The Four Keirsey Temperaments and Their Variants

Document Sample
The Four Keirsey Temperaments and Their Variants Powered By Docstoc
					     Using the MBTI
In Career Decision Making

     Dr. Susan El – Shamy

          Senior Partner,
    Advancement Strategies, Inc.
to gain a basic understanding of the MBTI and
how it can be used in career decision making

1. review the 8 preferences and 16 types
2. consider your own MBTI scores and what
    they can tell you about yourself
3. Consider the implications of the MBTI for
    career development
Some Things About the MBTI
• Based on Jung’s theory of perception and judgment.
• In existence for over 40 years.
• Used world-wide with hundreds of thousands of
• One of the most valid, reliable assessments in
• Basis for a vast amount of research and theory.

• No good or bad scores.
• Type tends to remain constant throughout life.
• Split scores, or scores that are nearly the same, may
  vary on different takings of the assessment, but there
  is usually one that is slightly preferred over the other.
   To make the most of your MBTI results,
it is important to understand that the MBTI:
  • Describes rather than prescribes
  • Describes preferences, not skills or
  • Says that all preferences are equally
  • Is well documented and researched
 Because the results on the MBTI are subject to a variety of
 influences, they need to be treated with skepticism and
 individually verified. Each individual needs to determine
 the type which best describes him or her. This may or may
 not be the same type as reported on the MBTI.
    Four Scales and Eight Preferences
                          What is a preference?
―When you use your preferred side on any of the four type dimensions—like
using your preferred hand – you are doing what comes naturally. And when
you are required to use the opposite side, it takes a lot of extra work and
you’re not as good at it; hence, the experience is usually not as satisfying.‖

     The 4 scales and 8 preferences on the MBTI are as follows:

                 1 – How You Prefer to Focus Your Attention
 (E) Extraversion                                               (I) Introversion

                    2 – How You Prefer to Acquire Information
(S) Sensing                                                        (N) Intuition

                      3 - How You Prefer to Make Decisions
(T) Thinking                                                        (F) Feeling

                       4 - How You Prefer to Live Your Life
(J) Judging                                                     (P) Perceiving
    Everyone has all eight preferences.

However, some preferences are stronger than
    others. Some are much stronger.

    As we review the eight preferences,
      consider which sound like you
             and which don’t.

  Put away your assessment and as we go
   through each of the eight preferences,
       consider what sounds like you
             and what doesn’t.
      Then, guess your four-letter type.
Then, see how closely it matches your result.
         Extraversion & Introversion
•   People who prefer              •   People who prefer
    Extraversion tend to               Introversion focus more
    focus on the outer world of
    people and things. When            on their inner world. When
    you are extraverting, you          you are introverting, you are
    are energized by what goes         energized by what goes on
    on in the outer world, and         in your inner world, and this
    this is where you tend to          is where you tend to direct
    direct your own energy.            your own energy. Introverts
    Extraverts usually prefer to       tend to be more interested
    communicate more by                and comfortable when they
    talking than by writing.
    They need to experience            can work quietly without
    the world in order to              interruption. They like to
    understand it and thus tend        understand the world before
    to like action and variety.        experiencing it, and also
                                       need time to reflect before
Extraversion and Introversion
  Extraverts tend to:           Introverts tend to:
  • think out loud              •   focus their energy inwardly
  • become easily               •   need time alone to
      energetic                     recharge
  •   be animated and           •   be less animated, more
      energetic                     reserved
  •   act first and think       •   have a calm, measured
      about it later                demeanor
  •   enjoy generating ideas    •   think first and maybe speak
      with a group                  later
  •   be very comfortable in    •   become easily absorbed in
      social settings               thought
  •   seek out social           •   talk slower and usually
      situations and settings       more quietly
  •   find listening more       •   proceed cautiously in
      difficult than talking        meeting people
       Sensing and Intuition
• Sensors       focus on the    • Intuitives     prefer taking
 realities of a situation.        in information through a
 People who are Sensors           ―sixth sense‖ and noticing
 prefer to take in                what might be. Intuition
 information through their        shows you the meanings,
 senses; they want to see it,     relationships, possibilities
 hear it, feel it. Sensing        that go beyond the
 types tend to accept and         information from your
 work with what is ―given‖        senses. Intuitive types
 in the here-and-now, and         look at the big picture and
 thus become realistic and        try to grasp the overall
 practical. They are good at      patterns. They grow
 remembering and working          expert at seeing new
 with a great number of           possibilities and they value
 facts. They prefer to use        imagination and
 proven procedures and are        inspiration.
 careful with detail.
         Sensing and Intuition
Sensors tend to:                 Intuitives tend to:
• be quite literal               • envision the future
• be direct and to the point     • leap from thought to
• listen until others have           thought
    finished                     •   have complex speech
•   prefer precise and exact         patterns
    information                  •   finish other people’s
•   enjoy traditional and            sentences
    familiar ground              •   use language to
•   value solid, recognizable        express themselves
    achievements                 •   focus on possibilities,
•   use clear, straightforward       what might be
    speech patterns              •   value different and
•   prefer a sequential, step-       unusual attainments
    by-step approach             •   talk about global
                                     issues, the ―big
      Thinking and Feeling
• Thinkers make              • Feelers make
  decisions objectively,       decisions based on
  on the basis of cause        person-centered values.
  and effect, by analyzing     When deciding, they
  and weighing the             consider how important
  evidence. They focus         the choices are to
  on the logical               themselves and others.
  consequences of any          They like dealing with
  choice or action.            people and tend to be
  Thinking types seek an       sympathetic,
  objective standard of        appreciative, and tactful.
  truth; they are good at      They value harmony and
  analyzing what is wrong      work to make it happen.
  with something.
         Thinking and Feeling
Thinkers tend to:             Feelers tend to:
• get right to the point      • decide with the heart
• often appear                • engage in social niceties
    businesslike              • get their feelings hurt
•   are usually very              easily
    assertive                 •   avoid arguments and
•   choose truthfulness           conflict
    over tactfulness          •   be sensitive to the
•   give praise sparingly;        feelings of others
    point out negatives       •   act warm and friendly
•   convince others with          toward others
    impersonal reasoning      •   pay attention to the
•   make decisions with           feelings of others
    their heads, not hearts   •   be generous with praise;
                                  slow to criticize
     Judging and Perceiving
•   Those who prefer            •   Those who prefer
    judging like to live in a       perceiving like to
    planned, orderly way,           live in a flexible,
    wanting to regulate life        spontaneous way,
    and control it. They            gathering information
    want to make decisions,         and keeping options
    come to closure, and            open. They seek to
    then carry on. They like        understand life rather
    to be structured and            than control it. They
    organized and want              prefer to stay open to
    thing settled.                  experience, enjoying
                                    and trusting their ability
                                    to adapt to the moment.
       Judging and Perceiving
Judgers tend to                Perceivers tend to:
• Make decisions; decide       • Be good at adapting
                               • Be somewhat
•   Enjoy setting and              disorganized
    reaching goals
                               •   Deal with issues as they
•   Discuss schedules and          arise
                               •   Procrastinate, put off
•   Like to take charge and        decisions
    be in control
                               •   Be more playful, casual,
•   Be more serious, formal,       unconventional
                               •   Keep their lives as
•   Postpone play until all        flexible as possible
    the work is done
                               •   Find rules and structure
•   Regulate and control           confining, limiting
    their life and yours
                               •   Desire many experiences
•   Enjoy having things            and miss nothing
    settled, taken care of
There are 16 possibilities. Look at your notes, think
about the information you have just received and
guess your four-letter type.
  ISTJ           ISFJ          INFJ           INTJ

  ISTP           ISFP          INFP           INTP

 ESTP           ESFP           ENFP           ENTP

 ESTJ           ESFJ           ENFJ           ENTJ
What did you guess your type to be?

   Now, look and see what your
    assessment results were.

   If you don’t like your results,
           change them.
 You know you better than anyone.
   Now, get a partner. Turn and talk to your
neighbor, or someone next to you, behind you,
           in front of you, whatever.

Take a few minutes and discuss your results.

          What do you agree with?

         What do you disagree with?

           Theories About Type
Keirsey’s 4 Temperaments:
                   SP - ―the artist‖ - troubleshooter
              SJ - ―the technician‖ - stabilizer
                NT - ―the scientist‖ - architect, designer
             NF - ―the theologian‖ - catalyst, motivator

Myers-Briggs’ 4 Styles:
                    IS - the Thoughtful Realist
                   ES - the Action-Oriented Realist
                   IN - the Thoughtful Innovator
                   EN - the Action-Oriented Innovator
Do people go into certain professions or
 occupations according to their “type”?

What “types” would choose business as a
           major in college?

  Within business, what “types” would
   choose accounting as a major?

 What “types” would major in personnel,
   human resources, and training?
        Distribution of Types within
     Occupational and Academic Groups
Occupations                           ST (%)   SF (%)   NF (%)   NT (%)
          Accountants                  64       23        4        9
          Bank employees               47       24       11       18
          Sales, customer relations    11       81        8        0
          Creative writers             12        0       65       23
          Research scientists           0        0       23       77

Fields of College Studies             ST (%)   SF (%)   NF (%)   NT (%)
          Finance, Business            51       21       10       18
          Nursing                      15       44       34        7
          Counseling                    6        9       76        9
          Science                      12        5       26       57
          Health related               13       36       44        7
          Education                    13       42       39       20
          Journalism                   15       23       42       20
          Phys. Ed.                    32       34       24       10
          Engineering                  24       11       22       43
   MBTI – 3990 Students
from Jan. 1994 through Jan. 1998

                                   SJ = 1762
                                   SJ = 44%

                                   SP = 820
                                   SP = 21%

                                   NF = 554
                                   NF = 14%

                                   NT = 854
                                   NT = 21%
          A Few Guidelines
        for Using Type Wisely
• Type is about preferences; people can still make
    choices about behavior.
•   Some tasks will be more natural for some types
    than others, but all types can learn skills in their
    nonpreferred areas.
•   Doing things in nonpreferred areas will likely take
    more energy, but these tasks do become easier
    with practice.
•   Type is most useful when we use it to understand
    ourselves and our impact on others, to maximize
    our strengths, and to minimize our weaknesses.
•   A genuine belief in the mutual usefulness of all
    type preferences is central to the wise use of a
    type perspective.
           Using your
        MBTI information
         to help in your
     career decision making.

  What’s the most important thing
that you will be looking for in a job?
Find a job where your natural
 preferences will be an asset.

Doing what you enjoy doing,
 what you naturally do very
 well, will give you the extra
 edge to top performance!
                   Type in the Workplace*
Extraversion                           Introversion
Like variety and activity              Like quiet and calm
Like having people around              Like working alone
Often impatient with long, slow jobs   Don’t mind long work on one project
Act quickly sometimes without          Think before acting, may not act
Develop ideas by discussion            Develop ideas by reflection

Sensing                                Intuition
Like standard ways of problem          Like solving new, complex problems
Enjoy applying what they already       Enjoy learning something new
May distrust and ignore inspirations   May follow inspirations, good or bad
Like to do practical things            Like to do innovative things
Like to present details first          Like to present overview first
Proceed step-by-step                   Proceed in bursts of energy
Thinking                               Feeling
Use logical analysis to decide         Use values and harmony to
May unknowingly hurt feelings          Enjoy pleasing people
Firm-minded, can give criticism        Empathetic, avoid the unpleasant
Look at the principles involved        Look at the values involved
Feel rewarded when job is done         Feel rewarded when people’s
                                                needs met
Judging                                Perceiving
Work best following a plan             Enjoy flexibility in their work
Like to get things settled, finished   Leave things open to possible
May not notice new things to do        May postpone unpleasant tasks
Reach closure by deciding quickly      Postpone decisions and look for
Seek structure and schedules           Feel restricted without change



Shared By: