883-1950), one of the more well
known theorists on entrepreneurship, defined an
entrepreneur as one who reorganizes economic activity in an
innovative and valuable way. That is, an entrepreneur is one
who engages in a new economic activity that was previously
unknown. An entrepreneur is a risk taker because being
innovative means there are few rules or history for guidance.
  The Small and Medium-Sized Enterprises (SMEs) Division of WIPO
            Entrepreneurship
  Entrepreneurship is the process of
  creating or seizing an opportunity, and
  pursuing it regardless of the resources
  currently controlled.
  The Webster’s Third New International
  Dictionary defines an entrepreneur to be
  ―one who organizes, owns, manages, and
  assumes the risks of a business‖
The Small and Medium-Sized Enterprises (SMEs) Division of WIPO
               Entrepreneurship
The entrepreneur shifts resources out of an area of lower and
into an area of higher productivity and greater yield.
[J. B. Say, French economist, circa 1800]
Entrepreneurship is creative destruction. Dynamic
disequilibrium brought on by the innovating entrepreneur,
rather than equilibrium and optimization, is the norm of a
healthy economy and the central reality of economic theory
and practice. [Joseph Schumpeter, Austrian economist, 1911]
The entrepreneur searches for change, responds to it, and
exploits it as an opportunity. Innovation is the specific tool of
entrepreneurs, the means by which they exploit change as an
opportunity for a different business or a different service
                   1985]
[Peter Drucker, Medium-Sized Enterprises (SMEs) Division of WIPO
     The Small and
              Entrepreneurship
Entrepreneurship drives innovation,
competitiveness, job creation and economic
growth.
It allows new/innovative ideas to turn into
successful ventures in high-tech sectors
and/or can unlock the personal potential of
disadvantaged people to create jobs for
themselves and find a better place in society.
  The Small and Medium-Sized Enterprises (SMEs) Division of WIPO
            Entrepreneurship
  Entrepreneurship, in small business or
  large, focuses on "what may be" or "what
  can be".
  One is practicing entrepreneurship by
  looking for what is needed, what is
  missing, what is changing, and what
  consumers will buy during the coming
  years.
The Small and Medium-Sized Enterprises (SMEs) Division of WIPO
                Entrepreneurship
Entrepreneurs have:
– A passion for what they do
– The creativity and ability to innovate
– A sense of independence and self- reliance
– (Usually) a high level of self confidence
– A willingness and capability (though not
  necessarily capacity or preference) for taking
  risks
    The Small and Medium-Sized Enterprises (SMEs) Division of WIPO
               Entrepreneurship
Entrepreneurs do not (usually) have:
– A tolerance for organizational bureaucracies
– A penchant for following rules
– A structured approach to developing and
  implementing ideas
– The foresight to plan a course of action once
  the idea is implemented and established

   The Small and Medium-Sized Enterprises (SMEs) Division of WIPO
     Entrepreneurial Success
1. People (Entrepreneur /Entrepreneurial
                               Team)
2. Opportunity (Marriage of Market and
                          Product/Service)
3. Access to Resources (Land. Labor,
                     Capital, Knowledge)

 And the fit amongst these three elements
  The Small and Medium-Sized Enterprises (SMEs) Division of WIPO
      Major factors determining success of a
           new product in the market

• The product provides functional
  advantages
• Lower price for comparable product
• More attractive design (look)
• Reputation of brand
• Easy access: Available in the main retail
  shops
• Consistent product quality
• Excellent after-sales services
  The Small and Medium-Sized Enterprises (SMEs) Division of WIPO
          Competitive Advantage
              Criteria…

             Low cost producer

          Product differentiation

                Niche market

The Small and Medium-Sized Enterprises (SMEs) Division of WIPO
   Need two                                              An opportunity
   processes:               Breakthrough                 driven path to
   NPD and                                                  market-
   NB(usiness)D
                             Innovation                    a different
                                                         business design



        New Product
       Development
                                              New Business
                                              Development

      Innovative                                  New
     New Products                               Businesses
The Small and Medium-Sized Enterprises (SMEs) Division of WIPO
               Protection of IP
Value adding                          Confidentiality or Nondisclosure
                            Ideas     Agreements (Trade Secrets)

                                            Collaborative Research
                         Research           Agreement


                                                  Utility models, Patents
                      Technologies
                                                         Technology Licensing
                    Products                             Agreement, Branding




   The Small and Medium-Sized Enterprises (SMEs) Division of WIPO
          Intellectual Property Questions

Intellectual Property (IP) Issues/questions during New Product
Development (NPD):
Can the innovation be legally protected? For how long?
How does one protect an innovation from imitators? How much will it
cost? When to protect? Do you need to rely on an IP expert?
 The answers are complicated by the fact that one or more types of
legal frameworks may be used to protect a particular innovation,
product, process, or creative work. These include trade secrets,
trademarks, designs, patents, and copyright.
It is necessary to know which are applicable and when each is
appropriate. This varies somewhat from jurisdiction to jurisdiction.
The advice of a lawyer that specializes in these matters is essential


    The Small and Medium-Sized Enterprises (SMEs) Division of WIPO
      Intellectual Property Questions

   •It is necessary to know which types of
   intellectual property rights (IPRs) are
   applicable and when is each type of IPR
   appropriate. This varies somewhat from
   one country to another.
   •The advice of an IP lawyer is desirable
   if not essential.

The Small and Medium-Sized Enterprises (SMEs) Division of WIPO
                     Background
• In September 2000, the WIPO Assemblies
  approved the creation of ―a substantial new
  program of activities, focusing on the IP-
  related needs of SMEs worldwide‖
• SMEs Division established in October 2000
• Nine professionals and three administrative
  staff in the SMEs Division of WIPO

    The Small and Medium-Sized Enterprises (SMEs) Division of WIPO
                       Strategy
              •   1.    Demystification
              •   2.    New audience
              •   3.    New Areas
              •   4.    Proactive
              •   5.    E-Services
              •   6.    Partnership

The Small and Medium-Sized Enterprises (SMEs) Division of WIPO
             (1) Demystification
         •   Studies
         •   Guides
         •   Events and expert missions
         •   Website and newsletter
         •   CD-ROM
         •   Magazine articles

The Small and Medium-Sized Enterprises (SMEs) Division of WIPO
  (1) Demystification (Studies)
• National Studies (on IP and SMEs) completed
  or under way in Argentina, Bhutan, Mongolia,
  Nepal, Philippines, Sri Lanka, Tanzania, Sierra
  Leone, Romania, Chile, Colombia, Costa Rica, El
  Salvador, Honduras and Paraguay, Egypt,
  Morocco, Lebanon
• WIPO Survey of IP Services to Tenants of
  European Technology Incubators
• Norwegian SMEs and the IPR system
 The Small and Medium-Sized Enterprises (SMEs) Division of WIPO
(1) Demystification (Guides)
• WIPO/ITC Guide on Marketing of Crafts and Visual
  Arts; Role of Intellectual Property; A practical guide
• WIPO/ITC Guide on Secrets of Intellectual Property:
  Guide for Small and Medium Sized Exporters
• WIPO/ITC Guide on Exchanging Value: Negotiating
  Technology Licensing Agreements - A Training
  Manual
• ITC Guide on Exporting Automotive Components
• ITC Guide on Pharmaceutical SMEs (Forthcoming)

The Small and Medium-Sized Enterprises (SMEs) Division of WIPO
The Small and Medium-Sized Enterprises (SMEs) Division of WIPO
      (1) Demystification (Guides)
   Published
• Making a Mark
  (Trademarks)
• Looking Good
  (Designs)
• Inventing the
  Future (Patents)

      The Small and Medium-Sized Enterprises (SMEs) Division of WIPO
 (1) Demystification (Guides)
• Translation and/or customization: Under
  way, with funding from several sources, in the
  following countries: Algeria, Argentina,
  Australia, Canada, Czech Republic, Egypt,
  Estonia, Hungary, Italy, India, Israel,
  Kenya, Lebanon, Malaysia, Malta,
  Mongolia, Morocco, New Zealand,
  Philippines, Poland, Slovakia, Spain,
  Tanzania, Tunisia, Vietnam
• 16 Countries members of the OAPI
The Small and Medium-Sized Enterprises (SMEs) Division of WIPO
 (1) Demystification (Events)
• Special programs, seminar and
  workshops organized by the SMEs
  Division in Geneva in partnership with
  selected associations and organizations
  (IASP, INSME, IPI, MOST, WASME)
• Annual WIPO Forum on IP and SMEs
  for IP Offices of OECD Countries

The Small and Medium-Sized Enterprises (SMEs) Division of WIPO
 (1) Demystification (Events)
                         • WIPO-Italy Forum on Textile
                           and Clothing Industries of the
                           Mediterranean Basin
                           Countries (Prato, Italy -
                           December 2003)
                         • Participants from Algeria,
                           Cyprus, Egypt, Jordan, Israel,
                           Lebanon, Malta, Morocco,
                           Palestine, Syria, Tunisia,
                           Turkey
The Small and Medium-Sized Enterprises (SMEs) Division of WIPO
                (1) Demystification
                     (Website)
• The Website of the SMEs Division is in six UN
  languages (English, French, Spanish, Arabic,
  Russian and Chinese)
• More than 60,000 pages viewed every month in
  2004
• Contents include sections such as IP for
  Business, IP and E-Commerce, Activities, Best
  Practices, Case Studies and Documents

   The Small and Medium-Sized Enterprises (SMEs) Division of WIPO
(1) Demystification (Website)




The Small and Medium-Sized Enterprises (SMEs) Division of WIPO
   (1) Demystification (Newsletter)
• Monthly e-newsletter in the 6 UN
  languages (Free)
• Content includes articles, updates
  with information, links and
  documents
• Launched in August 2001
• Total number of subscribers: >19,000
   The Small and Medium-Sized Enterprises (SMEs) Division of WIPO
  (1) Demystification (CD-ROM)
• 50,000 copies of the SMEs Division CD-
  ROM distributed to SME support
  institutions, IP Offices and others
  worldwide
• Marketing and customization
• E-learning CD ROM (in partnership
  with KIPO: “IP Panorama”)
• SAARC CD-ROM (in preparation)
 The Small and Medium-Sized Enterprises (SMEs) Division of WIPO
   (1) Demystification (Articles)
• Some articles recently published:
   – What to do if you are accused of copyright
     infringement
   – Tapping into Patent Information: a buried treasure
   – International trade in technology – licensing of
     know-how and trade secrets
   – Intellectual Property and E-commerce: how to take
     care of your business’ website
   – Offshore outsourcing and IP
   – Savvy marketing: merchandising of IP rights
  The Small and Medium-Sized Enterprises (SMEs) Division of WIPO
               (2) New Audience
• Bringing IP issues to SME events
• Bringing new business perspective to IP
  events
• New partnership: Open door policy
• IGOs, government focal points, SME support,
  training and financial institutions, chambers
  of commerce and industry, SME associations,
  SME research institutions, private sector
  institutions, universities, etc...
The Small and Medium-Sized Enterprises (SMEs) Division of WIPO
                      (3) New Areas
• Creative Industries
• IP for financing (venture capital, securitization)
• Accounting and valuation of IP assets
• IP Asset Management, IP Due Diligence and IP Audit
• Fiscal policies and IP (tax incentives for R&D activities,
  patenting, licensing etc.)
• IP services to SMEs by incubators, technology parks,
  chambers of commerce and SME associations
• IP needs of SMEs in agriculture, biotechnology,
  handicrafts, software, textiles, etc

     The Small and Medium-Sized Enterprises (SMEs) Division of WIPO
            (4) Being Proactive

              • Original Content
              • Links
              • Best Practices
              • Case Studies
The Small and Medium-Sized Enterprises (SMEs) Division of WIPO
                  (5) E-Services
•   Web site content
•   SME mail
•   E-mail newsletter
•   Distance learning (proposed)
•   Discussion forum (proposed)

The Small and Medium-Sized Enterprises (SMEs) Division of WIPO
                (6) Partnership
  • National and Regional IP Offices
  • National SME focal points in government, private
    sector
  • Chambers of Commerce and Industry
  • SME Associations; Cooperatives
  • Incubators, Science Parks, Technology Parks
  • Universities; R & D Institutes
  • Private Sector Consultants
  • SME Finance Institutions (including venture
    capitalists)
  • Other UN Agencies (ITC, ILO, UNIDO, AfDB)
The Small and Medium-Sized Enterprises (SMEs) Division of WIPO
                  Thank You
       Guriqbal Singh Jaiya
      guriqbal.jaiya@wipo.int
   www.wipo.int/sme/en/index.html
           www.wipo.org
The Small and Medium-Sized Enterprises (SMEs) Division of WIPO

				
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